Tree Identification Book by George W. Symonds by George W. Symonds - Read Online

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Tree Identification Book - George W. Symonds

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forest.

PART I

PICTORIAL KEYS

BROAD-LEAVED TREES

ALL ARE DECIDUOUS (losing leaves in fall) except Holly which is evergreen.

CONTENTS: Key #1 Opposite—Growth Characteristics

Key #2 Thorns

Key #3 Leaves

Key #4 Flowers

Key #5 Fruit

Key #6 Twigs and Buds

Key #7 Bark

Key #1 OPPOSITE—Leaves, Buds and Branching

Maple....................................Acer

Ash........................................Fraxinus

Paulownia..............................Paulownia

Catalpa...................................Catalpa

Buckeye.................................Aesculus

    Horsechestnut....................Aesculus hippocastanum

Nannyberry............................Viburnum lentago (also all other Viburnums)

Flowering Dogwood..............Cornus florida (Also all other Dogwoods except Alternate-leaved Dogwood—Cornus alternifolia)

opposite Leaves

opposite Leaves

The leaves of these seven trees (genera) grow opposite along the twig, those of all other deciduous trees included in this book are alternate. It is, therefore, an important characteristic to look for. The Maples and Ashes, especially, are very common, and this feature alone often leads to their identification. Note that the Paulownia and Catalpa have very similar leaves, but the Paulownia is typically opposite, whereas the Catalpa, instead of growing leaves in pairs, sends out three leaves at a point (node) around the twig in what is called a whorl, but the leaves are not alternate. Even in winter, the opposite-leaf characteristic is still plainly evident, as the leaf scars (where the leaves were attached to the twig before falling) are clearly opposite. The Catalpa, of course, will show a whorl of three leaf scars around the twig.

The Maples, Ashes and Viburnums also have buds, twigs and small branches growing opposite. Notice that the Maple twigs are more profuse and smaller than those of the Ash, which has relatively few and rather large twigs. Look up from under the trees to see this. In winter this feature will prove very helpful in the woods where the trees are high-branched and often out of reach.

Dogwoods usually have pronounced opposite branching. The Horsechestnut and other Buckeyes sometimes do, but are not consistently so. The Paulownia and Catalpa usually do not branch opposite. This results from the lack of development of twigs on one side of the branch, which actually should produce opposite