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Hn ch sng hi - Gii php nng cao cht lng in li Sng hi l g?

Sng hi l mt dng nhiu khng mong mun, nh hng trc tip ti cht lng li in v cn c ch ti khi tng cc dng in hi cao hn mc gii hn cho php. Dng in hi l dng in c tn s l bi ca tn s c bn. V d dng 250Hz trn li 50Hz l sng hi bc 5. Dng in 250Hz l dng nng lng khng s dng c vi cc thit b trn li. V vy, n s b chuyn ho sang dng nhit nng v gy tn hao. Hiu ng ca sng hi Sng hi c th lm cho cp b qu nhit, ph hng cch in. ng c cng c th b qu nhit hoc gy ting n v s dao ng ca momen xon trn rotor dn ti s cng hng c kh v gy rung. T in qu nhit v trong phn ln cc trng hp c th dn ti ph hu cht in mi. Cc thit b hin th s dng in v n chiu sng c th b chp chn, cc thit b bo v c th ngt in, my tnh li (data network) v thit b o cho kt qu sai. Dng hi c to ra nh th no? Dng in v in p hi c sinh ra bi cc ti phi tuyn ni vi h thng phn phi in. Ton b cc b bin i nng lng in s dng di cc dng khc nhau trong h thng in c th lm tng nhiu sng hi bng cch bm trc tip dng in hi vo li. Cc ti phi tuyn thng thng bao gm khi ng ng c, cc h truyn ng in, my tnh v cc thit b in t khc, n in t, ngun hn... Gii php gim nh hng pht x sng hi t cc b bin tn? Bn thn cc b bin tn c cha cc phn t phi tuyn l ngun gc gy ra sng hi. Tuy nhin, dng in hi nhiu hay t cn ph thuc vo cu trc ca h truyn ng v ti, nu s dng ng c ln (so vi bin p ngun) hay tng ti ng c u lm tng dng in hi. Do vy, gim c sng hi, buc cc nh sn xut cng nghip phi s dng cc b bin tn pht sng hi thp hoc s dng cc phng php lc ngoi. Trong , mun gim dng in hi phi tng in cm AC, DC hoc tng s van chnh lu trong b chnh lu v gim in p hi gy ra bi dng in hi phi tng cng sut bin p, gim tr khng bin p hay tng kh nng chu ngn mch ca ngun. Dng chnh lu 6 xung, 12 xung v 24 xung Mch chnh lu trong cc bin tn 3 pha s dng cng ngh iu ch rng xung (PWM) thng thng l cu diode 6 van. Cc b chnh lu c c im l n gin, chc chn v r, nhng thnh phn u vo cha nhiu sng hi bc thp. Cu chnh lu diode 12 van c to ra bng cch ni song song hai b chnh lu 6 van, n cho ra dng in trn hn cu 6 van. Tng t, b chnh lu 24 van c to ra n gin t vic ghp bn b 6 van vi nhau. S dng cu IGBT (Integrated Gate Bipolar Thyristor). Mt b bin i tch cc IGBT c th dng chnh lu in p xoay chiu u vo. N s gip lm ci thin h s cng sut, gim sng hi v mang li nhiu li ch nh: An ton c khi mt ngun; iu khin chnh xc ton di trong ch chnh lu v ti sinh; cho php tr ngc nng lng v li; dng in cung cp c dng sng gn sin vi thnh phn hi nh. IGBT c t thnh phn hi thp tn s thp, nhng li tng cao tn s cao hn; c kh nng nng in p. Khi in p ngun b gim xung, in p mt chiu DC c th c khuych ln gi cho in p ng c cao hn in p ngun cung cp. Phng php gim thiu sng hi B bin i gim thiu sng hi ca ABB cung cp gii php h thp sng hi mt cch n gin hp nht trong bin tn. Nhng bin tn y s dng cng ngh gim sng hi m khng cn dng ti b lc ngoi hay bin p a xung. Cc bin tn gim thiu sng hi sinh ra cc thnh phn hi bc thp pha u vo vi tng dng mo thp hn 5%. V vy, bin tn gim thiu sng hi ca ABB cung cp gii php n gin, gi thnh thp tho mn cc tiu chun nghim ngt v cht lng ngun.

Nng cao cht lng in li Trong bin tn vi cu diode 6 xung, dng in pha li l khng sin v cha cc thnh phn song hi, c bit l thnh phn bc 5 v bc 7. N c biu hin bng kiu dng mo, c th ti 3050%. Trong bin tn gim thiu sng hi ca ABB, vic s dng phng php DTC (Direct Torque Control) v b lc s lm dng in hi gim nh hn 5%. Kt qu l dng in hnh sin lm cho hnh dng ca in p li gn nh khng mo. KS Nguyn Khc im - Trung tm Thng tin in lc (EVN) Cn sm c quy nh kim sot sng hi L tng m ni, dng in xoay chiu trn li in ca cc cng ty in lc cung cp cho cc h tiu th phi l hnh sin. Tuy nhin, s tn ti cc phn t phi tuyn trn li in ca nh cung cp cng nh v pha ph ti lm xut hin cc sng hi, nh hng n tnh nng vn hnh ca li in v thit b. Cc phn t phi tuyn in hnh l li thp ca my bin p, ng c (c tnh bo ho ca vt liu st t), cc dng c bn dn cng sut nh it, tiristo ca cc b bin i. Thng th sng hi bc 3 trit tiu c nh cun dy u tam gic trong my bin p (cng vi l tn tht in nng), song cc sng hi bc l khc (gi tr ln nht l bc 5 v bc 7) vn lan truyn theo ng dy, gy tn tht in nng, tc ng xu n s vn hnh ca cc thit b, nht l cc ng c ba pha... cha k cc sng hi bc cao hn c th gy sng in t lan truyn trong khng gian, nh hng n cc thit b thu pht sng rai. Chnh v vy, khi u t xy dng cng trnh cn chn loi thit b t gy sng hi v s dng cc phng tin b sung gim thiu sng hi. ng thi, v pha cc c quan qun l nh nc, cng nn xem xt v sm c quy nh c th kim sot sng hi.