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00istoria_texnis_c_lykeiou.pdf

00istoria_texnis_c_lykeiou.pdf

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C Há) "å %M %á+ <,2 *, #å *å I( $K *K %,( &( <)( %! #1 ä! Ü -
*, &á. =á *! *&J %(+ *å *<J ä! á ,(. É #,2 %(., 'å #2 % *å %á <,2 -
5å ,á! ,( 447 I.N. #á! L ,á% J ,(! &(+ ,( 438 I.N. G '! <)1 %! á
á #1 & <)å! Ü *, #á% ã! á %á ( $( #$ )0 "å2 ( ã$. I,1+ ä! Ü #( -
*&(+ *K& -0 %á &å ,( I)1 ã)á& &á ,(. Öå! ä2 á, ( ( I(2 (+
*. %å) ãÜ *, #å &å ,(.+ &á " ,J+ ,(., ?$ #á &J % #á! ? ã( )Ü -
#)! ,(. Å2 %á! ( &å ãá $K ,å )(+ %á 1+ ä0 )! #(K )." &(K, á-(K (!
@J P!/ (% +U+ R ,%' +% 0C% #8+ (' -
)2.1 % Q: 0%' /+ !' U +6+. J' C/' -
02' ! +.: )! 2 2.+ 4. )!' 5. ,.V.
!' U +! R )! +!+ ,' )/R1 ,% 2! 2/. QR1
02. % 06 2% /' )8 (Q/.0 (T )& ! =: #.1, +.'$ ,!
Q*%4 /' )U+ %' 08 #6+, #' ! ,8/ 36 0'1 )*' ,! ). 02! -
0: .4 ! +8 #.4 02&+ IÄ. $6 +: ! 2.4 0& ).S), 8 2!+
2. ,+& ,%: . R $' +% %) )*& 0: !. E! 2 2. #' 02& ,!
2&1 Ö/! $). )/! 2: !1 C/& 0: ,%4 0% 0!+ )! (. *' )T
,& 2/8 Q. *'1 26+ Ö/ $)6+ #.4 )U+ 26+ F (& +U+.
F/ $8 2% /! R $' +% 2<! ,:. L2! 1687, ,: ! R )/& -'1
Q4 /: 2' #.1 ()! 2 2&+ Q. *' ./ ): ! 2.4 ) 02/.4
2&1 F )/. Q8 *% 61 ! Q8 2.41 Å +% 2.S1) Q/. % ) *% -
0% 3. "% /T )! 2! 02/. 3T 02.+ +! 8, ,% 2&+ )! -
2/ /%4 0& 2.4 0& ).S )!' 26+ Q% /'0 0. 2R /6+ )' -
8 +6+ 2&1 ". /%' +T1 Q*%4 /1. F/ $8 2% /!, 02!
1801-1803, ! 3!' /R (& )!+ ! Q8 2.+ % /%' Q6 ,R +.
P!/ (% +U +! 2! Q% /'0 08 2% /! ! Q8 2! $*4 Q2
2.4. L2. #' 02& ,! ,% 2! -S 1835-1844 2. ,+& ,%: -
. ! Q&* * $& ! Q8 2'1 +% U 2% /%1 Q/.0 (T )%1 )!' R -
$' +!+ )! (! /' 0,.:, % +U )! 2 2! R 2& 1898-1929
0& ,! +2' ) 2,T ,! 2! ! +% 02& *U (& 0!+, 8 C' ,% ! -
Q8 *4 2& % Q' 24 C: ! Q +2. 2%A.
V.H. KQ.S /!1, Ìá èÞ ìá ôá é óôï ñß áò ôçò Áñ ÷é ôå -
êôï íé êÞò, 1968, 28 ,.1 F;, 0. 187.
%á (2 ,(. Eå $! %(K %,á #á! ,(. ? #)Ü ãá %,á, I(. å2 %á! &å ãá $K -
,å )(!, äå% ( $( #$ )M " #á% I( ,J.
C Há) "å %M %á+, á -! å )0 &J %(+ *,% ? " %Ü, å2 %á! J %á+
Iá$ $1 &å %(+ á I1 å *0 ,å )! #L 50 L 9() ãá %! *&1+ :. ?. ,1 ( -å2 -
$å ,á! *,!+ #á &I. $M *å!+ #á! *,!+ #$2 *å!+ ,(., I(. ( %( &Ü 5( -
%,á! 9( I,! #J+ ä! () "M *å!+ : L, () "1 ,å )á, 9å #$å I,K% *å!+ :. C!
#á &I. $M *å!+ Iá )á , )(K %,á! *,( *,. $( âÜ ,, *,( å I! *,K $! (,
*,á ,)2 ã$. -á, *,( ãå2 *( #á! *,( á J ,0 &á. C! #2 ( %å+ äå%
å2 %á! å. "K ã)á& &(!. Ç &å2 0 * ,+ ä! á &J ,)(. ,(.+ I)(+ ,á
å IÜ %0 ( %( &Ü 5å ,á! 9J %,á *: #á! ä &! (.) ãå2 ,% 6å. äá2* " -
* &å ãá $K ,å )(. K 6(.+. C *,. $( âÜ ,+ äå% å2 %á! ( )! 51 %,! -
(+, á$ $Ü Iá )(. *! Ü 5å! å $á -)Ü #á &I. $1 , ,á, ( I(2 á å Iá -
%á $á& âÜ %å ,á! *,á å I! *,K $! á, *,( ")! ã#1 #á! *,á á å ,M &á ,á.
C! #2 ( %å+ *. ã#$2 %(.% I)(+ ,( å *0 ,å )! #1 ,(. %á (K, ,(
2ä!( #á! (! ,(2 <(!, ä2%(%,á+ *,( *K %( $( &! á á2* " * å. -
*,Ü "å! á+.
C ã$. I,1+ ä! Ü #( *&(+, ( ( I(2 (+ Iå )! $á& âÜ %å! ,á å %á J ,! á,
,!+ 92 &å ,1 Iå+ #á! , 50 -1 )( I(. Iå )! ,)J <å! ,( * #1 ,(.
%á (K, á I( ,å $å2 'å <0 )! *,1 äå2ã &á ,+ å$ $ %! #L+ ã$. I,! #L+
#á! ! ä! á2 ,å )( #å -Ü $á! ( *,% ! *,( )2 á ,+ ,J< %+.
Åéê. 18. ÉE E3,, % E-) 'F *" á á E2 -! ä/ -" $H E%/ *Ü -!, 41 -
.2 *)/ -)/ Dá* # &I &á (442-438 E.J.), 'Ü* 'á *),
< #H &á, A)/ +3 ) < $*2E)%!,.
? I1 ,!+ &å ãá $K ,å )å+ #á! %( ,( &2 å+ *,( ã$. I,! #1 I)1 ã)á& &á
,(. Há) "å %M %á å2 %á! á %á Iá )Ü *,á * ,+ I( &IL+ ,0% Há -
%á " %á2 0%. C Öå! ä2 á+, å %M å '0 ,å )! #Ü *,!+ &å ,1 Iå+, å IÜ -
%0 á I1 ,(.+ #2 ( %å+ ,(. I,å )(K, ! *,( )å2 ,(.+ Ü "$(.+ ,0%
Iá $á! M% )M 0%, 1 I0+ L "å $å Iá )Ü ä( *, &J *á á I1 ,( Iå -
)! *,K $! ( #á! 6 $Ü *,(.+ ,(2 <(.+ ,(. * #(K ! *,( )å2 &! á á -
I1 ,!+ #( ). -á2 å+ *,!ã &J+ ,+ á " %á/#L+ 50 L+, ,% I( &IL
,0% Há %á " %á2 0%, J ,*! #á "M+ á. ,L ä! J *<! 5å á I1 ,(% >å -
)á &å! #1 ,% ? ã( )Ü #á! #á ,J $ ãå *,% ? #)1 I( $, &å ,á -J -
)( %,á+ &å &å ãÜ $å+ ,! &J+ ,(% IJ I$( *,( Ü ãá$ &á ,+ I( $! -
(K <(. "å Ü+ ? " %Ü+. G ,*!, *,( #( ). -á2 ( á. ,1 &% &å2 ( ,+
á " %á/#L+ á) <! ,å #,( %! #L+ ( #á " &å )! %1+ Ü% ")0 I(+ á Iå! -
#( %2 5å ,á! &á 52 &å ,(.+ "å (K+, ãå ã( %1+ I(. á %,á %á #$Ü ,%
J Iá) * ,+ I1 $+ &å ,% á I( "J 0 * ,(. I( $2 , ,+ á " -
%á/#L+ ä &( #)á ,2 á+.
18
80
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19
20
81
Åéê. 19. C) Å * 9#3 ) (421-405 E.J.).
F( Å )å <"å2 ( *, )2 <,#å *å J %á I( $K I$( #( *<J ä! (, ä! 1 ,!
J I)å Iå %á *,å ãÜ *å! &% &å2 á &å ! å )L * &á *2 á ã! á ,% á -
" %á/#L $á ,)å2 á, 1 I0+ ( ,Ü -(+ ,(. >J #)( Iá #á! ,( * -
&Ü ä! ,+ ,)2 á! %á+ ,(. H( *å! äM %á *,( â)Ü <(. DJ *á *,(
%á 1, ( ( I(2 (+ L ,á% <,! *&J %(+ *, "J * ,(. 9Iá $á! (K %á -
(K: I(. å2 <á% #Ü 6å! (! HJ) *å+, -. $á* *1 ,á% ,M )á ,(
9ä!! Iå ,J+ '1 á %(% : (,( *,á$ &J %( ä $á äL á I1 ,(% (. )á %1)
,+ "å Ü+ ? " %Ü+, 1 I0+ #á! Ü$ $á ,)1 Iá! á á I1 ,!+ %2 #å+
,0% ? " %á2 0% #á ,Ü ,0% Hå) *M%. F( #,2 )! (, á I1 ,á I$(. -
*! 1 ,å )á ,(. ! 0 %! #(K )." &(K, á I( ,å $å2 ,á! á I1 ,)2 á ,&L &á -
,á *å ä! á -( )å ,! #Ü å I2 Iå äá. Ná )á #, )! *,! #L å2 %á! I)1 -
*,á * ,0% #( )M%, ,0% >á ). Ü ,! ä0%, (! ( I(2 å+ <) *! &( -
I(! (K %,á! 0+ #2 ( %å+, *K& -0 %á &å Iá $á!Ü ! 0 %! #L Iá )Ü -
ä( *, á I1 1 I(. J &Iá! %á% *,( %á 1 (! #1 )å+ I(. &å ,J -
-å )á% ,(% IJ I$( ,+ "å Ü+.
Åéê. 20. Cá D*) EG %á" á (437-432 E.J.), #F á -1& D*) E/ -
%á3 1& á E2 -)& Dá* # &I &á.
Fá H)( IK $á! á å2 %á! &% &å! á #L å2 *( ä(+ *,% ? #)1 I( -
$. E,( J) ã( á. ,1 ( D% *! #$L+ J I)å Iå %á äM *å! $K *å!+
*å I( $K äK *#( $á á) <! ,å #,( %! #Ü I)( â$L &á ,á (I(. á -( -
)(K *á% , $å! ,(.) ã2 á ,(., , -. *! #L ä. *#( $2 á ,(. å äÜ -
-(.+, , -K * ,+ #á ,á *#å. L+) #á! <) *! &( I(2 *å ,(
ä0 )! #1 #á! ,(% ! 0 %! #1 )." &1. Äå '! Ü #á! á )! *,å )Ü ,(.
I)( IK $(. ä &! (.) ãL"#á% I$å. )! #Ü ä! á &å )2 *&á ,á: â1 -
)å! á #á! %1 ,! á I,J ). ãá. Ç â1 )å! á I,J ). ãá, ã%0 *,L 0+
9H! %á #( "L #: á I1 ,á 50 ã)á -! #Ü J) ãá I(. #( *&(K *á%
,(.+ ,(2 <(.+ ,+, L ,á% <M )(+ å% ä! á2 , *+ ,0% å I2* &0%
I)( *#. % ,M% ,+ ? #)1 I( $+, å %M %1 ,! á I,J ). ãá L ,á%
,å $å ,(.) ã! #L å2 *( ä(+ ã! á ,( ! å )1 ,J &å %(+ ,+ ? " %Ü+
B2 #+.
Åéê. 21. @ &á 2, -!, < #! &Ü, ?3 $!, (427-424 E.J.).
G) ã( ,(. á) <! ,J #,( %á >á$ $! #)Ü ,. Ç <Ü ) #á! #(& 61 -
, ,á ,(. %á(K å2 %á! á Iá )Ü &!$ $å+, #á "M+ á.,1+ . 6M %å ,á!
å IÜ %0 *å IK) ã(, I(. á I1 ,á &. # %á/#Ü <)1 %! á I)( *,Ü -
,å. å ,% å2 *( ä( ,+ ? #)1 I( $+. C %á 1+ å2 %á! á& -! I)1 -
*,. $(+: ,J* *å )!+ #2 ( %å+ ! 0 %! #(K )."&(K â)2 *#( %,á!
*,% I)1 *( 6 #á! Ü$ $(! ,J* *å )!+ *,% I2 *0 I$å. )Ü. E,
50 -1 )( ( ã$. I,1+ ä! Ü #( *&(+ á Iå! #( %2 5å! , &Ü < ,0%
H$á ,á! M%. H)1 #å! ,á! ã! á &!á á #1 & #á! %( ,( &2 á, å -1 *(%
,( "J &á äå% I)( J) <å ,á! á I1 , &. "( $( ã2 á á$ $Ü á I1 ,%
! *,( )2 á.
21
82
Å ÑÙ ÔÇ ÓÅÉÓ - ÄÑÁ ÓÔÇ ÑÉ Ï ÔÇ ÔÅÓ
1. PU1 04+ #4 <% 2!' . $*4 Q281 #' ). 0,.1 2.4 P!/ (% +U +! (,% 28 Q%1 - <6 38 /.1) ,% 2& (/& 0)%: !
)!' 2. Q. *: 2%4 ,! 2&1 ! (& +!5)T1 #& ,. )/! 2: !1;
2. P.' .1 T 2!+ . /8 *.1 26+ /!" #U 0% 6+ 02.+ %* *& +' )8 ): . +! 2&1 )*! 0' )T1 % Q. CT1;
3. Ä& ,' .4/ $T 02% )! 2 *. $. ,% 36 2. $/! 3: %1 )!' Q*& /. 3. /' ! )8 4 *' )8 $' ! 2.41 !/ C!' . *. $' ).S1
CU /.41 2&1 Q% /' . CT1 0!1. >/= 2% ,' ! ,' )/T Q! / $/! 3. ,% 2&+ . Q.: ! +! % -' 02. /%: 2% 2&+ % -R -
*' -& % +81 CU /.4 ! Q8 2&+ !/ C!' 8 2& 2! ,R C/' 0T ,% /!.
4. L4 $)/: +% 2% 2. @Ä' 0). "8 *.A 2.4 KS /6 +! ,% 2.+ @F Q. -4 8 ,% +.A 2.4 G4 0:Q Q.4. D/%: 2% . ,.' 8 2& -
2%1 )!' #' ! 3. /R1 02.+ 2/8 Q. ! Q8 #. 0&1 2&1 ): +& 0&1, 2.4 C/8 +.4, 2&1 R) 3/! 0&1.
5. Å Q' )% 3(%: 2% ,.4 0%: ! T * *.41 !/ C!' . *. $' ).S1 CU /.41 2&1 Q% /' . CT1 0!1. P/'+ ! Q8 2&+ % Q: -
0)% =& 04$)%+2/U02% Q*&/.3./:%1 !Q8 #'3./%1 Q&$R1 (36 2. $/! 3: %1, % +& ,% /6 2' ) 34* * #' -
!, / (/! )2*.) 0C%2') ,% 2. CU/. )!' 2! %)(R,!2! 2.4. L2& 04+RC%'! Q!/.40'02% 2'1
%+24QU0%'1 0!1 02&+ 2-&.
6. F $. / 02% ! Q8 2! 2.4 /' 02' ) )! 2! 02T ,! 2! ,' ! ! Q. ,: ,& 0& !/ C!: .4 !$ $%: .4. M. Q. (% 2T 02% 2.
!$$%:. ,R 0! 0% ,' ! Q +' +& 20 +2!. V24 QT 02% 2. #4 +! 2 02.+ 2.: C. +! 0Q 0%'. F Q*U 02% R +! Q! -
+: 0% R +! 2/! QR <' )!' ! #%' 02% Q/. 0% C2' ) ! Q8 2&+ 20 +2! 2! 0Q! 0,R +! )., , 2' ! 2.4 )% /! ,' -
).S. P/. 0Q! (T 02% +! 2! -! +! ).* *T 0% 2%.
83
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84
8 á* ($ ê%Ü ($ %á' 5@ ã$* &($' (20 >.C.), "Ü% "á %$, ÑB "ç, 9$* &å. $ 3á (é êá !$@.
85
K8, %R 2,, 684 8O 047 84: 74: N.S. '- R 1', + */' -
.- )5P ., /+ + 854: 6/- /Q 24 1'5 E> ', , 4 N4> ' 6- *& 6- *&
N+ 5- O 0' (+ 68' = 5- ' 8,7 )- /'- 4 )4 6> '7 8,7 84:7 2- -
/54P7 4- /- 624P7 N4: +> E'1 ), 2- 4:5 *, .+> *P 5< ' -
N= 841 L> (+ 5,. L4 509 N.S. , + 854: 6/- /Q 24 1'5 E> '
' 1' 85& N, /+ /'- 8, .O 6, 8,7 NQ 5+ 2- ' ' 5- 684 /5' 8- -
/Q ), 24 /5' 8> ', N4: + N+ /8& ., /+ 68,1 - 8' 0- /Q E+5 -
6= 1, 64. JO E5- 84 133 N.S. , %R 2, +> E+ *> 1+- , /: -
5> '5 E, )P 1' 2, 8,7 J+ 64 *+> 4: /'- +> E+ O5 .+- 6+ + -
N' 9Q 2+ 841 +0 0, 1- /= N4 0- 8- 62=. I- %< 2'> 4- + N, 5+ -
& 68, /'1 ' N= 841 +0 0, 1- /= N4 0- 8- 62=, )' 1+> 68, /'1
684- E+> ' 84: /'- 8' N54 6&5 24 6'1 68, )- /Q 84:7
8OE 1,. G 18- 0Q 9., /'1 )+ 8,1 ' 3> ' 8<1 +0 0, 1- /R1 O5 -
*<1 /'- 8' ' 1' N' 5Q *' *'1 Q 8' 6: 1O 0+ 3'1. M40 04>
0= *- 4- 8,7 %R 2,7 (= N<7 4 F- /O 5< 1'7) ' *= 5' @'1
O5 *' #0 0Q 1<1 /'- *> 14 18'1 N& 85< 1+7 8,7 +0 0, 1- -
/Q7 8OE 1,7, + 1R , %R 2, ' N4 8O 0+ 6+ 84 /O 1854 2' @- -
/Q7 N' 5' *< *Q7 O5 *<1 8OE 1,7. B5Q *4 5' 4- %< 2'> -
4- /' 8& 0' ('1 = 8- , 8OE 1, 2N4 5+> 1' E5, 6- 24 N4- , .+>
<7 94 5O '7 N4 0- 8- /R1, /4- 1< 1- /R1 /'- .5, 6/+: 8- -
/R1 ' 3- R1.
L' 684- E+> ' N4: )' 1+> 68, /+ , 5< 2';/Q *0: N8- /Q
' N= 8,1 +0 0, 1- /Q Q 8'1 , 68& 6, 84: '1 .5R N- 14:
6R 2' 847, , + 3- )' 1> /+: 6,, 4 5:. 2=7 /'- , /> 1, 6,. $
)- ' 94 5& 8,7 5< 2';/Q7 /'0 0- 8+E 1- /Q7 ' 18> 0, A,7 ' -
N= 8,1 +0 0, 1- /Q (5> 6/+ 8'- 68,1 /4 624 .+ < 5> ' /'- ' -
94 5& 84 2O *+ .47 /'- 8' .O 2' 8' 8<1 ' 1' N' 5' 68& -
6+ <1. # /+> = 2<7 N4: , 5< 2';/Q *0: N8- /Q + NO )+- 3+
2+ *& 0, N5< 84 8: N> ' Q 8'1 , +- /4 1- 68- /Q N54 84 2Q
/'- 84 ' 1& *0: 94. $ 5< 2';/Q N54 84 2Q +- 6& *+- 68,1
8OE 1, 8,1 4 24- = 8, 8' 84: N54 8P N4: /'- = E- 8,1 + 3- -
6. Ç ÑÙÌÁÚÊÇ ÔÅ×ÍÇ
86
Å 632W 4-2+
T3+/ % -; 0% 2+ ": 0%= 2+ ) U) -6% ,2W/ % U; 6* G; -
3)+ % Å8 3Y U* 0V F3+ 6*/ I 73+ -X -%+ (= /28/ 2+ 0) ($ -
.2+ -8 3= %3 F2+, 46*/ + 6% .+ -X F)3 4; /* 42 V /%5 .% ;5,
o+ Å 632W 4-2+, % /V U68 1%/ 62 '+ -; 6285 U2 .+ 6+ 40;. P%
U3Y 6% 4* 0$ '+ % %8 62W 628 U2 .+ 6+ 402W F32 /2 .2 (2W -
Åéê. 1. :á% ê$ )Ü ã$' ("? &á ($* 6$* >.C. áé B !á), (å %á ê- -
(á*, ÑB "ç, 3. á ;/$@ é á.
P2 ?)8 ($ 3+ )U$ /: 46* 4%3 -2 7$ (2 ')=F /)+ %/ ,3Y U285
F% 32W 0) /285, U28 % U2 .%0 &$ /28/ V /% 48 0U; 4+ 2.
Åéê. 2. :* ">$ &é á &(?' (470 >.C.), ($é 2$ ã%á ). á á >- ($! (Ü -
)$ (,! =á! èA %,!, É (á . á, ;á% ê$*. !é á.
62+ F2 (3% 7= % % /% U% 3+ 46$ /)+ $ /63)5 U28 7%= /) 6%+ /% F2 -
3)W 28/ -3% 6Y /6%5 V /% -W U). .2 -3% 4+ 2W, V /% '= %8 .2 -%+
0+ % .W 3%.
1
2
87
)' 1- /+: 2O 1, ' N+- /= 1- 6Q 84:. L4 - 684 5- /= ' 1& *0: -
94 + 3- 684 5+> N4 0+ 2- /O7 + N- E+- 5Q 6+-7 /'- .5- &2 -
(4:7 ': 84 /5' 8= 5<1 /'- 685' 8, *R1.
L' /P 5- ' E' 5' /8, 5- 68- /& 8,7 5< 2';/Q7 '5 E- 8+ -
/84 1- /Q7 Q 8'1 ' 9+ 1=7 , + 3: N, 5O 8, 6, 8<1 : 0- /R1
/'- /4- 1< 1- /R1 ' 1' */R1 2O 6' ' N= 8, ), 2- 4:5 *> '
2+ *& 0<1 O5 *<1 /'- ' 9+ 8O 54: , N04P 6- ' )- ' /= 62, -
6, 8<1 /8- 5> <1. $ 8+ 5& 68- ' ': 84 /5' 84 5> ' 8<1 %< -
2'> <1 & 9, 6+ 8' >E 1, 8,7 6+ 21, 2+- R ), O5 *', = N<7
+> 1'- 8' .O ' 85', 8' : )5' *< *+> ', 4- .O5 2+7 /'- 8'
' N4 E+ 8+: 8- /& )> /8: '. L4 6P 68, 2' 8,7 +0 0, 1- /Q7
'5 E- 8+ /84 1- /Q7, N4: ' N4 8+ 04P 18'1 ' N= 84 68: 04 -
(& 8,, 841 /> 4 1' /'- 84 + N- 68P 0- 4, 84 + 2N04P 8- 6'1 4-
%< 2'> 4- 2+ /' 2& 5+7 /'- .= 04:7, ), 2- 4:5 *R 18'7 O -
86- 8, )- /Q 84:7 '5 E- 8+ /84 1- /Q.
L' 8= 3' /'- 4- .5- '2 (- /O7 ' A> )+7 Q 8'1 O 1' + N> -
8+:* 2' 2, E' 1- /Q7 N4 0P )P 6/4 04 *- ' + /+> 1, 8,1 + -
N4 EQ. T 8'1 4- %< 2'> 4- 8+ 0+- 4 N4> , 6'1 ': 8Q 8,1 8+E -
1- /Q (/: 5> <7 2+ 8, E5Q 6, + 1=7 +> )4:7 /4 1- & 2' 847,
2+>* 2' 847 )- & 94 5<1 E' 0- /- R1 2+ , 9'- 68+- 4 *+ 1O7
ER 2' <7 6:1 )+ 8- /= : 0- /=), N54 ER 5, 6'1 68,1 /' -
8' 6/+: Q .+5 2R1, *+ 9: 5R1 /'- : )5' *< *+> <1.
J+ 8& 8,1 /' 8& /8, 6, 8,7 J' /+ )4 1> '7, 84 146
N.S., E8> 68, /+ 68, %R 2, 4 N5R 847 1' =7 ' N= 2&5 -
2' 54 /'- 6: 1+ E> 68, /+ , /' 8' 6/+: Q ' N4 E+ 8+: 8- /R1
O5 *<1 /'- )5= 2<1. HO ' +> ), /8- 5> <1 ), 2- 4:5 *Q ., -
/'1 68-7 2+ *& 0+7 N= 0+-7 = N<7 , (' 6- 0- /Q, , 684 &,
, ' *4 5& (84 fo"m). J+ 8,1 + */' .> )5: 6, 8,7 ': 84 -
/5' 84 5> '7 /'- 8,1 + 3& N0< 6, 84: 5< 2';/4P /5& -
84:7 , N5< 8+P 4: 6' /'- 4- 2+ *& 0+7 N= 0+-7 8,7
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-Üñ èç êá!: N /2 0# @) 6$+ 62 60X 0$ 628 /$ 2W U28 &3= 4-) 6$+ 46*/ )= 42 '< 628 (462 '8 6+ -< 60X 0$ 628) -$+ .)+ -
6283 ()= :5 U32 ,# .$ 025. >N 6$/ &3= 4-) 6$+ V 1: $ U< 6*/ )- -.* 4= $ (:5 462 #), 2 /2 0# @) 6$+ ) 1: /#3 ,* -$5, ) -
/Y, < 6$/ &3= 4-) 6$+ 462 ) 4: 6) 3+ -< 6*5, 0U32 46# $ U< 62 -) /63+ -< -.= 625, 2 /2 0# @) 6$+ ) 4: /#3 ,* -$5.
0"á$ ñï åé ä7! åã ãå ãñáì ì5 íï! íá &!: Å= /$+ 2 /$ <5 U28 G6= @) 6$+ 4) 0+ $ -# 62 A* 4) 4GX 0$ 46$8 32W 0) = 4+ )5
-) 3$= )5, ) /6$( 0V /25 4) V /$ 6) 63$ (: /+ -< 4GX 0$. Å U# /: 462 4* 0)= 2 U28 '+ $ 46$8 3Y /2 /6$+ 2+ -) 3$= )5 8 AY -
/) 6$+ 2 -) /63+ -<5 632W .25. \ 6$/ 46$ 60X 0$ 6$ ) U# /: $ U< 6+5 -) 3$= )5 8 AY /2 /6$+ 6V4 4) 3+5 0+ -3< 6) 32+
632W .2+, 6< 6) 2 /$ <5 .V () 6$+ 6) 63# 6328 .25.
16 ì4á íï: T3< -)+ 6$+ (+ $ V /$ -8 -.+ -< X U2 .8 (: /+ -< 60X 0$ 62= G28 ) U# /: 462 2 U2= 2 46* 3= @) 6$+ V /$5 * 0+ -
47$+ 3+ -<5 ,< .25.
0#áé ñé ê& ëï #' ï: P7$+ 3+ -# 63= (: /$ 6$ 2 U2= $ () 78 3Y /28/ 62 -) /< $ /# 0) 4$ $ U< 6$ 6V4 4) 3$ 6< 1$ U28 46* -
3= @28/ 62/ 632W .2. T32 -W U6)+ $ U< 6*/ 62 0X ) /<5 -8 &+ -2W U3= 40$ 625 0) V /$ * 0+ 47$= 3+ 2.
, *åé ñï 4ï' ç "å! åé ê& íå!: Å+ -< /)5 (+ $ 6+5 2 U2= )5 8 UX3 G) * U) U2= ,* 4* < 6+ ')/ )= G$/ '* 0+ 283 (* ,)= $ U< 62/
#/ ,3: U2 $. .# 0) ,)9-X ) UV0 &$ 4*.
+Ü ì4ï!: P6* &8 @$ /6+ /X @: (3$ 7+ -X 2 /2 0# @) 6$+ 2 GY 325 U28 U) 3+ &#. .)+ 6+5 023 7V5 -$+ -$ .W U6) 6$+ 48 /X -
,:5 0) 7W. .2 G38 42W.
Öï ñç "7 åé ê& íá: >Å G28 0) 'W 2 )+ 'Y/ 72 3* 6V5 )+ -< /)5: ) -)= /)5 U28 $ /$ U$ 3+ 462W/ 4-* /V5 $ U< 6*/ J (= $ B3$ -
7X -$+ 6285 &= 285 6:/ J (= :/ -$+ V G28/ :5 U3< 68 U$ 6+5 62+ G2 (3$ 7= )5 -$+ 6$ A* 7+ ': 6#, -$+ )-)=/)5 U28
U$ 328 4+ # @28/ 0) 02 /: 0V /$ U3< 4: U$ 6:/ 2 U2= :/ * 6)G /2 632 U= $ )= /$+ ) U* 3) $ 40V /* $ U< 6+5 /) -3+ -V5 U32 -
4: U2 (3$ 7= )5 6*5 J+ (W U628, 6$ "$ (+ 2W0. N 3< .25 6*5 ,3* 4-)8 6+ -X5 )+ -< /$5 ,) : 3)= 6$+ D'+ $ 0) 42 .$ &* 6+ -
-<5 E U325 62 L) < (+ $ 6*/ U32 46$ 4= $ 6:/ U+ 46Y/. O) 3+ -V5 72 3V5 $8 6X * '+ $ 0) 42 .# &* 4* )- '* .Y /) 6$+ 0)
,$W 0$ 6$, ) 12W -$+ 2+ D,$8 0$ 6283 (V5 E )+ -< /)5. N+ )+ -< /)5 X 6$/ 48 /X ,:5 @: (3$ 7+ 40V /)5 ) U# /: 4) 1W .2
'28 .) 0V /2 0) $ 8(2 6V 0U) 3$* X 0) 6*/ ) (-$8 46+ -X 6)G /+-X.
, $ãï "5 ì4å ñá: O+ $ 6)G /+ -X 6*5 @: (3$ 7+ -X5 6:/ )+ -< /:/ )= /$+ * $ &(2 6V 0U) 3$, '* .$ 'X * $ /# 0)+ 1* 6:/
G3: 0# 6:/ 0) -3< -2 $ 8(2W. N -3< -25 G3* 4+ 0)W )+ :5 -<. .$, '* .$ 'X 48/ ') 6+ -< 8 .+ -< 6:/ G3: 0# 6:/, ) /Y
6285 U324 '= ')+ 0+ $ + '+ $= 6) 3* U2+ < 6* 6$. Q$ G3Y 0$ 6$ )= /$+ -$ ,$ 3# 0V4$ 4) $846*3< U)3=(3$00$.
Å Ñ2 1Ç 0ÅÉ0 - ÄÑ, 01Ç ÑÉ . 1Ç 1Å0
1. P8 (-3= /) 6) 62/ DI$ .< T2+ 0V /$E, 62 0$3 0# 3+ /2 V3 (2 628 428 $+ Y /$ U28 &3= 4-) 6$+ 462 O28 4)= -
2 628 H$ 6+ -$ /2W, 0) 62 A* 7+ ': 6< U28 $U)+-2/=@)+ 62/ D-$ .< U2+ 0V /$E -$+ &3= 4-) 6$+ 462 O$8 -
4: .)= 2 6*5 B# .$ T.$ -= '+ $ 46* !$ &V /$. OX U:5 (/: 3= @) 6) #. .$ V3 ($ $ U< 6*/ $3 G$9-X ) U2 GX
6*5 ). .* /+ -X5 6VG /*5 0) U$ 3< 02+ 2 ,V 0$;
2. T2+ $ )= /$+ 6$ 462+ G)= $ 6*5 &8 @$ /6+ /X5 )+ -< /$5 U28 $ U2 '= '28/ 6*/ ) 1$% .: 4* 6*5 78 4+ -X5 8 U< -
46$ 4*5 628 $/ ,3Y U28;
3. Å U+ 4-) 7,)= 6) 0+ $ &8 @$ /6+ /X )- -.* 4= $ U28 &3= 4-) 6$+ -2 /6# 462/ 6< U2 '+ $ 02 /X5 4$5 -$+ -$ 6$ -
(3#A 6) 6+5 $ 7* (* 0$ 6+ -V5 )+ -< /)5 U28 8 U#3 G28/ ) -)=. T32 4U$ ,X 46) /$ &3)= 6) 4) U2+ $ () (2 /< -
6$ 6*5 J (= $5 B3$ 7X5 $ /$ 7V 32 /6$+.
4. H3)= 6) 6$ 2 /< 0$ 6$ U28 $ U2 '= '2 /6$+ 46*/ T$ /$ (= $ 46* &8 @$ /6+ /X )+ -2 /2 (3$ 7= $.
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175
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176
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Lk. 6 iF M; J@ hHN =@ FA HNI >?S L;A F? LAK ; ELA Bi J?AK L@K JCA :K C;A LHN MP LRK ;D D: C;A F? L@E hHA CA DS ;
LPE N DA ClE JNF <:D D?A JL@ =I; F; LA Ck h; IHN JS ; J@ LHN Bi F; LHK.
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21
177
Åéê. 21. l[G@K fNOoKR[N jnEO KX KG (G*#/ L03'/90 B'3/*/*, 1598-1680), 'H
NPXA fNT KRN BX IA eJ LnEO RV KG_ (1671-1674), L@O LA ON, Pr LF, WDG NQ
?OA DIX PINQ PRF >X nA.
T4 & *'0 2' 8,7 4 6@ '7 +@ 1'- 84 W4 .+ 8, 2X 14 684 (& .47 84: W' 5+/ /0, 6-4Y 8,7
4- /4 *X 1+- '7 8<1 A08- X 5- 68,1 +/ /0, 6@ ' 84: A*@ 4: %5' */@ 6/4: 68, $@ W' 8,7
P[ 2,7. H 84 W4 .X 8, 6, 84: *0: W84Y 684 W' 5+/ /0Z 6-, , W54 4 W8- /Z 45 *& 1< 6,
84: J[ 54:, 4 9< 8- 62>7 W4: 2W'@ 1+- ' W> 84 /5: 9> W' 5& .: 54 68' ' 5- 68+ 5&
84: X5 *4: + 18+@ 14:1 8, .+ ' 85- /Z W' 54: 6@ ' 6Z 84:. O .+ ' 8Z7 +@ 1'- : W4 J5+ < -
2X 147, ' W> 8, .X 6, 68,1 4 W4@ ' (5@ 6/+ 8'- 84 X5 *4, 1' ' /4 04: .Z 6+- 2@ ' 6: -
*/+ /5- 2X 1, 4 W8- /Z )- ' )54 2Z, W4: +@ 1'- 4 & 34 1'7 84: W' 5+/ /0, 6-4Y. T4 X5 -
*4 F'-J2'0<8@B+-G 8, 68-* 2Z /' 8& 8,1 4 W4@ ' , 4 6@ ' + */' 8' 0+@ W+- 8,1 + W@ *+- '
B< Z. T4 /+ 9& 0- W4: W- X B+- 84 2' 3- 0& 5- /'- , 6Y 6W' 6, 8<1 J+ 5- [1 8,7 84 1@ -
B4:1 2+ - )- '@ 8+ 5, X2 9' 6, 8,1 + 1' *[ 1- ' W54 6W& .+- ' 8,7 8+ 0+: 8'@ '7 68-* 2Z7
84: '1 .5[ W4:. O' 2W4 54Y 6+ 1' W+- /' 1+@7 > 8- , 4 6@ ' /& 1+- 2- ' ' W+ *1< 62X -
1, W54 6W& .+- ' 1' /5' 8, .+@ 68, B< Z. H 245 9Z +@ 1'- 84 W4 .+ 8, 2X 1, + W& 1< 6+
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(' W> J5< 2' 8- 68> 2&5 2' 54), /' .[7 WX 98+-, ), 2- 4:5 *+@ X 1' 6Y1 )+ 624 ' 1& -
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2X 5+- +7 84: : 9& 62' 847, 84: 2' 3- 0' 5- 4Y, 8<1 WX W0<1, 8<1 /- 1Z 6+ <1 8,7 4 -
6@ '7, (5@ 6/+ 8'- 6+ ' 18@ .+ 6, 2+ 8,1 W1+: 2' 8- /Z X 3'5 6, W4: ' W4 8: W[ 1+ 8'-
68,1 X/ 95' 6, 84: W54 6[ W4:. S+ > 0, 8,1 W+ 5@ 4 )4 84: MW' 5>/ 4 .5, 6/+: -
8- />7 2: 68- /- 62>7 + 1- 6JY + 8'- /'- ' W> 8,1 ' *- 4 W4@ , 6, 1X <1 W54 6[ W<1 68,1
K' .4 0- /Z !/ /0, 6@ '. T' 4 5& 2' 8' /'- 4- 68-* 2X7 X/ 68' 6,7, W4: W54 /' 04Y 18'-
' W> 8, (' .- & .5, 6/+: 8- /Z /' 8& 1: 3, /'- W@ 68,, 6: 1' 18[ 18'- 6:J 1& 68-7 /' ., -
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Åéê. 22. jnEO KX KG, ^H AO nA Dq RFQ mEO PE SV KFQ_ (1621-1622), L@O LA ON, p -
\NQ 2,55 L., Pr LF, BXJA MnNO DIo [E.
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85> W4 , 6: 2W04 /Z 8<1 245 9[1, , W4 0: ' 34 1- /> 8, 8' /'- , W+ 5- 6854 9Z 84:7,
[ 68+ 1' ' W4 8+ 0X 64:1 X 1' 6Y 2W0+* 2' W+ 5@ (0+ W84, *+ 2& 84 /@ 1, 6, /'- X 184 1,
.+ ' 85- /> 8, 8'.
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p \NQ 3,50 L., Pr LF, EI IJF PX A k@ KRA jA OX A KRE JA cG RV OG A.
T' *0: W8& X5 *' 84: RW+5 1@ 1-, 2+ 8,1 ' W> )4 6, 8,7 /@ 1, 6,7, 8,1 + W+ 3+5 *' -
6@' 84: : 0- /4Y /'- 8,1 X2 9' 6, 68,1 W0' 68- /> 8, 8', ), 2- 4:5 *4Y1 8,1 + 18Y W< -
6, > 8- , 2& B' + 3'=0[ 1+ 8'-. S84 X5 *4 ': 8>, W4: +@ 1'- 2@ ' ' W> 8-7 W- 4 + 18: -
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183
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7 D8 ;? A? DJ 2 C?E ,8 2 DG C8 A=?d ? 4e 57 A6 AC7 48 2 -
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6B AC7 @J SC7 :2< AC7 ;? 58 :e :28 AC7< bJ AC7 58 2 C7 48 -
2@ :e 2< 9@f b8 <7 b@H ? 4?. . 6 b8 AC7 =? <8 :e c @6E <2
2 <?J568 <c 'EB 4@H =?EB, 6 <f ?8 2; ;2 5cB AC8B b? ;8 -
C8 :cB, ?8 :? <? =8 :cB :28 :?8 <G <8 :cB 4? =cB CG< :@2 -
Cf< 6J <28 b? ;d =6 51 ;6B. . 6 >c ;8 >7 C7B C6S <? ;? 5J 2B
:28 ?8 6 D6E @c A68B AC? S6d ?E< AC7< 6E CE SJ 2 C?E 2< -
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^? b@f C? =8 AH C?E 19?E 28 f <2 ? 4E C8 :HB :H -
A=?B 5<G @J M68 =8 2 A68 @1 2 bH @8 M8 :cB 2 <2 :2 C2 C1 -
>68B. H O2; ;8 :e - b2 <1 AC2 A7 (1789-1796) 9cC68 <c -
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4?EB :28 AC7< :?8 <G <8 :e 1 <? 4? C7B 2 AC8 :eB C1 >7B.
a;e 97 :H A=?E AE 5:6 <C@f <? <C28 AC8B bH ;68B, ?8
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2 <2 :2 ;d bC? <C28 :28 :28 <?d @8 6B 2 b?8 :J 6B b@? ACJ 96 -
<C28 AC2 :@1C7 C7B EE @f b7B.
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12. ÍÅÏÊËÁÓÉÊÉÓÌÏÓ
184
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DJ 2B, =6 ;6 C1 C7< CcS <7 2 <2 bCdA A? <C2B C? 96 G @7 C8 :H
b@? 3;7 =2 C8 A=H C7B. ,8 2 =?@ Df 97 :6 AC2 =c A2 b6 @J -
b?E C?E 18?E 28 f <2 2 bH C?< V. \b2 ?E= 5:1@ C6<
(1714-1762) :28 AE< 4c 68 C7< :2; ;8 C6S <8 :e c: D@2 A7 =6
C7< 2< 9@f b8 <7 A:c N7. . V8A 97 C8 :e 2 AS? ;6J C28 =6 C7
96 G @J 2 C?E PG @2J ?EQ :28 C2 AE <28A 9e =2 C2 b?E 2E CH
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c<2B C? =c 2B C7B b<6E =2 C8 :eB 2 <2 Me C7 A7B C?E 2< -
9@f b?E, >6 SG @8 ACHB 2 bH C7< 6 b8 ACe =7 :28 C7< 7 98 :e.
V< ;?8 bH< ACH S?B C7B :2; ;8 C6S <8 :eB 47 =8 ?E@ 5J 2B 6J -
<28 7 b@25 =1 CG A7 C?E G @2J ?E, 7 A8A 97 C8 :e =6 ;6 C1 C?
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S<7B.
b?E c GB C8B b@f C6B 46 :2 6 CJ 6B C?E 19?E 28 f <2 :28
6 >c D@2 A6 C? 96 G @7 C8 :H b@? 3;7 =2 C8 A=H C7B 6 b? -
SeB, C7< 6 b2 <2 AC2 C8 :e ?@ =e :28 C2 E N7 ;1 ? @1 =2 -
C2 C7B :?8 <G <J 2B. ]d= DG <2 =6 C8B 2@ ScB C?E ,8 2 -
DG C8 A=?d, :1 96 6 b8 AC7 =? <8 :e 6 >c ;8 >7 92 c b@6 b6
<2 ? 47 56J C?< 1< 9@G b? AC7< 2 9G H C7 C2 b?E S2 @2 -
:Ce @8 M6 C2 b@G CH 5? <2 H<C2 :28 AC7 47 =8 ?E@ 5J 2 6 -
<HB :H A=?E AC?< ? b?J ? 92 :E 36@ <1 ? <H =?B C7B
;? 58 :eB :28 C7B 8 AH C7 C2B. ^2 c@ 52 CcS <7B C7B :;2 -
A8 :eB 2@ S28 H C7 C2B, Ad= DG <2 =6 C7 D8 ;? A? DJ 2 C7B
6 b? SeB, 92 =b? @?d A2< <2 2 b? C6 ;c A?E< C? b@H CE -
b? 2E CeB C7B 96 G @7 C8 :eB A:c N7B. . =J =7 A7 C7B
2@ S28 H C7 C2B 92 ? 47 5?d A6 c CA8 AC? b;7 AJ 2 A=2 C7B
2 b;H C7 C2B C7B Dd A7B, H b?E :E @8 2@ S6J C? 2 ;7 98 <H,
C? =c C@? :28 ? :2 <H <2B, =6 2 b? Cc ;6 A=2 C7< 7 98 :e
:28 C7< b? ;8 C8 :e 2 <2 5c< <7 A7 C7B 2< 9@G bH C7 C2B. H
6; ;7 <8 :e CcS <7 2 <2 5<G @J M6 C28 GB ? P8 42 <8 :HB Cd -
b?B Q :28, =c A2 2 bH C7 =J =7 Ae C7B, ? :2; ;8 CcS <7B
C?E Y6 ? :;2 A8 :8 A=?d AC? S6d 68 AC7 =J =7 A7 C7B Dd -
A7B :28 AE <6 bfB C?E 8 46 f 4?EB. _B 6: C?d C?E, 7 =J -
=7 A7 2E C?d C?E P8 42 <8 :?d Cd b?EQ =b? @6J <2 48 2 DE -
;1 >68 C8B 28A 97 C8 :cB :28 C8B 7 98 :cB 2 >J 6B b?E 46 S1 -
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NE SeB, 7 ? =?@ D8 1 CG< AG =1 CG<, ?8 7 98 :cB 2 >J 6B, 7
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H C7 C2 CG< c@5G< C7B 6; ;7 <8 :eB CcS <7B :2 C1 C? TJ< -
:6; =2< (J.J. W"&#!$%a&&, 1717-1768), C?< :E @8 H -
C6 @? 96 G @7 C8 :H C?E Y6 ? :;2 A8 :8 A=?d. ^2 c@ 52 CG<
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P6E 56 <8 :e 2 b;H C7 C2 :28 C? e @6 =? =6 52 ;6J ?Q CG< c@ -
5G< C7B :;2 A8 :eB 2@ S28 H C7 C2B. H 6; ;7 <8 :e 2; ;1
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2; ;1 :28 7 98 :1 b@H CE b2, :28 ? 4e 57 A2< A6 b?; ;cB
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6>2@ C8H<C2< :1 96 D? @1 2 bH C8B 8 AC? @8 :cB 6 b8 ;? 5cB
CG< :?8 <G <8 f<. O8 2 b2 @1 4685 =2, 7 47 =? :@2 C8 :e b6 -
@J ? 4?B C7B @G =2F:eB 8 AC? @J 2B 96 G @e 97 :6 b@H CE -
b? 582 C7 O2; ;8 :e - b2 <1 AC2 A7, 6 <f 7 2E C? :@2 C? -
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O2; ;J 2B.
O8 2 C?EB <c ?EB :2; ;8 CcS <6B C7B O2; ;J 2B, C7B
A55;J 2B :28 C7B O6@ =2 <J 2B C? C2 >J 48 AC7 YH C8 2 EE -
@f b7 2 b? C6 ;?d A6 =c @?B C7B 6: b2J 46E AeB C?EB.
A@S8 Cc :C? <6B, MG 5@1 D?8, 5;d bC6B C2 >J 46 E2< AC8B
:?8CJ46B CG< 2@S2JG< b? ;8 C8 A=f< :28 C@? D? 4? -
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C?E 19?E 28 f <2.
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S<7B C?E Mb2 @H:, :2 9fB :28 AC7< 6 ;2 D@H C7 C2 :28
C7 48 1 Ab2 A7 C7B =?@ DeB C?E P? :? :H. Eb8 48 f :68 C7
=6 C1 4? A7 CG< 28A 97 C8 :f< 2@ Sf< b?E b7 51 M?E<
2bH C7< bJ AC7 AC7< 2@ =? <J 2 C7B Dd A7B, AC7 ;? 58 :e
:28 AC7< 2 <C2 <1 :;2 A7 C7B 7 98 :eB 48 2d 568 2B, C7B
2b;H C7 C2B, C7B :1 92@ A7B.
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5@1 D6 C28 AC8B 2@ S8 C6 :C? <8 :cB 47 =8 ?E@ 5J 6B C?E Y6 -
185
Åéê. 1. AEC hQ ^J q (L%7*,(4), oRQ OH UX pZ FD D pY UQ EJ EMZ Q UQW
a=Q LZ OJ Q GJ D UIN ARdJ UH LUQ NJ Lsb (1753).
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713 81 >: Qa ;3 >2= 83 - `;B >D 0: 72 5- 6b .-. T@ >D >: - `6D -7 -
4;d `3 7: 5- >- <51b - <8-, 81 >- - `a ;3> >- <>:3 Q1E - >:@, >3= 5- -
>- 5D ;@ ?1= 5: 6D 71= 5-3 >- : ;3 ID 7>3 - /: 5, ;3 -, - 7>3 `;: <B -
`1b13 >: 6: 03 5D >;D `: 0a7 72 <2= >2= -; Q3 >1 5>: 73 5c=. Zb8 ?B -
7- 81 >:7 T ., U: I3 a, 2 8:; ?c >B7 16 62 73 5d7 7- d7 `2 0, I13
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62 73 5:b 7- :b /17 1E 7-3 >E `: >- ,6 6: - `D >2 8E 82 <2 - `6d7 5- -
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7B <2= >2= ?b <2=.
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P,4%0(5,, 1720-1778), nQ fQ MQS SDZ Q UIT At OIT, D pY
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3 <>: ;3 5D >2= >aQ 72= K3 D Q-7 K3 D - 538 RE7 516 8-7 : : `:E := `;a -
<.1@ 1 >27 @ `1 ;: Qc >2= 16 62 73 5c=. K3 - >:7 _3 ;- 7a I3 >: 81 0- -
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51 <>- /2 8D <3 - a; 0- 5-3 <>- 81 0- 6: `;1 `c 5>E ;3 - >2= /2 8: -
5;- >3 5c= Pd 82=. S- >, >27 , `: Jc >:@, :3 PB 8-E :3, - `D 0: 7:3
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=U HD J?], H> AE NC G?J @>, 0,79 7 0,69
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Åéê. 17. 9D Jm PME LO =E HEj jT PDO (1834-1919), \eR HL FM?l NPDO]
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(1822), H> AE NC JLR N? J>, 55 ^ 71 CG., BC ML HU IL, EFIE Gm iE I? GL Fm GD.
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Åéê. 11. `> Nj?M dP> @E IP =Mm IPME^, \O JL I? ^E GTO jC ME j? PD PmO NP? NlI IC Q?] (1817-1818), H> AE NC JLR N? J>, 0,74 7 0,94
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3) ,$* U21 36V 217. /( '$ -W 5( 2) V .5$ 3) ,$* &2$ /$ 5* ,: 5) 5$.
Åéê. 23. =. PR IP, \H M?N N? HE n PE A?] (1833), jMT jH? NJ?, Bl YLO,
1,07 7 0,51 J., i? MU NE, MLR NCU L K?M I? @? HkP.
Åéê. 24. =. PR IP, \H M?N N? HE n PE A?] (1836), HC jPL Jk MCE ?, jk PM?,
i? MU NE, AYU A? PLR cME >J @LR.
"!KMPNCK !CMQ
KE7-= - ZC >:@= Z3 C <2 8- 7>3 5:\= 06\ Z>1= >:@ P: -
8- 7>3 <8:\ <>2 H-6 6D - 1D 7-3 : +;-7 <:@ , P@ 7>. V1 C 62
>:@ >2 FB ] ] >-7 4-@ 8- <>]= >2= 56- <3 5]= -; M-3 C >2 -
>-=, -6 6, <>27 1 Z: M] >:@ *: 8- 7>3 <8:\ ] >-7 /\ <5: 6:
7- - 7>3 <>- 41D <>: 7[ : ;1\ 8-. T /2 0] 42 51 6:3 ZC7 <>2
/;- 8- >3 5] - ZC /: <2 >B7 15 ?;, <1 B7. E( 7- - ZC >- Z3 :
07B <>, [; 0- >:@ 1D 7-3 >- - 7, 06@ ?- /3 - 5: <82 >3 5,
<>:3 M1D - >2= - GD /-= >:@ R;3 ,8 .:@ <>: Y- ;D <3 5-3 3 /3 -
-D >1 ;- 2 (5 5D 72 <2 >B7 ( 41 6: 7>^7 >: 1792, Z:@ 1D 7-3
07B <>C B= I) U-< <- 63 ^ >3 /-J.
22
23
24
222
Å ÑÙ ÔÇ ÓÅÉÓ - ÄÑÁ ÓÔÇ ÑÉ Ï ÔÇ ÔÅÓ
1. U1 >2 .: ] 413 - >:@/>2= ?3 6: 6C 0:@ <-= /3 - ., <>1 - Z: <Z, <8- >- - ZC ;: 8- 7>3 5, /3 2 0] 8- >- 5-3 - 7- -
07B ;D <>1 >- .- <3 5, M- ;- 5>2 ;3 <>3 5, >:@=. Y;: <Z- 4] <>1 7- >- <@7 /[ <1 >1 81 >2 FB 0;- ?3 5] >:@
P: 8- 7>3 <8:\.
2. V@ 05;D 71 >1 >: [; 0: I) ( 61@ 41 ;D - : /2 01D >: 6- CJ, >:@ S>1 6- 5;:@ ,, 81 >: [; 0: IT `; 5:= >B7
T;- >D B7 J, >:@ S>- .D 7>. W3 <@ 8Z1 ;, <8- >- .0, F1 >1 - ZC >2 <\ 05;3 <2 >B7 /\ : [; 0B7 >C <: 3 /1 : 6: -
03 5, C <: 5-3 8:; ?: 6: 03 5,;
3. N;1D >1 [ 7- 8:@ <3 5C 5:8 8, >3 Z:@ 7- >-3 ;3 , F13 <L [ 7- [; 0: >:@ *: 8- 7>3 <8:\.
4. UZ: ;1D >1 7- <@ <M1 >D <1 >1 >: [; 0: >:@ S>1 6- 5;:@ , IO- >- <>;: ?] >2= _D :@J 81 >:7 - ZC 2 M: >:@ 16 -
62 73 5:\ - 0^ 7- >:@ 1821 <>27 (@ ;^ Z2.
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223
224
^D. dHEj, Y5ELkiPJ@, ;E;LHDl LHN lDAHNZ (1872), D:=A J? FHNJ;F: 0,50 \ 0,65 F., h;ISJA,
dHNJ?SH M!.*,00!+.
225
14. ÑÅÁËÉÓÌÏÓ
ÉÌÐÑÅÓÉÏÍÉÓÌÏÓ
g 19KN >D q H>N `> L> FOC LU YB O>D > mT IB A= GBN
FKD HS HD FnN > HOD m> L> En MBDN > H= IB M> MB POS `KoN
F>D mGKo MD KQN, MB mLK K @BQ OD FKoN F>D MQ HOC LC OD -
FKoN, MB B FBU HKQN mKQ n IB H>H mLK MFKG GC In HKD MOK
m> LBG ETH F>D MB B FBU HKQN mKQ > H> YC OKo M>H Hn BN
@D B JT @KQN. g mGC EQ MITN MOCH EQ Lq mC F>D MOC aT -
LBD > c IB LD Fp @D mG> MD = MOC FB IB O= OK 1850, B Hq C
>o JC MC OCN AB SL AD FpN m> L> AS ApN, mKQ K PBD GT O>H
MOCH OB` HK GK AD Fp > H= mOQ JC, @C ID KoL AC MB OK IB O> -
H> MOBQ OD FT LBo I> OSH > ALK OqH mLKN ODN mT GBDN MB
> H> Yp OC MC BL A> MU >N.
O PD GB GBQ EB LD MITN OCN > MOD FpN O= JCN MOC LU -
`OC FB MOCH > OK ID Fp mLS OK ?KQ GU > F>D mLK q EC MB
OCH = MFC MC F>D OKH n GBA `K OCN B JKQ MU >N > mT O> Bo -
LS MO> KD FK HK ID F= MOLq I> O> OCN FKD HS HU >N `S LUN
OCH m> LnI ?> MC OKQ FL= OKQN. H B GBQ EB LU > OKQ Oo -
mKQ F>D C @D = @K MC OSH D @B qH MB T GK F>D IB A> Go OB -
L> MOLq I> O> OKQ mGC EQ MIKo, C B HU M`Q MC OCN B EHD -
FpN MQ HBU @C MCN, C > H> Yp OC MC OKQ D MOK LD FKo m> -
LBG ET HOKN SN In MKQ @D > PK LK mKU C MCN `> L> FOC LU -
YKQH OCH mB LU K @K > mT OK 1840 In `LD OK 1870 mB LU -
mKQ. iB T G> O> B mU mB @>, MOC ELC MFBU >, MOCH mK GD OD -
Fp, MOCH B mD MOp IC, MOCH On` HC, C @D = MO> MC OSH
>mT ZB SH BU `B m= LBD OKH `> L> FOp L> > HOD I> `T IB HSH
MOL> OK mn @SH. 9 > H> Yp OC MC >H ELq mD HSH MQH EC FqH
BL A> MU >N AD > ODN F> O> mD B MIn HBN BL A> OD FnN O= JBDN
mLK q EC MB ODN MK MD > GD MOD FnN D @n BN - T mSN P= HC FB
MOK nL AK OSH mLS OK mT LSH FKD HS HD K GT ASH i>DH iD -
ITH (1760-1825), gAFUMO bK HO (1798-1857) F>D =G -
GSH - mKQ FK LQ Pq EC F>H MOK h> HD Pn MOK OSH b.
h>L J F>D <. V8H AFBG N. g K>L G M>L J F>D K <Lp HOLD`
226
VEHAFBG N @C IK MU BQ M>H OK 1848 OK KKI IKQ HD MOD FT
M> HD Pn MOK, T mKQ C m= GC OSH O= JB SH > H> Go B O>D In -
M> > mT OCH D MOK LD Fp OCN B Jn GD JC, F>D BL IC HBo K HO>D
n OMD KD FKD HS HD FnN O> L> `nN mKQ BI P> HU MOC F>H MO>
IB A> Go OB L> > MOD F= Fn HOL> OCN EQ Lq mCN F> O= OCH
OLU OC F>D OCH On O>L OC @B F> B OU > OKQ >D q H>.
iB T GBN M`B @TH ODN `q LBN OCN 8Q Lq mCN - [>G -
GU>, cQ MOLU >, lLS MU >, gQA A> LU >, aK C IU >, : O> GU > -
KD B m> H> MO> OD FnN FD HC OK mKD p MBDN F> O= OKQ >Q O>L `D -
MIKo @D > @n `K HO>H C IU > OCH =G GC.
iOK l> LU MD, C mU B MC OKQ >Q O>L `D MIKo OCN IK -
H>L `U >N F>D C KD FK HK ID Fp o PB MC OKQ 1846-47 K @p -
AC M>H OCH BL A> OD Fp O= JC MB B m> H= MO> MC (<B ?LKQ -
= LD KN OKQ 1848), mKQ F> On GC JB MOCH mOq MC OCN IK -
H>L `U >N F>D OCH > H> Fp LQ JC OCN 7C IK FL> OU >N. 9 @D -
> I= `C T ISN > H= IB M> MOKQN B mD FL> Op M> HOBN, mKQ
F> On GC JB MB >D I> OC LnN K @K I> `U BN OKH : Ko HD K OKQ
U@D KQ n OKQN, n PB LB MOK mLK MFp HD K OKH dKQ @K ?U FK
f> mK Gn K HO>, K K mKU KN OK 1852 >Q OK > H> FC Lo `EC FB
MB f> mK Gn K HO> 3K F>D B mn ?> GB OC 7Bo OB LC cQ OK -
FL> OK LU >. iOCH cAAGU> OK OL> mB YD FT Mo MOC I> B JB -
GU `EC FB, F>D OK PD GB GBo EB LK KD FK HK ID FT Mo MOC I>
FQ LD =L `C MB, K @C Aq HO>N MOCH B @L>U S MC OSH F> HT -
HSH OCN B GBo EB LCN GBD OKQL AU >N OCN > AK L=N IB ?= -
MC OCH mLK MPK L= F>D OC Yp OC MC.
jCH U @D > mB LU K @K, C OB` HK GK AD Fp n FLC JC, C ?D K -
IC `> HD Fp B m> H= MO> MC, C B PBo LB MC OCN PS OK AL> -
PU >N, C `Lp MC OKQ OC Gn AL> PKQ F>D KD F= EB BU @KQN
B PBQ Ln MBDN F>D > H> F> Go ZBDN Mp I> H>H ?> ED = >G G> -
Ap MOC @K Ip OCN FKD HS HU >N, >G G= F>D MOKH OLT mK
MFn ZCN. jK 1859 K 7>L ?U HKN @C IK MU BQ MB OK nL AK
OKQ ]9 F> O> AS Ap OSH BD @qH ^, mKQ B mC Ln > MB ODN mB -
mKD Ep MBDN OKQ >H ELq mKQ AD > OCH U @D > OCH mLK n GBQ -
MC OKQ. g MoA `LK HKN =H ELS mKN F>D O> mLK ?Gp I> -
O= OKQ pL E>H MOK mLK MFp HD K F>D n AD H>H OK En I> OCN
mKU C MCN, OCN mB YK AL> PU >N, OCN On` HCN.
iOK @Bo OB LK ID MT OKQ 19KQ >D q H> T G> O> mK GD -
OD F=, FKD HS HD F=, KD FK HK ID F= AB AK HT O> K @p AC M>H
OKQN F>G GD On` HBN H> MQH @B EKoH = IB M> IB ODN F> EC -
IB LD HnN > mGnN T ZBDN OCN YS pN, H> > mK I> FLQH EKoH
> mT OKH Q mK FBD IB HD MIT OKQ LK I> HOD MIKo F>D H>
@KQH OC YS AL> PD Fp SN In MK F> O> AL> PpN OCN
mL>A I> OD FT OC O>N
g T LKN c F> @C I>RFp jn` HC MC I>U HBD OCH B mU MC IC p
OCH FKD HqN > mK @B FOp On` HC. c m> HO= MQ` H= F> O=
OK 19K >D q H> MODN MQ YC Op MBDN mB LU On` HCN, T O>H
mG=D MOCH B mU MC IC On` HC BI P> HU MOC F>H > HOD OD En -
IB HBN O= MBDN.
l>UL HK HO>N OKH T LK >G G= F>D OC MC I> MU > > mT OCH
c F> @C IU > OKQ lG= OS HKN (4KN >D. m.r.), K T LKN
]cF> @C IU >^ MC I>U HBD ID > i`K Gp MOCH K mKU > B HO=M -
MK HO>D FKD HKU MOT `KD F>D FKD H= mD MOBo S MOKQN OK -
IBUN OCN jn` HCN, OSH [L>I I= OSH , OCN <D GK MK PU -
>N p OSH 8 mD MOC IqH.
s O>H O> BG GC HD F= AL=I I> O> > H> ?U S M>H MOCH > H> -
ABH HC MD > Fp : O> GU > (15KN >D.), > H> ?U S MB F>D K T LKN
c F> @C IU >. c mT OKH 16K >D q H> F>D IB O= @C ID KQL -
Ap EC F>H KD c F> @C IU BN, (OK 1561 D @Lo EC FB MOC
<GS LB HOU > C c F> @C IU > OKQ i`B @U KQ ]A$$"%&,*"
%&+ D*1&(-.^), F>D KD F>G GD On` HBN I= E>D H>H mD > OCH
On` HC OKQN T `D SN I> EC OBQ T IB HKD MO> BL A> MOp -
LD> OSH PO> MIn HSH F>G GD OB` HqH OKQ OT mKQ OKQN
>G G= MB KL A> HS In H> mLK AL=I I> O> I= EC MCN,
mKQ p O>H > FLD ?qN KD c F> @C IU BN OSH AL>I I= OSH,
OSH OB` HqH F>D OSH B mD MOC IqH.
9 [>G GD Fp c F> @C IU > b> GqH jB` HqH D @Lo EC FB OK
1648. lLK MO> OBQ T O>H > mT OK ?> MD GD = F>D @D @> -
MFT O>H M_ >Q OpH C On` HC T mSN n mLB mB H> BU H>D,
MoI PS H> IB OKQN FG> MD FKoN F> HT HBN OCN M> Pp -
HBD >N, OCN O= JCN, OCN >L IK HU >N, OCN K IKL PD =N,
OCN MQI IB OLU >N, OCN BQ mLn mBD >N. l> L=G GC G>, O>
FQ LD T OB L> En I> O> OCN Q ZC GpN jn` HCN p O>H O>
ELC MFBQ OD F=, O> D MOK LD F= F>D O> IQ EK GK AD F=, B Hq
En I> O> T mSN O> OK mU > F>D KD HB FLnN Po MBDN EB S -
LKo HO>H Q mK @B n MOB L> F>D > H= JD > GT AKQ. g =H -
ELS mKN F>D KD MmKQ @>U BN mL= JBDN OKQ n mLB mB H>
> mBD FK HU YK HO>D MOCH jn` HC, C K mKU > T PBD GB H> B JD -
@> HD FBo BD, H> S L>D K mKD BU, >G G= F>D H> > H> m> LD MO=
IT HK OK \ ZC GT F>D OK hB A> GK mLB mnN OCN >H ELq -
mD HCN Po MCN.
c mT OK 1737 F= EB @o K `LT HD > C c F> @C IU > KL A= -
HS HB B mU MC IBN 8F En MBDN, O> "+.-, T mKQ B Jn EB -
O>H KD F>G GD On` HBN O> nL A> OKQN, C > mK @K `p OSH
K mKU SH > mT OK FKD HT T LD YB OCH Oo `C OKQN. c mT OK
1789 F>D IB O= O> i> GTH n AD H>H B Op MD >.
227
b> O= OK 19K >D q H> C MQI IB OK `p OSH F>G GD OB` HqH >Q -
Jp EC FB, B Hq C FLD OD Fp B mD OLK mp - mKQ > m>L OD YT O>H
>mT @D > FB FLD In H> = OK I> OCN FKD HS HU >N - B mn GB AB T GK
F>D >Q MOC LT OB L> B FBU H> IT HK O> nL A> mKQ > HO> mK -
FLU HK HO>H MOK AKo MOK OKQ PD GT OB` HKQ FKD HKo, mKQ
@BH p O>H =G GK > mT OKQN IB A> GK > MOKoN OCN m> LD MD HpN
FKD HS HU >N. j> > LB MO= nL A> p O>H O> FG> MD FU YK HO> D @B -
> GD MOD F= OK mU > p KD IQ EK GK AD FnN MFC HnN IB GK @L> I> -
OD FKo MQ H>DM EC I> OD MIKo.
i_ >Q OT OK = F> ImOK Mo MOC I> OKQ > F> @C I>RMIKo B H> -
HOD q HK HO>H F= EB PK L= KD mLS OK mK LU BN OCN On` HCN,
>L `pN AB HK In HCN > mT OK 1855, n OKN OCN kF EB MCN F> -
O= OCH K mKU > K bKQL Imn B Jn EB MB MOK @D FT OKQ ]lB LU -
mOB LK OKQ ;B > GD MIKo^, OK mK GQ MQ YC OC In HK nL AK OKQ,
]OK c OB GD n^. jK 1863, K f> mK Gn SH K 3KN, GT AS OCN
nHOK HCN > HOU @L> MCN OSH F>G GD OB` HqH AD > OK IB A= GK
> LDE IT OSH > mKL LD PEn HOSH nL ASH, B mn OLB ZB OCH KL -
A= HS MC OKQ ]"+.- %& R&'31&1^, @C G> @p OCH kF EB MC
OSH c mKL LD PEn HOSH. [B AK HTN IB A= GCN MC I> MU >N, C
kF EB MC FU HC MB mK Go OT MK OK BH @D > Pn LKH OSH B mD MFB -
mOqH, q MOB F> ED B Lq EC FB SN EB MITN.
Åéê. 1. `HNS bL; >CjI (L. D!&1%., 1787-1851), Y6 D? P MQ IHK
diHND <:I ELN f;E JLH h; IS JAZ (1838 i? IS iHN), dQ -
E; \H, 5 BEA CQ dHN J?S H.
( T>- 051 ;: >@ \E -* - 7-0 0]6 42 51 >: 1839 - \C >: GB 0;, ?:
R:@E T>- 05];. ( ?B >: 0;- ?3 5_ >]N 72, 1 7` ?, 72 51 \;:= <>30 -
8_7 7- - \13 61E >2 GB 0;- ?3 5_, ] \-3 91 81 0, 6: ;C 6: <>2 /3 - -
8C; ?B <2 >C <: >:@ *1 - 63 <8:^ C <: 5-3 >:@ ) 8\;1 <3 : 73 <8:^.
W@ 7] .- 61 5@ ;E B= <>27 - \: >^ \B <2 >2= \;-0 8- >3 5C >2 >-=, <>:
\, 0B 8- >2= 5E 72 <2=, <>: <>- 8, >2 8- >2= GB _= <1 : ;3 <8] 71=
<>30 8]=, <>: <>30 83 C >@ \: (in"#an#anØ). P-3 2 ?B >: 0;- ?3 5_
C8B= 8- >3 , 1 \2 ;1 , <>2 51 - \C >2 GB 0;- ?3 5_, 5-3 \:6 6:E ?B -
>: 0;, ?:3 /2 83 :^; 02 <-7 81 >2 ?3 6: /: 9E - 7- /:@7 >- ]; 0-
>:@= 7- - 7- 07B ;E G: 7>-3 B= \;:AC 7>- 5- 4- ;_= 13 5- <>3 5_=
/2 83 :@; 0E -= 5-3 C N3 <>1E ;-= 82 N- 73 <>3 5_= - 7- \- ;- 0B 0_=.
*1-63<8C=
g T LKN ;B > GD MITN, OKH K mKU KH MQ H> HOp M> IB
MOK FB P= G>D K ]9 jn` HC OKQ hm> LTF ^ M`B OD F= IB
OKH OLT mK > mT @K MCN OSH PQ MD FqH > HOD FBD In HSH
`S LUN mLK Mm= EBD > B JD @> HU FBQ MCN, BD M= AB O>D MO>
In M> OKQ 19KQ >D q H> OT MK MODN BD F> MOD FnN On` HBN
T MK F>D MOC GK AK OB` HU >. cH K ;K I> HOD MITN p O>H ID>
@D = EB MC OCN ZQ `pN > mn H> HOD MOCH mL>A I> OD FT OC O>,
228
K ;B > GD MITN MO= EC FB > mn H> HOD MOCH mL>A I> OD FT OC -
O>, AD > H> OC @BD T mSN BU H>D, `S LUN MQ H>DM EC I> OD -
MIKoN. g ;B > GD MITN n PB LB ID > mL>A I> OD Fp B m> H= -
MO> MC MOK `q LK OCN On` HCN. 7D = GB JB En I> O> mKQ
@BH p O>H Ko OB D MOK LD F= Ko OB IQ EK GK AD F= p >G GC AK -
LD F=. 7BH B mB @U S JB H> > H> @BU JBD B HOQ mS MD > FnN p
LC OK LD FnN `BD LK HK IU BN C Lq SH. g p LS >N MOK LB > -
GD MIT BU H>D K MQ HC ED MIn HKN =H ELS mKN, K =H ELS -
mKN OKQ IT `EKQ, K BL A= OCN, K > ALT OCN, MB MFC HnN
OCN F> EC IB LD HpN YS pN.
g YS AL= PKN [F. bKQL Imn (G312"4& C.30#&2,
I810-1877) BD Mp A> AB B mU MC I> OKH T LK ];B > GD MITN ^
MOC YS AL> PD Fp OK 1855. iB nH @BD JC @D > I>L OQ LU >N
AD > ODN B mD GK AnN OCN MQ HOC LC OD FpN B mD OLK mpN B mD -
GK ApN nL ASH MOC 7D B EHp kF EB MC OKQ l> LD MD Ko
Åéê. 2. WC. ^HNI Fij (G1/0!2% C,1."%0, I810-1877), YfH _ L? DA jZ (1854-1855), D: =A J? FHN J; F:, 3,613 5,97 F., h; IS JA, dHN -
J?S H `Hk <IHN.
[E 7- 5-= : ;C <2 8: 03 - >27 ] 7-; 92 >2= 1 \: N_= >2= <^0 N;: 72= X]N 72=. [3 <>1^ : 7>-= C >3 : GB 0;, ?:= \;] \13 7- GB 0;- ?E G13 8C -
7: C,>3 .6] \13 K\;-0 8- >3 5,L, : P:@; 8\] GB 0;, ?3 <1 >:7 1 -@ >C >:@ - 7, 81 <- <1 \:; >;] >- <@6 61 5>`7 5-3 ?E 6B7, - 7>3 \;: <B \1@ -
>3 5`7 81 6`7 C 6B7 >B7 5:3 7B 73 5`7 >, 91 B7. W>:7 \E 7- 5-, \:@ 1E N1 >:7 @ \C >3> 6: KVE - \;-0 8- >3 5_ -6 62 0: ;E - \:@ \;:< /3 : ;E G13
1 \>, N;C 73 - >2= 5-6 63 >1N 73 5_= 8:@ GB _=L, <@ 7: HE G13 >3= 41 B ;E 1= >:@ 03 - >: *1 - 63 <8C -6 6, 5-3 >27 , \: H_ >:@ C >3 : 5-6 63 >]N -
72=, 5@ ;E -; N:= <>: 5] 7>;: >:@ <^0N;:7:@ 5C <8:@ <@881>]N13 5-3 /;, 171;0, <>3= 5:37B735]= -7-5->->,913=.
]8G mU YS H> FBL @U YS m= HO> OK ZS IU IKQ IB OCH On` HC
IKQ, `S LUN mK On H> > mK I> FLQH Eq Ko OB IU > OLU `> > mT
ODN >L `nN IKQ, `S LUN H> mS Zn I> O> MOC MQ HBU @C Mp
IKQ Ko OB AD > IU > MODA Ip, `S LUN H> YS AL> PU MS Ko OB
F>H T MK ImK LBU H> MFB m= MBD C m> G= IC IKQ IT HK F>D
IT HK AD > H> BQ `> LD MOp MS K mKD KH @p mK OB p AD > H> mKQ -
Gp MS mD K Bo FK G>^, n AL> PB MB n H> AL=I I> OKQ, OK
1854, K bKQL Imn.
c mT OK ?D ?GU K OKQ 8.H. G.,#0*$),
Ôï ×ñï íé êü ôçò ÔÝ÷ íçò, IB O= PL> MC d. b=M @> AGC,
hKL PS OD FTVX @LQ I> 8 EHD FpN jL> mn YCN, ?V nF @K MC,
cEp H> 1998, M. 511.
229
(i> GTH) B Jn EB MB O> nL A> OKQ MB > OK ID Fp nF EB MC @U -
mG> MOK FOU LD K OCN B mU MC ICN nF EB MCN, MB >Q OK M`n -
@D K `q LK mKQ K HT I> MB ]lB LU mOB LK OKQ ;B > GD -
MIKo^. 9 mL= JC OKQ >Q Op mLK F= GB MB Fo I> > HOD -
@L= MB SH > mT OK PD GT OB` HK FKD HT. 9 mLT EB MC OKQ
bKQL Imn p O>H mL>A I> OD F= H> B HK `Gp MBD OCH > MOD Fp
O= JC mKQ OK > mK OB GKo MB, IB OCH mLT O> JC OCN B GBQ -
EB LU >N OKQ F>G GD On` HC F>D OCN @C ID KQL AU >N, mKQ
BL `T O>H MB > HOU EB MC IB O> mLT OQ m> F>D OKQN F> HT -
HBN mKQ B mn ?>G GB C > F> @C I>RFp On` HC.
iODN FQ LD T OB LBN mLK MS mD FT OC OBN OKQ ;B > GD -
MIKo MQ AF> O> Gn AK HO>D B mU MCN K hD Gn (J&"--
F0"-$.*1 M*++&2), K K mKU KN IB OC YS AL> PD Fp OKQ
oIHC MB OCH BQ An HBD > OSH O> mBD HqH >H ELq mSH mKQ
YKQH FK HO= MOC Po MC, F>D K YS AL= PKN, `> L= FOCN
F>D AGo mOCN fOS ID n, . K mKU KN OT MK MOCH mK GD OD Fp
AB GKD K AL> PU > T MK F>D MOC YS AL> PD Fp F>D OC AGQ -
mOD Fp, IB MOT `K m= HO> OK F>Q MOD FT M`T GD K > mn H> HOD
MOCH B JKQ MU >, > mK Oo mS MB ODN ?> Eo OB LBN > Gp EBD BN
T MKH > PK L= OCH mLK MS mD FT OC O> In M> > mT OCH Q -
mBL ?K Gp F>D OK M>L F> MIT.
Åéê. 4. 9. dA Dj (J%!+-F.!+#,(/ M())%0, 1814-75), YcA JL; \H F; -
Um \LI?KZ (1857), D: =A J? FHN J; F:, 0,84 3 1,12 F.,
h; IS JA, dHN J?S H `Hk <IHN.
Z 7-= ^ 87:= \;:= >27 - \6C >2 >-, >2 ?>` N13 - 5-3 >27 1@ 0] 713 -
>2= - 0;: >3 5_= GB _=, : \E 7- 5-= 15 \;: <B \1E ] B= >3= 8] ;1=
8-= >:7 ,7 4;B \: >:@ 8C N4:@. U3 8:; ?]= >B7 01 B; 0`7 1E -
7-3 872 813 - 5]=, 01 0: 7C= \;B >C 07B ;: 03 - >27 >]N 72, \:@ B=
>C >1 - \13 5C 73 G1 >2 GB _ >:@ NB ;3 :^ 03 - >27 - \6:A5C >2 >- 5-3
>27 - ?] 613 , >2=, 5-3 /1EN 7:@7 >3= \1 \:3 4_ <13= >:@ V36], <^8 -
?B 7- 81 >3= : \:E 1= : -@ 41 7>3 5C= ,7 4;B \:= >2= ?^ <2= _ >-7
: ,7 4;B \:= >2= - 0;: >3 5_= GB _= 5-3 C N3 : -6 6: >;3 B 8] 7:=
,7 4;B \:= >2= \C 62=.
Åéê. 3. ^. d? EA j, (C,+/0!+0(+ M%1+(%.,1831-
1905), Yg CI@ G@ JLH c IN \?S HZ
(1890), FiIHk ELUHK, ]IN GjD D?K, ]; -
JA DA CQ dHN J?S H ^; DmE f?\ EmE.
U *1 - 63 <8C= <>2 06@ \>3 5_ 18 ?- 7E G1 >-3 81 -
>, >: 1880. ( 06@ \>3 5_, 1 9-; >2 8] 72 - \C >3=
1 \E <2 81= 5;- >3 5]= \- ;-0 01 6E 1= 03 - 872 81E-
/2 8C <3 B7 N` ;B7, _ >-7 /^ <5: 6: 7- - 5: -
6:@ 4_ <13 81 >:7 E /3 : ;@4 8C >3= 5-3 7: >: 8E 1=
\:@ 13 <_ 0- 01 2 GB 0;- ?3 5_. W>: ]; 0: >:@
O]6 0:@ V1 73 ] \;: .,6 61 >-3 2 1; 0- >3 5_ >, 92.
( - 5;3 ._= - 7- \- ;, <>- <2 >:@ -7 4;` \:@
\:@ \, <N13, >:@ -7 4;` \:@ \:@ 8: N41E >27
` ;- >2= /:@ 613 ,= >:@, /1 NB ;, \- ;1; 82 -
71E 1=. X:7 <5: >B 8] 7: - \C - >^ N2 8- 1; 0, >2
4;2 71E 2 <@ 7>;C ?3< <, >:@ <@ 7>1 >;38 8] 72
-\C 46E H2. X: ]; 0: \- ;:@ <3 , G1 >-3 B= ] 7-=
K<^0 N;: 7:= 1 \3 >, ?3 := L 4;_7:=.
230
Åéê. 5. ^; FAD ^H IQ (C. C,.,0, 1796-1875), ]AD EL[ _< Ij,
(1867-1870), 0,40 3 0,60 F., b. X QI C@, d@ LIH iH DA LA -
CQ dHN J?S H fj\ E@K.
Q \C >: 1830 ] B= >: 1870 : P: ;C 8- GE 81 ,6 6:@= GB 0;, -
?:@= (S. *:@ <`, +. V36 6]) - \: >;- ._ N>2 5-7 <>: NB ;3 C
V\-; 8\3 GC7, <>: /, <:= >:@ +: 7>1 71 8\6C, 5: 7>, <>: [- ;E -
<3, 5-3 ,; N3 <-7 7- GB 0;- ?E G:@7 >: \E - 1 \3 51 7>;` 7: 7>-= >2
8- >3 , >:@= <>27 - \6_ 5-3 5- 42 81 ;3 7_ C H2 >2= ?^ <2= 5-3 CN3
<>2 872 813 - 5_ _ -6 62 0: ;3 5_ \61@ ;, >2=. FB 0;, ?3 G-7 ] 9B - -
\C >- - >1 63 ] >:@=, <>:7 - 7:3 N>C N` ;: (Ken lain ai!L), ?;: -
7>E G: 7>-= C 6: 5-3 63 0C >1 ;: 7- 1 \1 91; 0, G: 7>-3 81 61 \>: 8] -
;13 1= >27 1 \3 ?, 713 - >:@ N;` 8- >:=. ( - /;_ \;-0 8, >1@ <2 >:@
4] 8- >:= , 7:3 91 >: /;C 8: <>2 GB 0;- ?3 5_ >:@ ) 8\;1 <3 : 73 -
<8:^, \:@ - 5: 6:^ 42 <1.
Åéê. 6. c. bLP FA j (H,+,.% D!1*(%. 1808-79), Ye;I D 9A DA iQE
l R ELI;K \P ISK =Q ELA ; iHN >? D:Z (1832-1833), L? I; -
CQ L;, h; IS JA, dHN J?S H cI Jj.
X- \:; >;] >- >:@ T>B 83 ] <2 8- >: /C >2 <-7 >27 \6_ ;2 ;_ 92 81
>2 71 : 56- <3 5_ 1 93 /- 7E 51@ <2. ( : 9@ 88] 72 /^ 7- 82 \- ;- >_ ;2 -
<2= >:7 : /_ 02 <1 <>27 - \: 5, 6@ H2 >2= \;: <B \3 5C >2 >-= \] ;-
- \C >- ?-3 7C 81 7-.
231
U ' TXUJ Q* VQ T' (1832-1883)
U '. V- 7] /3 - /] N>2 51 >:7 P:@; 8\] <>27 \;` >2 0;-8 8_ >2= \;B >: -
\: ;E -=. ( >]N 72 >:@ /2 83 :^; 02 <1 - \E <>1@ >1= - 7>3 /;, <13= 5-3 <NC 63 -.
D7:3 91 ] 7- /3 , 6: 0: - 7, 81 <- <>27 56- <3 5_ >]N 72 5-3 >2 <^0 N;: 72 1 \: -
N_, >C <: B= \;:= >- 4] 8- >-, C <: 5-3 B= \;:= >27 \;-0 8, >1@ <2 >:@
N;` 8- >:=. X: ]; 0: K[;C 01@ 8- <>2 a6C 2L, >:@ 1863, 41 B ;_ 42 51 \;: -
562 >3 5C 5-3 - \:; ;E ?42 51 - \C >: 1 \E <2 8: W- 6C7 >:@ E /3 :@ ] >:@= -6 6, 1 -
5>] 42 51 <>: W- 6C7 >B7 Q \:; ;3 ?4] 7>B7. Q 7>3 >, N42 51 <1 C,>3 \;] <.1@ 1 2
- 5- /2 8-A5_ GB 0;- ?3 5_, /2 6- /_ <>27 \;: <5C6 62 <2 <>: 3 <>: ;3 5C _ <>:
8@ 4: 6: 03 5C 4] 8-, <>27 \;-0 8, >1@ <2 >:@ 4] 8- >:= 81 53 - ;: <5:^ ;:, <>27
56- <3 5_ \;: : \>3 5_, <>27 , H: 02 1 5>] 61 <2. Q 7>E 03M -@ >, : V- 7], <1 ] 7-
4] 8- 56- <3 5C C \B= _ >-7 >: KO:@ 5: 63 5C P: 7><]; >:L (KLe Conce!#
Chame#!eL, 1510 \1 ;E \:@), \:@ - \: /E /1 >-3 <>: X3 ><3 , 7:, 13 <, 013 -7 4;` \:@=
<^0 N;: 7:@= 5-3 1 \E 5-3 ;:@=, 5- 4`=, >C <: :3 , 7>;1= C <: 5-3 :3 0@ 7-E 51=, GB -
0;- ?E <>2 5-7 NB ;E= 8@ 4: 6: 03 5]= _ -6 62 0: ;3 5]= \- ;- \: 8\]=. &^ : , 7>;1= 5-3
83 - 0@ 7-E 5- \- ;3 <>, 7: 7>-3 7- 01@ 8- >E G:@7 5- 43 <8] 7:3 <>2 N6C 2, <M ] 7- 9] ?B -
>:. U3 8:; ?]= ] N:@7 :; 0- 7B 41E <1 >;3 0B 73 5_ <^7 41 <2. W>: \;` >: 1 \E \1 /:
:3 ,7 /;1= 18 ?- 7E G: 7>-3 7>@ 8] 7:3 81 ;:^ N- <^0 N;: 7-. Q 7>E 41 >- 2 0@ 7-E 5-,
\6,3 >:@=, 1E 7-3 0@ 87_. W>27 5: ;@ ?_ >2= >;3 0B 73 5_= <^7 41 <2= 83 - /1^ >1 ;2 0@ -
7-E 5- 8- G1^ 13 6:@ 6:^ /3 -. V3 - 71 5;_ ?^ <2 01 8E G13 >: 5, >B - ;3 <>1 ;, 5:8 8, >3
>:@ ]; 0:@. X: N;` 8- 18 ?- 7E G1 >-3 \;: 562 >3 5, \;C N13 ;:, - \6B 8] 7: 81 0;_ 0: -
;2 \3 71 63 ,, C N3 81 >- 61 \>, \1 ;, <8- >- - \C >: ?B= <>2 <53 , -6 6, <1 \6- >3 ]=
1 \E \1 /1= 1 \3 ?, 713 1=, 01 0: 7C= \:@ 5- >-; 01E >27 -E< 42 <2 >:@ ., 4:@=
]><3 C \B= ] 5- 71 - \C -3 ` 71= 2 GB 0;- ?3 5_ 81 >2 0;-8 83 5_ _ - >8: <?-3 -
;3 5_ \;: : \>3 5_, 8] <- /2 6- /_ - \C >2 .-4 83 -E - <8E 5;@7 <2 (<@ 7E G2 <2) >B7
8:; ?`7, \:@ - \: 8- 5;^ 7: 7>-3 <>: ?C 7>:, 5-3 >27 1 9-< 4] 72 <2 >:@ N;` -
8- >:=. I3 - \- ;, /130 8-, 2 0@ 7-3 51E - 8:; ?_ <>27 5: ;@ ?_ >2= >;3 0B 73 5_=
<^7 41 <2=, - \6:@ <>1@ 8] 72 N;B 8- >3 5, 5-3 <N1 /C7 1 \E \1 /2, /17 \1E 413 C>3
- \: 8- 5;^ 71 >-3 <>: ., 4:=.
Q 7>E /;- <2, 1 \E <2=, \;: 5, 61 <1 2 0@ 7-E 5- <>: \;` >: 1 \E \1 /:, (\;C -
513 >-3 03 - >: - 0- \2 8] 7: 8: 7>] 6: >:@ 5-6 63 >]N 72) 2 : \:E -, 1 7>1 6`= 0@ -
87_, NB ;E= >27 \;C ?- <2 >2= 8@ 4: 6: 0E -= _ >2= 3 <>: ;E -=, 41 B ;_ 42 51 C -
>3 5:3 >:^ <1 81 - 7-E /13 - \;:= >: 8] ;:= >:@ 41 - >_, \;: <5- 6` 7>-= >:7
<>:7 \E 7- 5-. I3 - >3= 5-3 7: >: 8E 1= -@ >]= 41 B ;1E >-3 ]; 0: <>-4 8C=, \:@
\;: - 7-0 0]6 613 >:7 ) 8\;1 <3 : 73 <8C, -6 6, 5-3 >27 - \-; N_ ,6 6B7 - 7- G2 >_ <1 B7
>2= 8: 7>]; 7-= >]N 72=.
K'E 7-3 2 13 63 5;E 713 - \:@ \;:< /E /13 <>- ]; 0- ] 7- N- ;- 5>_ ;- /3 - 8-; >@ ;E -=,
1 7` -@ >C \:@ <>27 \;-0 8- >3 5C >2 >- : GB 0;, ?:= \;: <\, 42 <1 7- 5, 713 _ >-7
8C 7: 7- 15 ?;, <13 >27 1 7>^ \B <_ >:@. &17 1 \1 /E B 91 7- - 7- >;] H13 >27 \- ;, -
/: <2 :^ >1 7- /2 83 :@; 0_ <13 83 - 5-3 7:^ ;3 - GB 0;- ?3 5_. S] 62 <1 - \6:^ <>- >- 7-
1E 7-3 : 1 -@ >C= >:@ 5-3 C N3 ] 7-= ,6 6:= L. '. V- 7].
Åéê. 7. 5. d; Ej (E.M!+%0),
YhIQ >?N F; JL@ nDQ @Z
(1863), D: =A J? FHN -
J; F:, 2,06 3 2,70 F.,
h; IS JA, dHN J?S H cI -
Jj.
Åéê. 8. K]HN CH DA CQ ^H ELJjI LHZ
(L%C,+#%.0 C'!*-%0.%)
(1510 i? IS iHN), ; iH =S -
=? L;A JLHE fA LJA : EH,
h; IS JA, `Hk <IH.
232
)8\;1<3:73<8C=
g : ImLB MD K HD MITN BU H>D OK FU HC I> mKQ MC I= @B -
ZB OCH K LD MOD Fp MOLK Pp MOCH D MOK LU > OCN YS AL> PD -
FpN > mT OCH On` HC OCN B mK `pN OCN c H> AnH HC MCN.
jK FU HC I> @C ID KoL AC M>H YS AL= PKD (ID> AB HD = F>G -
GD OB` HqH mKQ ABH Hp EC F>H > H= IB M> MOK 1830 F>D
MOK 1853), KD KmKUKD MQ AFn HOLS M>H OCH mLK MK `p
OKQN MOCH mLK Mm= EBD > H> IB O> @q MKQH MOK EB > Op
OSH nL ASH OKQN ODN B HOQ mq MBDN mKQ KD U @D KD BU `>H
ImLK MO= MOCH mL>A I> OD FT OC O>. hKD L= YK HO>H OKH U -
@D K BH EKQ MD > MIT OCN HD T OCN, OK U @D K BH @D > Pn LKH AD>
OC YS AL> PD Fp OKQ bKQL Imn F>D OSH YS AL= PSH OCN
hm>L ImD YTH F>D OCH U @D > > HOD m= EBD > mLKN OCH > F> -
@C I>RFp YS AL> PD Fp. iOKH 8 HOKQ =L HO h> Hn n ?GB -
m>H OKH mLS OBL A= OC, mKQ BU `B mLK `S Lp MBD > FT I>
m> L> mn L> OK ;B > GD MIT. 9 MQI ?K Gp OCN D > mS HD FpN
Åéê. 9. 5. bL? >C: (E. D%&!/, 1834-1917), YfH `HN LIQ (1886)Z, i; JLjD J? \;I LQ EA, 0,60 3 0,83 F., h; IS JA, dHN J?S H `Hk <IHN.
H - 7- \, 7>1 N2 : \>3 5_ 0B 7E -, 2 5;@8 8] 72 \2 0_ ?B >C=, >: 17 /3 - ?] ;:7 03 - >2 N- ;- 5>2 ;3 <>3 5_ 5E 72 <2 1E 7-3 \;:< /3 : ;3 <>3 5, >:@
]; 0:@ >:@ T>1 05,. W>: ]; 0: -@ >C 2 - \6_ 0@ 87_ 0@ 7-3 51E - ?3 0:^ ;- 1 7>,< <1 >-3 <>: \1 ;3 .,6 6:7 81 15 \62 5>3 5_ 1@ 5: 6E -. X- 5- -
42 81 ;3 7, 83 5;, - 7>3 51E 81 7- \:@ .;E <5: 7>-3 0^ ;B - \C >2 0@ 87_ 0@ 7-E 5- - ?-3 ;:^7 5, 41 1E /:= 1 ;B >3 5:^ <>:3 N1E :@. U 5-6 63 -
>]N 72= \- ;- >2 ;1E 81 \- 01 ;C .6]8 8- 83 - >C <: 3 /3 -E >1 ;2 <>30 8_ 5-3 - \: >@ \` 713 >: ?-3 7C 81 7:, C N3 >: \1 ;3 1 NC 81 7:.
On` HCN p O>H F> EK LD MOD Fp MOKH : ImLB MD K HD MIT, F> -
EqN, IB ODN JQ GK AL> PU BN F>D ODN IB O> JK OQ mU BN OCN,
BU `B mLK MPn LBD MOC YS AL> PD Fp > H> m> L= MO> MC n H>
F>D HKo LD K ]GB JD GT AD K^. fn BN @Q H> OT OC OBN MoH EB -
MCN, OKG IC LnN > P>D Ln MBDN, @D > PK LB OD Fp > mT @K MC
OKQ ?= EKQN, > mG= mB LD AL=I I> O>, > mKQ MU > mG> MU -
I> OKN OSH IKL PqH, B mU mB @BN B mD P= HBD BN. O LB > GD -
MITN, C PS OK AL> PU >, C D > mS HD Fp JQ GK AL> PU >, C
YS AL> PD Fp OKQ h> Hn BU `>H > HKU JBD OK @LT IK AD > ODN
F>D HKo LD BN > H> YC Op MBDN OSH : ImLB MD K HD MOqH. c H= -
IB M> MB >Q OKoN p O>H K iB Y=H, K hK Hn, K ;B HKQ =L,
K fOB AF= F>D =G GKD.
jQ mD F= OK FU HC I> BI P> HU MOC FB OK 1874, T O>H K
fOB AF= KL A= HS MB MOK MOKo HOD K OKQ PS OK AL= PKQ
f> HO=L OCH mLq OC nF EB MC OSH : ImLB MD K HD MOqH IB
nL A> mKQ BU `>H > mKL LD PEBU > mT OK B mU MC IK i> GTH.
233
k G> ?>H In LKN M_ >Q OpH 30 F>G GD On` HBN. iOCH nF -
EB MC, K FLD OD FTN On` HCN dB LKQ = (L.3*1 L&0.6), m> -
L> OC Lq HO>N n H>H > mT OKQN mU H> FBN OKQ hK Hn IB
OUO GK ]: ImLBM MD TH (=8 HOo mS MC), C c H> OK Gp OKQ p -
GD KQ^, ?= POD MB OK FU HC I> BD LS HD F= : ImLB MD K HD MIT,
K HK I> MU > T ISN mKQ K hK Hn F>D KD PU GKD OKQ QD K En -
OC M>H. gD IKL PnN MO> D ImLB MD K HD MOD F= nL A> mG= -
EK HO>D IB OK PSN F>D OK `Lq I>. 9 B HOo mS MC OKQ
PS OTN, n OMD T mSN mn POBD m= HS MO> mL=A I> O>, IB -
GB O= O>D B mU OT mKQ, n JS MOC Po MC, MOK = mGB OK PSN
p, T mSN n GB A>H KD Q m>D ELD MOnN OCN hm>L ImD YTH,
]&- /+&*- "*0^ (MOK o m>D ELK). !> mL=A I> O> P>U HK -
HO>D In M> > mT OK OLB IT m>DA I> OCN > OIT MP>D L>N.
c n L>N, HB LT, PSN IKD = YKQH H> MQ HOU EB HO>D IT HK
>mT `Lq I> O>. c FT I> F>D KD MFD nN BU H>D `LS I> OD MOnN,
F>D T G> @K HKo HO>D > mT n H> LQE IT mKQ MQG G>I ?= HB O>D
Åéê. 10. _. 8? EHN :I (P. A. R%+,(., 1841-1919), Yc Fk DHK L@K WC; DjLZ (1876), 1,31 3 1,75 F., `Hk <IH, h; IS JA.
U *1 7:@ ,;, - \C >:@= <\:@ /-3 C >1 ;:@= N;B 8- >: 0;, ?:@= (5: 6: ;E <>1=), 1 ?,; 8: <1 >3= -; N]= >:@ ) 8\;1 <3 : 73 <8:^ 81 <@ 7] \13-,
5- 4`= /:^ 61 H1 NB ;E= \1 ;3 0;,8 8- >-, 81 - 7>3 \- ;- 4] <13= N;B 8, >B7, \;: <\- 4` 7>-= 7- <@6 6, .13 >: ?B= ] ><3 C \B= \] ?>13
<-7 <1 52 6E /1= \, 7B <>3= ?3 0:^ ;1= >:@, \:@ >3= \- ;- >2 ;1E <>: , \61 >: ?B= >2= 8] ;-=.
B FBU, B mD OT mKQ, MOCH mLK Mm= EBD > H> >D` I> GS OD MOBU OK
B Pp IB LK, OK PBQ A> Gn K, OK MODA ID >U K.
jK En I> OKQ mU H> F>, mKQ ImK LKo MB mGn KH H> BU -
H>D K mKD K @p mK OB - KD mK GQ Mo` H> MOBN mG> OBU BN, =H -
ELS mKD > mLK B OKU I> MOKD F>D `S LUN mT Y> p IU > EC -
IS HD = MOCH o m>D ELK - AU HB O>D > HOD GC mOT SN OQ `>U K
P>D HT IB HK.
H = IB MC m> L> Op LC MC IB O> Pn LB O>D On GBD > In MS
OCN OB` HD FpN mKQ En GBD OCH > HOD m> L= EB MC MQ ImGC -
LS I> OD FqH `LS I= OSH IB mD HB GD = B G> PLD =, OC ID >
mG=D MOCH =G GC, OCH m> Gn O> F> E> Lp F>D PS OBD Hp F>D
OCH B J= GBD ZC OKQ I>o LKQ. k H> > mT O> > mK OB Gn -
MI> O> >Q OpN OCN mLK MnA AD MCN BU H>D T OD O> nL A> n -
`KQH OC PLB MF= @> F>D OKH >Q EKL IC OD MIT OSH MFU -
OMSH, BU OB @KQ GBo K HO>H IB G= @D BU OB IB B G> PLT OB -
L> Q GD F= T mSN OK m> MOnG.
234
g : ImLB MD K HD MITN @BH n PB LB IT HK OKH F>G GD On -
5HC MB = IB MC B m> Pp IB OCH mL>A I> OD FT OC O>, >G G=
FQ LU SN > mB GBQ En LS MB > mT F= EB > F> @C I>RFp mLK -
F> O= GC ZC OC @o H> IC OKQ `Lq I> OKN, > HKU AK HO>N OK
@LT IK AD > OC IK HOnL H> On` HC.
hn M> > mT OKH : ImLB MD K HD MIT F>G GD On` HBN T mSN
K WSL Y iB L=, K lSG [FS AFnH, K a>H [FK AF, K lSG
iB Y=H, K jKQ GKoY dS OLnF n MOLB Z>H OCH BD F> MOD Fp
OKQN > H> Yp OC MC MB @D > PK LB OD FnN F> OBQ EoH MBDN.
cQ OKU KD F>G GD On` HBN K HK I= MOC F>H hB O> -D ImLB MD K -
HD MOnN F>D K @p AC M>H OCH On` HC MODN mLS OK mK LU BN
OKQ 20Ko >D q H> T O>H, K F> En H>N IB OC MBD L= OKQ,
> mnL LD Z>H OK FQ LD T OB LK `> L> FOC LD MOD FT OKQ
:ImLB MD K HD MIKo, mKQ p O>H C = IB MC F> O> AL> Pp OCN
K mOD FpN B HOo mS MCN, >L Hp EC F>H H> @B `OKoH OCH
]BHOo mS MC^ OCN MODA IpN SN mLS O>L `D FT MOKD `BU K
OKQ nL AKQ F>D MOL= PC F>H mLKN OK IT HD IK OSH
mL>A I= OSH F>D, FQ LU SN, MODN @K InN OSH MOKD `BU SH
mKQ OK MQH En OKQH
11
12
235
Åéê. 11. _. 8H ELjE (A. R,$(+, 1840-1917), YcA ! JLHS LHN
^;DjZ (1886), FiIHk ELUHK, 2,10 3 2,41 3 1,98 F.,
cN : JA >CLHE, 7E JLA LHk LH eFAB JQ EA ;E.
U3 \;: 1 <>:E >2= \C 62= >:@ P- 6] /E 7:@7 >- 5613 /3 , >2= <>:@=
5- >- 5>2 >]= 5-3 81 -@ >: 4@ <E - \- ;- /E /: 7>-3 :3 E /3 :3, \;: 513 8] -
7:@ 7- <B 4:^7 :3 5, >:3 5:3. [;C 513 >-3 03 - ] 7- 01 0: 7C= - \C
>2 81 <-3 B 73 5_ 3 <>: ;E - >2= \C 62=, 03 - >27 : \:E - : 06^ \>2=
156_ 42 7- - 71 01E ;13 >: 872 81E :. V1 .- 43 , 07` <2 >2= -7 -
4;` \3 72= ?^ <2= 2 <^7 41 <2 - 7- \- ;, 013 >27 >;- 03 5C >2 >- >2=
<>30 8_=. X: N- ;- 5>2 ;3 <>3 5C >2= 06@ \>3 5_= <^7 41 <2= 1E 7-3 C -
>3 /17 1E 7-3 >: \: 41 >2 8] 72 C \B= <@ 72 4E G1 >-3, - 5C 8- 5-3 <_ -
81 ;-, <1 H2 6C ., 4;:, -6 6, .;E <51 >-3 <>: E /3 : 1 \E \1 /: 81
>: 41 - >_, 5, 7: 7>,= >:7 7- <@8 81 >] N13 <M -@ >_7. U *: 7>]7 41 -
B ;1E >-3 \- >] ;-= >2= <^0 N;: 72= 06@ \>3 5_=. 'E 7-3 : 06^ \>2=
>:@ : \:E :@ 2 1 \E /;- <2 _ >-7 >C <: 81 0, 62 C <: 81 0, 61= _ >-7
5-3 :3 - 7>3; ;_ <13= \:@ 91 <_ 5B <1 81 >- ]; 0- >:@. V1 61 >2 >_=
5-3 .- 4^= 07` <>2= >2= -; N-E -= 16 62 73 5_= 06@ \>3 5_= 5-3 >2=
06@ \>3 5_= >:@ V3 N- _6 Q0 0] 6:@, <@7 /^ - <1 >27 \- ;, /: <2 81
>3= - 7- G2 >_ <13= >B7 ,6 6B7 5-6 63 >1N 7`7 \, 7B <>2 8:; ?_ 5-3
<>: ?B=. [- ;- 5: 6:@ 41E >3= 5-3 7:^ ;3 1= - 7- G2 >_ <13= NB ;E=
C 8B= 7- 1 7>,< <1 >-3 <>:7 ) 8\;1 <3 : 73 <8C.
Åéê. 12. d? EL:I ELH 8QJ JH (M.R,//,, 1858-1929), Yc
5C=QL@KZ (1894), C? IS i: EP J? >k VH, b.X QI C@,
dHN J?S H dH ELjI E;K fj\ E@K.
U 5->M 1 9: N_7 3 8\;1 <3 : 73 <>_= 06^ \>2=, 1E 7-3 : ) >- 6C= V1 -
7>,; 7>: *C< <:. [;: <\, 42 <1 7- -3N 8- 6B >E <13 >: 1 ?_ 81 ;:
>2= 5- 42 81 ;3 7_= GB _= N;2 <3 8: \:3 ` 7>-= >3= 3 /3 C >2 >1= >:@ 1^ -
\6- <>:@ 51 ;3 :^, 03 - 7- /2 83 :@; 0_ <13 >27 1 7>^ \B <2 C >3 :3
8:; ?]= ;] :@7, 1E 7-3 - 5- 4C ;3 <>1= 5-3 /3 - 6^ : 7>-3 5, >B - \C
>: >;1 8C \-30 8- >:@ ?B >C= \, 7B <>3= - \;:< /3 C ;3 <>1= 1 \3 ?, -
713 1=.
Åéê. 13. T. e? I: (G%,.&%/ S%1.!0, 1859-91), Y`; WCI;E T;LY
(L! G.!+$ J!00%) (1884-1886), D: =A J? C;F <:, eA C: -
>H, 7E JLA LHk LH fj\ E@K.
U W1 ;, 13 <, 013 >27 1 \3 <>2 8: 73 5_ -@ <>2 ;C >2 >- <>2 GB 0;- ?3 -
5_. ' 7` >: 4] 8- >:@ 1E 7-3 3 8\;1 <3 : 73 <>3 5C, C 61= :3 8:; ?]=
1E 7-3 <>- >3 5]=, :3 - \: <>, <13= 81 >- 9^ >:@= @ \: 6: 03 <8] 71=
<N1 /C7 8- 42 8- >3 5,, 5-3 : N` ;:= 1E 7-3 :;0-7B8]7:= <1 83-
-@ <>2 ;_ /3 , >- 92 : ;3 GC 7>3 B7 5-3 5- >- 5C ;@ ?B7 - 9C 7B7. U
GB 0;, ?:=, 6, >;2= >:@ <N1 /E :@ -6 6, 5-3 1 \2 ;1 - <8] 7:= - \C
>3= 3 8\;1 <3 : 73 <>3 5]= 1 8\13 ;E 1= <N1 >3 5, 81 >27 \- ;- >_ ;2 <2
>:@ ?B >C=, 13 <_ 0- 01 >27 >1N 73 5_ \:@ 1E 7-3 07B <>_ 81 : 7C -
8- >- C \B= T1 : -3 8\;1 <3 : 73 <8C=, &3 -3 ;1 >3 <8C= _ [:@ - 7>3 03 -
<8C=. [;C 513 >-3 03 - 83 - >1N 73 5_ \:@ <>2 ;E G1 >-3 <>27 - 7- 5, -
6@ H2 >:@ I,6 6:@ N2 83 5:^ W1 .;]6 (M.E.Che%!e$l), 03 - >: 7C -
8: >B7 <^0 N;: 7B7 - 7>3 4] <1 B7. U W1 ;, - 7] 6@ <1 >: 5- 4- ;C
?B= <>- .- <3 5, N;` 8- >- \:@ >: <@7 4] >:@7 (5C5 53 7:, 5E >;3 -
7:, 8\61), >- \- ;] 41 <1 81 >2 8:; ?_ <>30 8, >B7 >: ] 7- \6,3
<>: ,6 6: (oin# = <2 81E :, <>E0 8-, >1 61E -) 5-3 , ?2 <1 7- -7- -
\- ;- N4:^7 81 >27 C <8B <2 <N_ 8- >- 5-3 N;B 8- >3 5]= - \: -
N;` <13= <>: 8, >3 >:@ 41 - >_, C >-7 -@ >C= 5:3 >, 913 >:7 \E 7- 5-
- \C 83 - : ;3 <8] 72 - \C <>- <2.
Åéê. 14. ];E WCQ >C ((+#%+0 2!+ G,&', 1853-90), YbN \L? IA EQ
C; M? E?S HZ (1888), D: =A J? FHN J; F:, 0,70 3 0,89 F.,
^H Ej CLA C;L, WC; D? IS fj\ E@K LHN h; E? iA JL@ FS HN Wj @D.
U O-7 I5: 05, ] 7-= 5-6 63 >]N 72= 4;^ 6:=, 4- - 7- 5- 6^ H13 >:
C ;3 : \] ;- - \C >: : \:E : >: \, 4:= 03 - >27 >]N 72 81 >- >;] \1 -
>-3 <1 >;C \: GB _=, 83 -= GB _= 01 8, >2= ,0 N:= 5-3 8: 7- 93 ,,
\:@ 4- >1 613 ` <13 81 >27 >;] 6- 5-3 >27 -@ >: N13 ;E -. U E /3 := :
5-6 63 >]N 72= \1 ;3 ] 0;- ?1 ] ><3 >: ]; 0: >:@: K..- 7>E 7- \;: <\- -
4` 7- - 7- \- ;, 0B -@ >C \:@ ] NB 8\;: <>, <>- 8, >3 - 8:@,
N;2 <3 8: \:3 ` >: N;` 8- 81 5, \:3 - -@ 4-3 ;1 <E -, 03 - 7- .0, 6B
-@ >C \:@ ] NB 8] <- 8:@. [;: <\- 4` 7- @ \1; >: 7E <B >: :@ <3 -
- <>3 5C, - ?_ 7: 7>-= >- >1 >;38 8] 7- <>27 - : ;3 <>E -. W>: KT@ N>1 -
;3 7C 5- ?1 71E :L \;: <\, 42 <- 7- 15 ?;, <B >- >;: 81 ;, \, 42
>2= -7 4;B \C >2 >-= 8] <- - \C >: \;, <3 7: 5-3 >: 5C5 53 7:L. (
GB 0;- ?3 5_ >:@ 1 \2 ;] - <1 <1 81 0, 6: .-4 8C >27 >]N 72 >:@
20:^ -3 ` 7-, 5@ ;E B= >:@= +`., 81 >27 ] 7>- <2 >B7 N;B 8, -
>B7 >2=, 5-3 >:@= 19 \;1 <3 : 73 <>]= 81 >27 15 ?;- <>3 5_ >2= /^ -
7- 82.
13
14
236
Åéê. 15. h. WCP >CjE (P.G!1&1(+, 1848-1903), Y6 Fj I; LHN
a? HkZ (M!'!+! N, A01!) (1894), D: =A J? FHN J; F:,
0,70 3 0,90 F., eA C: >H, 7E JLA LHk LH fj\ E@K.
Z 7- >: \E : - \: 8- 5;@ <8] 7: - \C >3= 1 \3 /;, <13= >2= /@ >3 5_=
GB 0;- ?3 5_=, :; 0- 7B 8] 7: <1 \:6 6- \6, 1 \E \1 /- /3 - ?: ;1 >3 -
5_= /3 , <>- <2=, - 7:E 01 >-3 8\;: <>, 8-=, 81 >- ?] ;: 7>,= 8-=
<>:7 1 9B >3 5C 5C <8: \:@ 5] 7>;3 <1 >2 ?- 7>- <E - >:@ 5-6 63 >] -
N72, <>27 X-A>_. X: ]; 0:, 81 >27 5- 4- ;C >2 >- >B7 N;B 8, >B7
>:@, , 7:3 91 7] :@= /;C 8:@= 03 - >2 8: 7>]; 7- >]N 72. U I5B -
05]7 @ \_; 91 2 4;@ 63 5_ 8:; ?_ >:@ 5-6 63 >]N 72 \:@ 1 05- >] 613 -
H1 >2 GB _ >2= \C 62= 03 - N, ;2 >2= GB 0;- ?3 5_=. Q 7- G_ >2 <1
<>27 : 8:; ?3 , >2= X-A>_= >27 \2 0_ >2= ] 8\71@ <_= >:@ 5-3 >27
1 \3 <>;: ?_ <>2 ?^ <2 1 7C= 5C <8:@ 8@ 43 5:^. W>2 GB 0;- ?3 5_
>:@ >: N;` 8-, 5- 4- ;C, ] 7>: 7: <N1 /C7 - \: <@7 /] 1 >-3 - \C >:
- 7>3 51E 81 7: \:@ 13 5: 7E G13. ' \2 ;1 - <8] 7:= - \C >27 3 - \B 73 5_
9@ 6: 0;- ?E -, /3 - >_ ;2 <1 >:7 1 \E \1 /: N- ;- 5>_ ;- >:@ \E 7- 5-
NB ;E= - >8: <?-3 ;3 5_ \;: : \>3 5_, 81 /3 - /: N_ - \6`7 N;B 8- >3 -
5`7 1 \3 \] /B7 81 \1 ;E \6: 5- \1 ;3 0;,8 8- >-.
Åéê. 16. _E IS EL? fHN DHkU `P LIjC (H. T,1),1/%-L!10.%#, 1864-
1901), _Fi;J;ELjI, _IAJLSEL diIN:E (1892),
;MSJ;, 1.50 \ 1.00 F., h;ISJA, C!"(+%0 $%/
E/0!*-%/.
Q7 5-3 : GB 0;, ?:= \:6 6]= ?: ;]= ] N13 N;2 <3 8: \:3 _ <13 >27
\6:^ <3 - \- 6] >- >B7 ) 8\;1 <3 : 73 <>`7, >3= \1 ;3< <C >1 ;1= ?: ;]=
>: N;` 8- - 93 : \:3 1E >-3 8C 7: 03 - 7- 1 73 <N^ <13 >: /@ 7- 83 5C
<N] /3 : 5-3 >2 ;B 8- 6] - <^7 41 <2 >B7 ]; 0B7 >:@. ( 15 ?;- <>3 -
5C >2 >- >2= /:@ 613 ,= >:@ 18 ?- 7E G1 >-3 5@ ;E B= <>3= K- ?E <1= L
>:@.
]..hCH > HOD AL= PBDN Q mBL ?K GD F= OC Po MC. 9 On` HC BU -
H>D ID > > P>U LB MC. [D > H> @C ID KQL Ap MBDN OCH > P>U LB -
MC >Q Op, ImK LBUN H> K HBD LBo B M>D ImLK MO= MOC Po MC,
>G G= H> MFn POB M>D OK OB GD FT > mK On GB MI> SN @D FT
MKQ @C ID KoL AC I>^. iODN PL= MBDN >Q OnN OKQ [FS AFnH
F>D MODN U @D BN nH HKD BN MOC LU `OC F>H mKG G= > mT O> MoA -
`LK H> FD Hp I> O> OCN YS AL> PD FpN.
237
Åéê.17. hPD e? U:E (P!1) C%4!++%, 1839-1906), YfH <HN EQ e?E ]A -
CLHN:IZ (1904-1906), D: =A J? FHN J; F:, 0,65 3 0,81 F.,
WCD:EL>HNOE, h?E JND <: EA ;.
W>: ]; 0: KX: .:@ 7C W17 O3 5>:@ ,; L \- ;:@ <3 , G1 >-3 >: >: \E : \:@ ] .61 -
\1 5- 42 81 ;3 7, - \C >: \- ;, 4@ ;: >:@ <\3 >3 :^ >:@. W>: 4] 8- -@ >C 1 \- -
7_6 41 \:6 6]= ?: ;]= /:@ 61^ : 7>,= >: 81 /3 - ?: ;1 >3 5, @ 63 5, (- 5:@ - ;] -
6-, 6, /3), - 7- G2 >` 7>-= C 8B= \, 7>: >1 7- - \: 0@ 87` <13 >- - 7>3 51E 81 -
7- 5-3 >:7 K5C <8:L - \C >: \1 ;3> >C, >: <@ 7-3< 42 8- >3 5C, >: 1 \3 \6] :7. X:
>: \E : N>E G1 >-3 GB 0;- ?3 5, 81 83 5;]= 5-3 \6- >3 ]= \3 71 63 ]=, ` <>1 8:3 , -
G13 7- ] N13 <@ 7>1 41E - \C 83 5;, 5-3 - \6, <>1 ;1 , <` 8- >-.
Åéê. 18. hPD e? U:E, YcA F? -
>: DHA DHN Q F? EHAY
(1898-1905), D: =A
J? FHN J; F:, 2,08 3
2,49 F., 6.h._.,
dHN J?S H fj\ E@K 9A -
D; =jD M?A ;K.
U \E 7- 5-= -@ >C=, - \C >- >1 -
61@ >-E - ]; 0- >:@ 5-6 63 >]N 72,
1E 7-3 5-; \C= 8- 5;,= GB 0;- -
?3 5_= \1E ;-=. FB 0;- ?3 GC -
>-7, 81 >27 1 \3 8: 7_ \:@ N- -
;- 5>_ ;3 G1 >: GB 0;, ?:, 03 -
1 \>, : 6C 562 ;- N;C 73 -. 'E 7-3
- \C >- ]; 0- \:@ 1 \2 ;] - <-7
.- 4^ >- >- 5-3 @ \_; 91 \;C >@ \:
03 - >:7 1 \1; NC 81 7: +B .3 <8C >:@ V- >E= 5-3 03 - >:7 P@ .3 <8C >:@ [3 -
5, <:. [- ;:@ <3 , G13 ] 7- <^ 7: 6: 8:; ?`7 5-3 <>:3 N1E B7 >2= ?^ <2= /:@ -
61 8] 7: 81 -; N3 >1 5>: 73 5_ 1 \3 8] 613 -. U3 /@ 7- 83 5]= >B7 >C 9B7 \:@ /2 -
83 :@; 0:^7 >- /] 7>;-, 2 \@ ;- 83 /3 5_ <^7 41 <2, : -3< 42 <3 - <8C= >:@
N;` 8- >:=, :3 <?3 N>: /1 8] 71= 8:; ?]=, C 6- N>3 <8] 7- GB 0;- ?3 5, <>3=
81 0, 61= /3 - <>, <13= >:@ \E 7- 5-, /2 83 :@; 0:^7 ] 7- - \: >] 61 <8- - \- ;, -
836 62= /^ 7- 82=. ( - 7- ?: ;, <>3= ]7 7:3 1= -; N3 >1 5>: 73 5_, /: 8_ 5-3 N>E -
<3 8: >:@ ]; 0:@ 0E 71 >-3, /3 C >3 -@ >, >- <>:3 N1E - <>: ]; 0: >:@ W1 G,7 1\2 -
;] - <-7 >2 8:7>];7- >]N72.
[UR W' FQT
U W1 G,7 /:^ 61 H1 8C 7:=, - \: >;- -
.20 8] 7:=, - \: 0: 2 >1@ 8] 7:= - \C >27 3 -
<N7_ - \: /: N_ \:@ ] >@ N1 >: ]; 0: >:@,
- /3 - ?: ;` 7>-= 03 - ?_ 82 _ - 7- 07` ;3 -
<2, \:@, \-;M C6M -@ >,, _; 41 \: 6^ 0;_ -
0: ;- - \C >:@= E /3 :@= >:@= 5-6 63 >]N -
71=. W>27 -; N_ 1 9] 41 >1 >- ]; 0- >:@
8- GE 81 >:@= ) 8\;1 <3 : 73 <>]= 5-3 81 >,
>: 1886 1 05- >- <>, 42 51 <>27 \- >;E /-
>:@, >27 [;: .2 05E -.X: 1906, 6E 0: 81 -
>, >: 4, 7- >C >:@, <>: +43 7: \B ;3 7C
W- 6C7 <>: [- ;E <3 :; 0- 7` 42 51 83 -
-7- /;: 83 5_ ]5 41 <2 >B7 ]; 0B7 >:@. (
GB 0;- ?3 5_ >:@ \] ;- <1 /3 , ?: ;1= ?, -
<13= C 61= C 8B= N- ;- 5>2 ;E G: 7>-7 - \C
\@ ;1 >` /2 - 7- G_ >2 <2 >B7 .- <3 5`7 -; -
N`7 >2= GB 0;- ?3 5_= ]5 ?;- <2=, - \:
1 \E 8: 72 5-3 - 5:^ ;- <>2 - 7- G_ >2 <2 >B7
/: 83 5`7 <N2 8, >B7 >B7 8:; ?`7. &:^ -
61 H1 81 \;: <_ 6B <2 81 61 >` 7>-= >2
?^ <2, >- \;C <B \- 5-3 >- - 7>3 51E 81 7-.
U W1 G,7 _ 41 61, C \B= ] 61 01 : E /3 -
:=, 7- K<>1 ;1 : \:3 _ <13L >:7 ) 8\;1 <3 : 73 -
<8C. W1 - 7>E 41 <2 81 >:@= ) 8\;1 <3 : 73 -
<>]=, \:@ 1 \1 /E B 5-7 >27 1 7>^ \B <2 >:@
<>30 83 -E :@ 5-3 >: ?1@ 0- 6] : ?B=, - 7- -
G_ >2 <1 C,>3 <>2 ?^ <2 \- ;- 8] 713 <>- 41 -
;C 5-3 - 7-6 6:E B >:. ' \1 /E B 91 7- /- -
8, <13 >: 4] 8- >:@, 7- >: @ \: >, 913 <>:
:@ <3 ` /1= 5-3 7- \- ;- 61E H13 C,>3 >: >@ -
N-E : _ >: /3 - 5: <82 >3 5C, - \: 5- 6^ \>: -
7>-= \B= C 6- >- \;,0 8- >- <>2 ?^ <2
- \: >1 6:^ 7>-3 - \C >2 K<?-E ;-, >:7 5^ -
637 /;: 5-3 >:7 5` 7:L. 'E 7-3 -@ >C= \:@
81 >: ]; 0: >:@ 1 \2 ;] - <1 .- 4^ >- >-
>:@= GB 0;, ?:@= >B7 -; N`7 >:@ 20:^
-3 ` 7- 5-3 , 7:3 91 >: /;C 8: 03 - >: ;1^ -
8- >:@ P@ .3 <8:^.
238
QTQRJW( '*IUJ
g bGTHO hKHn (C+"3%& M.-&2, 1840 - 1926) pO>H AD KN m> HOK mq GC. c mT mK Go HS LUN n @BD JB OCH FGU MC
OKQ MOC YS AL> PD Fp.jK 1858 AHS LU MOC FB IB OKQN l> LD MD HKoN F>G GD On` HBN lD M> LT, hm> YUG, iDM Gn, IB
OKQN K mKU KQN IKD L= MOC FB OKH BH EKQ MD > MIT AD > OK MF>H @> Gq @BN nL AK OKQ h> Hn ]lLT ABQ I> MOC rGTC^.
gD mLq OBN OKQ B mDL LK nN p O>H > mT OK nL AK OSH YS AL= PSH OCN hm>L ImD YTH. cL AT OB L>, OK 1870, F> -
O= OCH m> L> IK Hp OKQ MOK dKH @U HK, AHq LD MB OK nL AK OSH H> OKQ L> GD MOqH OK mD K AL= PSH F>D B HOQ mS MD = -
MOC FB FQ LU SN > mT OK nL AK OKQ jnL HBL.
g Fp mKN OKQ YS AL= PKQ MOK WD ?BL HU, IB OC ?K p EBD > FC mKQ LqH, BU `B @D > IKL PS EBU MB D ImLB MD K HD MOD -
FT nL AK On` HCN. : OD nN FG>U KQ MBN, B JS OD F= PQ O= F>D @n HOL>, GU IHBN IB HKo P> L>, m= mD BN F>D P> MD > HKU.
9 Po MC, @D > IKL PS In HC > mT OKH F>G GD On` HC, n IKD > YB IB OK nL AK OKQ. iOKH Fp mK >Q OT K F>G GD On` HCN
YS AL= PD YB > FKo L> MO>. ]cQ O= O> OK mU > IB OK HB LT F>D ODN > HO> H> FG= MBDN IKo n AD H>H nI IK HC D @n >^ n -
AL> PB K U @D KN OK1 908. g : ImLB MD K HD MITN MO> nL A> mKQ YS AL= PD MB B @q K YS AL= PKN PO= HBD MOK > mK -
FK Lo PS I= OKQ. g F>G GD On` HCN F> O> AL= PBD OK B Pp IB LK, OCH B HOo mS MC. jK nL AK BU H>D ID > GB mOK In LBD >
OCN mL>A I> OD FT OC O>N. 9 BD FT H> mGC MD = YBD MB n H> MC IBU K, F>D K F>G GD On` HCN @BH BH @D > Pn LB O>D H> > mK -
@q MBD F> IU > mGC LK PK LU > AD > OK mB LD ?=G GKH OCN GU IHCN. jK OK mU K B FOBU HB O>D mn L> > mT O> T LD > OKQ mU -
H> F>. b= EB nH HKD > OKQ ?= EKQN F> O>L ABU O>D. hD > K ET HC > mT `Lq I> O> > mGq HB O>D F= EB O>. g T AFKN `= -
HBD OCH Q GD Fp OKQ Q mT MO> MC F>D OK nL AK @BH BU H>D mD > n H> En I> mKQ mB LD AL= PB O>D MB n H> PT HOK, >G G=
ID > B mU mB @C KL A= HS MC `LS I= OSH.
PRUTX VUT'
Eéê. 19. W. fjI E?I, Y]IH \l, N -
>I; JS ; C;A L; \k L@ L;Z
(1840), D: =A J? FHN -
J; F:, `HE =S EH, 5 BEA -
CQ dHN J?S H.
( GB 0;- ?3 5_ >:@ X]; 71; 1 \2 -
;] - <1 >: ]; 0: >:@ V: 7]. [:6 -
6, N;C 73 - \;37 5-3 <>: \6-E -
<3: >:@ *: 8- 7>3 <8:^ : X]; 71;
1E N1 GB 0;- ?E <13 <13 ;]= ]; -
0B7 81 4] 8- >- - \C >2 ?^ <2
5-3 >3= 81 >- .: 6]= >2= <1 <N] -
<2 81 >3= 1 \: N]= 5-3 >2 N;: 73 -
5_ <>30 8_.
239
Åéê. 20. ^D. dH Ej, YbHk M; I;Z (1904),
D: =A J? FHN J; F:, h; IS JA,
dHN J?S H cI Jj.
V1 >, >: 1883 : V: 7] - \: >;- ._ N>2 -
51 <>: F3 .1; 7E. ' 51E, <>:7 5_ \: >:@
<\3 >3 :^ >:@, GB 0;, ?3 <1 >2 <13 ;, >B7
]; 0B7 >:@ 81 4] 8- >- 7:^ ?- ;-. &:^ -
61 H1 >: 4] 8- -@ >C - 5:^ ;- <>-. X-
\;` >- ]; 0- 81 -@ >C >: 4] 8- - \: >1 -
6:^7 ] 7- <^ 7: 6: - \C 25 5-8 ., /1=,
\:@ 1 5>] 42 5-7 03 - \;` >2 ?: ;, <>27
05- 61 ;E T>@ ;,7 *@ ]6, >: 1900. '7 73 ,
N;C 73 - -; 0C >1 ;- ,; N3 <1 8E - /1^ >1 ;2
<13 ;, 81 >: E /3 : 4] 8- 5-3 B= >: 1926
1E N1 /2 83 :@; 0_ <13 ,6 6:@= 48 81 0, -
6:@= 5-8 ., /1=. X- ]; 0- .;E <5: 7>-3
<_ 81 ;- <>: [- ;E <3, <>- V:@ <1E - >2=
\C 62= U ;-7 G1 ;E 5-3 <>: V:@ <1E : F1
7>1 [:8. &B ;E <>2 5-7 <M -@ >, - \C >:7
E /3 : >:7 5-6 63 >]N 72 >: 1921.
Åéê. 21. c ^D. dH Ej JLH dHN J?S H c I;E U? IS, FiIH JL: JLHNK iS E; CjK LHN F? L; YbHk M; I;Z, MP LH >I; MS ;.
W>: V:@ <1E : >2= U ;-7 G1 ;E 1 5>E 41 7>-3 19 81 0, 6:@ 81 0] 4:@= ]; 0- <1 /^ : -E4:@<1= 81 83 - /3 , >- 92 \:@ ] 5- 71 : E /3 := :
5-6 63 >]N 72=. WM -@ >C >: K\1 ;3 .,6 6:7 L : 1 \3 <5] \>2= 73 ` 413 7- 5@ 56` 71 >-3 - \C -@ >]= >3= K1 7>@ \` <13= L, <-7 7- \7E 01 >-3 <>2
<3 B \_ 1 7C= 8@ <>2 ;3 ` /:@= .@ 4:^ - \C N;` 8- >-. KI3 - 8] 7-, >: 4] 8- 1E 7-3 1 \:@ <3 ` /1=. Q@ >C \:@ 1 \3 /3 ` 5B 7- - 7- \- ;- -
<>_ <B 1E 7-3 -@ >C \:@ @ \,; N13 - 7, 81 <- <>: 4] 8- 5-3 <>:7 1 -@ >C 8:@L, ] 61 01 : E /3 := : V: 7].
240
QTQRJW( '*IUJ
Åéê. 22. ^D. dH Ej, YbHk M; I;Z (1908), D: =A J? FHN J; F:, h; IS JA, dHN J?S H cI Jj.
Åéê. 23. ^D. dH Ej, YbHk M; I;Z (1916), D: =A J? FHN J; F:, h; IS JA, dHN J?S H cI Jj.
Åéê. 24. c Cl iHK LHN dH Ej JLH TA <?I ES, MP LH >I; MS ;.
Åéê. 25. ^D. dH Ej, YbHk M; I;Z (1919), h; IS JA, dHN J?S H cI Jj.
( >1N 73 5_ >:@ V: 7] 1E 7-3 0;_ 0: ;2. Q ?:^ 5- >- 0;, ?13 >: <>30 83 -E :, /1 4- 8\: ;:^ <1 7- 0E 713 /3 - ?: ;1 >3 5,. U3 \3 71 63 ]= 1E -
7-3 ?:; >B 8] 71= N;` 8- 5-3 5: ?>]=, - 5:@ 8\, 71 0;_ 0: ;- <>: 8:@ <- 8,. X: - \: >^ \B 8- \:@ - ?_ 7:@7 1E 7-3 5: ?>, 5C8 8- -
>-, \-^ 61=, N: 7>;]= >1 61E 1=.
Åéê. 26. ^D. dH Ej, YbHk M; I;Z, @ DA H <; JS D? F; (1914-1918), D: =A J? FHN J; F:, h; IS JA, dHN J?S H cI Jj.
X- N;` 8- >- /1 /3 - .-4 8E G: 7>-3. &2 6- /_, /17 - 7- 813 07^ : 7>-3 81 8-^ ;:, 03 - 7- <5:@ ;^ 7:@7, _ 81 , <\;:, 03 - 7- - 7:E 9:@7.
U3 - 7- 81E 913= 0E 7: 7>-3 81 5- 4- ;, N;` 8- >- \, 7B <>: 8:@ <- 8,. D6 6B <>1, >: 8-^ ;: - - \C C 6:@= <N1 /C7 >:@= ) 8\;1 <3 : -
73 <>]= - - \: ?1^ 01 >-3. I3M -@ >C :3 <53 ]= /17 1E 7-3 - \6`= 05;E G:3 _ :@ /] >1 ;:3 >C 7:3. WN1 /C7 /17 \- ;, 0: 7>-3 :^ >1 - \C - 7- -
81E 913=. [1 ;3< <C >1 ;: /2 83 :@; 0:^ 7>-3 - \C >27 1 \3 5, 6@ H2 5-3 >27 1 7- \C 41 <2 \- N3 ,= 8, G-= 5- 4- ;`7 N;B 8, >B7, \:@ 1 \2 -
;1 , G: 7>-3 - 8:3 .-E -. Q \C -@ >_ >2 /3 - <>;B 8, >B <2 >B7 N;B 8, >B7 \;: 5^ \>13 2 @ 63 5C >2 >-, /2 6- /_ ] 7- <>;` 8- N;` 8- >:=
\, 7B <>:7 5-8 .,, \:@ /: 71E >-3, C \B= <>27 \;-0 8- >3 5C >2 >- /: 7:^ 7>-3 5-3 \,6 6: 7>-3 >: 71 ;C 5-3 :3 - 7>- 7- 56, <13= >:@. (
@ 63 5C >2 >- >:@ N;` 8- >:= 0E 71 >-3 -3< 42 >3 5_ - 9E -, - 71 9,; >2 >- - \C >: >3 \1 ;3 0;, ?13 -@ >C >: N;` 8-. ( ?C; 8-, 2 8:; ?_, - -
\: /1 <81@ 8] 72 - \C : \:3 : /_ \: >1 \1 ;E 0;-8 8-, \;:< /3 : ;E G1 >-3 - \C >2 0B 7E - \;C <\>B <2= >:@ ?B >C=.
g hK Hn @BH mB LD AL= PBD, @BH K GK FGC Lq HBD, >G G= F>D @BH mLKM En OBD OU mK OB > mT T,OD Jn LBD AD > OC Po -
MC OKQ mL=A I> OKN mKQ m> L> OC LBU. j> HB L= OCN GU IHCN F>D O> HKo P> L> P>U HK HO>D GU AK. lKo F>D mKo
BI P> HU YK HO>D IB LD FnN MQ AFB FLD In HBN IKL PnN, KD K mKU BN mK Go ALp AK L> J> H> mBL HKoH MOK > F> ET LD MOK.
jK nL AK ?LU MFB O>D > H= IB M> MOK MQ AFB FLD In HK F>D MOK > PC LC In HK.
gD mD K B J>` HS In HBN > HO> H> FG= MBDN OKQ KQ L> HKo In M> MOK HB LT, OSH @n HOLSH > mT ODN T `EBN OCN GU -
IHCN, C FU HC MC OSH HKo P> LSH, IB OC ALp AK LC mD HB GD =, @BH mB LD AL= PK HO>D, @BH K GK FGC Lq HK HO>D. c mK -
FK LQ Pq HK HO>D MB ID > `LS I> OD Fp m>H @>D MU >. b= EB BU @KQN mB LD AL> Pp F> O>L ABU O>D F>D F> O> AL= PB O>D IT -
HK T,OD B HOQ mq HB O>D MOKH >I PD ?GC MOLK BD @p. jB GD F=, C U @D > C mD HB GD = AU HB O>D OK En I> F>D I= GD MO> MB On -
OKD K ?>E IT, mKQ P>U HB O>D H> > HKU AB O>D p @C K @LT IKN AD > OCH c PC LC In HC YS AL> PD Fp OKQ 20Ko >D q H>.
22 23
241
24
25
26
242
IRYW WQ *)
Íôá ãêå ñï ôõ ðß á: l= HS MB ID > IB O>G GD Fp mG= F> IB B mU `LD MI> >L Ao LKQ > mK OQ mq HB O>D C BD FT H> OSH > HOD FBD -
In HSH, C K mKU > mLK ?=G GB O>D m= HS OCN In M> > mT OK P> FT B HTN MFK OBD HKo E> G= IKQ. 9 OB` HD Fp >Q Op, IB OCH
K mKU > m> Lp `EC M>H KD mLq OBN PS OK AL> PU BN, OK 1837, K HK I= MOC FB fO> AFB LK OQ mU >, > mT OK T HK I> OKQ
BPBQ Ln OC OCN, dKQU fO> AFnL.
Å ÑÙ ÔÇ ÓÅÉÓ
1. jK nL AK OKQ h> Hn ]lLT ABQ I> MOC rGT C^ MF>H @= GD MB OT MK AD > OK En I> OKQ T MK F>D AD > OC @D > -
mL>A I= OBQ MC OKQ `Lq I> OKN OK FKD HT OKQ l> LD MD Ko OK 1863. ip IB L> mLK F> GBU On OKD BN > HOD @L= -
MBDN C On` HC; cD OD K GK Ap MOB OCH > m= HOC Mp M>N.
2. i`K GD = MOB OKH > HOU FOQ mK mKQ BU `B C B PBo LB MC OCN PS OK AL> PU >N MOCH On` HC, BD @D F= MOC YS -
AL> PD Fp. jC @n MIBQ MB p OCH > mB GBQ En LS MB;
3. lKD > p O>H C B H> HOU S MC OCN B mU MC ICN On` HCN >. MOK ;B > GD MIT ?.MOKH :ImLB MD K HD MIT.
4. e> ImK LKo MB C D ImLB MD K HD MOD Fp YS AL> PD Fp (F> EC IB LD H= En I> O>, YS AL> PD Fp MOCH o m>D ELK,
ALp AK LC mD HB GD =) H> BU `B @C ID KQL AC EBU OK 15K >D q H>;
5. hmK LBU OB H> > H> F> GoZ OB MB BD FT HBN MoA `LK HCN OB` HK GK AU >N OC In EK @K OCN F> E> LpN `LS I> OD -
FpN FKQF FU @>N (FTF FD HK, FU OLD HK, ImGB), mKQ @U HBD MOK I= OD OCH B HOo mS MC OKQ MoH EB OKQ `Lq I> -
OKN;
15
ZW \),SYXS S\W ZW 19< YZWV 20< S+[VS
243
244
R>CbEG67 W?NAG, S3 @:6Dc >C`a??6T (1913), ?58< E: ACIE6A5, 1,90 U 2,00 A., _D596.
245
15. ÔÏ ÐÅÑÁÓÌÁ ÁÐÏ ÔÏ
19ï ÓÔÏÍ 20ü ÁÉÙÍÁ
N S,b+Z)RZWV+R* ZWK Y+(*,WK,ZWK
JKST+WK RS+ ZWK W\T+YX)VWK
YRK,W()XSZWY
N ZW R+V*XS "Z)bV)Y RS+
b)+,WZ)bV+)Y" (A#%$ a!d C#a%$)
N S, VWKQW
4 7 FH= ?D aDO < F<, 9< @7 9d < FJ :?b AHEL F< HDJ
a@< >J FBDc FH7 B; :6 @7 7 FH= ?6 ?b AHE7, ;O A7= 9;O: -
B7 B= 7G Ab 7G ?7 H7 AD BdG HDJ ?; I7 @7O DJ ?7= H<G ;@ -
aO 97G := 7 B= 7 ?7 @c H; E< >b F< FH<A ?D= AL A= ?d = ; E7E -
XO 7. ^H7 Hb @< HDJ 19DJ 7= e A7 < aM @< b := A; D HM aDG
H<G ; aO 9;= C<G, HDJ >; 6 B7 HDG 7@ @6 ?7= D HM aDG FJ -
:?b AHEL F<G HDJ ?; I7 @7O DJ. Z aDE EM I< F; HDJG
7:EM H;G aDJ, 6 A;E :D= ;C 7= HO 7G H<G B< X7 AD aDO < F<G
H<G 7 :ED H= ?dG a7 E7 :L :dG, 7 A7 Q< HDcA Ab 7 ;E :7 -
FO7. _7 Ab 7 D= ?D AD B= ?6 ?7= 9= D= ?< H= ?6 ?b AHE7, D=
HE6 a; Q;G, H7 XE< B7 H= FHd E= 7, H7 ; BaD E= ?6 ?b AHE7,
D= ?7 HD= ?O ;G HLA 7 FHeA ?7= D= aD @J ?7 HD= ?O ;G B; H7
B; :6 @7 aD @J H; @d 9= 7 B; EO FB7 H7 FJ :?; AHEe AD AH7=
FHD ?b AHED HLA aM @; LA, ; Ae D= ;E :7 H= ?bG ?7 HD= ?O ;G
?7= H7 ;E :7 FHd E= 7 HLA H;X A= HeA 7 aD B7 ?Ec AD AH7=
7aM 7J HM. g BLG, ; aO F<G FHD ?b AHED HLA aM @; LA,
FH7 D= ?D 9D B= ?6 H; HE6 :L A7 aDJ 9;A ?7 H; 97 IO QD -
AH7=, < 7 FH= ?d H6 C< 9;A ; a;B 87O A;=, ?7= b HF= 9< B= -
DJE :Dc AH7= B; :6 @;G IHL XD :;= HD A= bG, M aDJ < B= Qb -
E= 7 ?7= < IHe X;= 7 aED ?7 @DcA b AHD A7 aED 8@d B7 H7
J := ;= AdG ?7= FJA >d ?;G 7A >Ee a= A<G ; C7 >@O L F<G.
^H<A 7E X= H; ?HD A= ?d := AM H7A M @D ?7= a= D b AHD A< <
a; aDO >< F< M H= BM AD B; H=G ?7= ADc E= ;G ?7 H7 F?;J 7 -
FH= ?bG H;X AD @D :O ;G >7 ; a= H;J X>;O < 9J A7 B= ?d 9< B= -
DJE :O 7 HDJ Xe EDJ, aDJ 7 AH= ?7 HD aHEO Q;= H<A ;J 7=F -
>< FO 7 ?7= HD EJ> BM H<G BD AHbE A7G ?D= AL AO 7G. P3 HF=
9= 7 BDE Ie >< ?; HD @; :M B; AD U8= D B< X7 A= ?M FH=@ V,
aDJ :;A Ad >< ?; FH<A A::@O 7 FH7 Bb F7 HDJ 19DJ 7= -
e A7.
^H7 bE :7 H<G ZE [DJ 8M, H<G [b 7G _bX A<G,
MaLG D AD B6 Q; H7= < HbX A< 7J HdG H<G ; aD XdG, FH7 -
B7 H6 FX; 9MA ?6 >; 7 A7 ID E6 FH7 aEM HJ a7 H<G 7E -
X7= M H< H7G. f6 A; H7= < FJB B; HEO 7, ?J E= 7E X;O HD
;@;c >; ED a7=X AO 9= H<G :E7B BdG, H7 9= 7 ?D FB< H= ?6
FHD= X;O 7 :O AD AH7= 7 A6 @7 IE7, ?7= D= ?7@ @= HbX A;G
246
;BaAb D AH7= 7 aM HD IJ H= ?M ?7= HD QL= ?M 87 FO @;= D.
ZE XO Q;= < 7 A7 Qd H< F< B= 7G 9= 7 ?D FB< H= ?dG @;= HDJE := -
?M H< H7G ?7= ; a= 9= e ?; H7= < 9< B= DJE :O 7 ; AMG ;J EL -
a7K?Dc d 9= ; >ADcG FH=@. 3 aO F<G F< B7 AH= ?M :; :D AMG
;O A7= M H= 7 A7 aHcF FD AH7= D= UB= ?EM H; E;G V d U; I7E -
BD FBb A;G V HbX A;G M aLG < 9= 7 ?M FB< F<, < ;A 9J B7 -
HD @D :O 7, < 7E :J ED XEJ FD XD S7 ?7= 6@ @;G.
S=P5@37@<957` @<B Y51`=<B, @<B JB/85<_ 7/5
@<B W ]85>:^9<B Y7B=<1^:/@<?
4 H;X A= ?d H<G ?7 H7 F?;J dG B; H7 a7 E7 9D F= 7 ?6
J @= ?6, M aLG ab HE7 ?7= Cc @D, 6@ @7 C; E= Q= ?6. M; H<A
;ab?H7F< HDJ F= 9< ED 9EDB=?Dc 9=?HODJ < F= 9< EDJE -
:O 7 7 A7 aHc X>< ?; ?7= H7 Bb H7@ @7 XE< F= BD aD= d >< -
?7A FH<A ?7 H7 F?;J d HLA ?H= EO LA. Mb XE= HM H; H7 B; -
H7@ @= ?6 FHD= X;O 7 XE< F= BD aD= Dc AH7A LG B; BD AL Bb -
A7 ; C7E Hd B7 H7 FH<A ?7 H7 F?;J d HLA ?H= EO LA. _e E7,
D FO 9< EDG ?7= HD 7 HF6 @= 7 AH= ?7 >= FHDcA H=G Ib EDJ -
F;G ; a= I6 A;= ;G HLA HDO XLA ?7= H=G B; :6 @;G ?D @M A;G
aDJ FHd E= Q7A H7 ?HO E= 7 ?7= ; a= HEb aDJA H<A ?7 H7 -
Åéê. 1. ^PL P:H _5B GC@ (J. P0-*)), WDN EG6? _5 ?6F (C+1,-'
P'"$) (1850-1851), Ac >CF 560 A., `?5 GCF 1,25 A.,
b QCF 22 A., YC@ 8N @C.
GO@/9 < \.; @<9 >P3 1F / >3 7/5 7/ @/ >73_ / >3 @< R=F >@/8 \. -
8/? 25 / @49 \/ 27E >:5 / NE763 >4 >@< T<9 1F 9<, @< 1851, 3A3_ -
=3 :5 / 9^ / @3P 95 7` /8 8. 7/5 ^ 9/ 9^ < @=E ]< >P3 15 / >:<_ 7/5
7/ @/ >73B `?. O 93 D @3 =5 >:E? 0=F >73 @/5 >@4 P=4 >5 :< ]<F 4 >4
@D9 ]=< 7/ @/ >73B / >:^ 9D9 :3 @/8 85 7a9 >@<5 P3F D9 7/5 >@<B?
B / 8< ]F 9/ 73?, ]<B ^ P<B9 ]/ =/ P63F :/ H5 7. 7/5 ^ P<B9 :3 @/ A3= -
63F >@< 3= 2< @. ;5 < ^ @<5 :<5 9/ @< ]< 63 @4 6<_9. Y@< 7^ 9@=< E 84?
/B @`? @4? 15 / 15 7/ >F /? 0=F >73 @/5 :5 / 3 ]/ 9/ >@/ @5 7` >7^ I4 : 4
P=` >4 @D9 B 85 7a9 7/5 @4? @3P 95 7`? ]<B :^ P=5 @a =/ 3 A/= :E -
H< 9@/9 >@/ :3 2. 8/ 05 < :4 P/ 95 7. 7@F =5 / :]< =<_9 3 ]F >4? 9/
P=4 >5 :< ]<5 4 6<_9 >@49 7/ @/ >73B ` 7@5 =F D9 :3 :3 2. 83? / ]/5 @` -
>35? 835 @<B= 25 7E @4 @/? 7/5 3: A. 95 >4?. SB @` 4 5 1^ / ]=< 7. 83 >3
^ 9@< 9<B? ]=< 084 :/ @5 >:<_? >@<B? >B 9@4 =4 @5 7<_? B ]< >@4 =5 -
7@^? @D9 15 . A< =D9 >@58, /8 8. 7/5 >@<B? ]=D @< ]E =<B? @4?
@3P 9< 8< 25 7`? / 9. ]@B ;4?. Z< R=F >@/8 \. 8/? 7/ @/ >@=. A4 73
@< 1937 / ]E ]B= 7/ 25 ..
Åéê. 2. R>CI EG57 OX< H:? (G.,-/$ E&%%$', 1832-1923), _bD 9CF
GCI M< H:? (1889), _6 DN E<.
O ]_= 2<? @<B GA5 A38 7@F >@4 73 @< 1889 7/5 ^ P35 _ I<? ]<B
A@. 935 @/ 300 :^ @=/. H 7/ @/ >73B ` @<B \_= 2<B, <5 3= 2/ >F 3?
@4? < ]<F /? 15 `= 73 >/9 21 :` 93?, / ]< @3 83F @49 ]=/2 :/ @< ]<F -
4 >4 3 9E? 9^ <B @_ ]<B L:94 :3F <BM ]<B, 3 9a 139 3 ]/5 93F 7/ :5 .
1
247
>@52 :` @<B ]/ =38 6E 9@<?, 3 ;B :93F @< ]/ =E9
7/5 / 9/2 2^8 835 @< :^8 8<9. R/ @/ >73B . >@4 73
D? :3 2/ 8E ]=3 ]4 3F >< 1<? 25 / @4 (5 3 69` ) -
:]< =5 7` NE763 >4 >@< \/ =F >5 @<B 1889 7/5
]=< < =5 HE @/9 9/ 27=3 :5 >@3F. W5 (5 3 693F? )7 -
6^ >35? ]<B <= 2/ 9a 9< 9@/5 >@49 )B =a ]4 7/5
@49 S :3 =5 7` ^ P<B9 D? >@E P< @49 ]/ =<B >F / >4
@D9 9^ D9 3 :]< =3B :. @D9 7/5 @4 >B 93 P` /_ ;4 -
>4 @4? 05 < :4 P/ 95 7`? ]/ =/ 2D 2`?. G) @>5, >B 93 -
Pa? /B ;. 9< 9@/5 <5 / ]/5 @` >35? 25 / :3 2. 83? 3 -
]5 A. 935 3? 7/5 . 93 @<B? 3 >D @3 =5 7<_? Pa =<B?.
H :<= A` @<B ]_= 2<B @<B GS5 A38 :]E =3 >3 9/
]=/2 :/ @< ]<5 4 63F P. =4 >@<B? >@/ @5 7<_? B ]< -
8< 25 >:<_? 25 / @49 / 9@5 :3 @a ]5 >4 @D9 ]83B =5 -
7a9 D 6` >3 D9 @<B / 9^ :<B 7/5 @4 :3 8^ @4 @D9
B 85 7a9.
Åéê. 3. [ 9>b EG _: Da (A. P$++$-, 1874-1954),
[< >N 6 G;F C 8Cb 4D5@ >?<@ (1903).
O \3 =^, J.8 8<? /= P5 @^ 7@< 9/? 7/5 :4 P/ 95 7E?,
63 D =3F @/5 / ]E @<B? ]=D @< ]E =<B? @4? >_2 -
P=< 94? /= P5 @3 7@< 95 7`?. )F 9/5 / ]E @<B? ]=a -
@<B? ]<B P=4 >5 :< ]<F 4 >3 @< < ]85 >:^ 9< >7B -
=E 13 :/ >@49 7/ @/ >73B ` 7@5 =F D9 7/5 7/ @. A3 =3
9/ @< / 9/ 2. 235 >3 ^ 9/ B 85 7E :3 /5> 64 @5 7. / -
]< @3 8^ >:/ @/. H ]< 8B 7/ @<5 7F / @4? < 1<_ -=.9 -
7859 >@< \/ =F >5 ^ P35 :5 / ]=D @E @B ]4 3 >D @3 =5 -
7` <= 2. 9D >4, ]/=O E @5 4 P=` >4 @<B >7B =< 1^ -
:/ @<? 139 ^ P35 / 7E :/ / 9/ ]@B P63F, a >@3 9/ / -
9/ 135 P@<_9 E 83? <5 1B 9/ @E @4 @^? @<B.
2
3
248
Ib E;= E= Q= ?6 7 aM H<A a7 E7 9D F= 7 ?d ?7 H7 F?;J 7 FH= ?d
Bb >D 9D : B; HD HF=BbAHD 9;A 7 a7= H;O H7= < HD aD >b H< -
F< ; AMG FH; E; Dc Fe B7 HDG ; a6 AL FW b A7 6@ @D 7@ @6
< HD aD >b H< F< ; AMG J @= ?Dc F; E;J FHd ?7 H6 FH7 F<
Bb F7 F; ?7 @Dc a= 7. ^H7 9= 7 ?6 Ja; EO FXJ F; < 6 aD R<
M H= HD HF= Bb AHD ;O A7= 7J HD 9c A7 BD ?7 H7 F?;J 7 FH= ?M
J @= ?M ?7= MH= aEb a;= A7 7 AH= FHD= X;O FH<A ?7 H6@ @< @<
BDE ID @D :O 7. 4 7E X= H; ?HD A= ?d aEb a;= A7 8E;= Ab ;G
BDE IbG, aDJ A7 FJB 87 9O QDJA B; H7 X7 E7 ?H< E= FH= -
?6 HDJ Ab DJ J @= ?Dc. H 9c A7 B< ?7= < ; @7 FH= ?M H< H7
F; FJA 9J 7 FBM B; H=G :E7B B= ?bG, a@7 FH= ?bG, M @D ?O -
A< F< BDE IbG 6@ @7 C7A E= Q= ?6 H<A 7E X= H; ?HD A= ?d ;= -
?M A7. ^HD Hb @DG HDJ 7= e A7 6E X= F7A A7 XE< F= BD aD= -
DcA HD D a@= FBb AD F?J EM 9; B7 F; FJA 9J 7 FBM B; H<
XEd F< HDJ F= 9d EDJ. PEHF=, M X= BM AD B; :7 @e A;= < 7 -
AHD Xd FH7 IDE HO 7, 7@ @6 < ; @7 FH= ?M H< H7 HDJ F= 9d -
EDJ FJA 9J 6 Q; H7= B; H<A a@7 FH= ?M H< H7 HDJ F?J ED -
9b B7 HDG.
Z< 7F94:/ Z^P93? 7/5 b35=<@3P93F3? (A#%$
a!d C#a%$)
_D ?O A< B7 UTbX A;G ?7= f;= ED H;X AO ;G V 9< B= DJE :d -
>< ?; FH<A A::@O 7 ?7= J a; E7 FaO Q; H7= H<A 7J HM AD B<
7 CO 7 HLA U; I7E BD FBb ALA V H;X AeA F; FXb F< B; H=G
@; :M B; A;G Y7 @bG _bX A;G. Yc E= DG ;= F< :< HdG HDJ ?= -
Ad B7 HDG D TDJO @= 7B MM E=G (W'(('!) M+,,'-, 1834-
1896), aD= < HdG, QL :E6 IDG, H;X AO H<G ?7= 9= 7 ?D FB< -
HdG, 7 F?Dc F; ?E= H= ?d FH7 8= D B< X7 AD aD= < Bb A7 ?7 -
H7 A7 @L H= ?6 7 :7 >6 H<G ; aD XdG HDJ ?7= B7 QO B; HDJG
DBDK9; 6 H;G HDJ 7 a7= HDc F; H<A 7 A7 :bA A< F< HDJ X;= -
ED aDO < HDJ aEDKM AHDG. 3 a; 9O L ?; A7 7 AH= B; HL aO F;=
H<A ?EO F< HLA 9= 6 ID ELA ; a7: :;@ B6 HLA aDJ 9< B= -
DJE :d >< ?; 7 aM H<A ;? 8= D B< X6 A= F< H<G a7 E7 :L -
:dG. \ ]M E=G d H7A 7 aM HDJG aEe HDJG aDJ 7 AH= B; -
He a= F7A H7 ?7@ @= H;X A= ?6 ?7= H7 ?D= AL A= ?6 aED 8@d -
B7 H7 H<G ?7 >< B; E= AdG QL dG F; FXb F< B; H< 8= D B< -
X7 A= ?d 7 A6 aHJ C<, >; L Ee AH7G H<A LG B= 7 7 aM H=G 7= -
HO ;G H<G ?D= AL A= ?dG a7 E7? BdG. _D ?O A< B6 HDJ FJA -
9b ; H7= HM FD B; H7 FD F= 7 @= FH= ?6 ?= Ad B7 H7 HLA 7E -
XeA HDJ 20Dc 7= e A7 M FD ?7= B; H7 Ab 7 ?7@ @= H;X A= -
?6 E;c B7 H7. ^HM X;J ; M BLG FH<A ; C6 @;= R< H<G
7FXd B= 7G HLA 8= D B< X7 A= ?eA aEDKM AHLA ?7= M X= FH<A
; C6 @;= R< HLA 7= H= eA H<G ?D= AL A= ?dG a7 E7? BdG
F?;J d B; :6 @LA 7 AD=: B6 HLA ?7= M @D ?7= a= D R< @eA
?H= EO LA. fE< F= BD aD= Dc AH7= B7 QO B; HD :J 7 @O FH=G D -
ED IbG HLA ?H= EO LA, ?7= := 7 aEe H< ID E6 9< B= DJE -
:Dc AH7= B; :6 @;G F?; abG B; B; :6 @;G 9= 6 I7 A;G ; a= -
I6 A;= ;G. _7 B; :6 @7 ; BaD E= ?6 ?b AHE7, H7 >b 7 HE7,
D= 8= 8@= D >d ?;G, H7 B; :6 @7 ;E :D FH6 F= 7, H7 A7J a< -
:;O 7, H7 >;E BD ?d a= 7, H7 ;? >; F= 7 ?6 ?b AHE7 ?7= D= F= -
9< ED 9ED B= ?DO FH7> BDO 7 ab ?H< F7A H; E6 FH= 7 B; H7@ -
@= ?6 FHb :7 FHE7.
\ XJ HD FO 9< EDG, @M :L H<G E;J FHdG BDE IdG HDJ,
BaD E;O A7 Ba7O A;= F; ?7 @Dc a= 7 b HF= ?7 H7 F?;c 7 QD -
AH7= 7 aM 7J HMA HJ aD aD= < Bb A7 9= 7 ?D FB< H= ?6 FHD= -
X;O 7 ?7= 7E X= H; ?HD A= ?6 Bb @< F; B; :6 @< aD= ?= @O 7. 4
XEd F< HLA B; H7@ @= ?eA FHD= X;O LA FH<A ?7 H7 F?;J d
?H= EO LA ; AH;O A; H7= FHD Hb @DG HDJ 19DJ 7= e A7. 4 B7 -
Q= ?d a7 E7 :L :d ?7= HD X7 B< @M ?M FHDG, < 9J A7 HM H< -
H7 ;c ?D @<G B; H7 ID E6G HDJG 7 aM HD ;E :D FH6 F= D
FHD ;E :D H6 C= D LG aED ?7 H7 F?;J 7 FBb A7 FHD= X;O 7, <
9J A7 HM H< H7 A7 XE< F= BD aD= < >DcA LG Ib ED AH7 FHD= -
X;O 7 FH=G ?7 H7 F?;J bG ?7= A7 FH; :6 FDJA B; :6 @DJG
Xe EDJG, ?7 H7 @7B 86 AD AH7G ; @6 X= FH< ; a= I6 A;= 7
FHd E= C<G, < aEM D 9DG H<G H;X AD @D :O 7G HLA ?7 H7 -
F?;J eA, HLA B7 >< B7 H= ?eA J aD @D := FBeA HLA IDE HO -
LA ?7= HLA a@;J E= ?eA L >d F; LA, ?7 >eG ?7= < 9< B= -
DJE :O 7 ; C;= 9= ?;J Bb ALA FXD @eA := 7 B< X7 A= ?DcG ;J -
AM < F7A H< :; AO ?;J F< H<G XEd F<G HLA B; H7@ @= ?eA
FHD= X;O LA FH=G 9= 6 ID E;G D= ?D 9D BbG.P3 A7 6@ @D J @= -
?M aDJ a7 EDJ FO 7 Q; Ab ;G 9J A7 HM H< H;G d H7A HD HF= -
Bb AHD. H XEd F< HDJ, M aLG ?7= < XEd F< 6@ @LA FJA -
9; H= ?eA J @= ?eA, 9;A d H7A ?7= ADc E= 7 FH=G ?7 H7 F?;J -
bG ?H= EO LA. TD HF= Bb AHD d H7A d 9< :AL FHM FHDJG
5L B7O DJG. \= HEM aD= ; I7E BD :dG HDJ M BLG FH<A
7E X= H; ?HD A= ?d HLA H; @;J H7O LA 9; ?7 ; H= eA HDJ 19DJ
7= e A7 b >; F7A Ab 7 ; EL Hd B7 H7 : d H7A bA7 7J HM AD BD
J @= ?M B; H7 9= ?6 HDJ = 9= 7O H; E7 X7 E7 ?H< E= FH= ?6 d b -
aE; a; A7 >; L E< >;O LG b A7 IH< AM JaD ?7 H6 FH7 HD
H<G ab HE7G; P3 aE; a; A7 XE< F= BD aD= ;O H7= FH<A HD= -
XD aD=O 7 ?7= A7 ; a;A 9c ; H7= B; 6@ @7 9= 7 ?D FB< H= ?6 J -
@= ?6 d b aE; a; A7 7 A7 Q< H< >DcA Ab ;G BDE ID @D := ?bG
@c F;=G F; FJA 9J 7 FBM B; H=G = 9= M H< H;G 7J HDc HDJ J -
@= ?Dc; MaD E;O A7 d H7A 9c F?D @;G D= 7 a7 AHd F;=G F;
7J H6 H7 ; EL Hd B7 H7, 7@ @6 < ; I7E BD :d HDJ J @= ?Dc
7J HDc d H7A ;c ?D @<. 4 H;X A= ?d FH< XEdF< HDJ 9= 7 -
249
Åéê. 4. R. \L D<F, Zb ?< @; Ac GD6 9< 6 GC EG6 A`K GL b H6 EA6
STCI ?N `6T (1875).
O ME =5? F 1=B >3 @< 1861 @< 15 7E @<B 3= 2/ >@` =5 < ]/ -
=/ 2D 2`? P35 =< ]<F 4 @D9 ]=<CE 9@D9. X/ HF :3 @<B? AF -
8<B? @<B >P3 1F / H/9 7/5 ]/ =` 2/ 2/9 P35 =< ]<F 4 @/ B A. -
>:/ @/, P/ 85 ., 73 =/ :5 7., ^ ]5 ]8/ 7/5 P/= @5 . 25 / @<B? @<F -
P<B?. T/ >P^ 15 . @<B? 3F P/9 D? ]4 2` ^ :]93B >4? @4 A_ -
>4 /8 8. 7/5 73 9@` :/ @/ @<B 16<B 7/5 @<B 17<B /5 a 9/.
Z< / ]< @^ 83 >:/ 139 ` @/9 ]< @^ 4 ]5 >@` /9@5 2=/ A` 7. ]<5 -
<B / 9@5 735 :^ 9<B /8 8. 3 83_ 63 =4 :3 @/ A< =. @<B.
Åéê. 5. R. \L D<F, ]Ua 8< C 9< 6 GC EG6 A`K GL b H6 EA6
STCI ?N `6T (1875).
Åéê. 6. R. \L D<F, STCI ?N `6T (1875), EG6 A`K GL b H6 EA6.
LH 3B 23 9^ >@3 =4 E 8D9 @D9 B A/ 9@5 7a9 @3P 9a9 3F 9/5 4 @/ -
]4 @<B= 2F /, >@49 < ]<F / 139 B ].= P35 @F ]< @/ @< :4 P/ 95 7E.
X3 @49 @/ ]4 @<B= 2F /, ]<B 3F 9/5 >/9 ^ 9/ :D >/C7E / ]E
P=a :/ @/, :]< =3F 9/ 7/ @/ >73B / >@<_9 15 / 7< >:4 @5 7. @<F -
P<B :3 2. 84? @3 835 E @4 @/? 7/5 :3 ]<8 8. 15 / 7< >:4 @5 7.
>@<5 P3F /. GW ]D? >3 7. 63 15 / 7E >:4 >4 @<F P<B @< ]=a @<
]=.2 :/ ]<B ]=^ ]35 7/ 93F? 9/ ]=< >^ ;35 >@< >P3 15 / >:E
@<B P/ 85 <_ 3F 9/5 4 1_ 9/ :4, 4 7/ 6/ =E @4 @/ 7/5 4 7<: IE -
@4 @/ @<B L]3 =5 2=.: :/ @<? M @D9 / 9@5 735 :^ 9D9, ^ @>5 a >@3
@F ]< @/ 9/ :49 3F 9/5 / >/ A^? 7/5 / 7/ 6E =5 >@<. ) ]F >4?
/]/ =/F @4 @/ >@<5 P3F / 3F 9/5 4 HD 4 =. 1/ 7/5 4 / A6< 9F /
@D9 83 ]@< :3 =35 a9 ]<B P/ =/ 7@` =5 H/9 @4 X3 >/5 D 95 7`
Z^P 94M. (J<BF 85 /: ME =5?, .= 6=< 25 / @/ YA/ 9@., 1893).
4
5
6
250
Åéê. 7. ]6 >5< eL<GECI (1761-1828), SW6 ?C >6< D< @c 7DC UcT, _6 -
D6 75@ PK 9D6 H< EAa @C `5 @K E: `6 @N, 1,66 0 1,83 A.,
^L >< C, 2 =@< >L \CI E:N C.
S ]E @/ @3 83B @/F / / =5 >@<B= 2` :/ @/ @4? 15 / 7< >:4 @5 7`? 25 / ]D -
9^ H5 74? @^P 94?. W 7/8 85 @^P 94? 3 :]93_ >@4 73 / ]E @5? ]/ =/ >@. -
>35? @D9 63 < @` @D9 @<B / 9^ :<B 7/5 @4? 0=< 9@`?, @5? < ]<F 3?
:3 @^ A3 =3 >@4 24 :3 @4 :<= A` AB >5 7a9 A/5 9< :^ 9D9. W . 93 -
:<? 7. 935 @/ AB @. 9/ 8B 2F H<B9, 4 7/ 8< 7/5 =5 9` 0=< P` >P4 :/ -
@F H35 =B . 75 / ]. 9D >@< ^ 1/ A<?.
Åéê. 8. O[ A`D:J \`aD @GE?:J (A.!+$1 B$+#,'$1, 1872-98), SH
: GC< A6 EN 6 G;F ]6 ?d A;FT (1894), 6 `L G;@ :< >C @C 9D5 -
H; Ec GCI EGC 7< 7?N C GCI OOE>6D OI 5<? @G, SH ]6 ?d -
A;T.
H A= N<B 0E 3 ]5 7=. @4 >3 2=` 2< =/ >@49 EB =a ]4 7/5 >@49 A:3 -
S= V<B0E (A#% N"&'ea&)
O M EDG AE NDJ 8M (A,. N+/0$!/) F< B7O A;= Nb 7
TbX A< (:AL FHd ?7= LG J/&$*#-.'( ?7= L'"$,.1) ?7= 7A -
>;O FH7 XEM A= 7 1895-1910. 2< B= DJE :d >< ?; LG 7 AHO -
9E7 F< aEDG H7 = FHD E= ?6 FH=@ HDJ a7 E;@ >M AHDG, ?7=
FHM XDG H<G d H7A A7 9< B= DJE :d F;= bE :7 J R< @dG
7=F >< H= ?dG ?7= ?7@ @= H;X A= ?dG aD= M H< H7G F; 7 AHO >; -
F< B; H7 6 FX< B7 aEDKM AH7 H<G B7 Q= ?dG 8= D B< X7 A= -
?dG a7 E7 :L :dG, aDJ ;O X7A ?7 H7 ?@c F;= H<A 7 :D E6.
O= ?7@ @= HbX A;G H<G ZE [DJ 8M 7 aD 9b XD AH7= ;A
Bb E;= H=G 9J A7 HM H;G H<G 8= D B< X7 A= ?dG a7 E7 :L :dG
?7= aED Fa7 >DcA A7 ;? B; H7@ @;J HDcA H=G = 9= M H< H;G
HLA Ab LA J @= ?eA. Z A7 Qd H< F7A, @D= aMA, ?7= ADc E= DJG
HEM aDJG b? IE7 F<G. `D@ @DO ?7@ @= HbX A;G ; BaA;c -
FH< ?7A 7 aM H< := 7 aL Ab Q= ?< HbX A< ?7= = 9= 7O H; E7 7 aM
H<A ?= A< H= ?M H< H7 HLA BDE IeA H<G. O= 7E XbG H<G AE
NDJ 8M ; C7 a@e >< ?7A F; M @< H<A EJ Ee a< ?7= ; a< -
Eb 7 F7A M @;G H=G BDE IbG H<G HbX A<G. \= B; :6 @;G
aD @= H= FH= ?bG 7 A7 Q< Hd F;=G H<G ; aD XdG M aLG ?7= <
D= ?D AD B= ?d 6A >< F< H<G 7 FH= ?dG H6 C<G 7 aD H; @DcA
B; E= ?bG 7 aM H=G 7= HO ;G H<G :Ed :D E<G ; C6 a@L F<G
HDJ ?= Ad B7 HDG 7J HDc. 4 ZE [DJ 8M B; H7 Ib E;= H< 9= -
6 >; F< := 7 X7 E6, := 7 9= 7 ?M FB< F< ?7= H<A 7 A7 Qd H< -
F< B= 7G ; Id B; E<G C; :AD= 7 F= 6G, aDJ d H7A b AHD A7
FHD= X;O 7 H<G 7 FH= ?dG H6 C<G HDJ Hb @DJG HDJ 19DJ 7= -
e A7. 4 D I= D ;= 9dG ?O A< F<, d < X7 E7 ?H< E= FH= ?d ?O A< -
F< HDJ B7 FH= :O DJ aDJ ?HJ a6 HDA 7 b E7, ;O A7= B= 7 87 -
F= ?d BDE Id H<A D aDO 7 B= BDc AH7= FH7 bE :7 HDJG D=
?7@ @= HbX A;G H<G ZE [DJ 8M ?7= H< B; H7 Ib EDJA a6 -
AL FH7 9= 6 ID E7 J @= ?6.
T7 7 AH= ?;O B; A7 H<G ZE [DJ 8M ;O X7A J R< @M ?M -
FHDG ?7 H7 F?;J dG ?7= 9= 7 ?EO AD AH7= := 7 H< @; aHd ?7=
; a= B; @< Bb A< IME B7 HDJG. A?M B7 ?7= Fd B; E7 ;O A7=
a; E= Qd H< H7.
7
8
251
Åéê. 11. E>GLD R>< A5D (H. G.&(+#, 1807-1942), 2N EC 8C<
EGCIF EG6= ACbF GCI I `L 9:< CI E< 8; DL 8DC ACI EGC
_6 DN E< 1899 - 1904.
O5 P/ =<_ :3 93? 15 / 7< >:` >35?, 3 :]93B >:^ 93? / ]E @< AB @5 7E
0/ >F 835 <, ]=< >7/ 8<_9 @<B? 05 / >@5 7<_? /9 6=a ]<B? @D9 :3 -
2/ 8<B ]E 83 D9 9/ / ]< 0. 8<B9 @< AE 0< @<B? 7/5 9/ P=4 >5 :< -
]<5 ` ><B9 @< 9^ < :^ >< :3 @/ A< =.? (^ ]=3 ]3 9/ :]<B9 :^ >/
>@4 24, 25 / 9/ @/ ;5 1^ I<B9 7/5 9/ 3: A/ 95 >@<_9 ;/ 9. >@49 3]5 -
A. 935 /, _ >@3 =/ / ]E :3 =5 7. P5 85 E :3 @=/ B ]E 235 /? 15 / 1=< :`?).
T/ AD @5 >@5 7. >3 >P` :/ 8<B 8<B 15 <_, @/ PB @< >5 14 =. 7. 273 8/,
<5 P/ =/ 7@4 =5 >@5 7^? 3 ]5 2=/ A^? :3 @/ < 9E :/ @/ @D9 >@/6 :a9,
>@E 85 >/9 @< \/ =F >5 7/5 / ]^ 135 ;/9 @5? 37 A=/ >@5 7^? 1B 9/ @E @4 -
@3? @D9 9^ D9 B 85 7a9 @4? S= V<B 0E.
Åéê. 12. Y. TN H6 @< (L. C. T&%%)1, 1848-1933), SV5 PC 6 `L 9I 6 -
?NT (1900), Na 6 YLD >;, MCI E:N C MC @GaD @6F TaU @;F.
Y@49 A:3 =5 7`, 4 A= N<B 0E / 9/ ]@_ P64 73 ]. =/ ]< 8_ >@/ 15 / -
7< >:4 @5 7. / 9@5 73F :3 9/ 7/5 23 95 7. >@5? 7/ @/ >73B ^? :3 2B / 8F.
U/ :]< =<_ >/ :3 9/ ]<_ :3 E @5 >O /B @E @< 0. H< < ZF A/ 95 ^ P35
/ 9@5 2=. I35 @/ :^ =4 3 9E? 8<B 8<B 15 <_, @< 0<8 0E, @< :F >P<
7/5, @^ 8<?, @< F 15 < @< .9 6<?.
=5 7`, 7/5 ]<8 8. ]3 =5 < 15 7. P=4 >5 :< ]<5 <_9 >@49 35 7< 9< 2=. A4 -
>` @<B? /B @E @< 9^ < >@58. Y@5? 2=/ A5 >@5 7^? @^P 93? 7/5 >@5?
35 7< 9< 2=/ A4 :^ 93? >3 8F 13? @D9 05 08F D9 <5 7/8 85 @^P 93? :3 -
@/ A^ =<B9 E 8< @< 1B 9/ :5 >:E 7/5 @49 7F 94 >4 @4? 2=/: :`?.
Åéê. 9. B< >GLD ODG5 (V&"-*+ H*+-, 1861-1947), ]`N G< >6< 6 G: -
?< a GCI [D G5 (1898-1900), BDI Ba? ?:F. ]G;@ EI Dd `;,
; AD NCI 7L :A H6 @N EG; >: EG;@ C ?C >?; DK Aa @; G;F
ACD Hc EG<F BDI Ba? ?:F.
O Q^8 2<? /= P5 @^ 7@< 9/? B5 7@E= O=@. :3 @^ A3 =3 >@< >F 14 =<
@49 3 85 7< 35 1` :<= A` 7/5 @5? 7/ :]_ 83? 2=/: :^? @D9 25 / ]D -
9^ H5 7D9 B 1/ @< 2=/ A5 a9. (4 :5 <_= 24 >3 ^ @>5 :3 =5 7^? / ]E @5? ]5 -
< 3 ]5 @B P4 :^ 93? /= P5 @3 7@< 95 7^? 37 A=. >35? @4? S= V<B 0E. *
/= P5 @3 7@< 95 7` @<B P/ =/ 7@4 =F H3 @/5 / ]E @<9 <= 6< 8< 25 >:E @4?
7/ @/ >73B / >@5 7`? 1< :`? @<B 7@5 =F <B, @4 >B 9^ P35 / / 9. :3 >/
>@49 7/ @/ >73B ` 7/5 >@/ 15 / 7< >:4 @5 7. >@<5 P3F /, @49 / 9@5 >@<5 -
PF / /9. :3 >/ >@< 3 ;D @3 =5 7E 7/5 >@< 3 >D @3 =5 7E, @49 ]=< >/= -
:< 2` @<B >@5 85 >@5 7<_ 83 ;5 8< 2F <B >@4 P=` >4 @D9 B 85 7a9 7/5
/]E @49 7B =5 /= PF / @4? 7/ :]_ 84? 2=/: :`?.
Åéê. 10. TC E`N G< GCI ODG5 (1898), BDI Ba? ?:F, ?: `GC Aa D:< 6
>?< A6 >C EG6 EN CI.
9
10
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11
252
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Åéê. 13. H >?:< EGc 6 9C D5 R>6 ?: DN 6 B< GL D< C EA6 @CI a ?: VO (1865-1875), M< ?5 @C.
T7 B; :6 @7 ; BaD E= ?6 ?b AHE7 7 aD H; @DcA He E7 HDJG B; :6 @DJG U?7 >; 9E= ?DcG V A7 DcG HDJ XEd B7 HDG.
2= 7 BDE Ie AD AH7= B; bB I7 F< FHDA ; FL H; E= ?M Xe ED, M aDJ D= a; E= a7 H< HbG, aED IJ @7: Bb AD= 7 aM H=G 6 -
FX< B;G ?7= E= ?bG FJA >d ?;G, BaD EDcA A7 ?7 H7 A7 @e FDJA HD XEM AD ?7= HD XEd B7 HDJG. TO AD AH7= HM aD= 7 -
AH7@ @7 :dG ; BaD E;J B6 HLA 7@ @6 ?7= ?D= AL A= ?dG ?7 H7 CO L F<G. 2= 7 ?D FBDc AH7= B; a@Dc HD ?7= I7 AH7 FO 7
?7=, B; H< XEd F< HDJ :J 7 @= Dc, ; a= HEb aDJA FHD ILG A7 9O A;= B= 7 IJ F= ?M H< H7 ?7= A7 9< B= DJE :;O b A7 ;J -
X6 E= FHD a; E= 86@ @DA. H FHD 6 HDJ B= HM E= D EB7 ADJ b @; FHD M= @6 AD ;O A7= b A7 HJ a= ?M a7 E6 9;=: B7 HLA ?@;= -
FHeA 7 :D EeA ?7= HDJ EM @DJ H<G 7 :D E6G FHDA = FHM HDJ ?b AHEDJ H<G aM @<G. TO A; H7= FcB 8D @D B= 7G Ab -
7G ; aD XdG, M aDJ FH<A DE :6 AL F< H<G aM @<G ?J E= 7E XDcA H7 D= ?D AD B= ?6 ?b AHE7, ?7= FJ A7 :L AO Q; H7= HDJG
6@ @DJG 9< BM F= DJG Xe EDJG, M aLG HD XE< B7 H= FHd E= D, HD >b 7 HED, HD 2< B7E X;O D, aDJ a= FHD aD= DcA H<A
6 AD 9D H<G 7 FH= ?dG H6 C<G. Z ?M B7 ?7= Fd B; E7 ;O A7= U< ?7E 9= 6 H<G aM @<G V HDJ M= @6 ADJ, ; Ae H7 ; aH6 a7 -
He B7 H7 HDJ ?H= EO DJ H<G T?7 @; EO 7 I= @D C; ADcA 1.260 ?7 H7 FHd B7 H7. O= 9= 7 FH6 F;=G H<G ?6HDR<G aDJ
FX<B7HOQ;= FH7JEM ;O A7=: Bd ?DG 196,62 B. ?7= 105,10 B., a@6 HDG 14,50 B., FJ AD @= ?M c RDG 47,08 B., F;
FJ AD @= ?d ; a= I6 A;= 7 4,195 H.B.
* RT)+YZ* SJW,S Q+ZW,+W )XSVWK)T) QG YZW X+TSVW
253
Åéê. 14. H R>6 ?: DN 6 B< GL D< C EA6 @CI a ?: EI@ 8a -
:< GC@ K6 =: 8D< >L N6 L GCI M< ?5 @CI A:
GC =a 6 GDC G;F ]>5 ?6F.
Åéê. 15. H C DC Hc HK GC 9D6 H; Aa @; A: :I DI 9d -
@< C H6 >L.
254
SVSTKY* ),JWK
Åéê. 16. A@GL @< C R>6 CI @GN (A. G.#&, 1852-1926), E>>?; EN 6 G;F A9N 6F O< >C 9a @:< 6F (1883-1926), B6D >: ?d @;.
Åéê. 17. A@GL @< C R>6 CI @GN, E>>?; EN 6 G;F A9N 6F O< >C 9a @:< 6F (1883-1926), B6D >: ?d @;.
O5 ]_= 2<5 @4? 37 784 >F /? ;3 PD =F H<B9 >@< ]/ 9E =/ :/ @4? ]E 84?. A9 @< 7@F =5 < @3 835 a >35 ]< @^, 6/ 3F 9/5 ^ 9/ / ]E @/ ]5 < 3 9@B -
]D >5 / 7. 7/ @/ >73B . >:/ @/ @<B /9 6=a ]<B. O J7/ <B 9@F 139 / 7< 8<B 6<_ >3 ^ 9/ ]=< 7/ 6< =5 >:^ 9< >P^ 15 <, /8 8. 14 :5 <B= 2<_ >3
7/ @. @4 15 .= 735 / @4? 7/ @/ >73B `?. Y@/ ]=a @/ @<B >P^ 15 / 139 B ].= P35 7/ :F / ]84 =< A< =F / 25 / @49 7/ @/ >73B `. GEP<B :3 >O /B -
@. ]3 =5> >E @3 =< @49 / ]35 7E 95 >4 :5 /? / @:E >A/5 =/?.
^H<A IFa7 AO 7, < AE NDJ 8M ;B I7 AO FH< ?; ?J EO LG FH< B7E ?; @M A<. O T?7 DJ AHO, b XD AH7G B; @; Hd F;= H<
:DH >= ?d 7E X= H; ?HD A= ?d, 9< B= DJE :;O b A7 aED FL a= ?M @; C= @M := D M X= BM AD F; FXb F< B; H7 9= 7 ?D FB< H= ?6
FHD= X;O 7, 7@ @6 ?7= B; H<A ?7 H7 F?;J 7 FH= ?d 9D Bd. _D bE :D HDJ 7 aD H; @;O B= 7 = 9= 7O H; E< F; @O 97 FH<A 7E X= -
H; ?HD A= ?d H<G a; E= M 9DJ 7J HdG ?7= X7 E7 ?H< EO Q; H7= 7 aM b AHD A< ;? IE7 FH= ?d 9c A7 B< ?7= B; :6 @< a@7 FH= -
?M H< H7. H ;? ?@< FO 7 H<G A:O 7G O= ?D :b A;= 7G, B= 7 87 F= @= ?d B; ab AH; ?@O H<, 7 ?M B7 ?7= Fd B; E7 a7 E7 Bb A;=
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:, ;=92 N0D , ]9? ^ N02 ;=1 .2 + 30 ;` =9? ^ 6,< GA -
/:+ >9<, /2 , 6, 04 >:+ ;02 =, ,2; 3` 7, =+ =9?L, ^ 50 -
/0 9 W, =D<. V 06 39? ;2 a .1< ,? 39: 71 =2 ;7C< ;=9
^: /9 =9? W, =D< 0D 6,2 >,2 69 70 62 4+ 0 ]2 >, 602 , 4C<.
X=16 ]:,/ 7, =2 4C =1 =, =9 ^: /9 =9? 0D 6,2 ]:9@C6 7, -
4:+< ;]9? .`<, , 6, G` =1 ;1< 4,2 0 ]0 80: /, ;D ,<.
263
' ]:A =C /9 61 =^N 61 ` =,6 /6A ;=` ` .1 , -
]C 4,2 :C ;=16 &? :a ]1, C 7A< 7C 69 70 =+ =9
1900 92 4,5 52 =^N 60< +: N2 ;,6 6, 0 ]2 ;4^ ]=9 -
6=,2 =, 0 369 59 /2 4+ 79? ;0D , 4,2 6, /D 69 6=,2
92 D .2 92 ;?5 5^ 4=0< ,? =a6 =A6 02 ;, /C 70 6A6
^: /A6. ' 0 ]2: :9 ` =1< K6^ /:2 41< =^N 61< L ;=1
;_/ N:9 61 GA /:, >2 4` 4,2 ;=1 ;_/ N:9 61
/5? ]=2 4` +: N2 ;0 6, /D 60 =,2 07 >, 6`< ;=9 \, -
:D ;2 70 =+ =9 1907, 0 6a ;=9 O0 :9 5D 69, ;=1
%:^; .1 4,2 ;=9 R96 .D 69 70 =+ =9 1911. I_ -
:A ;=9 1920 0D N0 , ]5A 30D ], 6=9_, 4,2 70 -
=+ =9 1930 1 =^N 61 =1< Z 40 , 6D ,<, =1< (6 .D -
,< 4,2 =A6 & ;42 7a A6 ^ /2 60 1 4_ :2 , ]1 /`
^7]60? ;1< =A6 ;9? :0 , 52 ;=a6.
V2 ]:a =92 4,5 52 =^N 60< ]9? 70 5^ =1 ;,6
=16 =^N 61 =1< Z 40 , 6D ,< 4,2 =1< Q >:2 4`< ` -
=,6 4? :D A< GA /:+ >92: W, =D<, \2 4+ ;9, T=0 -
:^6, PD: N60:. b .1 9 I4A /4^6 0D N0 04 3^ ;02
=9 1906 ;=9 \, :D ;2, ;=16 , 6, .:9 72 4` =9?
^4 30 ;1 ;=9 X, 5C6 =9? *32 69 ]a :9?, =9 ^: -
/9 KEV -2 :2L, , ]9 .02 46_ 9 6=,< C =2 ? ]`: N,6
06,5 5, 4=2 4^< 5_ ;02< ;=9?< , 4, .1 7,@49_<
4, 6C 60< =1< /5? ]=2 4`<, 4,2 ,? =^< ]:9 ^: N9 -
6=,6 , ]C 0 8A 0? :A ],@49_< ]9 52 =2 ;79_<.
V2 08 ]:0 ;2 9 62 ;=^< /9 1 =0_ =1 4,6 , ]C =16
=^N 61 =A6 TC =2 A6 S, 5,; ;a6 4,2 ?2 9 3^ =1 -
;,6 ^ 6, ]:C /:,7 7, /2 , 6, 0 50? 30 :a ;9?6
=16 =^N 61 =9?< , ]C =9?< ], :, .9 ;2 , 49_< 4, -
6C 60<. I2M ,? =9_< 92 79: >^< =1< =^N 61< =A6
]:A =C /9 6A6 5, a6 ` =,6 =:C ]9< ^4 >:, ;1<
,2; 31 ;2 , 4a6 4,2 7, GD , 3a A6 ? ]+: 80 A6
C]A< =A6 ]:A =9 ]5+ ;=A6 ;=16 & .^7. ' ]:A -
=C /9 61 =^N 61 ^ .2 60 , 4C 7, 72 , 0 ]2 -0 -,D A ;1
/2 , =16 ,? =9 69 7D , =1< 02 4C 6,<, 4+ =2 ]9? 0D -
N0 ` .1 ]:9 -+ 502 9 X0 G+6. V \2 4+ ;9 ]` /0
,4C 7, ], :, ]^ :,, -5^ ]9 6=,< =9 ^: /9 =^N 61<
C N2 A< , 6, ], :+ ;=, ;1 ` .2 , 4C ;71 ;1 ,5 5+
A< 72 , 7, /2 4` , 6=D: :9 ]1 ._ 6, 71 , 60 8+: =1 -
=1 , ]C =16 ]:,/ 7, =2 4C =1 =,.
Åéê. 4.h XCH >CjE (P1*G1%1'+,
1848-1903), Tc <A IA, Z7
R >IA ; XN E;S C; Z (1891-
1893), ;F FQ DA BHK, 8=A -
P LA Cl eND DH >l.
QTQF'YZTYQX T&Q \)VYJ\Q
Åéê. 5. di:E >CHN ; F: -
JC; ; iQ LH _; -
F? IHkE, Gk DH.
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6 D? M; ELH JLHk, Gk DH C;A
SE?K.
264
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nFK Z CG A eON KG @ rNT NG ?VB EL SA KZ PRF IAK PRN
qA OZ PG, RN 1905, PRF :OsP CF LG A LG IOu N L@ CA ]V -
DO@ SVK IAG PrNT CA PRvK RFQ hO eG RE IRN KG IuQ Z COT -
PE RN IZ KF LA b< `s ST OAc, (D+' B25%,'). nN N KX LA -
PAK s RPG, DG A RZ u HE JAK KA JEG RNTO Du PEG VQ Ds ST OA
rNT HA s KV KE X JA RA bE rA KA PRA RG I@ IAG A Ku PT eA
PRNG eEZ Ac, RA N rNZ A HA LNG O@ ]N KRAK LA ]Z RNTQ RFK
E KA KRZ V Pu RNTQ PRNK bE rG SA KEG A IX = LrOE PG N KG PLXc,
X rVQ eA OA IRF OG PRG I@ RNK N KX LA ]AK.
;L SA KZ PRF IE JNG rXK F N L@ CA VQ A KA RON ru RNT
= LrOE PG N KG PLNt IAG LE RFK Rse KF RFQ A KA ]u RF PE XeG
RFK E MV RE OG Iu A Ju HEG A RVK rOAD L@ RVK AJ J@ RFK E -
PV RE OG Iu. hT RX rNT E rG CZ V MAK NG ]V DO@ SNG RNT ;M -
rOE PG N KG PLNt u RAK F @ LE PF IAG AT HXO LF RF sI SOA -
PF RNT E PV RE OG INt BG v LA RNQ. `Gd AT RX, s JE DAK,
srOE rE KA E rG PROs ^NTK PRF Ds KE PF RFQ IAJ JG REe KG -
IuQ CF LG NTO DZ AQ LE LG A DOA Su rOV RX DN KF, PAK KA
LFK EZ eAK rN Rs MA K@ PeE CG @ PEG. < A COX RF RA RFQ
DOA SuQ BOu IE PRFK MT JN DOA SZ A RFK IA Jt RE OF sI -
SOA Pu RFQ. mRF ]V DOA SG Iu EI SO@ PRF IE LE s KRN KA
eOv LA RA IAG RN KG PLs KA rE OG DO@L LA RA, rNT CG A -
PROE BJv KNTK rNJ JsQ SN OsQ RF LNO Su IAG SR@ KNTK
Ls eOG RFK rA OA LXO SV PF.
H N L@ CA b< `s ST OAc CG A Jt HF IE RN 1913, X RAK
rG A F IAG KNt OG A N L@ CA b`A J@ ]G NQ gA BA J@ OFQ c EZ eE
PROA SEZ rONQ RFK A KEG IN KG Iu A KA rA O@ PRA PF.
qON @D DE JNG RNT ;M rOE PG N KG PLNt HE V ONt KRAG N
fAK `IN DI, DG A RFK s KRA PF PRN eOv LA IAG PRN Pes -
CG N, N fsJ DNQ ]V DO@ SNQ [;K PNO, DG A RA DE L@ RA ESG -
AJ RG I@ rOX PV rA sO DA RNT IAG N jNO BF DXQ lNTK I,
DG A RF BA HG @ T rAO MG A Iu A DV KZ A rNT CG A rX RG PE RGQ
LNO SsQ RNT. qF Du s LrKET PFQ RVK EM rOE PG N KG PRvK
u RAK F A SOG IA KG Iu IAG F rOV RX DN KF Rse KF, DG A RN
ROA et IAG PT LrT IKV Ls KN rE OZ DOAL LA RVK LNO SvK
RNTQ.
Åéê. 6. 6.dHNE C (E. M1+"&, 1863-1944), Z` >P ES ;[ (1894), D: -
=A J? FHN J; F:, oJ DH, dHN J?S H dHNE C.
P_ :2 9< ]:9 +/ /0 59< =9? &8 ]:0 ;2 9 62 ;7C_ ,5 5+ 4,2 04 ]:C ;A -
]C< =9?, ]:9 -+5 502 ;=9 ^: /9 =9? =9 ? ],: 82 , 4C .:+ 7, =9?
,6 3:a ]9?, C ]9? 1 7C 61 -0 -,2 C =1 =, 0D 6,2 1 , /A 6D , 4,2 9 3+ -
6, =9<. ' 79: >` ]9? >A 6+ G02 ]:9 -+5 502 ;0 ^ 6,6 , ]02 51 =2 4C
9? :, 6C 4,2 /D 60 =,2 02 4C 6, 0 6C< 0 >2 +5 =1, ]9? =, 5C /2 , .0 3,
7]9 :9_ ;,6 6, =96 ]0 :2 /:+ H9?6.
Åéê. 7. gE JHI (J. E+/,., 1860-1949), Zc B: E; LHK C;A HA F: -
JC?K[, aA j >@, dHN J?S H _; DmE f?] EmE.
V O^5 /9< GA /:+ >9< N:1 ;2 79 ]92 0D ;=1 -, ;2 4` 30 7, =9 59 /D ,
=9? ;_7 -9 5, C ]A< 7+ ;40<, ;40 50 =9_<, 79: >^< .,2 79 62 4^<,
70 =, 9 ]9D , ? ],2 6D; ;0 =,2 4,2 ;,: 4+ G02 =16 ? ]9 4:2 =2 4` ,6 3:a -
]2 61 492 6A 6D ,. ' ]2 60 52 + =9? 0D 6,2 K], ;=a .1< 4,2 ]? 46`L. V2
=C 692 -D ,2 92. V2 7+ ;40< 0D 6,2 ;_7 -9 5, 0 6C< 4C ;79? ]9? ? -
]9 4:D 60 =,2 4,2 , ]9 >0_ /02 6, .02 =9 ], :+ 59 /9 =1< 4, 31 70 :2 -
6`< GA `<.
Åéê. 8. 6I EJL di:I D;] ( E. B.*"&, 1870-1938), ZR> >? DHK[,
dE@ F?S H >A ; LHNK E? CIHkK LHN iH Dj FHN JLH G1/0.,2
(1927), FiIHk ELVHK.
V W]+: 5,N, , 6, G1 =a 6=,< ]D ;A , ]C =, >,2 6C 70 6, =16 , 51 -
32 6` 9? ;D , =9? ,6 3:a ]9?, ;?6 ._ , ;0 =9 ]+ 39< 4,2 =16 =:, -
/A .D , ;0 ^ 6,6 492 6A 62 4+ ;? 602 .1 =9 ]92 1 7^ 69 &8 ]:0 ;2 9 62 ;7C.
Y9 /5? ]=C, 70 /A 62 a .1 4,2 ;=0 :0 9 70 =:2 4` ;N1 7, =9 ]9D 1 ;1,
7,: =? :0D =1 /6a ;1 =1< /5? ]=2 4`< =9? 8_ 59?. V2 >? ;2 4^< >C: -
70< , ]9 .D .9 6=,2 A< ;? 7], /0D< 7+ G0<, 70 ^ 6, ;? /4:, =1 7^ -
69 ;=2 52 G+ :2 ;7,.
6
265
7
8
266
Åéê. 9. _;S L? _QD <AL K (K. K,**2'04, 1867-1945), `N LH iIH JP -
iH >I; MS ; (1926-1936), FiIHk ELVHK.
Y, 3^ 7, =, ]9? ]:,/ 7, =0_ 31 40 1 PC5 -2= < 0D 6,2 1 , 352 C =1 =,
=A6 , 6^: /A6, =A6 0: /, =a6, 9 ]C 69< =A6 7, 6+ .A6 ]9? ^ N, -
;,6 =, ],2 .2 + =9?< ;=96 ]C 50 79. V N, 7C< =9? /2 9? =1< /5_ -
]=:2 ,< ;=96 ]C 50 79 =1 .D ., 80 + 70 ;, =96 ,6 3:a ]2 69 ]C 69.
X=9 ^: /9 =1< >,D 60 =,2 6, ;? 7]? 46a 69 6=,2 9 ]:9 ;A ]2 4C< 4,2
9 ], 6,6 3:a ]2 69< ]C 69<, ,5 5+ 4,2 1 ._ 6, 71 6, =96 ? ]9 7^ -
602.
Åéê. 10. _SI ]E?I (E. K'."&+$., 1880-1938), hIH JP iH >I; MS ;
LHN n. ^;E bL? ^jD EL? (1917), GN DH >I; MS ;*, dQ E; -
]H, _I; LA Cl e]H Dl XI; MA CmE f?] EmE.
V2 GA /:+ >92 =1< KI^ >? :,<L , 82 9 ]9D 1 ;,6 =16 8? 59 /:, >D ,,
/2, =D 70 ,? =C =9 7^ ;9 7]9 :9_ ;,6 6, , ]9 .a ;9?6 =9 , .:C 4,2
=9 , 4, =^: /, ;=9 =1< 79: >`< ]9? 0 ]0 .D A 4,6, 0 6a =9 ^: /9 /2 -
6C =,6 K.1 79 4:, =2 4C =0 :9L, , >9_ 1 .? 6, =C =1 =, , 6, ], :, /A /`<
=9? =9 ^ 4, 60 ]:9 ;2 =C ;0 ]0 :2; ;C =0 :9 4C ;79. X_7 >A 6, 70 =9
7, 62 >^ ;=9 =9?<, 1 =^N 61 0D 6,2 N02 :A 6, 4=2 4` .9? 502 +, ? ]C 30 -
;1 =9? N0 :2 9_, 4,2 9 GA /:+ >9<, /2 , 6, 8, 6, -:0D =2< N, 7^ -
60< , 8D 0< =1< GA /:, >2 4`< =9?, ]:^ ]02 6, /? :D ;02 ]D ;A ;=16
,: N`, ;=9 , 4, =^: /, ;=9, ;=9 , .:C =A6 79: >a6, K;,6 6, 716
` 80 :0 ]9 =^ 6, GA /:, >D G02L.
V I,5+G29< P,-,5+:1< ( De! Bla$e Rei#e!)
nFK Z CG A E rN eu rNT PRN qA OZ PG IA HG E OV KX RAK N gT -
BG PLXQ, PRN lX KA eN N fA PZ JG gA KRZK PIT (!#33+-8
K#/&+/3,8, 1866-1944) Z COT E RN b`A J@ ]G N gA BA J@ -
OFc. lA ]Z RNT NG ]V DO@ SNG ?OAK Q lAO I (F2#/9 lA2 -
%,1880-1916) IAG N h. l@ IE (A5)534 M#%,',1887-
1914). < E rG KX F PF RNT N KX LA RNQ u RAK RNT Z CG NT RNT
gA KRZK PIT, rNT A DA rNt PE G CG AZ RE OA RN DA J@ ]G N
eOv LA, IAG RNT lAO I, rNT eOF PG LN rNG Nt PE PTe K@
RN @ JN DN VQ Hs LA PRF ]V DOA SG Iu RNT.
TN IZ KF LA AO Ku HF IE I@ HE A KA rA OA PRA RG IX u
NO HN JN DG PRG IX PRNG eEZ N PRFK Rse KF. H Rse KF s rOE -
rE KA rF D@ ]EG A rX RFK IA HA Ou rKET LA RG IX RF RA IAG
KA DEK KG s RAG A rX RFK E PV RE OG Iu rA OXO LF PF RNT
CF LG NTO DNt. h KRG R@ eHF IE PRNK gT BG PLX, RNT N rNZ -
NT, E Kv E Ks IOG KE RFK A KA KE V RG Iu CO@ PF, AL SG PBF -
RNt PE RNK NO HN JN DG PLX IAG RNTQ OE A JG PRG INtQ
TrAG KGD LNtQ.
< N L@ CA E Ms CV PE RN 1912 RN Áë ìá íÜê ôïõ Ãá ëÜ -
æé ïõ Êá âá ëÜ ñç, rE OG N CG IX LE RN N rNZ N PT KEO D@ PRF -
IAK rNJ JsQ PtD eON KEQ rON PV rG IX RF REQ, LE RA Mt
RVK N rNZ VK IAG N G PRN OG IXQ jX OG DIEO - rNT EZ KAG IAG
9
10
267
Åéê. 12. ^. _; ELSE JCN (W. K+#'+/)'(, 1866-1944), ekE B? J@
bH 2, D: =A J? FHN J; F:, 0,97 3 1,31 F., bj ; Y QI -
C@, dHN J?S H XCHk >C?E ]:AF.
V P, 6=D6 ;4? , ]C =1 N:A 7, =2 4` ^ 6=, ;1 /:` /9 :, ]^ :, ;0 ;0
72 , GA /:, >2 4` ;=16 9 ]9D , 92 N:A 7, =2 4^< 41 5D .0< 0D N,6 ]+ -
:02 =1 3^ ;1 =A6 , 6=2 402 7^ 6A6. V2 =D= 592 ]9? +: N2 ;0 6, N:1 -
;2 79 ]92 0D /2 , =, ^: /, =9? ;4C ]2 7, ], :^ ]0 7],6 ;=1 79? ;2 4`,
1 9 ]9D ,, A< 79: >` =^N 61<, 0D 6,2 0 40D 61 ]9? 4,=M 0 89 N`6 .06
0 ]2 492 6A 60D 7^ ;A =9? 9 :, =9_ 4C ;79?.
Åéê. 11. 9. d;I C ( F. M." 1880-1916), diD? R DH >; (1911), D: =A J? FHN J; F:, 1,12 3 84,5 F., dQ E; ]H, _I; LA Cl ^A <DA H Bl -
C@.
X=2< ]0 :2; ;C =0 :0< ;?6 3^ ;02< =9? *:,6 < W,: 4 , ]02 49 6D G9 6=,2 Ga ,, /2 , =D =:^ >02 /2M ,? =+ 2 .2 ,D =0 :1 , /+ ]1 4,2 =, 30 A :0D 9 79: -
>C =0 :, , ]C =96 +6 3:A ]9 4,2 , ], :,D =1 =9?< .2 + 70 ;9?< ;=1 ;N^ ;1 =9? 70 =1 >_ ;1.
x RAK LG J@ LE DG A A SF OF Ls KF ]V DOA SG Iu (=A SAG Ov
ArX RF ]V DOA SG Iu RA rO@D LA RA IAG IOA Rv RA rOV -
RAO eG I@ RFQ PRNG eEZ A, rNT EZ KAG RA eOv LA RA, RA Peu -
LA RA, NG DOAL LsQ), A KA SE OX LA PRE Pd E IEZ KF RF ]V -
DOA SG Iu rNT CEK A KA rA OG PR@ rG PR@ RFK rOAD LA RG IX -
RF RA, rNT PT KEG CF R@ AO KEZ RAG KA A rEG IN KZ ]EG PRNG eEZ A
A KA DKV OZ PG LA PRN rE OG B@J JNK.
h KRZ HE RA, CF LG NTO DEZ N rRG I@ G PN Ct KA LA E PV RE OG IvK
IA RA PR@ PE VK.
qON PrA HEZ KA rON PED DZ PEG RN HE A Ru @ LE PA LE RN
Peu LA IAG RN eOv LA.
HE V OF RG IXQ T rN PRF OG eRuQ RFQ N L@ CAQ - N AO eG Rs -
IRN KAQ ls KREJ PNK IAG CG @ SN ONG ]V DO@ SNG. mRN rE -
OG N CG IX PT KT ruO eAK Hs LA RA PtD eON KFQ, JAUIuQ,
rOV RX DN KFQ IAG rAG CG IuQ Rse KFQ. q@ KRN RE X LVQ F
IE KROG Iu G Cs A A SN ONt PE PRF KN F RG Iu PtJ JF ^F Ls -
PV RFQ A SF OF Ls KFQ SXO LAQ, rNT RN KZ ]EG RGQ PTL -
BN JG IsQ IAG ^T eN JN DG IsQ rJET OsQ RNT eOv LA RNQ
IAG RFQ DOAL LuQ.
268
K?-2;7C<
k gT BG PLXQ DEK Ku HF IE LE RN sO DN RNT qG I@ PN
b:E PrNG KZ CEQ RFQ h BG KG XK c, rNT ]V DO@ SG PE A K@ LE -
PA PRN 1906 IAG PRN 1907.
h KA ]F Rv KRAQ IAG KNt OG EQ Pes PEGQ A K@ LE PA PRFK
rOAD LA RG IX RF RA IAG PRFK ^ET CAGP HF RG Iu RFQ A KA -
rA O@ PRA PF, NG IT BG PRsQ ]V DO@ SNG AO KNt KRAG KA
bE MA rA Ru PNTK c RN L@ RG (420.1' -d0'+-) IAG KA rA ONT -
PG @ PNTK RA rO@D LA RA bPAK rOAD LA RG I@c. h SNt F
]V DOA SG Iu E rG S@ KEG A EZ KAG CGP CG @ PRA RF, I@ HE ^ET -
CAGP HF RG Iu rA O@ PRA PF RNT B@ HNTQ EZ KAG ^ET CuQ.
\ET CuQ X LVQ u EJ JG ruQ EZ KAG IAG F rA ONT PZ A PF
EKXQ A KRG IEG Ls KNT LX KN A rX RF LZ A RNT X ^F. nN
AKRG IEZ LE KN s eEG RAT RX eON KA LrONQ, rZ PV, Ls PA IAG
s MV. `Gd AT RX, RN A KRG IEZ LE KN PRNK gT BG PLX rA ONT -
PG @ ]E RAG A rX RGQ rE OGP PX RE ON eA OA IRF OG PRG IsQ
NrRG IsQ DV KZ EQ RNT IAG A KRG LE RV rZ ]E RAG A rX CG A SN -
OE RG IsQ rJET OsQ bPTD eOX KVQ c. k HE A RuQ s eEG RFK
E KRt rV PF X RG RN BJs rEG RFK Z CG A PRGD Lu A rX rNJ JsQ
CG A SN OE RG IsQ X ^EGQ.
mRFK IT BG PRG Iu rOA IRG Iu RN A KRG IEZ LE KN, CG A JT -
Ls KN PRN E rZ rE CN RNT rZ KA IA IAG A KA JT Ls KN PE LG -
IO@ JE rRX RA RA INL L@ RG A X LNG A LE HOAt PLA RA IOT -
PR@J JNT, (h KA JT RG IXQ gT BG PLXQ, 1910-12) E rG CG v -
IE RAG KA EL SA KG PREZ X rVQ EZ KAG PRFK rOAD LA RG IX RF -
RA IAG X eG X rVQ SAZ KE RAG.
< EK PV L@ RV PF Ms KVK rONQ RF ]V DOA SG Iu T JG -
IvK - eAO RZ RA rE RPA OZ AQ, t SA PLA, E SF LE OZ CEQ,
ROA rNT JX eAO RA - LE Rs ROE ^E RFK A KA rA O@ PRA PF
RNT A KRG IEG Ls KNT PE rA O@ PRA Pu RNT. nA INJ JF Ls KA
r@ KV PRNK rZ KA IA INL L@ RG A A rX RFK ^@ HA LG AQ IA -
Os IJAQ CF Jv KNTK RFK Z CG A RFK IA Os IJA, rNT MA KA -
CF LG NTO DEZ RAG PRN LT A JX RNT HE A Ru. hT Ru F S@ PF
RNT gT BG PLNt N KN L@ PRF IE mTK HE RG IXQ gT BG PLXQ
(1912-14).
Åéê. 13. h. hA C: JH, Zb? CIl Mk J@ F? W:BAE@ C;IjCD; (1912), D: =A C;A ];ILS L;i?LJ;IS;K iHN i;IAJL:E?A W:B; C;IjCD;K
CHDD@FjEH J? FHN J; F:, PH?A=jK, 0,27]0,35 F., h;ISJA dHNJ?SH hAC:JH.
' N:` ;1 =A6 aie!" colle" (=0 ]2 495 51 7^ 6, N,: =2 +) ;=96 P? -2 ;7C, , 82 9 ]92 ` 31 40 ]:a =, , ]C =96 \2 4+ ;9. Y9 0 ]2 495 51 7^ 69
;=92 N0D 9 7]9 :0D 6, , 6, ], :2 ;=+ ^ 6, , 6=2 40D 70 69 ` 7]9 :0D 6, 502 =9?: /0D A< .2 , 49 ;71 =2 4C ;=92 N0D 9 =1< ;_6 30 ;1<. Y9 49 5+G, 1
06 ;A 7+ =A ;1 8^ 6A6 ]:9< =1 GA /:, >2 4` ? 52 4a6 ]+ 6A ;=96 ]D 6, 4,, 0 ]:C 402 =9 6, 0D 6,2 ^ 6, 4, =, 5? =2 4C /0 /9 6C< /2 , =16 0 8^ 52 -
81 =1< 79 6=^: 6,< =^N 61<.
269
k IAJ JG Rse KFQ PRNK gT BG PLX EZ KAG E JEt HE ONQ KA rAZ MEG A K@ LE PA
PRN rOAD LA RG IX IAG RN ^ET CAGP HF RG IX (rJA PRX). lrN OEZ, DG A KA
rA OA PRu PEG s KA eAO RZ RA rE RPA OZ AQ, KA INJ Ju PEG s KA eAO RZ RA rE -
RPA OZ AQ r@ KV PRNK rZ KA IA IAG KA RN A Su PEG KA rA OA PRu PEG RN Z CG -
N RNK E AT RX RNT. lrN OEZ X LVQ IAG KA ]V DOA SZ PEG, LE RNK rG N ^ET -
CAGP HF RG IX ROX rN, s KA eAO RZ RA rE RPA OZ AQ. lrN OEZ A IX LA KA IX ^EG
RN eAO RZ RA rE RPA OZ AQ PRN Peu LA E KXQ LrNT IA JG Nt, IAG RX RE RN
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LE KN
Åéê. 15. h. hA C: JH (P!*, P'"//,, 1881-1973), ZhH Ll IA F? ; Wj ELA[ (1913-1914), <;F Fj EHK FiIHk ELVHK, 8 =A P LA Cl
X?5 59 /`. ' 4? :2 C =0 :1 0 ]D .:, ;1 ;=1 /5? ]=2 4` =9? 209_ ,2 a 6, , ;4` 31 40 70 =9 ^: /9 =9? \2 4+ ;9, 9 9 ]9D 9< =16 , ]0 50? 3^ :A -
;0 , ]C =2< ], :, .9 ;2 , 4^< =0N 62 4^< 4,2 =, ], :, .9 ;2 , 4+ 3^ 7, =,, N:1 ;2 79 ]92 a 6=,< ^ 6, ;? 696 3_ 50? 7, ? 52 4a6, C ]A< 8_ 59, 7^ -
=,5 59, ;_: 7,, ;]+ /49 ` 4+]92, ^ =92 7, , 6=2 40D 70 6, 4,2 .1 72 9_: /1 ;0 =2< K;? 6,: 79 /^< L (a""emblage). Y9 ^: /9 N? =0_ =1 40 ;0
7]:9_ 6=G9 , ]C ^ 6, ]:C ]5, ;7, ;=9? 9 ]9D 9? =16 49 :? >` N:1 ;2 79 ]92 ` 31 40 72 , ]:,/ 7, =2 4` ;]+ =9? 5, 70 =96 4_ -9 =1< G+ N, -
:1< ]9? N:1 ;2 79 ]92 9_6 92 ]C =0< =9? , H0 6=2 9_, .D 69 6=,< ;=9 ;_ 69 59 =1 79: >` 0 6C< >, 6=, ;=2 49_ ]9 =1 :2 9_. V2 K;? 6,: 79 /^<L,
C ]9? /2 , ]:a =1 >9 :+ 69 0D =,2 /5? ]=2 4C , 6=2 40D 70 69 ]9? .06 0D 6,2 9_ =0 5, 80? 7^ 69, 9_ =0 N? =0? 7^ 69 ` ]5, ;7^ 69 ,5 5+ ;? 6,: 79 -
59 /1 7^ 69 , ]C 8^ 6, ]:9< =16 =0 52 4` 79: >` =9? ? 52 4+ ]:9^:N96=,2 ,]C =16 =0N624` =9? P95+G, 1 9]9D, ^70550 6, 0 ]1 :0 + ;02
C 51 =16 =^N 61 =9? 02 49 ;=9_ ,2 a 6, 7^ N:2 =2< 7^ :0< 7,<.
Åéê.14. U. diI;C (G$,.%$ B.-1$, 1882-1963), Z^A H DS C;A C; E: L;[ (1910),
D: =A J? FHN J; F:, ^; JA D?S ;, dHN J?S H dH ELjI E;K fj] E@K.
X=96 P? -2 ;7C 92 79: >^< , 6, 5_ 9 6=,2 ;0 0 ]D ]0 .,, 4, =, 40: 7, =D G9 6=,< =,
, 6=2 40D 70 6, 4,2 =96 ]0 :2 -+5 59 6=, Na :9. Y9 N:a 7,, , ]5A 7^ 69 70 72 4:^<
]2 60 52 ^< 4,2 ]0 :+ ;7, =,, 0D 6,2 ]0 :2 9 :2 ;7^ 69 ;0 a N:0< 4,2 /4:D G,, 0 6a .0
.2 , >9 :9 ]92 0D =,2 =9 ^ 6, , 6=2 40D 70 69 , ]C =9 +5 59. Q? =C .1 72 9?: /0D ^ 6, 0D -
.9< ;_/ N? ;1< ;=16 02 4C 6,, /2 , =D =, , 6=2 40D 70 6, K.0 .2 , -+ G9 6=,2L , ]C =9
30 , =`, 9 9 ]9D 9< .06 7]9 :0D 6, 80 NA :D ;02 =, 0 ]D ]0 ., ]9? , 6` 49?6 ;0 4+ -
30 , 6=2 40D 70 69. Y9 ]:C -51 7, 5_ 31 40 70 =16 ]:9; 3` 41 02 .2 4a6 ;?7 -C 5A6 -
N, :, 4=1 :2 ;=2 4a6 =9? 4+ 30 , 6=2 402 7^ 69?. X=9 ^: /9 ,? =C =, 4502 .2 + 4,2 92
N9: .^< =9? -2 9 52 9_, =9 N0 :9_ 52 4,2 =9 ;=C 72 9 =1< 4, 6+ =,<, K0 81 /9_6 L ;=9
30 , =` C =2 ,? =^< 92 >C: 70< , 6` 49?6 ;M 0 40D 69 =9 , 6=2 40D 70 69. Q: /C =0 :,,
]:9< ,? =` =16 4, =0_ 3?6 ;1 3, ;?6 .:+ 702 4,2 =9 49 5+G, ]9? 3, 02 ;, /+ /02
;=92 N0D , =1< ]:,/ 7, =2 4C =1 =,<.
270
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k ?NT RNT OG PLXQ EZ KAG s KA IZ KF LA RNT N rNZ NT NG
AO esQ CG A RT rv KN KRAG PRN lG J@ KN RN 1908 A rX RNK
rNG F Ru lA OG Ks RG (F. T. M#2+/'44+,1876-1944), E Kv RN
?NT RNT OG PRG IX lA KG Ss PRN CF LN PG Et E RAG RN 1909
PRN qA OZ PG. mRGQ E MAD DE JZ EQ RNT N lA OG Ks RG Iu OT ME
RN Rs JNQ RFQ Rse KFQ RNT rA OEJ HX KRNQ (L'
P#33+3.') IAG RF DsK KF PF LG AQ Rse KFQ RNT LsJ JN -
KRNQ (L' F5452+3.'). ErG CZ V MF RVK = RA JvK IAJ JG REe -
KvK EZ KAG F Cs PLET PF RFQ IZ KF PFQ r@ KV PRNK rZ KA -
IA. x rVQ N gT BG PLXQ bIA RA IEO L@ RG ]Ec RN A KRG IEZ -
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N ?NT RNT OG PLXQ IA RA RE L@ eG PE RFK IZ KF PF, rA ONT -
PG @ ]N KRAQ PRFK EG IN KG PRG Iu E rG S@ KEG A RGQ CG @ SN OEQ
S@ PEGQ RFQ. < IZ KF PF DG A RNTQ ?NT RNT OG PRsQ Pu -
LAG KE RFK sI SOA PF LG A Ks AQ ET AGP HF PZ AQ, LG AQ Ks -
AQ E rN euQ, RFQ E rN euQ RFQ LF eA KuQ, RFQ ROE JuQ
RA et RF RAQ IAG RNT CT KA LG PLNt. mRX eNQ RNT IG Ku LA -
RNQ u RAK LZ A bA JF HG Ku E rA K@ PRA PF RFQ ET AGP HF PZ -
AQ c, F Ou MF LE N RG Cu rN RE rA JAG X, N RG Cu rN RE rA OA -
CN PG A IX PRFK Rse KF. nA A KRG IEZ LE KA CEK T r@O eNTK
LE LN KV Ls KA, X rVQ RZ rN RE CEK T r@O eEG LE LN KV Ls KN
PRFK rOAD LA RG Iu ]V u. nA A KRG IEZ LE KA AJ JF JN Rs LKN -
KRAG IAG Rs LKNTK RAT RX eON KA RN ev ON. kG IAJ JG Rs -
eKEQ RNT ?NT RNT OG PLNt eOF PG LN rNG NtK RNK X ON
bmTD eON KG IX RF RAc DG A KA T rN CF Jv PNTK RFK AJ JF -
JN CG EZP CT PF RVK E rG rs CVK, RNT ev ONT IAG RNT eOX -
KNT, RFQ LNO SuQ IAG RFQ A RLX PSAG OAQ. md AT RX RN
rJAZ PG N NO D@ KV KAK IAG RGQ bSNT RNT OG PRG IsQ BOA -
CGsQ c IT OZ VQ PE Hs A ROA, X rNT RAT RX eON KEQ rA ONT -
Åéê. 16. _:I DH _; I: (C.*, C.., 1881-1966), Zc CQC CA EHK C; <; D: I@K[, D: =A J? FHN J; F:, 8 =A P LA Cl eND DH >l.
' ;_5 51 H1 =1< 4D 61 ;1< 4,2 =A6 ]95 5, ]5a6 ;N^ ;0 A6 ]9? .1 72 9?: /9_6 =,? =C N:9 6, =9 3^ 7, 4,2 9 /_ :A Na :9< 0D 6,2 =9 4^ -
6=:9 =1< , 6, G` =1 ;1< =A6 *9? =9? :2 ;=a6
271
PG @ PEGQ A SF Du PE VK, A rAD DE JG vK rNG F L@ RVK (bJs -
MEGQ E JEt HE OEQ c eV OZQ Pt KRA MF) IAG SNT RNT OG PRG -
IuQ LNT PG IuQ (A KA LEZMEGQ HN Ot BVK A rX LF eA KsQ,
E IOu MEGQ, ROG MZ LA RA, IOAT DsQ I.@.) CF LG NTO DNt PAK
s KA Hs A LA COV Ls KVK rNT PT Ku HVQ RE JEZ V KE LE
rN JT R@ OA eEQ PT LrJN IsQ A K@ LE PA PE A DA KA IRG -
PLs KNTQ HE A RsQ rNT DG NT e@ OG ]AK IAG IAJ JG Rse KEQ
rNT E rG ION RNt PAK RGQ EI CF Jv PEGQ RFQ A rN CN IG LA -
PZ AQ RNTQ.
Q:N2=04=9624` 4,2 *9?=9?:2;7C<
Åéê. 17. ` ELQ EA H e; EL 6 DS ; (A+0,+', S+0\E*', 1888-1916),
d: IA H _A ; LQ E? (M. C&'00,+$, 1891-1957), ZdH ELjI -
E; d@ LIQ iH D@[ (1914).
V2 ._ 9 ,: N2 =^ 4=9 60< ], :9? ;D , ;,6 ;=9 W2 5+ 69 ;N^ .2 , 4,2
]:9 /:+7 7, =, /2 , 72 , K6^ , ]C 51L ;=16 9 ]9D , =, 4? 459 >9 :2 , -
4+ ]:9 -5` 7, =, 0 ]2 5_ 9 6=,2 .2 9 N0 =0_ 9 6=,< =2< ,: =1 :D 0< =1< 4? -
459 >9 :D ,< ;0 .2 , >9 :0 =2 4+ 0 ]D ]0 ., ]+ 6A 4,2 4+ =A , ]C =,
4=D :2 ,. V *9? =9? :2 ;7C< 07 >, 6D G0 =,2 ;=16 ,: N2 =0 4=9 62 4` 7^ -
;, , ]C =96 , ;], ;7C =1< ? ]0: 42 61 =2 4C =1 =,<, =1< :0? ;=C =1 =,<
4,2 =1< 502 =9?: /2 4C =1 =,< ,5 5+ 4,2 =1< ^ 6=, 81< =A6 , 6, 4, 5_ -
H0 A6 =1< 79 6=^: 6,< 0 ]2 ;=` 71< ;=1 ;_/ N:9 61 492 6A 6D ,. X=96
;N0 .2 , ;7C ,? =`< =1< K6^ ,< ]C 51< L 4? :2 ,: N9_6 4=D :2 , =,
9]9D , .2 , 79: >a 69 6=,2 ;0 ]95 5+ 0 ]D ]0 .,, =, 70 /+ 5, _ H1, 1
]5, ;=2 4` 04 70 =+5 50? ;1 =A6 .? 6, =9 =` =A6 =9? 7]0 =C6 4,2 72 ,
6^ , ,2; 31 =2 4` =1< =0N 69 59 /D ,<. Y, ;4D =;, ,? =+ 0 6^ ]60? ;,6
,: /C =0 :, ]95 59_< ,: N2 =^ 4=9 60< 4,2 0 ]1 :^ , ;,6 =16 0 8^ 52 81
=1< ;_/ N:9 61< ,: N2 =0 4=9 62 4`<.
bqOs rEG KA E SEt ONT LE IAG KA eRZ PNT LE RF SNT RNT OG -
PRG Iu rX JF, - rNT KA LNG @ ]EG LE s KA LE D@ JN, rN JT HX -
OT BN KAT rF DEZ N IAG KA EZ KAG PE X JA RA Ls OF RFQ ET IZ -
KF RF, ]V F Ou, CT KA LG Iu. nN SNT RNT OG PRG IX PrZ RG rOs -
rEG KA EZ KAG PAK LG A RE O@ PRG A LF eA Ku. k A KEJ IT PRu -
OAQ CEK rOs rEG rG A KA IOt BE RAG PAK PINT Ju IG PRN
SOs AO RFQ NG IN CN LuQ, IAG NG rE OGR RsQ rG A PI@ JEQ
rOs rEG KA E MA SA KG PRNtK. kG Ks NG A KEJ IT PRu OEQ HA E -
JZP PN KRAG rONQ RA r@ KV PAK SZ CG A A rX PZ CE ON IAG DT -
A JZ. nN PrZ RG A rX LrE RXK, A rX DT A JZ IAG PZ CE ON, eV OZQ
]V DOA SG Iu IAG eV OZQ PRN JZ CG A, LX KN LE RFK N LNO SG @
RVK DOAL LvK RNT IAG RVK LNO SvK RNT, RON LE O@ b@ -
PeF LNc PRF LF eA KG Iu RNT A rJX RF RA, PRN t ^NQ IAG PRN
rJ@ RNQ RNT PtL SV KN LE RGQ rN JE N CN LG IsQ CG A R@ MEGQ,
HA T ^v KE RAG r@ KV A rX RF BNT u LG AQ rN JT HX OT BFQ A -
BtP PNT: r@ KV A rX RN COX LN, rNT CEK A rJv KE RAG rG A
PAK rN CX LA IRON PRN IE SA JX PIA JN, AJ J@ BT HZ ]E RAG
AO IE RNtQ N OX SNTQ I@ RV A rX RFK E rG S@ KEG A RFQ DFQ"
NG X ON SNG AT RNZ E MT rF OE RNtK RFK A PRG Iu IT IJN SN OZ A
IAG PTK Cs N KRAG LE RA Mt RNTQ LE LE RAJ JG I@ DE ST O@ IG A
IAG IT JG X LE KEQ PI@ JEQ c.
h KRX KG N mAKd ; JZ A, nN L@ ]N lA OG Ks RG (T0..#30
M#2+/'44+, 1876-1944), á íé ö% óôï ôçò öïõ ôïõ ñé óôé ê'ò
áñ ÷é ôå êôï íé ê'ò, 1914.
272
Q:N2=04=9624` 4,2 &8]:0;2962;7C<
h rX RA Ls PA RNT 19NT AG v KA F CG A S@ KEG A IAG RN
SVQ EZ KAG RA PtL BN JA RFQ Ks AQ E rN euQ. lE RA Ss -
ONTK RA LF Kt LA RA E KXQ Ks NT IX PLNT: RFK A rE JET -
Hs OV PF RNT AK HOv rNT A rX RN B@ ONQ RNT T JG INt,
RN Rs JNQ RNT CG A eV OG PLNt A K@ LE PA PRN Ls PA IAG
PRN s MV, PRN CG A SA KsQ IAG PRN A CG @ SA KN. x LVQ, RN
DT A JZ PRFK AO eG RE IRN KG Iu s eEG PTK CT A PREZ, IT OZ VQ
PRN rJAZ PG N RFQ b`T @ JG KFQ h JT PZ CAQ c RNT DEO LA KG -
INt ;M rOE PG N KG PLNt, LE RFK sK KNG A RFQ I@ HAO PFQ
IAG RFQ AK HOv rG KFQ PV RF OZ AQ. b< E rG S@ KEG A RFQ
DFQ HA s rAGO KE LG A @J JF EG IX KA, E @K RN DT A JZ A KRG -
IA HG PRNt PE RN RNt BJN PRFK AO eG RE IRN KG Iu... HA
LrN ONt PA LE KA s eNT LE s KAK rA O@ CEG PN PRF DF IAG
CE HA T ruO eE IA LG @ A K@ DIF KA ^@e KNT LE KN PRAJ DG -
I@ DGA @J JNTQ rA OA CEZ PNTQ c, s DOA SE N rNG F RuQ
q@ NTJ ms EO LrAO R (P#5- S%*''2$#24) PRN sO DN RNT
< bÃõ Ü ëé íç Áñ ÷é ôå êôï íé ê'c (G-#3#2%*+4',452) RN
1914.
T0 DT A JZ PE PTK CT A PLX LE RN Ls RAJ JN, IT OZ VQ
LE RN A RP@ JG, CG A rEO K@ RFK bLN KRsO KAc A KRZ JF ^F
RFQ AO eG RE IRN KG IuQ rNT PRX eET E PRF BEJ RZ V PF RVK
PTK HF IvK RFQ ]V uQ RNT AK HOv rNT. < CG A S@ KEG A
RFQ DT @ JG KFQ AO eG RE IRN KG IuQ LrN OEZ KA N CF Du PEG,
LE RF PTL LE RN eu RNT JA Nt, PE s KA Ks N rN JG RG PLX.
mRNG eEZ A AT RNt RNT rN JG RG PLNt HA EZ KAG F E rG PRON -
Su PE LG A bST PG Iuc IA R@ PRA PF RNT AK HOv rNT, PE
LG A ING KV KZ A PTJ JN DG Iu IAG N LNG N DE Ku, NO DA KV Ls KF
Dt OV A rX RFK E JEt HE OF AO eG RE IRN KG Iu sI SOA PF.
nN 1918 G COt HF IE RN A2$'+4342#4 (52 K5/34 (;O DA -
RG IX mTL BNt JG N DG A RFK nse KF), PRX eNQ RNT N rNZ NT
u RAK F rON v HF PF LG AQ Ks AQ AO eG RE IRN KG IuQ DG A
XJNTQ RNTQ AK HOv rNTQ Ls PA A rX RF PTK CON Lu
XJVK RVK REe KvK. mRN rJAZ PG N AT RuQ RFQ N L@ CAQ NG
AO eG Rs IRN KEQ A KA rRtP PNTK LG A E rA KA PRA RG Iu CO@ -
PF LE PRX eN RFK A KNG IN CX LF PF RFQ IA RE PROAL Ls -
KFQ A rX RNK rX JE LN ING KV KZ AQ RFQ `EO LA KZ AQ. <
AO eG RE IRN KG Iu HA A rN RE JNt PE RN bIA RA PIET A PRG IX
rKEt LAc RFQ CF LN IOA RG IuQ `EO LA KZ AQ. < N L@ CA HA
CG A JT HEZ LE RNK EO eN LX RNT KA ]G PLNt.
' Y^N61 ;=`6 &55+.,
< EJ JF KG Iu Rse KF CEK A IN JNt HF PE RGQ ET OV -
rAUIsQ rOV RN rN OZ EQ LE RN OTH LX rNT E IEZ KEQ E KAJ -
J@P PN KRAK. h IN JNt HF PE @J JF CG A CON Lu, RNT J@ eG -
PRNK eON KG Iu, IAG LX KN LE R@ RF CEt RE OF CE IA E RZ A
RNT 20Nt AG v KA PT KRN KZ PRF IE LE RFK ET OV rAUIu
Rse KF. h IOG BvQ PRN Dt OG PLA RNT AG v KA rs HA KAK NG
LE D@ JNG C@ PIA JNG RFQ KE N EJ JF KG IuQ ]V DOA SG IuQ.
nN 1901 N jG IX JA NQ `t ]FQ IAG RN 1904 N jG IF SX -
ONQ it ROAQ. mE AT R@ RA rOv RA eOX KG A RNT AG v KA F
EJ JF KG Iu Rse KF Hs JF PE KA A rN CE PLET REZ A rX RFK
rON PIXJ JF PF PRA A IA CF LAUI@ rOX RT rA IAG EL S@ -
KG PE LG A AO Du AJ J@ PRA HE Ou A KA KE V RG Iu rN OEZ A. h -
Åéê. 18. E6 IA] dj EL?D JHE (E.'"& M$+#$*/,&+), Zc hkI >HK LHN
`OEJL:AE[ (1919-1923), hQ LJEL;F.
V W^ 6=05 ;96 ^ /2 60 /6A ;=C< , ]C =9 1919 /2 , =, ;4D =;, =1<
>, 6=, ;=2 4`< ,: N2 =0 4=9 62 4`< ]9? ;N0 .D , G0. c =,6 =9? .C 31 40
1 0? 4,2 :D , 6, ;N0 .2 + ;02 =96 ]_: /9 - , ;=:9 69 72 4C ], :, =1 :1 -
=` :2 9 4,2 4^ 6=:9 0 ]2 ;=1 79 62 4`< ^ :0? 6,<, =C =0 3^ 51 ;0 6,
]:,/ 7, =9 ]92 ` ;02 ^ 6, , ]C ,? =+. ' 40 6=:2 4` 2 .^ , =9? ^: /9?
`=,6 ^ 6, 4=D :2 9 , ]C =;2 7^ 6=9, ]9? /06 62 ^ =,2 7^ ;, , ]C ^ 6, 4, -
59_ ]2. [ 6, 4=D :2 9 ]9? ]5+ 30 =,2 C ]A< ^ 6, /5? ]=C 4,2 C ]9? 1
502 =9?: /D , ;?6 .? + G0 =,2 70 =1 79: >`. V2 ]5, ;=2 4^< .? 6, =C -
=1 =0< =9? ? 52 49_ 3, , ]0 50? 3^ :A 6,6 =16 ,: N2 =0 4=9 62 4`, 4,2 92
79: >^< =1< 3, 7]9 :9_ ;,6 6, , 6, ]=? N39_6 70 ]5` :1 0 50? -
30 :D ,. c 7A<, 1 .? ;49 5D , =1< 4, =, ;40? `< =A6 4, 59? ]2 a6 4,2
2 .D A< =A6 4, 7]_ 5A6 79: >a6 9 .` /1 ;,6 ;=9 4=D ;2 79 =9? 4=2 -
:D 9? 70 =9_ -5, ]9? 0 ]2 4, 5_ >31 4,6 70 =;2 7^ 6=9. Q ]9 =0 50D 72,
]:,/ 7, =9 ]9D 1 ;1 =1< 08 ]:0 ;2 9 62 ;=2 4`< ,: N2 =0 4=9 62 4`< 70 =+
=96 QE \, /4C ;72 9 \C 50 79.
273
Åéê. 19. _PE JL; ELS EHK d; Dj ;K (1879-1928), ZfH iS H L@K `L LA ClK[ (1920 i? IS iHN), D: =A J? ];I LQ EA, 0,31 3 0,44 F., ` Bl E;,
dHN J?S H ^Hk IHN -6N L; GS ;.
Q ]C =9?< [5 51 60< ]9? 0 ]1 :0 +; 31 4,6 , ]C =1 GA /:, >2 4` =A6 *A-, NA :D< C 7A< 6, 7]9 :9_6 6, =,? =2 ;=9_6 0 6=0 5a< 7, GD =9?<,
0D 6,2 9 W, 5^ ,<. Q ]C =, 4_ :2 , N, :, 4=1 :2 ;=2 4+ =1< .9? 502 +< =9?, .2 , 4:D 69? 70 K=1 /0 :`, ,: N2 =0 4=9 61 7^ 61 .9 7`, =16 ^ 6=9 61 =+ -
;1 ]:9< =16 , ]59 ]9D 1 ;1, =9 /0 A 70 =:2 ;7C, ;=92 N0D , ]9? 0D N,6 A< , ]9 =^ 50 ;7, 6, 4, =9: 3a 602 6, , ]9 .D .02 .D NA< :1 =9 :0D 0<
=16 4:?7 7^ 61 H? N2 4C =1 =, =9? 30 , =9_ 4C ;79?. Y2< , :0 =^< ,? =^< ^: N0 =,2 6, 0 62 ;N_ ;02 72 , ]59_ ;2 ,, ^ 6=9 61 N:A 7, =2 4` .2 + 30 ;1,
70 -+ ;1 4, 3, :+ N:a 7, =, ` =9 62 4^< .2 , -,3 7D ;02< 4,2 , 6=2 3^ ;02<, ]9? ;N1 7, =D G9?6 ;?N 6+ N:A 7, =2 4^< 61 ;D .0< L, Y. X]1 =^ :1<,
fI?AK ;A m E?K b? H ?D D@ EA ClK Lj] E@K, Q 3` 6,, 1979, ;.62.
IX LA IAG F PT KRF OF RG Iu IOG RG Iu, LE RGQ rON CG A DE -
DOAL Ls KEQ rONP CN IZ EQ A rX RNK IAJ JG Rse KF IAG RN
sO DN RNT, E rE Pu LA KE X RG F Rse KF EZ eE SR@ PEG PE
ACG s MN CN Ls PA A rX RFK E rA K@ JF ^F RVK HE L@ RVK
IAG RVK EI SOA PRG IvK Ls PVK, IAG F s LrKET PF s LNG -
A ]E rG A KA PRE OEt EG.
< CG @ HE PF A KA Ks V PFQ S@ KF IE X RAK, PRF Hs PF
RNT A IA CF LAUINt OE A JG PLNt IAG RFQ F HN DOA SZ AQ
LE RGQ A IA CF LAUIsQ AO esQ (rG PRX RF RA PRN LN KRs JN,
IA JN CNT JE Ls KN eOv LA, E rG LN Ku PRGQ JE rRN Ls OEG -
EQ), PRA CG A I@ NG ]V DO@ SNG CNt JE ^AK RFK RN rG N DOA -
SZ A LE CG @ HE PF KA CNTK RN RN rZ N I@ RV A rX RN @ rJE -
RN EJ JF KG IX SVQ. lG IOsQ AJ J@ PRA HE OsQ A KA RON -
rsQ PRFK EG IA PRG Iu sI SOA PF, F DOu DN OF rG KE JG @, s -
KA Pes CG N JG DX RE ON PSG IRX PRN rE OZ DOAL L@ RNT, F
A KA ]u RF PF RFQ sI SOA PFQ Ls PA A rX RFK E rZ rE CF
rA O@ HE PF RVK eOV L@ RVK, RN OET PRX eOv LA rON E -
RNZ LA PAK RN s CA SNQ DG A RNK rEG OA LA RG PLX IAG RFK
A KA ]u RF PF.
nN 1917, PRFK IA HN OG PRG IuQ PF LA PZ AQ sI HE PF
RFQ bk L@ CAQ nse KFQ c, A K@ LE PA PE @J JNTQ A KRG SA -
RG INtQ IAJ JG Rse KEQ, EI Hs RNTK NG ROEGQ rOV RN rX ONG
]V DO@ SNG, rNT HA A KNZ MNTK N OG PRG I@ RN COX LN DG A
RGQ IAG KNt OG EQ R@ PEGQ: N gVK PRA KRZ KNQ qAO Hs KFQ
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274
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Åéê. 30. [C <G GBM hkP KS kJP FJM (1912-1990), ]hA FU ?= eJ 7^
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_lM^ (1969), F< ?C LA k= GU, 1,56 4 2,95H., b Dn G=, 9 -
?C R NC En hPF FJ @n.
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(1929), H<K H= KJ, m YJM 0,61H., b Dn G=, 7 DGC En jC G= -
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Åéê. 33. c< X= KJM c= Hl K=M (1913-), ]6m J EJ klFAM^ (1950),
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=Eq CA D@ QL A D<M_ @ HI `qF GIJ Nq Mo` FAL. 7 < GIB -
=<T < >O KnB KMT < D<B D< `O nI YT < nIO @T `@ @ nB No J@B
MIF WO `JR mR E@ GI G@ M< Hp MQF >p I O n@J >O F; G@ -
QF, c G@ JB DqL D<B 9Q KT <L, @T `@ @ nB nMr K@BL D<B KMIF
nI EB MB KMB DR MI Go <.
jAF T >B < KMB? Gq nIO KMA iI =B @ MB Dq l FQ KA A Mo -
3FA o Gn<B F@ QL nJI n< ?<F >B KMB DR RJ ?< FI KMAF O -
nA J@ KT < MIO D< C@ KMr MIL D<B >B < DA JOK KR M<F I iI -
KB < EB KMB DRL 9@ < EB KGRL, KMAF c G@ JB Dq, @D NJ< KMqL
MIO < FMT C@ MIO nR EIO D<B MAL 5A GI DJ< MT <L ?B FR M<F
A c NA JA Go FA jo` FA.
ZB < F< < nI >I CIpF M< J@p G< M< MAL c N<T J@ KAL,
o `IOF `JA KB GI nIB A C@T, MR KI KMAF c G@ JB Dq R KI D<B
KMAF 6O Jr nA, R JIB R nQL c NA JA Go FIL 6H nJ@ KB I FB -
KGRL, dO JB Dq c N<T J@ KA, s@B JI FI GB < Dq jo` FA, R EIB
>R DB GIB ?B < F< < nI >r KIOF <O MoL MBL Fo @L D< M@O -
CpF K@BL KMAF jo` FA.
@ -)&J%(+ Å'I)å*!(%!*&1+
g R JIL \< NA JA Go FIL @H nJ@ KB I FB KGRL ] `JA KB -
GI nIB q CA D@ ?B < nJr MA NI J; MI 1919, ?B < F< n@ JB -
?J< NIpF D; nIB < oJ ?< MIO b< FMTF KDO. 7 ;E EA I FI -
Åéê. 1. 9I; ELK \D:AE (F-a*5 K(&*", 1910-1962), iO IRK LRL DH
(1960), C;F <:K, 1,50 3 0,80 F., [; Ie T?, 7 =A O LA Cg aND -
DH >g.
C! &å ãÜ $å+ á *I)1 &á. )å+ *.% "J *å!+ ,(. ?$Ü!% =á )á #, )2 5( -
%,á! á I( ,!+ ,)á =! J+, &å ãÜ $å+ I! %å $! J+ - ( #á$ $! ,J= %+ =) -
*! &( I(! (K *å #(! %Ü I! %J $á #á! =)M &á ,á å $á! ( =)0 &á ,! *,L -
#á! ,% ,($ & )L ! *() )( I2 á á %Ü &å *á *,( $å. #1 #á! *,( &áK -
)(.
313
G< KT < nIO `JA KB GI nIB @T M<B ?B < F< n@ JB ?J; Y@B MIOL
D<E EB Mo` F@L nIO o >J< K<F < F; G@ K< KMBL >@ D< @ MT @L
MIO ^50 D<B MIO ^60 @T F<B \i`I Eq MAL fo <L [ RJ DAL].
5p I @D Co K@BL nIO IJ ?; FQ K@ MI hIO K@T I ip? `JI -
FAL jo` FAL, A nJr MA MI 1951 G@ MTM EI \c NA JA Go FA
XQ ?J< NB Dq D<B ?EO nMB Dq KMAF c G@ JB Dq] D<B A >@p M@ -
JA \7 Fo < < G@ JB D< FB Dq XQ ?J< NB Dq], n@ JB R >@O K<F
(1957-58) K@ I DMr @O JQ n<PDoL `r J@L D< CB @ Jr FI -
FM<L <E E; D<B < nI C@ r FI FM<L >B @ CFrL MI FoI KMBE.
l F< < nR M< =< KB D; `< J< DMA JB KMB D; KMBL >A GB -
IOJ ?T @L MQF c G@ JB D< FrF D<E EB M@` FrF @T F<B M< G@ -
?; E< G@ ?o CA MQF nB F; DQF, nIO n@ JB =;E EIOF K`@ -
>RF I EI DEA JQ MB D; MIF n< J< MA JA Mq D<B MIF @ ?DEQ -
=T XIOF Go K< KMIF DR KGI MIO oJ ?IO. 7 KpF C@ KA @T -
F<B DO JT <J `A (,2#.-!))), D< CrL MI oJ ?I O n@J =<T F@B
K`@ >RF M< R JB < MIO nT F< D<, D<B >@F O n;J `@B o F< KO -
?D@ DJB Go FI KA G@T I @ KMT < KAL.
iMIF c NA JA Go FI 6H nJ@ KB I FB KGR H@ `Q JT XIOF
>p I Dp JB @L M; K@BL. 7 nJr MA @T F<B A ZQ ?J< NB Dq MAL
5J; KAL, A >@p M@ JA @T F<B A VQ ?J< NB Dq MIO sJQ G< -
MB DIp n@ >T IO.
40ã)á-!#L ,+ Ä)Ü*+
g DJB MB DRL s; JIE FM 9R X@F Gn@J ?D, nIO nJR M@B F@
MIF R JI 5O F< GB Dq VQ ?J< NB Dq, o ?J< N@ MI 1952: \g
GIO K< G;L ;J `B K@ nB < F< < FMB G@ MQ nT X@ M<B < nR MIF
o F< XQ ?J; NI G@ M; MIF ;E EI QL n@ >T I >J; KAL D<B
R `B QL o F<L `r JIL R nIO < F< n< J; ?@ M<B, < F< Ep @ M<B
q \@D NJ; X@ M<B] o F< < FMB D@T G@ FI, O n<J DMR q N< FM< -
KMB DR. cO MR nIO C< NB EI H@ FIp K@ nB < I GIO K< G;L
>@F q M<F GB < @B DR F< <E E; o F< ?@ ?I FRL. g XQ ?J; -
NIL >@F nEA KT < X@ nB < MI D< =< Eo MI MIO G@ GB < @B DR -
F< KMI GO < ER MIO, A @B DR F< Mr J< C< q M<F MI < nI -
Mo E@ KG< MAL KO F; FMA KAL MQF O EB DrF nIO @T `@ KM<
`o JB < MIO G@ o F< ;E EI O EB DR nIO @T `@ GnJI KM;
MIO]. jI < FMB D@T G@ FI < nR MA XQ ?J< NB Dq @ HI =@ ET X@ -
M<B, \?B < F< GAF O n;J `@B MT nI M< nIO F< n< J@ GnI >T -
X@B MAF nJ; HA MAL XQ ?J< NB DqL....<O MR nIO o `@B KA -
G< KT < @T F<B n; FMI M@ A < nI D; EO YA nIO @ Gn@ JB o `@B A
nJ; HA MAL XQ ?J< NB DqL ]. ZB < MIOL XQ ?J; NIOL MAL
\!"0',+ -!'+0'+%] <O MR nIO @T `@ KA G< KT < q M<F A T >B<
A nJ; HA MAL MI nI Co MA KAL MIO `Jr G< MIL KMI GIO -
K< G;. j< <BK Cq G< M< D<B M< KO F<BK Cq G< M; MIOL >@F
< n@B DI FT XI FM<F nB <, <E E; \>B < >J< G< MT XI FM<F ] @ n; -
FQ KMI GIO K< G;.
g DO JB R M@ JIL @B KA ?A MqL MAL VQ ?J< NB DqL MAL
5J; KAL, I jX;D KIF mRE EID, I I nIT IL C@ Q J@T M<B
D<B n< Mo J<L MAL < G@ JB D< FB DqL XQ ?J< NB DqL, >@F
@FM; `CA D@ nI Mo K@ D< GB ; I G; >< Ip M@ ; NA K@ @ nB ?R -
FIOL. m<J_ R E< <O M;, D<B DO JT QL < nR ; nI YA B >B I -
KO ?DJ< KT <L, KO FA CT X@ M<B F< < F< No J@ M<B G< XT G@
MIOL fM@ bIp FBF ?D, :. bE;BF, MIF @E EA FB DqL D< M< -
?Q ?qL hn< XB r MA (W. B!4',0#/, 1912-1963) D.;.,
nIO C@ Q JIp FM<B Dp JB IB @D nJR KQ nIB MAL VQ ?J< NB -
DqL MAL 5J; KAL.
Åéê. 2. [. _L? \Hf EAE >C (W&((") D" K++*&*$,1904-1997),
XVNE;RC;Y (1949), D:=A, JF:DLH C;A C:I<HNEH J?
FHNJ;F:, 1,53Z1,21 F. ]EP<?IH, 7=. aNDDH>g.
C B,å ?(K %!% ã# äå% á I( äJ =, #å å %,å $M+ ,!+ á) =J+ ,+ #á -
"á )L+ #á! á I1 $. ,+ á -á2 )å *+ #á! äå% J Iá 6å I( ,J %á . I( -
ä $M %å! &å ä! Ü -( )á *=L &á ,á *,( J) ã( ,(. á% ")M I! %å+ L
Ü$ $å+ &() -J+. C! I2 %á #J+ ,(. å2 %á! å I! "å ,! #(2 #á! â2 á! (!, #. -
)! á) =(K %,á! á I1 6. =)Ü =)M &á ,á, #á! . -L ,(.+, Iá =! Ü #á!
âá )! Ü, äå2= %å! *á% %á J =(.% ä(. $å. ,å2 'á %Ü #á! 'á %Ü.
314
g 9RC DI G< XT G@ ;E EIOL XQ ?J; NIOL MI 1943 o ?J< -
Y<F KMIOL fB IO ZB IJ D j;BG L GB < n@ JT NA GA nB < @ nB KMI -
Eq, KMAF I nIT < < Fo N@ J<F: \ZB < G<L A Mo` FA @T F<B GT <
n@ JB no M@B < K@ o F<F ; ?FQ KMI DR KGI, nIO GR FI R KIB @T -
F<B o MIB GIB F< >B < DBF >O F@p KIOF GnI JIpF F< MIF @ H@ -
J@O Fq KIOF. 6T G< KM@ O noJ MAL < nEqL oD NJ< KAL n@ JT -
nEI DQF KDo Y@ QF. 6T G< KM@ O noJ MQF G@ ?; EQF >B < KM; -
K@ QF, ?B < MT @T F<B EB ?R M@ JI >B NI JIp G@ F@L. 6T G< KM@
OnoJ MAL >BK >B ; KM< MAL NRJ G<L, ?B < MT D< M< KMJo N@B
MAF Y@O ><TK CA KA D<B < nI D< Ep nM@B MAF < Eq C@B <...5A -
Er FIO G@ nF@O G< MB Dq KO? ?o F@B < G@ MAF nJQ MR ?I FA D<B
MAF <J `<PDq Mo` FA].
40ã)á-!#L ,(. N)0&á,!#(K Håä2(.
jI ;E EI MGq G< MIO c NA JA Go FIO 6H nJ@ KB I FB -
KGIp < FMB nJI Kr n@O <F IB XQ ?J; NIB MIO sJQ G< MB -
DIp m@ >T IO. c F; G@ K< KMIOL @D nJI Kr nIOL MIO
qM<F I I h<J D 9RC DI (M!.( R,0&(,,1903-1970).
unQL I fM@ bIp FBF ?D o N@ J@ KMAF c G@ JB Dq MIF 6H -
nJ@ KB I FB KGR, I h<J D 9RC DI o N@ J@ MIF 8 GnJ@ KB I FB -
KGR. 7 nJI n<B>@T< MIO q M<F MI oJ ?I MQF KIO J@ < -
EB KMrF D<B MIO h< MTL. l F<L nT F< D<L MIO 9RC DI G@
M< G@ ?; E< `JQ G< MB D; IJ CI ?r FB < nIO <E EA EI D< Ep -
nMI FM<B q < FMB n< J< MT C@ FM<B, G@ o F< `Jr G< =< Cp D<B
?< Eq FB I < DR G< D<B MJ< ?B DR, >@F @T F<B < nErL GB < XQ -
?J< NB Dq @ nB N; F@B <, @T F<B sk 9gi. 6T F<B o DM< KA nIO
>I F@T M<B < nR `Jr G< D<B NQL `Q JTL nJR KQ n< q
nJ;? G< M<. iMR `IL MIO q M<F F< n@ JB E; =@B, F< n; J@B
Go K< MIO MI C@ < Mq, F< MIO < FIT H@B `r JI KMA N< FM< -
KT <.
Ç 8$.I,!#L *,L Då,áI($å&!#L @&å)!#L
hB < < nR MBL DO JB R M@ J@L D< M@O CpF K@BL nIO < DI -
EIp CA K<F IB ?Ep nM@L KMAF c G@ JB Dq q M<F MAL ; G@ -
KAL D< M@J ?< KT <L KNO Jq E< MIO G@ M;E EIO. hB < ?EO -
nMB Dq DIF KMJIO DMB =B KMB Dq, nIO KMA JT `CA D@ KMI
KOF >O < KGR D< M< KD@O < KGo FQF KMIB `@T QF < nR Go -
M<E EI q @O JA G; MQF, o MIB GQF >A E< >q G@ M<E EB DrF q
;E EQF KMIB `@T QF nIO < HB I nIB Ip FM<B ?B < MAF nE< KMB -
DR MA M; MIOL, A I nIT < qJ C@ K@ nEq JA < FMT C@ KA G@
MBL GIJ NoL MAL n< J< >I KB < DqL ?EO nMB DqL.
Åéê. 3. `;IC 8PBCH (Ma-' R+/%'+,1903-1970), XSO>I;MACg
;IAB. 26Y (1947), C;F<:K, _e; WPIC@, 7=AOLACg
aNDDH>g.
C! I2%á#å+ ,(. 50ã)Ü-(. ä!á#)2%(%,á! ã!á ,(% I%å.&á,!#1,
*=åä1% ")*#å.,!#1 =á)á#,L)á ,(.+, å%M J%á *,(!=å2(
#á,Ü"$!6+ #á! 51-(. å2%á! IÜ%,(,å Iá)1%. @Iá!,(K% áI1 ,(
"åá,L *!0IL, Iå)!*.$$(ãL, áI1$., áI())1-*.
Åéê. 4. _L. aFAB (Da1&! S)&/%, 1906-1965), X\f<HAY,
;EHG?R=OLH ;LJ:DA (1963), ^HE=REH, beAL VC:D?IA.
C E&!", á.,(ä2äá#,(+ ã$KI,+, áI1 ,(.+ *&á%,!#1,å)(.+
,+ &å,áI($å&!#L+ @&å)!#L+, å%,å$M+ á%åI)Já*,(+ áI1 ,%
á#áä&á/#L ã$.I,!#L, å)ãÜ*,#å *,( &J,á$$( á#(K)á*,á #á!
ä(#2&á*å %á äM*å! &%&å!á#J+ ä!á*,Ü*å!+ *,á &å,á$$!#Ü
ã$.I,Ü ,(., å#&å,á$$å.1&å%(+ ,!+ å#-)á*,!#J+ ä.%á,1,,å+
,0% ãå0&å,)!#M% *=&Ü,0% #á! ,0% *,!$I%M% åI!-á%å!M%
I(. á%,á%á#$(K% ,( -0+, á$$Ü #á! áI())(-(K% ,( =)M&á
,(. Iå)!âÜ$$(%,(+ =M)(..
3
4
315
Åéê. 5. bT. \HIEeD (J+.",% C+-*"((, 1903-1972), X7;LIACPK
\?IF;LH=eCL@KY (1942), C;L;JC?Ng, 0,34 3 0,39 3
0,11 F., _e; WPIC@, 7=AOLACg aNDDH>g.
C ?()%J$, &å *,)á&&J% ,% I)(*(=L ,(. *å 1$( ,( -Ü*&á
,+ ,J=%+ #á! ,+ $(ã(,å=%2á+ ,(. ä.,!#(K #1*&(.,
*.%J"å*å &å #($Ü5 #(.,!Ü - 'K$!%å+ #á,á*#å.J+ #$å!*,J+
&I)(*,Ü &å ,5Ü&! - 1I(. &J*á ,(I("å,(K*å á%,!#å2&å%á,
-0,(ã)á-2å+, =Ü),å+, 1$á -(),!*&J%á áI1 %(*,á$ã2á #á!
"($J+ á%á&%L*å!+.
Ç 40ã)á-!#L #á! 8$.I,!#L *, Då,áI($å&!#L
Å.)MI
U7 >A nJBF < nR MI aU m< ?DR KGB I mR E@ GI, KMI m< -
JT KB o F< DI KGI nI ET MB DI DET G< < FM<E E< ?qL < nR Y@ -
QF < F; G@ K< KMIOL D<E EB Mo` F@L nIO @T `<F D< M< NM; -
K@B @ D@T < nI R E< M< Go JA MAL 6O Jr nAL @T `@ >A GB -
IOJ ?q K@B <O MR nIO I FI G; KMA D@ i`I Eq MIO m< JB -
KBIp. U7 M<F nB I nI Ep o F< KA G@T I KO F; FMA KAL MQF
Fo QF < Fq KO `QF >A GB IOJ ?rF G@ MIOL G@ ?; EIOL >< -
KD; EIOL MAL Mo` FAL (mB D; KI, h< MTL, hnJ<D), R nIO
R E< M< KMBE D<B RE@L IB C@ Q JT @L q M<F < nI >@ DM; D<B
R nIO A Mo` FA @T `@ < nI DMq K@B @ D@T FA MAF @ E@O C@ JT <
< F< Xq MA KAL nIO KMBL ;E E@L `r J@L MAL 6O Jr nAL
M< <O M<J `B D; D< C@ KMr M< @T `<F n@ JB I JT K@B. i< ?D;E,
jXB < DI Go MB, hnJ<F DIp XB, hI FMB EB ; FB @T F<B GR FI ET ?<
Åéê. 6. \. `dI;E CHf TA (C+*./a*/&* B-a*0.&, 1876-1957),
XcHN DR JLH =A : JL@ F;Y (1928), H I?R Z;D CHK, f UHK 1,37.
E,( "J &á á. ,1 ( ã$K I,+ å Iá %L$ "å Iå )2 I(. 15 -( )J+. E,(
ã$. I,1 *. &I. #%M %å ,á! #2 % * #á! ä2 %å ,á! á2* " * á Iå -
$å. "J )0 *+ á I1 , âá )K , ,á &å &! á #á "á )1 , ,á I(. =á )á -
#, )2 5å! 1 $( ,( J) ã( ,(. ã$K I,. Ç á I$L -1) &á, &å ,% #á -
"á )1 , ,Ü ,+, å %á) &( %2 5å! ,% á å )( ä. %á &! #L &() -L, ,% () -
ãá %! #L 50 ,! #1 , ,á #á! ,% á) &( %2 á ,(. I(. $! (K.
316
< nR M< I FR G< M< MQF D<E EB M@` FrF nIO @T `<F KO ?D@ -
FMJQ C@T KMI m< JT KB MAL @ nI `qL. jI DI KGI nI ET MB DI
DET G<, <O MR nIO @ Ho CJ@ Y@ MAF @ E@O C@ JT < MAL oD -
NJ< KAL KMAF Mo` FA, @ Ho EB n@, R M<F MI m< JT KB D< M< -
Eq NCA D@ < nR M< KMJ< M@p G< M< MIO sTM E@J. g aU m< -
?DR KGB IL mR E@ GIL ; NA K@ KMI no J< KG; MIO MAF
6O Jr nA G@ @ J@B nQ Go F@L nR E@BL, G@ `B EB ; >@L F@ -
DJIpL, < F; nA JIOL, H@ KnB MQ Go FIOL.
h@ IB DI FI GT < >B < EO Go FA, A 6O Jr nA D< M@ `R M<F
< nR GB < ?@ FB Dq <TK CA KA < nI ?I q M@O KAL D<B < n@E nB -
KT <L ?B < <O Mq MAF DI EIK KB <T < <F CJr nB FA MJ< ?Q >T -
< nIO @T `@ nJI D< Eo K@B I nR E@ GIL. 7 NB EI KI NT <
MIO O n<J HB KGIp, nIO >B < Dq JOK K@ MI n< J; EI ?I, MI
; KDI nI MAL <F CJr nB FAL p n<J HAL, o ?B F@ @O Jo QL
<nI >@ DMq. 5@F @T `@ < nI G@T F@B MT nI M@ ?B < MI ; MI GI
Åéê. 7. `. a; >C:D (Ma- C%a$a((, 1887-1985), XO dI: JA EHK
<A H DA JLgK Y (1914), D: =A, _. W PI C@ `HN J?R H VCHN >C?E -
Z:AF.
C ÑM *(+ #á$ $! ,J= %+ #á ,Ü -å )å %á äM *å! &() -L *å J %á%
#1 *&( *.& â1 $0% #á! ( %å2 )0%, á %á &%L *å 0% #á! Iá )á &. "! M%,
ä &! (.) ãM %,á+ J) ãá ãå &Ü ,á á %,! -á ,! #Ü *. %á!* "L &á ,á, I(.
á I1 ,% á #)á2 á =á )Ü -,Ü %(.% *,% á #)á2 á á Iå$ I! *2 á. E,(
J) ã( ,(. *.% ä. Ü 5( %,á! å' I)å *! ( %! *,! #Ü, #. â! *,! #Ü #á! -0 â! -
*,! #Ü *,(! =å2 á, å %M Iá %,(K . I( -M *#å! &! á ") *#å. ,! #L á ,&1 -
*-á! )á I(. ( -å2 $å ,á! ,1 *( *,!+ %å á %! #J+ ,(. á %á &%L *å!+ 1 -
*( #á! *,!+ Iå I(! "L *å!+ ,(..
Åéê. 8. ]. `H ELA DA : EA (]. `+!&$(&a*& 1884-1920), XcIH JO dH -
>I; MR ; LHN S;C ^RdJALK C;A L@K VNE;RC;K LHNY (1917),
D: =A, aAC:>H, 7EJLALHfLH beZE@K.
C É ,á $1+ 50 ã)Ü -(+ "å 0 )å2 ,á! á I1 ,(.+ &å ãá $K ,å )(.+ 50 -
ã)Ü -(.+ I() ,)J ,0% *, 50 ã)á -! #L ,(. 20(K á! M %á. C! I)( -
*0 I( ã)á -2 å+ ,(. Iá )(. *! Ü 5(.% &! á ( &(! 1 , ,á &å ,á 'K ,(.+
$1 ã0 ,+ å 'á! )å ,! #L+ å I! &L #.% *+ ,0% =á )á #, )! *,! #M%, =0 -
)2+ %á . IÜ) =å! 1 &0+ #á &2 á á2* " * â2 á! + Iá )á &1) -0 *+.
E,( J) ã( ,(. å2 %á! *.= %L =)L * &( ,2 â0% á I1 ,% I)0 ,1 -
ã( % #á! ,% á) =á2 á ,J= %. C! I)( *0 I( ã)á -2 å+ ,(. á %á $K -
(.% #á! á %,á %á #$(K% &å á #)2 âå! á ,% I)( *0 I! #1 , ,á, ,!+ å# -
#å %,)! #1 , ,å+ #á! ,!+ á ä. %á &2 å+ ,0% å! #( %! 51 &å %0% á %M %. -
&0% L å IM %. &0% I)( *M I0%. Hå )! ( )! *&1+ ,(. å! #á *,! #(K
=M )(., Iå )! ( )! *&1+ ,(. =)M &á ,(+, å I! &L #.% * ,0% &() -
-M%, *â *&J %á â$J& &á ,á å2 %á! á I1 ,á =á )á #, )! *,! #Ü *,(! -
=å2 á ,0% &() -M% ,(..
7 8
317
n< J; GB < @ E@O C@ JT < `Q JTL KDI nR, nIO n< J@T `@ G@F
N<B FI G@ FB D; MA >O F< MR MA M< nIE ErF @ nB EI ?rF, >@F
; NA F@ R GQL n@ JB Cr JB < =@E MT Q KAL, < NIp D< GT < <O -
C@ FMB Dq < HT < >@ N<B FR M<F F< o `@B < nI G@T F@B, ?B < F<
KMA JB `M@T D< F@TL KU <OMqF.
hIB J<T <, A D<E EB M@` FB Dq oD NJ< KA C< < FM< F< -
DEIp K@ MI DET G< MAL >O KnJ< ?T <L D<B MAL <G NB K=q -
MA KAL MAL EI ?B DqL. 7 =< CB ; < n< HT Q KA MQF n< J< >I -
KB < DrF MJR nQF oD NJ< KAL G@ MA GIJ Nq D<B MI `Jr -
G< I >q ?A K<F KMAF < F< Xq MA KA GB <L D<B FIp JB <L
K`o KAL < F; G@ K< KMIF D<E EB Mo` FA, KM< O EB D; MIO,
KMA >A GB IOJ ?B Dq `@B JI FI GT < D<B KMI oJ ?I MIO. 7
<F< Xq MA KA MIO D<E EB Mo` FA KMJ; NA D@ KMA >A GB IOJ -
?T < oJ ?IO Go K< < nR MAF ; G@ KA @ n< Nq MIO G@ MI
OEB DR, MAF p EA, GB < < F< Xq MA KA nIO o ?B F@ I DIB FRL
n< JI FI G< KMqL @ FM@ ErL >B < NI J@ MB DrF D<E EB M@` FB -
DrF >J< KMA JB I Mq MQF. gB D<B FIp JB @L @ Gn@B JT @L nIO
< F< >p CA D<F KO ?D@ FMJr CA D<F D; MQ < nR MIF R JI
\c GIJ NA Mo` FA], (A.0 I+$,.*#)), GB < Mo` FA < N<T J@ -
KAL ?B < MAF I nIT < o `@B D< CB @ JQ C@T, @ DMRL < nI MAF
I FI G< KT < <O Mq, D<B I R JIL j< KB KGRL (T!"&'/*#,
<nR MAF ?<E EB Dq Eo HA 0!"&#=DA ET ><) q < DR G< dO JB -
Dq c N<T J@ KA q VQ ?J< NB Dq [ EB DIp, RnIO MI FT X@ M<B
A p n<J HA MIO `Jr G< MIL QL NO KB DqL IO KT <L. jAF
OEB DR MA M< MIO `Jr G< MIL D<E EB Mo` F@L R nQL I fMO -
GnO No D<B ;E EIB @ FT K`O K<F G@ ;G GI, nA ER q ;E E<
O EB D;, >A GB IOJ ?r FM<L MAF c D< MoJ ?< KMA jo` FA (A.0
B.10), nIO < Fo MJ@ n@ R EIOL MIOL KOG =< MB DIpL <BK -
CA MB DIpL D< FR F@L.
bIB F; `< J< DMA JB KMB D; K@ R E@L MBL n@ JB nMr K@BL
MAL Uc GIJ NAL jo` FAL @ FMI nT XI FM<B KMAF nJR M< HA
MIO `Jr G< MIL, KMIF O nI D@B G@ FB KGR, KMAF M; KA ?B<
n< J< GRJ NQ KA, KMAF oG N< KA KMI oF KMB DMI D<B
KMIF <O CIJ GA MB KGR, KMAF n@ JB NJR FA KA D; C@ D< FR -
F< D<B n@ JB I JB KGIp, D< CrL D<B \KMI H@ no J< KG<
MQF I JT QF < F; G@ K< KMA KpE EA YA D<B KMAF @ DMo E@ -
KA MIO oJ ?IO]. gB D<E EB Mo` F@L < DI EIp CA K<F, I D< -
Co F<L G@ MIF MJR nI MIO, MAF < N<T J@ KA, DIB F; KMIB -
`@T < MAL I nIT <L q M<F A @ nB CO GT < ;J FA KAL D; C@
<F< NI J;L KMI n< J@E CRF D<B A O noJ =< KA D; C@ @T -
>IOL n< J; >I KAL.
7 @O JQ n<PDq S GIJ NA jo` FA, K@ < FMT C@ KA G@
MAF < G@ JB D< FB Dq XQ ?J< NB Dq MAL 5J; KAL, G@ MAF
Åéê. 9. `d:I Fd; I; ied >HN HI B (Ba-ba-a H",2+-/%, 1903-
1975), cHI BFe OI: B; D:J JA ; FHI Mg (1958), f UHK
0,77 F., FdIHf ELTHK, 7 =A O LA Cg aND DH >g.
F( J) ã( ,+ @ã ã$2 äá+ DIÜ) &Iá )á NJI ã(. () ", ( ã#M äå+ #á!
,)á =K, &å J %á *=L &á á %(! =,1, -J) %å! *,( %(. "á $Ü* *! å+
áI(! #2 å+ #( )á$ $! M% L #( =K $! á. F( ,)K I &á ,+ IJ ,)á+ J =å!
&å ãÜ $ * &á *2 á *,( J) ã( ,+, ä! 1 ,! Ü - %å ,( =M )( %á ä! -
á Iå) %Ü ,!+ â! 1 &() -å+ -1) &å+ ,+ #á! %á á I( ,å $å2 #. )2 á) -
=( *,(! =å2 ( ,(.+. O I0+ #á! *,( J) ã( ,(. D(.), ,á #å %Ü J -
=(.% 2 * * &á *2 á &å ,á ãå &Ü ,á &J ) ,(. ã$. I,(K, ä! 1 ,! á -L -
%(.% ,(% Iå )! âÜ$ $( %,á =M )( %á ,á ä! á Iå) %Ü #á! %á á %(2 ãå!
J %á ä! Ü $( ã( á %Ü &å *á *,(% 1 ã#( ,(. ã$. I,(K #á! *,( =M )(
I(. #á ,á $á& âÜ %å!. Ç á %á 5L , * ,0% &() -! #M% *,(! =å2 0% 1 -
I0+ ( =M )(+, #á$ $! ã)á -2 á, ,( âÜ )(+ #á! . -L , 1 I0+
$J å! 2 ä! á ã$K I,)! á, å2 %á! #. )2 á) = *, ã$. I,! #L ,+.
InIT < KO Fo n@ K@ `JI FB D;, DJ; MA K@ MA `@B JI FI GT <,
<E E; MI K`q G< nIO nJI o DO Y@ < nR <O MqF >@F @T F<B
\<O MR G< MI], < FMT C@ M< @T F<B KO` F; MI < nI Mo E@ KG<
G< DJ;L D<E EB M@` FB DqL nJI @ MIB G< KT <L D<B KDo YAL.
Z@ FB D;, @ D@T FI nIO @T F<B B >B <T M@ J< KA G< FMB DR KMA
G@ M< nI E@ GB Dq @O JQ n<PDq Mo` FA @T F<B R MB `< J< DMA -
JT X@ M<B < nR >IOE@B; G@ GI FQ Go FQF D<E EB M@` FrF D<B
R `B < nR D<E EB M@` FB D; DB Fq G< M< q I G; >@L. 5B < NI J@ -
MB DIT D<E EB Mo` F@L, nIO >@F < Fq D<F K@ D< Fo F< DT FA -
G< q K@ D< GB ; I G; >< < F< D@ N< E<T Q K<F M< @B D< KMB -
D; \B >B r G< M<] MQF nJQ MI nI JB rF MAL Mo` FAL, MIF
6H nJ@ KB I FB KGR, MIF bO =B KGR, MAF c N<T J@ KA, MI
iIO J@ < EB KGR, M< G@ Eo MA K<F H< F;, >< F@T KMA D<F B >o -
@L, MBL @ Fo M< H<F KMBL o J@O FoL MIOL KpG NQ F< G@ MI
nJI KQ nB DR MIOL p NIL D<B >A GB IpJ ?A K<F oJ ?<
@H<B J@ MB DqL @D NJ< KMB DqL >p F< GAL, KOG =;E EI FM<L
KMA >B @p JOF KA MIO n@ >T IO < F< Xq MA KAL MAL Mo` FAL.
318
Åéê. 11. S. _LN FdN Me (J"a* D0b0##"/,
1905-1985), XVN E;A C?R H Jh F;X
(1966), 7 =A O LA Cg aND DH >g.
C #á$ $! ,J= %+ å2 %á! ( å! * ã ,L+ #á! "å 0 -
) ,! #1+ ,+ :@ #á ,J) ãá *,+ FJ= %+ ; (Art
Brut). H%åK &á á %L *. =( #á! á %! #á %( I(2 ,(,
&J %å! &á #)! Ü á I1 )åK &á ,á #á! ,Ü *å!+ #á!
å I! âÜ$ $å! ä! Ü -( )á . $! #Ü #á! ä! á -( )å ,! -
#J+ ,å= %! #J+. @ %á &å! ã%K å! #á) â(. %1 *#( -
% #á! ãK 6(, #(& &Ü ,! á ã. á $! Ü, )å. *,L &á -
*,2 =á #á! Ü& &(, #1$ $á #á! =á $2 #! á, ä &! -
(.) ãM %,á+ Iá =! Ü á %Ü ã$. -á, IÜ %0 *,á ( -
I(2 á *=å ä! Ü 5å! &å , *IÜ ,(. $á, ,( =J )!, L
&å Ü$ $( å) ãá $å2 (, &å ,á ,)J I( %,á+ , 50 -
ã)á -! #L å I! -Ü %å! á á I1 :,( á #2 % ,( . I( -
*,L )!ã &á, ,( . $! #1 &J *( ã! á , &å ,á -( )Ü
50 ã)á -! #M% ! äå M% ; *å Iå ä2 ( å %J) ãå! á+.
E,á J) ãá ,+ *å! )Ü+ 8. %á! #å2 á EM &á ,á (!
. Iå) ,( %! *&J %å+ ã. %á! #å2 å+ -! ã(K )å+ &å
,á &! #)Ü #å -Ü $! á #á! ,á -(. *#0 &J %á *M -
&á ,á, I(. ". &2 5(.% #Ü ,! á I1 ,!+ I)0 ,1 ã( -
%å+ ã. %á! #å2 å+ "å 1 , ,å+ ,+ ã( %! &1 , ,á+,
Iá )á IJ &I(.% *,á $1 ã! á ,(. 2 ä! (. 1 ,! :
,J= % á Iå. "K %å ,á! *,( I%åK &á #á! á *-á -
$M+ 1 =! *,á &Ü ,! á, 1 I0+ I! *,åK (.% ,1 *(
I($ $(2 Ü% ")0 I(!;.
Åéê. 10. i. `HNI (H"*-4 M++-", 1898-
1986), X] E; C? CDA Fe E@ FHI MgX
(1939), Gf DH ML? DA :K, 0,94 3
0,20 3 0,76 F., _LA LIPAL, 7E JLA LHf -
LH b?Z EH DH >R ;K.
H &å ãá $( -. 7á ,(. ã$K I, N. D(.) #. )! -
á) =å2 *,% @ã ã$2 á. E,( J) ã( ,(. #å %,)! #1
"J &á å2 %á! á %á #å #$! &J % á% ")M I! % -! -
ã(K )á. D! á á I1 ,!+ á %á 5 ,L *å!+ ,(. L ,á%
%á á I( #á $K 6å! ,(% #).& &J %( &J *á *,(%
1 ã#( =M )(, ä &! (.) ãM %,á+ #(! $1 , ,å+ L
#á! ,)K Iå+ *,( ã$. I,1 #á! á -L %( %,á+ ,(%
Iå )! âÜ$ $( %,á =M )( %á ,( ä! á Iå )Ü *å!.
Då ,Ü ,(% I1 $å &( ( D(.) ä! á2 )å *å ,%
'á I$0 &J % -! ã(K )á *å ,)2 á #(& &Ü ,! á
&% &å! á #M% ä! á *,Ü *å 0%, á %á 5 ,M %,á+
IÜ %,( ,å 1 =! ,( #$á *! #1 ! äå M äå+ ,+ ( -
&() -! Ü+ á$ $Ü , 50 ,! #1 , ,á, , *.ã =M -
%å. *, ä $á äL, -1) &á+ #á! *. %á!* "L &á -
,(+. Ç *.& â( $L ,(. *, Iá ã#1 *&! á ã$. -
I,! #L å2 %á! ! ä! á2 ,å )á * &á %,! #L, á -(K I)1 -
,å! %å &! á å %á$ $á #,! #L á) =L ä &! (.) ã2 á+:
á. ,L ,+ á %á 5L , *+ á) =J ã( %0% *= &Ü -
,0% *,á -. *! #Ü á %,! #å2 &å %á (IJ ,)å+, â)Ü -
=! á, 1 *,)á #á, #1 #á $á). :9 IÜ) =(.% (! #(. -
&å %! #Ü *=L &á ,á I(. á *. %á2* " ,á å2 %á! (! -
#å2 á *,(% #á "J %á &á+ #á! I(. &I( )(K &å
%á ,á #á ,á %( L *(. &å, á% ( *. %å! ä ,1+
J$åã =(+ ,(. %(. &á+ äå% ,á á I( #$å2 å!;,
J$å ãå ( 2 ä! (+.
319
Åéê. 12. ]. `dHf IA ( A(b"-/+ B0--&, 1915-
1995) Xa: CHK 68 Y (1953), F?A CLg
L?Z EA Cg, 7 =A O LA Cg aND DH >g.
E,% É ,á $2 á, ( DI(K )! =) *! &( I(! å2 *=! *&J -
%á ,*(. âÜ $! á, #(. )J $! á, =á) ,! Ü, 'K $á #á! $á -
&á )2 %å+, I(. ,á *. ã#($ $Ü L ,á )Ü âå! á -L -
%( %,á+ %á -á %(K% ,á *=! *2 &á ,á #á! (! =( -
%,)( #(& &J %å+ å Iå& âÜ *å!+, ä &! (.) ãM %,á+
&å ,% K $ &! á å! #( %( ã)á -2 á I1 %(., å %M ,á. -
,1 =)( %á á %á 5 ,Ü %J å+ ä( &J+ *, 50 ã)á -! -
#L å I! -Ü %å! á.
Åéê. 13. 9. `deA CHE (F-a*&. Ba+*, 1910-
1992), X\? M: DA ; E: F? J; J? =f H
FdIA TP D?K - F? De L@ d: EO JLHE [? D: -
JC?BY, D: =A, 1954, 1,29 3 1,22 F.,
aA C: >H, 7E JLA LHf LH b?Z EH DH >R ;K.
8! á ,(% 3@ã ã$( 50 ã)Ü -( DIJ! #(% 50 ã)á -
-! #L å2 %á! ,J= % á. $! #L #á! J =å! ,% ,Ü * %á
#)K âå! ,% á *=L &! á ,+ 50 L+. Å #å2 %(+, á %,2 -
"å ,á, "J $å! %á 'å *#å IÜ *å! á. ,L ,% á *=L &! á
&å , 50 ã)á -! #L, ã!< á. ,1 ,% :#á ,á *,)J -å!;.
H)M ,á 50 ã)á -2 5å! #á! K *,å )á, *=å ä1% &å
*á ä! *&1, ,% á I( *.% "J ,å!. F ä! á $K å!, *. -
*,)J -å! ,á *M &á ,á, Iá )á &() -M %å! ,á I)1 -
*0 Iá #á! &å ,á &() -M %å! å! #1 %å+ ,+ 50 ã)á -
-! #L+ ,(. Iá )å$ "1 %,(+ (1 I0+ *, *å! )Ü É% -
%( #J %,! (+ É ,(. >å $Ü *#å") *å -)! #,J+ &() -
-J+, I(. &() -Ü 5(.% &J *á *å =M )(.+ á -
*-. #,! #(K+, J '0 á I1 ,( =)1 %(.
320
@B@A9EÇ ÅÑ8C9
g DI JO N<T IL < NA JA Go FIL @H nJ@ KB I FB KMqL @T F<B I
jX;D KIF mR EID, o F<L G@ E<? `I EB DRL, K`@ >RF F@O JQ KB DRL
D<E EB Mo` FAL. Z@F Fq CA D@ KMI gO < R GBF ?D D<B G@ ?; EQ K@
KMAF c JB XR F< D<B KMA FR MB < b< EB NRJ FB <, R nIO @ HIB D@B r CA -
D@ G@ MAF Mo` FA MQF 8F >B ; FQF D<B DO JT QL G@ MA XQ ?J< NB -
Dq MIOL n; FQ KMAF ;G GI. jI oJ ?I MIO o N@ J@ =< CB ; MI Gq
KMAF B KMI JT < MAL XQ ?J< NB DqL G@ M; MIF nR E@ GI, < F; G@ K<
KMI 1947 D<B KMI 1951. c NIp < F< Xq MA K@ KMBL n< J< >I KB -
< DoL M@` FB DoL MJR nIOL F< @D NJ< KM@T, H<N FB D;, D<B K<F
K@ < nI D; EO YA R nQL o E@ ?@ I T >B IL, oFB Q K@ R MB GR FI <F o -
D< F@ Co G< MIO MAF T >B < MAF nJ; HA MAL XQ ?J< NB DqL, C< @ -
Ho NJ< X@ M< ;? `A MIO D<B MBL @ KQ M@ JB DoL MIO KO ?DJIp -
K@BL. 6 ?D< Mo E@B Y@ EIB nRF MI nB Fo EI D<B MI D< =< Eo MI, ; -
nEQ K@ KMI n; MQ G< M@ J; KMB IOL GIO K< G; >@L D<B ;J `B K@
F< KM; X@B, F< nB MKB ET X@B q F< `p F@B MI `Jr G< (FMJT nBF ?D) @ n; FQ MIOL. Zp JB X@ ?p JQ < nR MI GIO K< G;, n< -
MIp K@ n; FQ MIO `p FI FM<L q KM; XI FM<L FMIp DI, `Jr G< < EIO GB FT IO q KG<E MR `JQ G< D< M@O C@T <F < nR M<
DIO MB ; MIOL. iMBL M<B FT @L R nIO MIF o `IOF < n< C< F< MT K@B MAF r J< nIO >IO E@p @B, =Eo nIO G@ R MB >@ KOG -
G@ Mo `IOF KMA XQ ?J< NB Dq >B < >B D< KT < GR FI M< `o JB < D<B IB =J< `T I FoL MIO <E E; I ER DEA JI MI Kr G< MIO.
gB C@ Q JT @L MIO ZB IOF ?D ?B < MI < KO F@T >A MI ; KDA K<F G@ ?; EA @ nT >J< KA KMIF mR EID: GR FI KMI < KO -
F@T >A MI =JT KD@ M<B MI G@ ?; EI < nR C@ G< MQF XQ MB DrF @ F@J ?@B rF G<L D<B GR FI G@ MAF Mo` FA GnI JIp G@ F<
NM; KIO G@ QL @ D@T. jI nB KM@p Q MAL nIO JB M< FB DqL c G@ JB DqL @T F<B R MB O n;J `IO G@ ?B < F< >JIp G@. jI <FMT -
C@ MI R GQL @T F<B A < Eq C@B <: D; FIO G@ ?B < F< O n;J `IO G@, @ G@TL NMB ;` FIO G@ MAF p n<J HA. mJBF < nR MA >J; -
KA >@F O n;J `@B MT nI M<, Ip M@ `r JIL ?B < F< DB FA CIp G@ Ip M@ `JR FIL ?B < F< >B < MA JA CIp G@ >@F O n;J `@B
O nI D@T G@ FI D<B < FMB D@T G@ FI. 7 XQ ?J< NB Dq MIO mR EID H@ DB F; DO JB I E@ DMB D; < nR MI GA >oF : < nR MA KM< -
?R F< `Jr G< MIL nIO no NM@B n; FQ KMI E@O DR GIO K< G;.
eo G< D<B nJQ M< ?Q FT KMJB < MAL XQ ?J< NB DqL MIO mR EID @T F<B A >J; KA, A `@B JI FI GT <, A <O MR G< MA
?J< Nq MAL DT FA KAL MIO Kr G< MIL, o MKB D< CrL n@J F; @B n; FQ < nR MI GIO KIO G;. 7 Go CI >IL MIO mR EID
@ nA Jo < K@ nIE EIpL D<E EB Mo` F@L DO JT QL < nR MA >@ D< @ MT < MIO 70 D<B G@ M;, R M<F IB D<E EB Mo` F@L < F< Xq -
MA K<F Fo @L GIJ NoL oD NJ< KAL.
7 Go CI >IL XQ ?J< NB DqL MIO mR EID nJIK >B I JT X@B D<B MI oJ ?I MIO. S nEQ F@ MI GIO K< G; KMI n; MQ G<
q MIF D;J NQ F@ KMIF MIT `I. mJI MB GIp K@ MI n; MQ G<. U[ KM@ J<, ;J `B X@ F< KMJB NI ?O JT X@B ?p JQ D<B n; FQ
KMI GIO K< G;, KM; XI FM<L, n@ Mr FM<L, `p FI FM<L < nR M< KQ EA F; JB < q M< DIO MB ; MI `Jr G<: FMIp DI, `Jr -
G< < EIO GB FT IO, KG<E MR `JQ G<. g ER DEA JI MI Kr G< MIO KOG G@ Mo `@B. jI `Jr G< D< M< ?J; N@B MBL DB Fq K@BL
MIO, MAF YO `B Dq MIO o FM< KA, D< CrL ?OJ F; @B ?p JQ < nI MI oJ ?I. jI < Mo E@B Q MI DIO =; JB < nR `Jr G< D<B
?J<G GoL @T F<B IB `@B JI FI GT @L MIO.
F4@?ECB HCAC?
321
\gp M@ D<F M@ FMr FQ MI GIO K< G;
nJBF XQ ?J< NT KQ, nJI MB Gr F< MIF
D<J Nr FQ R nQL @T F<B KMIF MIT `I q
KMI n; MQ G<. l `Q < F; ?DA < nR MAF
< FMT KM< KA GB <L KDEA JqL @ nB N; F@B -
<L. iMI n; MQ G< <BK C; FI G<B nB I
;F@ M<. cBK C; FI G<B nB I DI FM; KMIF
nT F< D<, Go JIL MIO, ?B < MT o MKB GnI -
Jr F< n@J n< M; Q ?p JQ MIO, F<
>IO E@p Q DB < nR MBL MoK K@ JBL nE@O -
JoL MIO, F< @T G<B DO JB I E@ DMB D; Go -
K< MIO. 6T F<B D; MB < F; EI ?I G@ MA
XQ ?J< NB Dq KMAF ;G GI MQF BF >B ; -
FQF MAL 5p KAL. u M<F XQ ?J< NT XQ,
>@F o `Q @ nT ?FQ KA MIO MB < DJB =rL
D; FQ. hR FI p KM@ J< < nR GB < Kp FMI -
GA n@ JT I >I @ HIB D@T Q KAL =Eo nQ n@ -
JT MT FIL nJR D@B M<B. 5@ NI =; G<B F<
D; FQ <E E< ?oL, F< D< M< KMJo YQ GB <
@B DR F< D.I.D., ?B < MT I nT F< D<L o `@B
MA >B Dq MIO XQ q, MAF I nIT < D<B nJI -
Kn< Cr F< No JQ KMAF @ nB N; F@B <,
F< < F< >@T HQ]
Ôæ. Ðü ëïê.
Åéê. 14. bT:C JHE cP DHC, X_Hf F? IH 2Y (1949), D: =A, JF:D LH C;A ZIh F; ; DHN FAERHN J? FHN J; F:, 2,24 3 3,02 F., _. W PI -
C@, 7 =A O LA Cg aND DH >g.
6T G< KM@ GnJI KM; KMA >B < >B D< KT < MAL XQ ?J< NB DqL. g KIO J@ -
< EB KMB DRL <O MI G< MB KGRL N<T F@ M<B R MB @ >r DO JB I E@ DM@T. m<J_ R EA
R GQL MA NJ@ FT MB ><, IB DB Fq K@BL MIO >@F q M<F < F@ Ho E@ ?DM@L.
unQL I GI EI ?Ip K@, R M<F XQ ?J; NB X@ @T `@ GB < ?@ FB Dq <TK CA KA
MIO MB q C@ E@ F< D; F@B. l E@? `@ MA JI q MIO `Jr G< MIL. \5@F O n;J -
`IOF MO `<T < KOG =; FM<, R nQL >@F O n;J `@B D<B <J `q q Mo EIL ]. 5@
C< GnI JIp K@ F< @T F<B >B < NI J@ MB D;. bIB Mr FM<L MI oJ ?I, nIO o`@B
K`@ >RF 3 Go MJ< p YIL D<B 5 nE; MIL, D< M< E< =<T FIO G@ nQL <F >@F
o E@? `@ MA JI q D<B <F >@F q H@ J@ MB D; F@B, MI < nI Mo E@ KG< C< q -
M<F ;E EI. jI M@ J; KMB I Go ?@ CIL MIO nT F< D< >A GB IOJ ?@T MAF <TK -
CA KA KMI C@ < Mq R MB n@ JB =;E E@ M<B < nR MI oJ ?I. jI Go ?@ CIL, >A -
E< >q, o `@B ; G@ KA K`o KA G@ MA KpF C@ KA. jI =EoG G< DBF@TM<B < nR
MA GB < \KO GnEI Dq] `Jr G< MIL D<B ?J<G GrF KMAF ;E EA. j< G<p -
J< D<B M< ; KnJ< T` FA GIB J; XI FM<B K@ R EI MI oJ ?I. mIO C@ F; >@F
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KnIp >< K@ @ nT 5 `JR FB < KMI @J ?< KMq JB I MIO hnIOJ FMoE. m<J_ R EA MAF DE< KB Dq IJ ?; FQ -
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E@B Q K@ n@ JT nIO MI 1935
c nR MI 1940 D<B G@ M; IB GIJ NoL MIO < nI DMIpF MJ< `B ; O Nq, @ Fr E@ nM<T FIOF D<B @ nB GA Dp FI FM<B MR -
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aF? IA C: EHT \hD ELIAE, UaI FJLIHE >C C:A `Q DAE K, F? LH
=A : JL@ FQ kDHA H a kQD DPE 11, kIH J? =: MT JL@ C:E C:A
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^IH EA 9 JL@E a F? IA Cn =H DH MH En B@ C? H ?A I@ EA JLnK
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1994.
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h., rI EBF ?DK?IO SJ C, Ç '>0 ç %'ç é %'# $, á '#) á è$A =#), @D >. c >;G, c Cp F< 1998.
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1983.
c., r; IO X@J, 2#é * é ê@ É %'# $, á 'ç& 9>0 ç&, 4 MS GIB, @D >. b;E =IL, c Cp F<.
r., 9A FM, 4å "é ê+ Åé êá %'é êA 9å0 A, @D >. [ mI >I Gp, c Cp F< 1986.
l< F@ mB KMp GB I gH NSJ >AL, 4å "é ê+ 9>0 ç& êáé 2áë ëé 'å0 A, 2 MS GIB, @D >. f@ Nn EA, c Cp F< 1997.
h< CB S mIO EIL (@ mBG.) 4å "é ê+ Åë ë@ * 2áë ëé 'å0 A, @D >. hn EBK K<, c Cp F< 1999.
r. 9A FM, É %'# $, á 'ç& 7# '>$ á& -* ã$á (é ê@&, @D>. [ mI >I Gp, c Cp F<, 1974.
r. 9A FM, É %'# $, á 'ç& 7# '>$ á& /ë) ='é ê@&, @D>. [ mI >I Gp, c Cp F<, 1979.
Z., i< D@E E< J; DAL, r. fMIo G<L D.;., Ç á) ã@ 'ç& åë ëç é ê@& '>0 ç&, 6D >I MB Dp c CA FqF, c Cp F< 1995.
f. l<F K@ Ep FIO, 1) .á 'é @ -* ã$á (é ê@, @D >. b< KM< FB q MA, c Cp F< 2000.
c. bQ MT >AL, Åë ëç é ê@ 9>0 ç, -* ã$á (é ê@ 19#) áé A á, 6D >I MB Dp c CA FqF, c Cp F< 1995.
f. hB KBJ Ep, Åë ëç é ê@ -* ã$á (é ê@ 18#& -19#& áé A á&, @D >. c >;G, c Cp F< 1993.
r., rJp KMIO, Åë ëç é ê@ 9>0 ç, -* ã$á (é ê@ 20#? áé A á, 6D >I MB Dp c CA FqF, c Cp F< 1996.
7. hO DI FB ; MAL, Åë ëç é ê@ 9>0 ç, 5å # åë ëç é ê@ /ë) ='é ê@, 6D >I MB Dp c CA FqF, c Cp F< 1996.
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cCp F< 1979.
l. jIOJ FB DB q MA (@ mBG.), 6 <á$ èå A á& êáé ç á ê'é # â# ë, á '#) %'á å A 'å $á 0$+ é á, @D >. hn EBK K<, c Cp F<
1994.
r. hmIo J<, 7á è@ !á 'á É %'# $, á& 'ç& 3$ 0é 'å ê'# é ê@&, @D >. iOG G@ MJT <, c Cp F< 1991.
r. hmIo J<L, 1) .á 'é @ & 7å 'á â) .á 'é @ á$ 0é 'å ê'# é ê@ %ç Åë ëÜ äá, @D >. hn EBK K<, c Cp F< 2001.
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=ç êá 'Ü '# 7å %á, * á, @D >. hn EBK K< , c Cp F< 1994.
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366
h. hmT JAL, h.b<J >< GT MKA -c >; GA, 5å # êëá %é ê@ 3$ 0é 'å ê'# é ê@ %'ç Åë ëÜ äá, @D >. hn EBK K<, c Cp F< 2001.
5. :B EBm mT >AL, 5å # åë ëç é ê@ 3$ 0é 'å ê'# é ê@, @D >. hn EBK K<, c Cp F< 1984.
6. :@K K; - 6G G< FIo AE, Ä# ê, !é á ãé á 'ç 5> á Åë ëç é ê@ 3$ 0é 'å ê'# é ê@, c Cp F< 2001.
b. F.*-0,+, 7# '>$ á 3$ 0é 'å ê'# é ê@, É %'# $, á êáé 2$é 'é ê@, G@M. e.cF >JIO E; DAL, h. l< ?D; EIO, @D >. e@ Gn -
EB I, c Cp F< 1987.
B()) R$(/$!$.,, É %'# $, á 'ç& ä) 'é ê@& á$ 0é 'å ê'# é ê@&, @D >. :SJ G<, c Cp F<.
9. :OJ FMq - jXSJ FM<F, É %'# $, á 'ç& á$ 0é 'å ê'# é ê@&, @D >. [ mI >I Gp, c Cp F< 1981.
gO. bSF J< FML, 7á é (> %'á êáé =$# ã$Ü! !á 'á 'ç& á$ 0é 'å ê'# é ê@& '#) 20#? áé A á, @D >. 6 mT DIO JIL,
cCpF<1977.
gOTM NIJ FM :., 7=á #) 0Ü #)&, @D >. [ mI >I Gp, 1993.

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