You are on page 1of 34

Cells for Input

Cells for Auto calcs

Natural Gas Composition (mol%)


Methane 92
Ethane 2
Propane 2
Butane 1
Nitrogen 2
Carbondioxide 1
Total 100

Pressure 900
Temperature 120
Basis 100
Desired Production Rate 3000

Stream Factor 345


Operating hours 8280

Max. Hydrocarbon conc. in Steam reformer outlet gas 0.50%


Steam to hydrocarbon ratio in Primary Reformer 3
ells for Input
ells for Auto calcs

psig
°F
lbmol/hr of Natural Gas Feed
Tonnes/day

days
hours
Primary Reformer

Temperature 727 °C
Pressure 900 psig
Pressure Drop 10 psig
HC to Steam Ratio 3

Natural Gas 1

Steam
2

Reactions in Primary Reformer


Reaction 1 CH4 + H2O = CO + 3H2 75%
Reaction 2 C2H6 + 2H2O = 2CO + 5H2 100%
Reaction 3 C3H8 + 3H2O = 3CO + 7H2 100%
Reaction 4 C4H10 + 4H2O = 4CO + 9H2 100%
Reaction 5 CO+H2O = CO2 + H2 40%

Stream 1 (Natural Gas)


Components Mol. Wt Mole Flow Mass Flow
Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr)
Methane 16 92 92 1472
Ethane 30 2 2 60
Propane 44 2 2 88
Butane 58 1 1 58
Nitrogen 28 2 2 56
Carbon dioxide 44 1 1 44
Carbon monoxide 28 - - -
Hydrogen 2 - - -
Oxygen 32 - - -
Steam 18 - - -
Total 100 100 1778

Total Primary Reformer Inlet 7016 lb/hr

CO Production
Reaction 1 69 lbmol/hr
Reaction 2 4 lbmol/hr
Reaction 3 6 lbmol/hr
Reaction 4 4 lbmol/hr
Total 83 lbmol/hr

CO Consume
Reaction 5 33.2 lbmol/hr

CO2 Produced
Reaction 5 33.2 lbmol/hr

H2 Produced
Reaction 1 207 lbmol/hr
Reaction 2 10 lbmol/hr
Reaction 3 14 lbmol/hr
Reaction 4 9 lbmol/hr
Reaction 5 33.2 lbmol/hr
Total 273.2 lbmol/hr

Steam consumption
Reaction 1 69 lbmol/hr
Reaction 2 4 lbmol/hr
Reaction 3 6 lbmol/hr
Reaction 4 4 lbmol/hr
Reaction 5 33.2 lbmol/hr
Total 116.2 lbmol/hr
Secondary Reformer

Exit Temperature 1000


Pressure 890
Pressure Drop 10

3 5
Primary Secondary
Reformer Reformer

4 Air

Reactions in Secondary Reform


based on CH4 Reaction 1 CH4 + H2O = CO + 3H2
based on C2H6 Reaction 2 CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O
based on C3H8 Reaction 3 2CO + O2 = 2CO2
based on C4H10 Reaction 4 CH4 + 2CO + 3O2 = 3CO2 + 2H2
based on CO

Stream 2 (Steam) Stream 3


Mole Flow Mass Flow Mole Flow
Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr)
- - - 4.13 23.00
- - - 0.00 0.00
- - - 0.00 0.00
- - - 0.00 0.00
- - - 0.36 2.00
- - - 6.14 34.20
- - - 8.94 49.80
- - - 49.05 273.20
- - - - -
100 291 5238 31.38 174.8
100 291 5238 100 557

Total Secondary Reformer Inlet

Nitrogen in 113.83
Total air 144.09
O2 with Air 30.26

CH4 Consumption
Reaction 4 10.09
Reaction 1 10.98
CO Production
Reaction 1 10.98

CO Consumption
Reaction 4 20.17

CO2 Production
Reaction 4 30.26

H2 production
Reaction 1 32.93

Steam Consumption
Reaction 1 10.98

Steam Production
Reaction 4 20.17
°C
psig
psig

Reactions in Secondary Reformer


CH4 + H2O = CO + 3H2 85% based on remaining CH4 after Reaction 4
CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O
2CO + O2 = 2CO2
CH4 + 2CO + 3O2 = 3CO2 + 2H2O 100% based on O2

eam 3 Stream 4 (Air) Stream 5


Mass Flow Mole Flow Mass Flow
(lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr) Mol%
368.00 - - - 0.27
0.00 - - - -
0.00 - - - -
0.00 - - - -
56.00 79 113.83 3187.33 16.25
1504.80 - - - 9.04
1394.40 - - - 5.70
546.40 - - - 42.94
- 21 30.26 968.30 0.00
3146.4 - - - 25.81
7016 100 144.09 4155.64 100

11171.64 lb/hr

lbmol/hr
lbmol/hr
lbmol/hr

lbmol/hr
lbmol/hr
lbmol/hr

lbmol/hr

lbmol/hr

lbmol/hr

lbmol/hr

lbmol/hr
after Reaction 4

Stream 5
Mole Flow Mass Flow
(mol/hr) (lb/hr)
1.94 30.99
- -
- -
- -
115.83 3243.33
64.46 2836.22
40.60 1136.90
306.13 612.26
0.00 0.00
184.00 3311.94
712.96 11171.64
High Temperature Shift Converter

Temperature 400 °C
Pressure 880 psig
Pressure Drop 10 psig

SR outlet stream

Reactions in HTS
Reaction 1 CO+H2O = CO2 + H2 80%

Stream 5 (SR outlet)


Components Mol. Wt Mole Flow Mass Flow
Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr)
Methane 16 0.27 1.94 30.99
Nitrogen 28 16.25 115.83 3243.33
Carbon dioxide 44 9.04 64.46 2836.22
Carbon monoxide 28 5.70 40.60 1136.90
Hydrogen 2 42.94 306.13 612.26
Steam 18 25.81 184.00 3311.94
Total 100 713.0 11171.6

CO Consume
Reaction 1 32.48 lbmol/hr
CO2 Produced
Reaction 1 32.48 lbmol/hr
H2 Produced
Reaction 1 32.48 lbmol/hr
Steam Consume
Reaction 1 32.48 lbmol/hr
Low Temperature Shift converter

Exit Temperature 200


Pressure 870
Pressure Drop 10

6 7
HTS LTS

Reactions in LTS
based on CO Reaction 1 CO+H2O = CO2 + H2

Stream 6 (HTS outlet) Stream 7 (LTS outlet)


Mole Flow Mass Flow Mole Flow
Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr)
0.27 1.94 30.99 0.27 1.94
16.25 115.83 3243.33 16.25 115.83
13.60 96.94 4265.46 14.51 103.44
1.14 8.12 227.38 0.23 1.62
47.49 338.61 677.22 48.41 345.11
21.25 151.51 2727.25 20.34 145.02
100 712.96 11171.64 100 712.96

CO Consume
Reaction 1 6.50 lbmol/hr
CO2 Produced
Reaction 1 6.50 lbmol/hr
H2 Produced
Reaction 1 6.50 lbmol/hr
Steam Consume
Reaction 1 6.50 lbmol/hr
°C
psig
psig

80% based on CO

(LTS outlet)
Mass Flow
(lb/hr)
30.99
3243.33
4551.31
45.48
690.22
2610.31
11171.64
Cooler Separator

Temperature 120 °C
Pressure 860 psig LTS outlet stream
Pressure Drop 10 psig
8
Assumptions:
Water Condensed 100%
CO2 Solubility in Water 0%

Stream 8 (LTS outlet)


Components Mol. Wt Mole Flow Mass Flow
Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr)
Methane 16 0.27 1.94 30.99
Nitrogen 28 16.25 115.83 3243.33
Carbon dioxide 44 14.51 103.44 4551.31
Carbon monoxide 28 0.23 1.62 45.48
Hydrogen 2 48.41 345.11 690.22
Steam 18 20.34 145.02 2610.31
Total 100 713.0 11171.6

CO2 Removal

Temperature 120 °C Stream from


Pressure 850 psig Cooler Separator 9
Pressure Drop 10 psig
Lean Solvent
11
Assumptions:
Solvent Used K2CO3
Solvent Loading 2 lbmol of Acid gas /lbmol of pure solvent
Solution Strength 80% by weight

Stream 9 (Feed Gas)


Components Mol. Wt Mole Flow Mass Flow
Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr)
Methane 16 0.34 1.94 30.99
Nitrogen 28 20.40 115.83 3243.33
Carbon dioxide 44 18.21 103.44 4551.31
Carbon monoxide 28 0.29 1.62 45.48
Hydrogen 2 60.76 345.11 690.22
Potassium Carbonate 138 0.00 0.00 0.00
Water 18 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total 100.00 567.9 8561.3
Total Mass in 17482.93 lb/hr
Total Mass out 17482.93 lb/hr
9
Cooler
Condenser

10

Stream 9 Stream 10 (Condensed Water)


Mole Flow Mass Flow Mole Flow
Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr)
0.34 1.94 30.99 0.00 0.00
20.40 115.83 3243.33 0.00 0.00
18.21 103.44 4551.31 0.00 0.00
0.29 1.62 45.48 0.00 0.00
60.76 345.11 690.22 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 145.02
100 567.94 8561.33 100 145.02

11171.64

12
Treated Gas
CO2 Removal

13 Rich Solvent

Stream 11 (Lean Solvent) Stream 12 (Treated Gas)


Mole Flow Mass Flow Mole Flow
Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr)
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.42 1.94
0.00 0.00 0.00 24.94 115.83
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.35 1.62
0.00 0.00 0.00 74.30 345.11
34.29 51.72 7137.28 0.00 0.00
65.71 99.13 1784.32 0.00 0.00
100.00 150.85 8921.60 100 464.50
ondensed Water)
Mass Flow
(lb/hr)
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
2610.31
2610.31

(Treated Gas) Stream 13 (Rich Solvent)


Mass Flow Mole Flow Mass Flow
(lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr)
30.99 0.00 0.00 0.00
3243.33 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 40.68 103.44 4551.31
45.48 0.00 0.00 0.00
690.22 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 20.34 51.72 7137.28
0 38.98 99.13 1784.32
4010.02 100 254.29 13472.91
Methanator

Temperature 400 °C
Pressure 840 psig
Pressure Drop 10 psig

From CO2 Removal Unit

12

Reactions in Methanator
Reaction 1 CO+3H2 = CH4 +H2O 100%

Stream 12 (CO2 Removal outlet)


Components Mol. Wt Mole Flow Mass Flow
Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr)
Methane 16 0.42 1.94 30.99
Nitrogen 28 24.94 115.83 3243.33
Carbon monoxide 28 0.35 1.62 45.48
Hydrogen 2 74.30 345.11 690.22
Steam 18 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total 100 464.5 4010.0

CO Consume
Reaction 1 1.62 lbmol/hr
H2 Consume
Reaction 1 4.87 lbmol/hr
CH4 Produced
Reaction 1 1.62 lbmol/hr
Steam Produced
Reaction 1 1.62 lbmol/hr
14 16
Cooler and
Methanator
Separator
15

based on CO

Stream 14 (Methanator outlet) Stream 16


Mole Flow Mass Flow Mole Flow
Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr)
0.77 3.56 56.98 0.77 3.56
25.11 115.83 3243.33 25.20 115.83
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
73.76 340.24 680.47 74.02 340.24
0.35 1.62 29.23 0.00 0.00
100 461.25 4010.02 100 459.63
Knock out water

eam 16 Stream 15 (Knock out Water)


Mass Flow Mole Flow Mass Flow
(lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr)
56.98 0.00 0.00 0.00
3243.33 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
680.47 0.00 0.00 0.00
0 100.00 1.62 29.23
3980.78 100 1.62 29.23
Ammonia Conversion Loop

Temperature 400 °C
Pressure 840 psig
Pressure Drop 10 psig 21

From Methanator

16

Reactions in Ammonia Converter


Reaction 1 N2+3H2 = 2NH3 75%

Iteration No. 1
Stream 16 (Methanator Outlet)
Components Mol. Wt Mole Flow Mass Flow
Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr)
Methane 16 0.77 3.56 56.98
Nitrogen 28 25.20 115.83 3243.33
Hydrogen 2 74.02 340.24 680.47
Ammonia 17 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total 100 459.6 3980.8

H2 Consume Calculations for Purge stream 20 Rate

Reaction 1 255.18 lbmol/hr Feed Stream Flow


N2 Consume Feed Stream Inert
Reaction 1 85.06 lbmol/hr Required Inert Conc.
NH3 Produced Purge Stream 20 flow
Reaction 1 170.12 lbmol/hr Recycle Stream 21 Flow

Iteration No. 2
Stream 16 (Methanator Outlet)
Components Mol. Wt Mole Flow Mass Flow
Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr)
Methane 16 0.78 3.58 57.31
Nitrogen 28 25.20 116.01 3248.31
Hydrogen 2 74.02 340.73 681.45
Ammonia 17 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total 100 460.3 3987.1

H2 Consume Calculations for Purge stream 20 Rate

Reaction 1 255.55 lbmol/hr Feed Stream Flow


N2 Consume Feed Stream Inert
Reaction 1 85.18 lbmol/hr Required Inert Conc.
NH3 Produced Purge Stream 20 flow
Reaction 1 170.36 lbmol/hr Recycle Stream 21 Flow

Iteration No. 3
Stream 16 (Methanator Outlet)
Components Mol. Wt Mole Flow Mass Flow
Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr)
Methane 16 0.78 3.59 57.40
Nitrogen 28 25.20 116.06 3249.76
Hydrogen 2 74.02 340.87 681.74
Ammonia 17 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total 100 460.5 3988.9

H2 Consume Calculations for Purge stream 20 Rate

Reaction 1 255.65 lbmol/hr Feed Stream Flow


N2 Consume Feed Stream Inert
Reaction 1 85.22 lbmol/hr Required Inert Conc.
NH3 Produced Purge Stream 20 flow
Reaction 1 170.44 lbmol/hr Recycle Stream 21 Flow

Iteration No. 4
Stream 16 (Methanator Outlet)
Components Mol. Wt Mole Flow Mass Flow
Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr)
Methane 16 0.78 3.59 57.43
Nitrogen 28 25.20 116.08 3250.19
Hydrogen 2 74.02 340.91 681.83
Ammonia 17 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total 100 460.6 3989.4

H2 Consume Calculations for Purge stream 20 Rate

Reaction 1 255.68 lbmol/hr Feed Stream Flow


N2 Consume Feed Stream Inert
Reaction 1 85.23 lbmol/hr Required Inert Conc.
NH3 Produced Purge Stream 20 flow
Reaction 1 170.46 lbmol/hr Recycle Stream 21 Flow

Note: This indicates that at the start-up, until the system get stabilized, recycle is required after that all the stream sh
Scale up Factor Calculations
NH3 production based on 100 lbmol/hr of Natural Gas Feed
Scale up Factor

All the stream flow should be multiplied by this factor to get the desired production rate.
20
Recycle Stream

17 Cooler and 18
Ammonia
Ammonia
Converter
Separator
19

based on H2

Stream 17 (Converter outlet) Stream 18


Mole Flow Mass Flow Mole Flow
Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr)
1.23 3.56 56.98 2.98 3.56
10.63 30.77 861.68 25.78 30.77
29.38 85.06 170.12 71.24 85.06
58.76 170.12 2892.01 0.00 0.00
100 289.51 3980.78 100 119.39

stream 20 Rate Purge Stream 20


Mole Flow
459.6 lbmol/hr Mol% (mol/hr)
0.77 mol% Methane 2.98 3.54
3 mol% Nitrogen 25.78 30.60
118.71 lbmol/hr Hydrogen 71.24 84.57
0.69 lbmol/hr 100.00 118.71

Stream 17 (Converter outlet) Stream 18


Mole Flow Mass Flow Mole Flow
Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr)
1.24 3.58 57.31 2.99 3.58
10.63 30.83 863.22 25.78 30.83
29.38 85.18 170.36 71.23 85.18
58.75 170.36 2896.18 0.00 0.00
100 289.96 3987.07 100 119.59

stream 20 Rate Purge Stream 20


Mole Flow
460.3 lbmol/hr Mol% (mol/hr)
0.78 mol% Methane 2.99 3.58
3 mol% Nitrogen 25.78 30.78
119.39 lbmol/hr Hydrogen 71.23 85.04
0.20 lbmol/hr 100.00 119.39

Stream 17 (Converter outlet) Stream 18


Mole Flow Mass Flow Mole Flow
Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr)
1.24 3.59 57.40 3.00 3.59
10.63 30.85 863.67 25.78 30.85
29.38 85.22 170.44 71.22 85.22
58.75 170.44 2897.41 0.00 0.00
100 290.09 3988.91 100 119.65

stream 20 Rate Purge Stream 20


Mole Flow
460.5 lbmol/hr Mol% (mol/hr)
0.78 mol% Methane 3.00 3.59
3 mol% Nitrogen 25.78 30.83
119.59 lbmol/hr Hydrogen 71.22 85.18
0.06 lbmol/hr 100.00 119.59

Stream 17 (Converter outlet) Stream 18


Mole Flow Mass Flow Mole Flow
Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr)
1.24 3.59 57.43 3.00 3.59
10.63 30.85 863.80 25.78 30.85
29.38 85.23 170.46 71.22 85.23
58.75 170.46 2897.76 0.00 0.00
100 290.12 3989.45 100 119.67

stream 20 Rate Purge Stream 20


Mole Flow
460.6 lbmol/hr Mol% (mol/hr)
0.78 mol% Methane 3.00 3.59
3 mol% Nitrogen 25.78 30.85
119.65 lbmol/hr Hydrogen 71.22 85.22
0.02 lbmol/hr 100.00 119.65

d after that all the stream should be purged.


2897.76 lb/hr
31.6 Tonnes/day
95.1
he desired production rate.
Purge Stream

Liquid Ammonia

eam 18 Stream 19 (Liquid Ammonia)


Mass Flow Mole Flow Mass Flow
(lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr)
56.98 0.00 0.00 0.00
861.68 0.00 0.00 0.00
170.12 0.00 0.00 0.00
0 100.00 170.12 2892.01
1088.78 100 170.12 2892.01

Stream 20 Recycle Stream 21


Mass Flow Mole Flow Mass Flow
(lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr)
56.65 2.98 0.02 0.33
856.71 25.78 0.18 4.97
169.14 71.24 0.49 0.98
1082.49 100.00 0.69 6.28

eam 18 Stream 19 (Liquid Ammonia)


Mass Flow Mole Flow Mass Flow
(lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr)
57.31 0.00 0.00 0.00
863.22 0.00 0.00 0.00
170.36 0.00 0.00 0.00
0 100.00 170.36 2896.18
1090.89 100 170.36 2896.18

Stream 20 Recycle Stream 21


Mass Flow Mole Flow Mass Flow
(lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr)
57.21 2.99 0.01 0.10
861.76 25.78 0.05 1.46
170.08 71.23 0.14 0.29
1089.04 100.00 0.20 1.84

eam 18 Stream 19 (Liquid Ammonia)


Mass Flow Mole Flow Mass Flow
(lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr)
57.40 0.00 0.00 0.00
863.67 0.00 0.00 0.00
170.44 0.00 0.00 0.00
0 100.00 170.44 2897.41
1091.51 100 170.44 2897.41

Stream 20 Recycle Stream 21


Mass Flow Mole Flow Mass Flow
(lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr)
57.38 3.00 0.00 0.03
863.24 25.78 0.02 0.42
170.35 71.22 0.04 0.08
1090.97 100.00 0.06 0.53

eam 18 Stream 19 (Liquid Ammonia)


Mass Flow Mole Flow Mass Flow
(lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr)
57.43 0.00 0.00 0.00
863.80 0.00 0.00 0.00
170.46 0.00 0.00 0.00
0 100.00 170.46 2897.76
1091.69 100 170.46 2897.76

Stream 20 Recycle Stream 21


Mass Flow Mole Flow Mass Flow
(lb/hr) Mol% (mol/hr) (lb/hr)
57.42 3.00 0.00 0.01
863.68 25.78 0.00 0.12
170.43 71.22 0.01 0.02
1091.53 100.00 0.02 0.15
3980.78

1088.78