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A View of the Cell


Use Chapter 8 of your book to complete the chart of eukaryotic cell components.

Cell Part
Cell Wall
Centriole
Chloroplast
Cilia
Cytoplasm
Cytoskeleton

Function
A rough, rigid structure outside the plasma membrane of plants, fungi,
plant-like protists, and some bacteria; give support and protection
Pair of structures in animal cells that duplicate to aid in cell reproduction
Organelle that holds chlorophyll; the site of photosynthesis
Short, hair-like structures on the surface of some cells; help with movement
of organism and fluids/materials along the surface of the cell
Clear fluid surrounding the nucleus and organelles of cells; site of many
chemical reactions
Fibers and filaments in eukaryotic cells that provide support for the cell and
organelles

Endoplasmic
Reticulum Folded network of membranes that create a transport system in the
(Rough ER) cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells; rough is lined with ribosomes
Endoplasmic
Reticulum Same as rough except not lined with ribosomes
(Smooth ER)
Flagella
Golgi
Apparatus
Lysosome
Mitochondria
Nucleolus
Nuclear
Envelope
Nucleus
Plasma
Membrane
Ribosome
Vacuole

Long, thread-like structures used to propel an organism with a whipping


motion
Membrane sacs in the cell that receive , modify, and package proteins for
the cell to use or store
Organelle that contains enzymes digesting food particles, viruses, bacteria,
worn out cells, and sometimes the cell itself; cleans the cell
Breaks food particles down to produce ATP molecules or energy/power
Area in the nucleus that produces ribosomes
Membrane around the nucleus controlling what enters and leaves the
nucleus
Largest membrane-bound organelle in eukaryotic cells; contains DNA and
controls all of the cells functions
Boundary between the cell and its environment; allows certain materials to
pass through
Organelles that put together long chains of proteins
Membrane-bound, fluid filled space within the cytoplasm that stores water,
food, enzymes, and wastes

In Plant or
Animal
Cells?

Fill in the following sentences and then color that cell structure the appropriate color.
1. The __________________________ (A) is the barrier between the cell and its surroundings. Color it pink.
2. The __________________________ (Q) is the intracellular fluid that fills the cell. Color it light green.
3. The __________________________ (G) of the cell provide POWER. Color them orange.
4. The __________________________ (O) are responsible for protein synthesis. Color them red.
5. The __________________________ (B) is the membrane that surrounds the nucleus. Color it blue.
6. The __________________________ (H) is responsible for packaging proteins. Color it purple.
7. The __________________________ (P) is the transport system in a cell. Color it yellow.
8. The __________________________ (K) store water and food particles for the cell. Color them green.
9. The __________________________ (D) is the portion of the nucleus that makes ribosomes. Color it black.
10. The __________________________ (I) are two structures that aid in animal cell reproduction. Color them gray.
11. The __________________________ (L) are full of digestive enzymes that break down damaged cell parts. Color
them brown.
12. The __________________________ (E) is the material in the cell that contains genetic information and the
instructions for making proteins. Color it blue.

Is this a plant or animal cell? ______________________________________________________________________

Fill in the following sentences and then color that cell structure the appropriate color.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

The __________________________ (Q) is where chemical reactions in the cell occur. Color it light green.
The __________________________ (L) breaks down food particles to release energy. Color them orange.
The __________________________ (B) is a rigid structure that provides shape for the cell. Color it gray.
The __________________________ (A) allows materials to pass into and out of the cell. Color it pink.
The __________________________ (I) receives new proteins and then repackages them. Color it purple.
The __________________________ (O) digest damaged cell parts, food and bacteria. Color them brown.
The __________________________ (J) follow the DNA instructions to put together proteins. Color them red.
The __________________________ (D) is responsible for storing water and other substances. Color it blue.
The __________________________ (K) are folded membranes that are the cells delivery system. Color them
yellow.
10. The __________________________ (F) are organelles that hold chlorophyll. (Site of photosynthesis.) Color
them green.
11. The __________________________ (R) regulates what enters and leaves the nucleus through its pores. Color it
light blue.

Is this a plant or animal cell? ______________________________________________________________________

Analysis:
1.
Compare and contrast a cell wall and a plasma membrane.

2.

Complete the Venn diagram of plant and animal cells. There should be at least 5 phrases in each area.

PLANT CELL
ONLY

ANIMAL CELL
ONLY

PLANT & ANIMAL


CELLS

3.

Which cell components are responsible for the following tasks?


a. Assembly:

______________________________________________________________________

b. Boundaries:

______________________________________________________________________

c. Controlling the Cell: ________________________________________________________________


d. Energy Transformation:

__________________________________________________________

e. Locomotion: ______________________________________________________________________
f. Storage:

______________________________________________________________________

g. Support:

______________________________________________________________________

Biology students were working on a class project. They received a picture of a bacterium, a plant cell and an
animal cell, only the pictures were not labeled. Help the students correctly identify the cells and cell structures.
Use the figures below to answer questions 4 6.

4.

Identify the Cells & Cell Parts:


a. Cell 1: ________________________________________________________________
A. ________________________________________________________________
B. ________________________________________________________________
C. ________________________________________________________________

b. Cell 2: ________________________________________________________________
D. ________________________________________________________________
E. ________________________________________________________________
F. ________________________________________________________________

c. Cell 3: ________________________________________________________________
G. ________________________________________________________________
H. ________________________________________________________________
I. ________________________________________________________________

5.

Are these cells prokaryotic or eukaryotic?


a. Cell 1: ________________________________________________________________
b. Cell 2: ________________________________________________________________
c. Cell 3: ________________________________________________________________

6.

How are these cells the same? How are these cells different?

7.

Investigate the pictures below. What is the advantage of having folded membranes in a cell? (hint:
estimate the length of the surface area of each membrane.)

8.

Why must plant cells have chloroplasts and mitochondrion?

9.

We talked last unit about the six kingdoms of living things. Which kingdoms have cells containing cell
walls?

10.

In plants, the cells that have to transport water up, or against the force of gravity are found to contain
many more mitochondria than other plant cells. What do you think is the reason for this?

11.

What do you predict would have more mitochondria, muscle cells or fat cells? Why?

12.

A student said, The cell of a unicellular organism is more complex than cells in multicellular organisms.
Using your knowledge of cells, describe why you agree or disagree with this statement.

13.

Which cell types are more different? A.) plant & animal cells or B.) prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells
Explain your answer.

Critical Thinking:
In the past, biologists have looked for clues to aging and human disease by studying organs, tissues and cultures of
cells. With more powerful microscopes and more advanced types of chemical analysis, biologists can focus on
smaller components of living things: the organelles within the cell. Use your knowledge of cell organelles and their
functions to answer the questions about some of the current research that links cell organelles with certain conditions
of aging and disease.
1.

Scientists studied DNA molecules taken from mitochondria in the cells of older people. These
mitochondrial DNA molecules were different from the mitochondrial DNA taken from the cells of
younger people.
a. What is the function of mitochondria in the normal, healthy cell?

b. Considering the function of mitochondria, why does it make sense that mitochondria might be
different in the cells of older people?

2.

There are more mitochondria in cells that need a lot of energy, such as heart muscle cells. Some
researchers are studying mitochondrial DNA in the heart cells of different age groups. What do you think
researchers discovered in the mitochondrial DNA taken from the heart cells of older adults?

3.

Researchers have found mutated (changed) mitochondrial DNA in people suffering from Kearns-Sayre
syndrome. The syndrome causes paralysis of the eye muscles, difficulty in walking, and heart problems.
What is the connection between the symptoms of Kearns-Sayre syndrome and the role of mitochondria in
cell function?

4.

Some researchers now believe that Alzheimers disease is caused by the release of destructive enzymes.
These destructive enzymes are released into the cytoplasm of nerve cells. Scientists think that these
enzymes are released by organelles whose plasma membrane broke as they were trying to digest harmful
substances. Which organelles do you think are responsible for releasing the destructive enzymes? Why?

5.

In the liver cells of a person who died from alcoholism, an extremely dense network of endoplasmic
reticulum was found. Why do you think this was so? HINT: Smooth ER has enzymes that break down
harmful enzymes that break down harmful substances, or toxins, in the liver.