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B GIO DC V O TO

I HC TY
KHOA QUN TR KINH DOANH
------------

QUN TR CHT LNG SN PHM


TI:

HN THE TRONG CH LA VIT NAM


GVHD
ThS. TRNG CH TIN

SVTH

MSSV

L THANH KHE

1154030024

NGUYN HOI KIN

1154030025

BI ANH KIT

1154030026

NGUYN HOA L

1154030027

NGUYN TH CHC LINH

1154030029

Cn Th 1/11/2014

Qun tr cht lng sn phm

GVHD: ThS. Trng Ch Tin

nh gi thc hin
Tn sinh vin
L Thanh Khe
Nguyn Hoi Kin
Bi Anh Kit
Nguyn Hoa L
Nguyn Th Chc Linh

MSSV
1154030024
1154030025
1154030026
1154030027
1154030029

Mc ng gp
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%

Qun tr cht lng sn phm

GVHD: ThS. Trng Ch Tin

MC LC
CHNG 1: PHN M U..................................................................................................4
1.1 L do chn ti...............................................................................................................4
1.2.1 Mc tiu chung...........................................................................................................4
1.2.2 Mc tiu c th...........................................................................................................4
1.3 i tng Phm vi nghin cu.....................................................................................4
1.3.1 i tng nghin cu................................................................................................4
1.3.2 Phm vi nghin cu...................................................................................................5
1.4 Phng php nghin cu................................................................................................5
1.4.1 Phng php thu thp s liu...................................................................................5
1.4.2 Phng php phn tch.............................................................................................5
CHNG 2: PHN NI DUNG..............................................................................................6
2.1 Mt s khi nim v v sinh an ton thc phm............................................................6
2.2 Nhng hiu bit chung v hn the...................................................................................6
2.2.1 Khi nim....................................................................................................................6
2.2.2 Ngun gc...................................................................................................................7
2.2.4 Tnh cht ha hc.......................................................................................................7
2.2.5 Tc dng ca hn the trong cuc sng.....................................................................7
2.3 Tc dng khi s dng hn the vo thc phm...............................................................8
2.4 Tc hi ca hn the i vi con ngi............................................................................8
CHNG 3: THC TRNG S DNG HN THE TRONG CH LA........................10
3.1 Nhng hiu bit chung v ch la.................................................................................10
3.1.1 Khi nim ch la....................................................................................................10
3.1.2 Nguyn liu...............................................................................................................10
3.1.3 Quy trnh sn xut...................................................................................................10
3.2 Thc trng s dng hn the trong ch la...................................................................11
3.2.1 Mua bn hn the......................................................................................................11
3.2.2 S dng hn the trong ch la................................................................................12
3.2.3 Hu qu ca vic s dng hn the trong ch la..................................................13
CHNG 4 :GII PHP V KIN NGH..........................................................................14
4.1 Gii php.........................................................................................................................14
4.1.1 i vi nh nc.....................................................................................................14
4.1.2 i vi doanh nghip..............................................................................................14
4.1.3 i vi ngi tiu dng...........................................................................................14
4.2 Kin Ngh........................................................................................................................14
4.2.1 i vi nh nc.....................................................................................................14
4.2.2 i vi doanh nghip..............................................................................................14
4.2.3 i vi ngi tiu dng..........................................................................................14
CHNG 5 KT LUN........................................................................................................16
TI LIU THAM KHO........................................................................................................16

Qun tr cht lng sn phm

GVHD: ThS. Trng Ch Tin

CHNG 1: PHN M U
1.1 L do chn ti
Ngy nay, nhu cu cuc sng ca ngi dn ngy cng c nng cao. Bn cnh nhu
cu vui chi, n ung tr thnh mt phn thit yu ca tt c mi ngi. Mong mun
ca mi ngi khng ch dng li n no mc m na, m cn phi n ngon mc p
v quan trng hn ht l m bo an ton sc khe. Nh vy c th thy n mc c
tt c mi ngi tr trng quan tm. c bit l trong n ung th nhu cu cng cao
hn, cng chnh v nhu cu cao nh vy nn rt nhiu vn ny sinh theo n. Nht l
v v sinh an ton thc phm ang l mt trong nhng vn cp bch c cc nh
chc nng v ngi tiu dng quan tm. Khi m cc loi thc phm trn th trng hin
nay ang mang trong mnh khng t cc loi ph gia nh hng trc tip n sc khe
ngi tiu dng.
C l ai cng bit v hiu v tc hi ca cc cht ph gia c hi gy ra, tuy nhin i
vi ngnh ch bin thc phm hin nay, vic s dng cc ha cht v ph gia trong x
l, ch bin thc phm ang rt ph bin v c chiu hng gia tng. V li nhun trc
mt, cng mt s cng dng nh tng thm hng v, mu sc, tnh hp dn v thi hn
bo qun cho thc phm m cc cht ph gia c hi tr nn ph bin. Trong s cc cht
ph gia b cm dng trong thc phm phi k ti hn the (Borac) xut hin rt ph bin
trong cc loi thc phm quen thuc hng ngy. Nguy him v kh kim sot hn na
l chng c mt a s trong cc sn phm mang tnh th cng, c sn xut nh l trn
th trng nh ch la, nem, pate, tht, c.
Trong s , ch la l mt hng m theo kin ca rt nhiu ngi l khng c hn
the th khng c ch la ngon.. Ni ring v ch la l mn n kh ph bin ca ngi
Vit hu ht cc vng min. Tuy nhin, vic sn xut ch la sao cho bo m an
ton thc phm vn cn rt nhiu hn ch. Vi nhiu vn nh vy nhm quyt nh
chn ch Hn the c trong ch la phn tch i din nhm lm r vn v cc
cht ph gia gy hi vi mong mun gp phn gip ngi tiu dng hiu hn v tc hi
ca cc cht y c c ci nhn c th, t m hn v ch la cng nh cc loi thc
phm c ch bin th cng ni chung nhm la chn c cho mnh cc sn phm
ngon v m bo sc khe.
1.2 Mc tiu nghin cu
1.2.1 Mc tiu chung
Tm hiu thc trng v vic s dng cht hn the trong sn phm ch la trn th trng
hin nay cng nh cc tc hi ca hn the trong ch la i vi sc khe ngi tiu
dng v ra cc gii php khc phc.
1.2.2 Mc tiu c th
Tm hiu v hn the, tc hi ca hn the trong thc phm ni chung v ch bin ch la
ni ring.
Tm hiu v thc trng sn xut v tiu th ch la trn th trng Vit Nam.
Thc trng v vic s dng hn the trong ch bin ch la.
Nhng gii php ca Nh nc i vi cc thc trng trn.
ra gii php ca nhm
1.3 i tng Phm vi nghin cu
1.3.1 i tng nghin cu
Lng cht hn theo c trong ch la trn th trng.

Qun tr cht lng sn phm

GVHD: ThS. Trng Ch Tin

1.3.2 Phm vi nghin cu


* Phm vi v khng gian: ti c thc hin ti Vit Nam
* Phm vi v thi gian: S liu s dng trong ti l s liu nm 20 20xx
ti c tm hiu t ngy 09/10/2014 n ngy 1/11/2014
1.4 Phng php nghin cu
1.4.1 Phng php thu thp s liu
S liu th cp c thu thp trn Internet, bo ch, ti liu v t cc sn phm thc t
qua tm hiu ca nhm trn th trng trn th trng.
1.4.2 Phng php phn tch
Phn tch nguyn nhn, thc trng v gii php khc phc hin trng sn xut, ch bin
ch la c cha hn the.

Qun tr cht lng sn phm

GVHD: ThS. Trng Ch Tin

CHNG 2: PHN NI DUNG


2.1 Mt s khi nim v v sinh an ton thc phm
Thc phm: l nhng thc n, ung ca con ngi di dng ti sng hoc qua
s ch, ch bin; bao gm c ung, nhai ngm v cc cht c s dng trong sn
xut, ch bin thc phm.
Thc phm quc t ( Codex) th thc phm l tt c cc cht hoc cha ch bin
nhm s dng cho con ngi bao gm n, ung, nhai, ngm, ht v cc cht c s
dng sn xut, ch bin hoc x l thc phm, nhng khng bao gm m phm v
nhng cht ch c dng nh dc phm.
Cht lng: Ton b cc c tnh ca mt thc th to cho thc th kh nng tha
mn cc nhu cu cng b hay dng tim n.
Qun l cht lng: Tt c cc hot ng ca chc nng qun l chung nhm ra
chnh sch cht lng, cc mc tiu v trch nhim, thc hin chng bng cc bin
php nh hoch nh cht lng, kim sot cht lng, m bo cht lng v ci tin
cht lng trong khun kh ca h thng cht lng.
An ton thc phm: l vic bo m thc phm khng gy hi cho sc khe v tnh
mng con ngi khi n c ch bin hay n ung theo mc ch s dng nh
trc.
Bo m cht lng: Mi hot ng c k hoch, c h thng v c khng nh nu
cn, em li lng tin tha ng rng sn phm tha mn yu cu nh i vi cht
lng.
Cht lng thc phm = cht lng hng ha + an ton thc phm. Trong , cht
lng hng ha bao gm: Cht lng bao b, gi tr ch thc ca thc phm, kiu dng,
kiu m, nhn sn phm...c m bo cho ti khi ti ngi tiu dng.
Kim nghim thc phm l vic thc hin mt hoc cc hot ng th nghim, nh gi
s ph hp vi quy chun k thut v tiu chun tng ng i vi thc phm, ph gia
thc phm, cht h tr ch bin thc phm, cc cht b sung vo thc phm, bao gi,
dng c, vt liu cha ng thc phm.
V sinh thc phm: l mi iu kin v bin php cn thit m bo s an ton v
ph hp ca thc phm mi khu thuc chu trnh thc phm.
nh ngha v sinh an ton thc phm: v sinh an ton thc phm l tt c iu kin,
bin php cn thit t khu sn xut, ch bin, bo qun, phn phi, vn chuyn cng
nh s dng nhm bo m cho thc phm sch s, an ton, khng gy hi cho sc
khe, tnh mng ngi tiu dng. V vy, v sinh an ton thc phm l cng vic i hi
s tham gia ca nhiu ngnh, nhiu khu c lin quan n thc phm nh nng nghip,
th y, c s ch bin thc phm, y t, ngi tiu dng.
2.2 Nhng hiu bit chung v hn the
2.2.1 Khi nim
Hn the l mt hp cht ho hc ca nguyn t B (Bo) vi Natri v xy, l mui ca
acid boric (H3Bo3) c tn ting Anh l Sodium tetraborate, Sodium pyroborate, Sodium
beborate... hay gi ngn gn l borac. Tn gi theo Hn Vit l Bng Sa, Bng Sa,
Nguyn Thch, tn ho hc y l Natri tetraborate ngm 10 phn t nc vi cng
thc ho hc l Na2B4O7.10H2O.

Qun tr cht lng sn phm

GVHD: ThS. Trng Ch Tin

2.2.2 Ngun gc
Borac c trong thin nhin, thng c tm thy y cc h nc mn (salt lakes)
sau khi cc h ny b kh ro.
Hn the cn c th c sn xut t hai ngun khc nhau
Khai thc v tinh ch t qung:
Borac (cha ch yu mui Na2B4O7. 10H2O)
Kecnit (cha mui Na2B4O7. 4H2O + H3BO3)
Colemanit (cha mui Ca2B6O11.5H2O)
Idecnit (cha mui Mg2B6O11. 13H2O)
> Kt qu thu c sn phm hn the c tinh khit t 95-97%.
iu ch trong sn xut cng nghip t cc khong poly borate (hn hp ca Colemanit
v Idecnit).
2.2.3 Tnh cht vt l
Hn the l mt loi mui dng tinh th mu trng c, khng mi, khng v, t tan
trong nc ngui nhng tan nhiu trong nc nng, tan trong glyxerin v khng tan
trong cn 90. Khi tan trong nc nng s to ra acid Boric (H3BO3) v cht kim
mnh Natri hydrocid (NaOH) theo phn ng sau:
Na2B4O7 + 7H2O = H3BO3 + NaOH
Cng thc phn t Na2O4 B7.10 H2O
Phn t gam 381,37 g/mol
T trng v pha 1,73 g/cm3, rn
ha tan trong nc 5,1 g/100 ml nc (20C)
im nng chy 75C (348 K)
im si 320C (593 K)
2.2.4 Tnh cht ha hc
+ Hn ch, chng s ln men, s sinh si ca nm mc i vi thc phm l protid,
sa, tinh bt, go, u, khoai, ng... lm km s pht trin ca vi khun do thc
phm lu b hng. Ngoi ra, do kh nng lm gim tc kh xy ca cc sc t
Myoglobine trong cc si c ca tht nc nn ngi ta dng n bo qun, duy tr mu
sc ti ngon ca tht c.
+ Do acid boric c tc dng lm cng cc mch peptid t kh nng protein b phn
hu thnh cc acid amin chm i, cng nh lm cng cc mch amiloza do cc gc
glucoza gn vi nhau, do kh nng amiloza b phn thnh cc glucoza chm li.
2.2.5 Tc dng ca hn the trong cuc sng
Borac c s dng rng ri trong cc loi cht ty ra, cht lm mm nc, x
phng, cht kh trng v thuc tr su. Mt trong cc ng dng c qung co nhiu
nht l s dng lm nc ra tay cho cng nhn trong cng nghip. N cng c s
dng lm men thy tinh men gm, thy tinh v lm cng gm s. N cng rt d
dng chuyn thnh axt boric hay cc borat khc, v chng c nhiu ng dng.
Mt lng ln borac pentahirat c s dng trong sn xut si thy tinh v xelulza
cch nhit nh l cht lm chm chy v hp cht chng nm. Mt lng ln s dng
trong sn xut peborat natri mnhirat s dng trong bt git.
Hn hp ca borac v clorua amni (NH4Cl) c s dng nh l cht tr
chy khi hn cc hp kim cha st nh thp. N h thp im nng chy ca cc xt
st khng mong mun, cho php n chy ra. Borac cng c trn vi nc lm cht

Qun tr cht lng sn phm

GVHD: ThS. Trng Ch Tin

tr chy khi hn cc kim loi qu nh vng hay bc. N cho php que hn nng chy
chy trn ln cc mi ni cn thit.
Khi s dng trong hn hp, borac cng c th dng git kin c g v b cht.
Borac l mt thnh phn trong cht lng nht slime.
2.3 Tc dng khi s dng hn the vo thc phm
Do khng mi, khng v, c tc dng km khun nh v khi c mt trong thc phm
hn the tng cng lin kt cu trc mng ca tinh bt v protein, lm gim b, tng
dai, gin ca cc loi thc phm c ch bin t bt ng cc hoc t tht gia sc,
gia cm, ci thin trng thi cm quan ca sn phm, ph hp vi khu v ca ngi
tiu dng; mt khc cn gip bo qun thc phm c lu hn v duy tr mu sc tht
ti hn nn t nm 1920 n 1953 cc nc cng nghip cho php s dng borax
v acid boric lm cht bo qun trong thc phm (sa, tht,...) vi nng 0,2-0,5%.
Sau nhng nm 1960 cc nh khoa hc ca Anh, Php, c, H Lan... pht hin thy
Bo tch ly nhiu trong c th v c nhiu cng trnh nghin cu cng b c tnh
ca Bo. Sau nm 1990 rt nhiu nc cm tuyt i s dng hn the trong ch bin
thc phm (EU, Canada, M, Nht, Anh, Vit Nam...)
Khi cho hn the vo cc loi tinh bt nh bn, min, bnh trng, ph, bnh... hn the s
lm cho tinh bt c c cao (tng cng lin kt cu trc mng). Chnh v tnh cht
ny m nhiu ngi thch s dng n lm tng tnh dai, gin ca cc loi sn phm;
hay s dng n pha trn thm bt cho vo gi, ch, tht, c cc loi gim gi
thnh sn phm
Ngoi ra, trong thc phm c nhiu protein nh tht, c... lng nc tn ti kh ln
(65-80%) dng t do hay lin kt. V vy khi s dng hn the th s lin kt ny cng
bn cht, cu trc protein cng vng chc, tc l tht c dai, gin, n hi cao hn
v c th gi nc mc ti a nn cn nng hn. iu ny gii thch ti sao mt s
trng hp khng th o c v nng ca hn the vt xa cc ch s ln nht ca
dng c o.
Tnh st khun ca hn the rt mnh, do nhiu ngi li dng tnh cht ny ca hn
the cho vo thc phm gi c lu m khng lo b h hng d khng cn gi lnh.
2.4 Tc hi ca hn the i vi con ngi
Hn the l mt ha cht thuc nhm c trung bnh. N c t tnh c trc tip v tc
khc nh cc cht khc (v d: asen, thy ngn) nhng li c tnh tch ly t t, lu di
trong c th, c bit trong m m, m thn kinh, gy nh hng c ti tiu ha, hp
thu, cc qu trnh chuyn ha v chc phn ca cc c quan trong c th biu hin bng
cc du hiu: mt cm gic n ngon, gim cn, nn, tiu chy nh, mn da, rng tc,
suy thn v cn ng kinh... Acid Boric cn c tc dng c ch thc bo nn lm gim
sc khng ca c th. Chnh do c tnh gn kt vi thc phm ca hn the m n
lm cho thc phm kh c tiu ha hn bnh thng rt nhiu. Tr em dng hn the
lu ngy dn n s pht trin chm trong tui trng thnh. Ph n b nhim c mn
tnh do hn the th vt Bo c th c thi tr qua rau thai v sa, gy nhim c ti
thai nhi v tr nh. Khi tch ly trong c th, hn the cn c kh nng gy tn thng
gan v thoi ha c quan sinh dc (teo tinh hon). Tuy nhin nhng tc dng sinh hc
c hi ca hn the i vi c th con ngi cn cha c khng nh y .
Cc nghin cu c hc ch ra rng hn the c kh nng tch t trong c th, gy tn
thng gan v thoi ha c quan sinh dc. Sau khi hp th vo c th, hn the s tp

Qun tr cht lng sn phm

GVHD: ThS. Trng Ch Tin

trung gan, phi, d dy, thn, mt v rut, sau , hn the s o thi qua nc tiu
(81 - 82%), qua phn (1%), m hi (3%) cn li 15% s tch ly cc m m trong c
th, gy c mn tnh v dn dn lm suy thn, suy gan, dn n da xanh xao, bing n,
c th suy nhc, khng hi phc c, thm ch cn lm teo tinh hon, v sinh hoc
cc tai bin h tiu ha, lm ri lon ng ha cc albuminoit. Nu n phi hn the vi
liu lng t 5g/kg tr ln con ngi c th t vong. Chnh v vy, vo nm 1925, nhiu
nc trnth gii cm khng cho s dng hn the bo qun thc phm. Hin nay
vic c nn tip tc s dng hn the trong ch bin thc phm hay khng ang l vn
cn phi xem xt. Cc nghin cu v y hc cho thy nu s dng nhiu hn the s c
mt s tc hi sau: mc thp: s dng 3-5g/ngy: km n, kh chu ton thn.
mc cao: trn 5g/ngy: gy chm ln, tn thng gan, teo tinh hon, gim cn. Khi
xm nhp vo c th, sau khi c bi tit, lng hn the s tch t khong 15%. Nh
vy nu s dng thc phm c cha hn the trong nhiu ngy th c th s tch ly mt
lng hn thenguy him nh s dng thc phm c cha nhiu hn the mt ln. V l
do , T chc Y t th gii (WHO) v Nng lng th gii (FAO) ln n gay gt
hnh vi dng hn the trong ch bin thc phm.
Cc triu chng b ng c cp tnh v ng c mn tnh khi s dng hn the:
Ng c cp tnh: xy ra trung bnh 6-8 gi sau khi n, vi cc triu chng bun nn,
nn, tiu chy, co cng c, chut rt vng bng, vt v, cn ng kinh, du hiu kch
thch mng no, trc da, pht ban, c bit l vng mng, bn tay, c th c cc du
hiu suy thn, nhp tim nhanh, sc try mch, da xanh tm, co git, hoang tng v hn
m. Vi liu t 2-5g acid boric hoc 15-30g borax, nn nhn c th cht sau 36 gi. Kt
qu nghin cu cho thy, liu bt u gy hi t 10-40 ppm (1ppm = 1microgam/g hay
1mg/kg).
Ng c mn tnh: do kh nng tch lu trong c th ca hn the, gy nh hng qu
trnh tiu ho, hp th, qu trnh chuyn ho v chc nng ca thn, biu hin l mt
cm gic n ngon, gim cn, nn, tiu chy nh, mn da, rng tc, suy thn, c ng
kinh, da xanh xao, suy nhc khng hi phc c. Ngoi ra, acid boric cn c tc
dng c ch thc bo, lm sc chng ca c th gim.

Qun tr cht lng sn phm

GVHD: ThS. Trng Ch Tin

CHNG 3: THC TRNG S DNG HN THE TRONG CH LA


3.1 Nhng hiu bit chung v ch la
3.1.1 Khi nim ch la
Gi la, gi ch hay ch la (phng ng Nam b) l tn gi ca mn n c lm t
hai nguyn liu c bn l tht nc thn ln gi nhuyn kt hp vi nc mm ngon, gi
trong l chui v luc chn. Thnh hnh trong m thc Vit Nam t Bc xung Nam nh
mt mn n va ph thng va sang trng, gi la gin v thm m mi tht ti luc
cng vi mi c trng ca l chui ti c luc chn.
3.1.2 Nguyn liu
Nguyn liu lm mn gi la rt n gin nhng c c ming gi ngon i hi s
la chn cu k, tinh t v quy trnh thc hin ht sc bi bn:
Tht ln: la chn tht cn ti va m ly ra t con ln mi lm lng sch, tt nht l
tht ln mi con nng khong 4050 kg. Tht vo tay cn c cm gic m, v thi
trn tht ming tht cn nh nhy trn mt tht, tht dai khng nho.
Nc mm: chn loi nc mm tht ngon vi m cao, thm v snh (nh nc
mm c thu).
L chui: chn l ti bnh t, tt nht l l chui ty. Gi la c hng v c bit
chnh l nh s kt hp ca v thm l chui luc chn kt hp vi v tht ti luc chn.
Do , trong s cch tn mn gi truyn thng, mt s ngi th nghim cho gi
sng vo ng st luc khng my thnh cng, v Nguyn Tun, trong khi dn li
mt ngh nhn lm gi ti H Ni, c Lu, gi l mn "gi g st".
Gia v khc: mt s a phng v mt s ngh nhn cn gia thm cht bt
ngt, ng, ht tiu xay nhuyn tuy khng phi l nhng gia v bt buc theo cch
thc truyn thng.
3.1.3 Quy trnh sn xut

Qun tr cht lng sn phm

GVHD: ThS. Trng Ch Tin

3.2 Thc trng s dng hn the trong ch la


3.2.1 Mua bn hn the
Hin nay, thng tin v tc hi ca hn the c ph bin kh rng ri trn nhiu
phng tin truyn thng i chng. Tuy nhin, vic qun l v cm mua bn, s dng
cht hn the vn cn gp rt nhiu kh khn, hn the vn c by bn cng khai ti
cc ch ln nh, vic mua bn qu d dng, gi thnh qu r v do c tnh nng gi
thc phm ti lu, lm chm qu trnh phn r, nht l lm cho thc phm tr nn
gin, dai, nn hn the ang c nhng ngi bun bn s dng nh mt cht khng
th thiu trong vic bo qun thc phm. Ti ch ng Xun, ch u mi ln H
Ni, mi loi sn phm u c th tm mua c y v hn the cng nm trong s
. 20.000/kg, t ch u mi cho n ch cc, vic mua bn hn the din ra rt cng
khai, cng nh H Ni th Tp. HCM t ch ln ch nh u c v khng ai quan tm
ngi ta mua v mc ch g. Gi bn l khong 20-30 ngn ng/kg ch thng. Cn

Qun tr cht lng sn phm

GVHD: ThS. Trng Ch Tin

khu vc ch ho cht Kim Bin ngi bn cn c th bn cho khch hng vi s lng


trn 100kg.
3.2.2 S dng hn the trong ch la

Trong hn 1.000 c gi
tham gia kho st
trn VnExpress, vn c 29
ngi cho rng hn the
chng nh hng g n sc khe.Mc d c nhiu thng tin cnh bo tc hi ca
hn the, thc ngi kinh doanh, sn xut cng nh ngi tiu dng v c s
chuyn bin, nhng nhn chung n nay vn cha chm dt c vic s dng hn the
trong cc sn phm ch la, m si, bnh c... Theo bo co kt qu gim st mi nguy
nhim thc phm nm 2011 ca Chi cc ATVSTP tnh Qung Tr, c 100% mu ch
la kim nghim c kt qu dng tnh vi hn the. Trong t thanh kim tra Tt
Nguyn n 2012, c 115/154 mu ch la dng tnh vi test nhanh hn the, cc sn
phm ny tp trung ch yu ti cc ch u mi ln ca tnh.
Theo Trung tm Y t d phng TPHCM, kt qu nhng mu th hn the do c quan ny
tin hnh cho thy: nu nh nm 2004 lng hn the cho vo thc phm trung bnh
khong 1.000 - 2.000 mg/kg th nm 2006 con s ny ln n hn 3.000 mg/kg. theo
thng tin gn y, trung tm Y t kim tra ngu nhin i vi 2.500 mu gi ch, gi
sng, m si ti cc c s sn xut, ni kinh doanh, hng rong trn a bn TPHCM v
kt qu ch la c t l s dng hn the ln nht vi gn 70%, k n l m si - 60%,
gi sng - 45% v bnh gi - 25%. t nhng s liu trn cho ta thy vic s dng hn
the trn thc phm cng nh ch la c du hiu tng ln ng ngha ngi dng
nhng sn phm do cc c nhn cng nh c s sn xut s nh hng n sc khe
nhiu hn.
Trong thng 7, 8 v 9/ 2013 , Chi cc An ton v sinh thc phm tnh Tuyn Quang
tin hnh ly 132 mu thc phm xc nh nh tnh ha hc (phm mu, i, kht,
hn the) th c 21 mu thc phm khng t, chim gn 16% s mu thc phm. Trong
s 21 mu khng t ch tiu ha hc th ti 20 mu l ch la c cha cht hn the
Bn cnh ,on kim tra lin ngnh v sinh an ton thc phm thnh ph Bin Ha
(ng Nai) cng ly 32 mu ch la ca 12 im bn l ti ch Tn Hip kim
tra. Qua kim tra nhanh cho thy c 22 mu cha cht hn the mc m c, trong
cc mu ch la v gi chay c hm lng hn the cao. im c bit l nhng mt
hng ny u c ngun gc xut x khng r rng. on kim tra lp bin bn tch
thu v tiu hy gn 10 kg gi, ch cc loi.
Chi cc An ton v sinh thc phm tnh Hng Yn cng pht hin 10 mu thc phm
c cha hn the gy c hi ti 8 c s sn xut cc huyn Vn Lm, Vn Giang v
Kim ng. Kt qu xt nghim cho thy cc mu thc phm dng tnh vi ph gia

Qun tr cht lng sn phm

GVHD: ThS. Trng Ch Tin

hn the ch yu l ch la v bnh rng ba, trong , mu ch la c pht hin ti 3


c s sn xut trn a bn huyn Vn Lm v Kim ng, gm cc ch h: o Th
Phng ch ng Ci, x Trng Trc; Trn Th Lin ch Nh Qunh, th trn
Nh Qunh (Vn Lm); L Th o ch Tin Cu, x Hip Cng (Kim ng).
Vi phn nh ca ngi dn Hng Yn, chuyn thc phm c cha hn the ang din
ra ph bin nhiu c s sn xut gi ch, bnh rng ba, bn ph, min dong... trn
a bn tnh. sn phm khi n c v gin v bo qun c lu hn, cc ch c s
sn xut khi ch bin cho hn the m bt chp s c hi v nhng quy nh v bo
m an ton v sinh thc phm.
Theo kt qu cng b ca on kim tra lin ngnh An ton v sinh thc phm tnh Hu
Giang, trong tng s 34 mu m on gi i kim nghim, c n 2/3 s mu nhim
cc cht cm s dng trong bo qun thc phm.C th, 22 mu nhim cht cm u
khng c nhn mc, ngun gc xut x r rng, tp trung phn ln l cc sn phm: ch
c, ch chay, ch la cha hn the.
T nhng s liu t cc on kim tra ca cc tnh thnh t Bc ch Nam cho ta thy
mt iu rng vic s dng hn the trong gi ch l ng bo ng, gy hu qu nghim
trng v sc khe cho ngi s dng, nhiu cng b gn y cho thy ngi kinh
doanh thc phm vn cha hiu bit ht tnh cht c hi ca hn the, khng nm vng
vn bn php qui v hn theiu ny gy kh khn cho cng tc qun l s dng hn
the trong thc phm ti cng ng, dn n nhiu c s kinh doanh cng nh c nhn
s dng hn the l cht ph gia gip cho sn phm ch la ca h bn chy hn, thu
ht ngi tiu dng.
3.2.3 Hu qu ca vic s dng hn the trong ch la
Tnh trng ch la cha hn the gy ra tm l bt an cho ngi dn, gy hi trc tip
cho sc khe ngi tiu dng, nh hng n cc c quan ca c th, c th gy ng
c cp tnh v mn tnh. iu ny lm cho ngi tin dng ht sc e d khi la chn
cc sn phm ch la trn th trng. Gin tip lm mt i gi tr bn sc ca mn n c
th c xem l truyn thng ny ca ngi dn ta.

Qun tr cht lng sn phm

GVHD: ThS. Trng Ch Tin

CHNG 4 :GII PHP V KIN NGH


4.1 Gii php
4.1.1 i vi nh nc
m bo VSATTP ban qun l ch thng xuyn thanh kim tra v nhc nh cc
tiu thng khng kinh doanh nhng mt hng khng m bo VSATTP, cha cc cht
ph gia v cht bo qun gy hi.
Lin kt hp tc quc t, hc hi nhng tin b khoa hc k thut trn th gii gip
cc doanh nghip c c s vt cht k thut hin i sn xut ch la m bo an
ton thc phm, khng cha hn the gy hi.
4.1.2 i vi doanh nghip
Vic m bo cht lng ca cc nguyn ph liu u vo trong sn xut ch la chim
vai tr ht sc quan trng.
Tip n l qu trnh ch bin phi m bo tuyt i an ton v mt cht lng. Mun
lm c iu ny, i hi ngi sn xut, h gia nh phi ch ng tm kim v tham
d tp hun v mt kin thc sn sut ch la, thc hin nghim chnh cc quy nh
trong ch bin, bo qun thc phm mi c th cho ra sn phm ch la cht lng
cng nh m bo an ton cho sc kho ngi tiu dng.
4.1.3 i vi ngi tiu dng
trnh mua phi ch la km cht lng, ngoi vic la chn nhn hiu, ngi tiu
dng cn nn trnh nhng loi ch la c thi hn lu hnh qu lu k t ngy sn xut
hoc iu kin bo qun khng tt.
4.2 Kin Ngh
4.2.1 i vi nh nc
- Hon chnh h thng php lut v v sinh an ton thc phm v cc vn bn hng
dn di Lut kp thi, ph hp. l hnh lang php l v c s cc a phng
xy dng nhng chnh sch, quy hoch, k hoch qun l cht lng v sinh an ton
thc phm.
- Cc c quan chc nng cn tng cng h thng thanh tra chuyn ngnh qun l th
trng thanh tra kim tra sn phm hng ha, x pht tht mnh i vi nhng c s
vi phm v sinh an ton thc phm.
- Tuyn truyn, gio dc mnh m hn na qua cc phng tin thng tin i chng v
tc hi ca hn the v nn s dng nhng loi thc phm c tnh dai, gin t nhin,
ng thi ty chay nhng sn phm qu dai, gin khng bnh thng. Hng dn ngi
sn xut s dng nhng ph gia thc phm thay th hn the c B Y t cho php.
4.2.2 i vi doanh nghip
- Cc c s sn xut ch la cn khng ngng tm hiu cc k thut mi nhm nng cao
kinh nghim, k nng p dng vo sn xut ch la m khng dng n hn the v
cc cht ph gia gy hi khc dm bo sc khe ngi tiu dng.
- Ngoi ra cc c s sn xut ny phi t gic ng k kinh doanh ti a phng, chp
hnh y cc cuc kim tra gim st ca cc v sinh an toan thc phm.
- Cc n v sn xut nn b sung vo danh mc cc cht ph gia thc phm an ton
c th thay th hn the trong ch bin v sn xut ch la.
4.2.3 i vi ngi tiu dng

Qun tr cht lng sn phm

GVHD: ThS. Trng Ch Tin

Ngi tiu dng cn k tnh hn trong vic chn sn phm ch la v cc sn phm


c ch bin sn khc, hy l ngi tiu dng kh tnh m bo sc khe gia nh
v cho chnh bn thn.
m bo an ton ngi tiu dng nn mnh dng ty chay nhng mt hng khng
ngun gc, khng nhn mc, khng hn s dng.
Kin quyt t co cc c s sn xut ch la khng hp tiu chun vi cc c quan
chc nng kp thi.

Qun tr cht lng sn phm

GVHD: ThS. Trng Ch Tin

CHNG 5 KT LUN
T nhng thc trng ang c mi ngi quan tm v vn s dng hn the trong
ch la ni trn, ang l mt vn nan gii cho cc c quan chc nng, b y t v
ngi tiu dng. Phi lm sao mi ngi c nhn thc r v tc hi ca hn the gy
nh hng nh th no n ngi tiu dng v sc khe ca h
Cn thc hin cc bin php ngn chn nhng ngi sn xut ch la cha hn the gy
tc hi trc tip n ngi tiu dng
Hin nay trn th gii u cm khng cho s dng hn the vo thc phm, nhng v li
nhun m ngi s dng khng ngh n sc khe ca ngi tiu dng, m h ch quan
tm n li nhun c c, y l mt bi ton kh cho cc c quan chc nng. Cn c
nhng bin php ngn chn kp thi m bo tt cho ngi s dng ch la khng
b nh hng n sc khe.

TI LIU THAM KHO


Vit Hong L Hng (10/05/2012), Hn the vn hin ngang trn th trng, ti
http://vtv.vn/trong-nuoc/han-the-van-ngang-nhien-tren-thi-truong-62020.htm truy
cp ngy 12/09/2014
http://vnn.vietnamnet.vn/khoahoc/suckhoe/2004/05/64602/
http://vietbao.vn/Xa-hoi/3.000-mg-han-the-trong-1-kg-gio-cha-dau-nemchua/70086566/157/
TTXVN (16/01/2014), pht hin 8 c s gi ch bnh rng ba dung hn the, ti
http://www.vietnamplus.vn/phat-hien-8-co-so-gio-cha-banh-rang-bua-dung-hanthe/241727.vnp truy cp ngy 20/09/2014
http://www.baotuyenquang.com.vn/doi-song/suc-khoe/canh-bao-tinh-trang-sudung-han-the-trong-gio-cha-32903.html
http://dantri.com.vn/suc-khoe/gio-cha-chua-han-the-o-muc-dam-dac-761297.htm
http://www.baotuyenquang.com.vn/doi-song/suc-khoe/canh-bao-tinh-trang-sudung-han-the-trong-gio-cha-32903
http://doc.edu.vn/tai-lieu/tieu-luan-han-the-va-van-de-dua-no-vao-thuc-pham49475/
http://doc.edu.vn/tai-lieu/tieu-luan-han-the-va-van-de-dua-no-vao-thuc-pham49475
http://www.ttnfood.com/home/?Lang=Lang1&act=About&do=Detail&a
http://doisong.vnexpress.net/tin-tuc/suc-khoe/han-the-doc-nhung-van-phai-an2261563.html
http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gi%C3%B2_l%E1%BB%A5a#Tham_kh.E1.BA.A3o
http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borac