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EARLY CHILDHOOD FACT SHEET

Physical Developmental Milestones


During the Early Childhood years, 2-6 years old, children should develop physically in the following ways:
Age 2 to 3- walk more rhythmically, jumps throws catches, pushes riding toys with feet. Age 3 to 4 - Walks
up stairs, flexing upper body, pedals and steers tricycle. Age 4 to 5 - Walks down stairs, runs more
smoothly, throws ball with increased body rotation, and steers smoothly. Age 5-6 - Increases running
speed to 12 feet per second and engages in true skipping and sideways stepping. (Berk, 2013, Chapter
5, Page 179).
Language Developmental Milestones
Between 2-3 children can say their first name, holds up fingers to tell age, combine nouns and verbs, and
answer "where" questions. At 3-4, children can tell a story, has a sentence length of 4-5 words, and has
a vocabulary of nearly 1000 words. At 4-5 years old, has sentence length of 4-5 words, uses past tense
correctly, has a vocabulary of nearly 1500 words, and can identify colors and shapes. At 5-6 of age
children are able to Has a sentence length of 5-6 words, has a vocabulary of around 2000 words, can
define objects by their use (you eat with a fork), and knows spatial relations like "on top", "behind", "far"
and "near". (Retrieved from http://www.ldonline.org/article/6313)

Cognitive Developmental Milestones


During this stage children understand concepts of today, tomorrow, and yesterday. Children of this age
also understand right and left. They begin to develop friendships with peers and teachers. They are able
to recall parts of stories, and sing songs. They have an increased attention span and can ignore
distractions.
One sign that may signal atypical development during this period of development is delay in physical or
motor skills could be due to a medical condition. During this stage children are routinely having medical
exams and the atypical physical development can be caught by the doctor. A plan can be made for the
child to ensure they receive all services at school to me help them be successful.
One strategy that families can use to influence their childrens learning and development during this
period of development is to provide plenty play opportunities to allow the child to have additional chances
to develop and catch up with his/her peers.

Reference: Berk, L. E. (2013).Child development. (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Developmental Milestones Typical Development


Physical
Climbs well (3 years
old)

Cognitive
Does puzzles with 3
or 4 pieces (3 years
old)

Social-Emotional
Shows affection for
friends without
prompting (3 years old)

Language
Follows instructions with 2
or 3 steps (3 years old)

Stands on one foot for


10 seconds or more

Counts 10 or more
things

Likes to sing, dance,


and act

Speaks very clearly

Reasoning
Responds to
empathy-based guilt
to transgressions (3
years old)
Tends to focus on
salient features and
consequences in
moral judgment

Atypical Patterns
Act early by talking to your childs doctor if your child:

1. Doesnt speak in sentences; Doesnt understand simple instructions (at 3 years old)
2. Doesnt show wide range of emotions; Doesnt draw pictures (at 5 years old)
Social Influences A childs environment could influence his/her social development. A child being
raised in an environment with abuse and neglect the child could mimic what they see the adults do.
Cultural Influences Religious beliefs and traditions have influence on a childs cultural development
and understanding. (Berk, 2013, p. 512-513)