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La m

Bch khoa ton th m Wikipedia

Bc ti: menu, tm kim

La m

Phn loi khoa hc

Gii (regnum):
(khng phn hng):
(khng phn hng)
(khng phn hng)
B (ordo):
H (familia):
Phn h (subfamilia):
Tng (tribus):
Chi (genus):

Plantae
Angiospermae
Monocots
Commelinids
Poales
Poaceae
Pooideae
Triticeae
Triticum
L.

Cc loi
T. aestivum
T. aethiopicum
T. araraticum
T. boeoticum
T. carthlicum
T. compactum

T. dicoccoides
T. dicoccon
T. durum
T. ispahanicum
T. karamyschevii
T. macha
T. militinae
T. monococcum
T. polonicum
T. spelta
T. sphaerococcum
T. timopheevii
T. turanicum
T. turgidum
T. urartu
T. vavilovii
T. zhukovskyi
Tham kho:
ITIS 42236 2002-09-22

La m

La m
La m hay tiu mch (Triticum spp.)[1] l mt nhm cc loi c thun dng t khu
vc Levant v c gieo trng rng khp th gii. V tng th, la m l thc phm quan
trng cho loi ngi, sn lng ca n ch ng sau ng v la go trong s cc loi cy
lng thc[2]. Ht la m l mt loi lng thc chung c s dng lm bt m trong
sn xut cc loi bnh m; m si, bnh, ko v.v[3] cng nh c ln men sn xut
bia[4] ru[5] hay nhin liu sinh hc[6]. La m cng c gie trng quy m hn hp lm

c kh cho gia sc v rm cng c th dng lm c kh cho gia sc hay vt liu xy dng


lp mi[7][8]

Mc lc
[n]

1 Lch s
2 Di truyn
3 Ging cy trng
4 V bao v t do khi p
5 Tn gi
o 5.1 Cc loi la m chnh c gieo trng
6 Kinh t
7 Thng k
8 Nng hc
9 Lng thc-thc phm
10 Dinh dng
11 Xem thm
12 Tham kho
13 Lin kt ngoi

14 Ghi ch

[sa] Lch s
La m c ngun gc t Ty Nam trong khu vc c bit di tn gi Li lim Mu
m (khu vc Trung ng ngy nay). Cc mi quan h di truyn gia la m einkorn v
la m emmer ch ra rng khu vc thun dng la m rt c th l nm gn Diyarbakr
Th Nh K [9]. Cc loi la m hoang di ny c thun dng nh l mt phn ca
ngun gc nng nghip ti khu vc Li lim Mu m ny. Vic trng trt v thu hoch
cng nh gieo ht lp i lp li cc loi c hoang di ny dn ti s thun dng la
m thng qua chn lc v cc dng t bin vi tai thc dai, cn nguyn vn khi thu
hoch, ht ln, v xu hng cc bng con cn nm li trn thn cy cho n khi thu
hoch [10]. Do mt i c ch pht tn ht nn la m thun dng ch cn kh nng hn
ch trong vic nhn ging mt cch hoang d.[11]
Vic trng trt la m bt u lan rng ra ngoi khu vc Li lim Mu m trong thi
i mi. Vo khong nm 3000 TCN, la m xut hin ti Ethiopia, n ,
Ireland v Ty Ban Nha. Khong 1 thin nin k sau n ti Trung Quc[11]. Khong nm
1000 TCN vic trng trt nng nghip vi s dng sc nga, tru, b cy ba lm gia
tng sn lng la m, ging nh vic s dng cc my gieo ht thay th cho vic gieo
ht bng cch ri ht trong th k 18. Sn lng la m tip tc tng ln, do cc vng t
mi c a vo khai thc, cng nh do k thut canh tc ca ngh nng tip tc c
ci tin vi vic s dng cc loi phn bn, my gt, my p la (my gt p), cc loi
my cy t, my xi t, my trng cy dng sc ko ca my ko, cng tc thy li v

phng tr su bnh dch hi hon thin hn cng nh vic to ra cc ging mi tt hn


(xem thm Cch mng xanh v La m Norin 10). Vi t l gia tng dn s trong khu vc
s dng la m nh l loi lng thc chnh ang suy gim, trong khi nng sut vn tip
tc tng, nn din tch gieo trng la m hin ti bt u xu hng gim v n l ln
u tin din ra xu hng ny trong lch s loi ngi hin i[12]. Vo nm 2007, sn
lng la m gim ti mc thp nht k t nm 1981, v nm 2006 l ln u tin
lng tiu th la m trn ton th gii nhiu hn l sn lng mt khong trng s
c tip tc dn rng do nhu cu tiu dng la m hin nay tng nhanh hn mc tng
ca sn xut.

[sa] Di truyn
Di truyn ca la m l phc tp hn so vi phn ln cc loi thc vt thun dng
khc. Mt s loi la m l dng lng bi, vi 2 b nhim sc th, nhng nhiu loi l
cc dng a bi n nh, vi 4 hay 6 b nhim sc th (t bi hay lc bi).[13]

La m Einkorn (T. monococcum) l dng lng bi.[1]

Phn ln cc loi la m t bi (nh la m Emmer (T. dicoccon) v la m cng


(T. durum)) c ngun gc t la m Emmer hoang (T. dicoccoides). La m
Emmer hoang (T dicoccoides) l kt qu lai ghp gia 2 loi c lng bi hoang
di l T. urartu v cc loi c d hoang di nh Aegilops searsii hay Ae.
speltoides. Qu trnh lai ghp to ra la m Emmer hoang di din ra trong t
nhin, t rt lu trc khi c qu trnh thun dng.[13]

Cc loi la m lc bi tin ha trn cc cnh ng ca ngi nng dn. La


m Emmer thun dng hoc l la m cng thun dng li lai ghp tip vi mt
loi c hoang d lng bi (Aegilops tauschii) sinh ra cc loi la m lc bi,
nh la m spenta v la m thng thng.[13]

[sa] Ging cy trng


Trong cc h thng nng nghip truyn thng th cc qun th la m thng thng bao
gm cc ging tp chng, cc qun th c nhng ngi nng dn duy tr mt cch ty
tin v thng thng c s a dng v hnh thi v c tnh rt cao. Mc d cc ging la
m ny khng cn c gieo trng ti chu u v Bc M, nhng chng c th vn
cn tm quan trng nhng ni khc. Ngun gc ca cc ging la m thun chng
chnh thc c t th k 19, khi ngi ta to ra mt dng ging mi thng qua phng
php chn lc cc ht t cy c cc c tnh mong mun. Cc ging la m hin i
c pht trin trong nhng nm u ca th k 20 v c mi lin h cht ch vi s pht
trin ca di truyn hc Mendel. Phng php tiu chun trong gy ging cng dng cc
ging cy trng ca la m l lai ghp cho gia 2 dng bng cch s dng cch ngt b
hoa c trnh hin tng t th phn, sau cho chng t lai ghp hay lai cng dng
cc th h sau. Cc la chn c ng nht ( c cc gen chu trch nhim cho cc

khc bit v ging) trong 10 hay nhiu hn cc th h trc khi a ra nh l cc ging


hay ging cy trng.[14]
Cc ging lai F1 ca la m khng nn nhm ln vi cc ging la m thu c t gy
ging thc vt tiu chun. u th ging lai (nh trong cc cy lai F1 quen thuc ca ng)
din ra trong la m thng thng (lc bi), nhng rt kh sn xut ht ca cc ging
cy lai ghp quy m thng mi nh c thc hin vi ng do hoa la m l hon
ho v thng thng n t th phn.[14] Ht ging la m lai ghp quy m thng mi
c sn xut bng cch dng cc tc nhn lai ghp ha hc, cc thuc iu chnh tng
trng la m c tc ng chn lc vi s pht trin ca phn hoa, hay cc h thng trit
tiu kh nng sinh sn hoa c mt cch t nhin din ra t bo cht. La m lai ghp ch
c thnh cng thng mi hn ch, chu u (c th l Php), Hoa K v Nam Phi.[15]
Mc ch chnh trong gy ging la m l nng sut cao, cht lng tt, kh nng khng
bnh tt v su b cng nh kh nng chu cc ng sut v sinh nh chu m, chu nng
hay chu cc cht v c v.v. Cc bnh tt chnh trong mi trng n i l tn ri u
Fusarium, bnh g st l v thn cy, trong khi khu vc nhit i l tn ri l
Helminthosporium.

[sa] V bao v t do khi p


Bn loi la m hoang di cng vi cc ging, th ca la m Einkorn thun dng,[16]
la m Emmer[17] v la m spenta,[18] c v bao ht. c trng hnh thi nguyn thy ny
bao gm cc my dai bao bc cht ly ht, v ( la m thun dng) l cung kh
gin d dng gy khi p. Kt qu l khi ngi ta p cc b la m th bng la gy ra
thnh cc bng con. thu c ht nhm c th x l tip, nh xay hay nghin, ngi
ta cn loi b cc v bao ny (tru). Ngc li, cc dng trn (t do khi p) nh la m
cng hay la m thng thng, cc my d v cn cung th dai. Khi p, lp tru tch
ra, gii phng ht. La m c v bao thng c lu gi di dng cc bng con do lp
my dai l s bo v tt chng li cc loi sau b khi lu tr ht.[16]

[sa] Tn gi
Bi chi tit: Phn loi la m
C nhiu h thng phn loi thc vt c s dng cho cc loi la m. Tn gi ca cc
loi la m trong cc h thng ny i khi khng ng nht. Trong phm vi mt loi, cc
ging cy trng ca la m li c nhng ngi gy ging hoc nng dn phn loi tip
theo ma pht trin ca chng, chng hn nh la m ma ng hay la m ma xun[8],
theo hm lng gluten, chng hn la m cng (nhiu protein) v la m mm (nhiu tinh
bt), hay theo mu ca ht (, trng, h phch).

[sa] Cc loi la m chnh c gieo trng

La m thng thng (T. aestivum): Loi lc bi c gieo trng nhiu nht


trn th gii.
La m cng (T. durum): Dng t bi duy nht c s dng rng ri ngy
nay v l loi la c gieo trng nhiu th hai.
La m Einkorn (T. monococcum): Loi lng bi vi cc th hoang di v
gieo trng. Dng gieo trng c thun dng cng thi vi la m Emmer,
nhng cha bao gi c c tm quan trng ngang loi kia.
La m Emmer (T. dicoccon): Dng t bi, c gieo trng trong thi k c
i nhng ngy nay khng cn c s dng rng ri.
La m spenta (T. spelta): Mt loi lc bi c gieo trng vi s lng hn
ch.

[sa] Kinh t

Bao la m

Ht la m v
La m trong thng mi c phn loi theo cc tnh cht ca ht i vi cc mc ch
ca cc th trng hng ha. Cc nh bun la m s dng phn loi ny xc nh l
h cn mua bn loi la m no do mi loi u c cc cng dng ring. Cn cc nh sn
xut cng dng h thng phn loi ny xc nh h cn sn xut loi la m no em
li nhiu li nhun nht.
La m c gieo trng rng ri nh l mt loi cy trng thu hoa li do n c sn lng
ln trn mi n v din tch, pht trin tt trong khu vc c kh hu n i ngay c khi
ma v l tng i ngn, vi bt m c cht lng cao v a dng, c s dng rng
ri trong sn xut bnh m. Phn ln cc dng bnh m c lm t bt m, bao gm c
nhiu loi bnh c gi theo tn ca cc loi ng cc khc c trong cc loi bnh ,
nh hc mch v yn mch. S ph bin ca thc phm lm t bt m to ra nhu cu ln
v ht, thm ch ngay c trong cc nn kinh t vi thng d thc phm ng k.

Nm 2007 din ra s tng gi ng k ca la m do thi tit gi lnh v ngp lt


Bc bn cu, kh hn Australia. Gi trong thng 9 nm 2007 giao la m t thng 12
ti thng 3 nm sau tng khong 9 USD,00 mi gi (khong 36 lt).[19] Cng din ra
mt s v phn nn ti Italia v vn gi m ng tng cao.[20]

[sa] Thng k
Cc nh sn xut hng u nm 2005
(triu tn)
Trung Quc

96

72

Hoa K

57

Nga

46

Php

37

Canada

26

24

24

Pakistan

22

Th Nh K

21

Ton th gii

Nm 1997, tiu th bnh qun u ngi


ton cu l 101 kg, vi mc tiu th bnh
qun cao nht ti an Mch (623 kg).
Xem thm Thng k sn lng la m.
Khng ging nh la go, sn xut la m
tri rng hn trn ton cu mc d Trung
Quc vn chim ti 1/6 sn lng ton th
gii.

[sa] Nng hc

626

Ngun:
FAO (FAO)[21]

Bng con ca la m vi 3 bao phn ang ri ra.


Vo ma ng la m trng thi ng ng di tuyt, nhng thng thng n cn
khong 110 ti 130 ngy t khi gieo trng ti khi thu hoch, ph thuc vo kh hu,
ging v cc iu kin v t canh tc.
Cc quyt nh trong theo di v chm sc la m i hi cn c nhng kin thc v cc
giai on pht trin ca n. C th, vic s dng phn bn, thuc dit c, thuc dit nm,
thuc iu chnh tng trng v.v thng thng cn c p dng vo cc giai on c th
trong pht trin ca n.

Tn ti mt vi h thng nhn dng cc giai on pht trin ca la m, vi hai h


thng s dng nhiu nht c l l thang Feekes v thang Zadoks. Mi thang l mt h
thng tiu chun, trong miu t cc giai on k tip nhau ca la m trong mt v
ma.

Mt cnh ng la m ang chn min bc IsraelLa m trong giai on n hoa


Bnh tt
Bi chi tit: Bnh ca la m
C nhiu loi sinh vt gy bnh dch cho la m, ch yu l nm v virus. Ngi ta c
tnh tn tht do bnh tt gy ra l khong 10-25% sn lng la m.[22].
Dch hi
La m b u trng ca mt s loi cn trng cnh vy (Lepidoptera) ph hi, nh Axylia
putris, Apamea sordens, Xestia c-nigrum v Agrotis segetum.

[sa] Lng thc-thc phm


Ht la m c th nghin thnh bt, gi l bt m hay cho ny mm v sy kh sn
xut mch nha, nghin v loi b cm thnh la m v ht hay bulgur, luc s (hay sy
hi nc), sy kh hay ch bin thnh bt trn chu, m ng hay bt o b (roux).
Chng l thnh phn chnh trong cc loi thc n nh bnh m, cho la m, bnh quy
gin, bnh quy, bnh nng, bnh ngt v boza (mt loi ung ln men ph bin
ng Nam u).

[sa] Dinh dng


100 gam ht la m cng ma ng cha khong 12,6 gam protein, 1,5 gam cht bo
tng cng, 71 gam cacbohydrat, 12,2 gam x tiu ha v 3,2 mg st (17% nhu cu hng
ngy); trong khi 100 gam la m cng ma xun cha khong 15,4 gam protein, 1,9
gam cht bo tng cng, 68 gam cacbohydrat, 12,2 gam x tiu ha v 3,6 mg st (20%
nhu cu hng ngy).[23]
Gluten, mt loi protein c trong la m (v cc loi khc ca Triticeae), l cht gy ra
mt s tc dng ph nhng ngi mc bnh tng ph (ri lon t min dch khong
1% dn s gc n-u).

[sa] Xem thm

Wikimedia Commons c thm hnh nh v ti liu v:


La m
Cm
Tru
Du phi mm la m

[sa] Tham kho

Bonjean A.P., W.J. Angus (ch bin). The World Wheat Book: a history of wheat
breeding. Lavoisier Publ., Paris. 1.131 trang (2001). ISBN 2-7430-0402-9.
Ears of plenty: The story of wheat, The Economist, 24-12-2005, trang 28-30
S. Padulosi, K. Hammer, J. Heller (ch bin) (1996). Hulled wheats, International
Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Roma, Italia.
Garnsey Peter, Grain for Rome, trong Garnsey P., Hopkins K., Whittaker C. R.
(ch bin), Trade in the Ancient Economy, Chatto & Windus, London 1983
Jasny Naum, The daily bread of ancient Greeks and Romans, Ex Officina Templi,
Brugis 1950
Jasny Naum, The Wheats of Classical Antiquity, J. Hopkins Press, Baltimore 1944
Heiser Charles B., Seed to civilisation. The story of food, Nh in i hc Harvard,
Harvard Mass. 1990
Harlan Jack R., Crops and man, Hip hi Nng hc Hoa K, Madison 1975
Saltini Antonio, I semi della civilt. Grano, riso e mais nella storia delle societ
umane, Prefazione di Luigi Bernab Brea, Avenue Media, Bologna 1996
Sauer Jonathan D., Geography of Crop Plants. A Select Roster, CRC Press, Boca
Raton

[sa] Lin kt ngoi

Cc ti liu khoa hc ca Australia v pht trin la m chu c kh hn


Hi ng Lng thc-Thc phm t la m
NAWG Website ca Hip hi cc nh trng la m Hoa K
CIMMYT Website ca International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Cc loi la m ti trang web ca i hc Purdue
Bo co cng trnh v trt t b gen la m
Bn b gen la m Emmer hoang
La m ma ng ti Golden Belt Kansas ca James C. Malin, i hc Kansas,
1944
Varieties of club wheat

[sa] Ghi ch

1. ^ a b Belderok Bob, Hans Mesdag, Dingena A. Donner. (2000) Bread-Making Quality of


Wheat. Springer. trang 3. ISBN 0-7923-6383-3.
2. ^ Thng k ca FAO
3. ^ Cauvain Stanley P., Cauvain P. Cauvain. (2003) Bread Making. CRC Press. trang 540.
ISBN 1-85573-553-9.
4. ^ Palmer John J. (2001) How to Brew. Defenestrative Pub Co. trang 233. ISBN 09710579-0-7.
5. ^ Neill Richard. (2002) Booze: The Drinks Bible for the 21st Century. Octopus
Publishing Group - Cassell Illustrated. trang 112. ISBN 1-84188-196-1.
6. ^ Department of Agriculture Appropriations for 1957: Hearings ... 84th Congress. 2d
Session. United States. Congress. House. Appropriations. 1956. trang 242.
7. ^ Smith Albert E. (1995) Handbook of Weed Management Systems. Marcel Dekker. trang
411. ISBN 0-8247-9547-4.
8. ^ a b Bridgwater W., Beatrice Aldrich. (1966) The Columbia-Viking Desk Encyclopedia.
i hc Columbia. trang 1959.
9. ^ Jorge Dubcovsky, Jan Dvorak, "Genome Plasticity a Key Factor in the Success of
Polyploid Wheat Under Domestication", Science 316, 5853, trang 1862, 29-6-2007
10. ^ "Seeking Agriculture's Ancient Roots", Science 316, 5853, trang 1830, 29-6-2007
11. ^ a b Smith C. Wayne. (1995) Crop Production. John Wiley and Sons. trang 60-62. ISBN
0-471-07972-3.
12. ^ The Economist, 2005
13. ^ a b c Hancock James F. (2004) Plant Evolution and the Origin of Crop Species. CABI
Publishing. ISBN 0-85199-685-X.
14. ^ a b Bajaj Y. P. S. (1990) Wheat. Springer. trang 161-63. ISBN 3-540-51809-6.
15. ^ Basra Amarjit S. (1999) Heterosis and Hybrid Seed Production in Agronomic Crops.
Nh in Haworth, trang 81-82. ISBN 1-56022-876-8.
16. ^ a b Potts D. T. (1996) Mesopotamia Civilization: The Material Foundations Nh in i
hc Cornell, trang 62. ISBN 0-8014-3339-8.
17. ^ Nevo Eviatar, A. B. Korol, A. Beiles, T. Fahima. (2002) Evolution of Wild Emmer and
Wheat Improvement: Population Genetics, Genetic Resources, and Genome.... Springer.
trang 8. ISBN 3-540-41750-8.
18. ^ Vaughan J. G., P. A. Judd. (2003) The Oxford Book of Health Foods. Nh in i hc
Oxford, trang 35. ISBN 0-19-850459-4.
19. ^ "Wheat futures again hit new highs", bi bo ca Victoria Sizemore Long trong Kansas
City Star, 28-9-2007
20. ^ "Wheat Prices Send Italian Pasta Costs Up", Colleen Barry, Associated Press , 13-92007
21. ^ FAO 2005
22. ^ [1]
23. ^ C s d liu Dinh dng Quc gia ca USDA, Pht hnh ln th 19 (2006)