You are on page 1of 318

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T
Cho mng cc bn n c u sch t d n sch cho thit b di ng
Ngun: http://vnthuquan.net/
To ebook: Nguyn Kim V.
MC LC
Li m u
PHN I - Chng 1
Chng 2
PHN II - Chng 1
Chng 2
P3 - Chng 1
Chng 2
Chng 3
Chng 4
Chng 5
Chng 6
Chng 7
Kt
PHN IV
PHN V
THIN XLIX
THIN XL
THIN XLIII

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T
THIN VII
THIN VI
THIN XLVIII
THIN XVIII
THIN XLV
THIN XLVI
THIN XVII
THIN IX
THIN XIV
THIN XIX
THIN XLVII
THIN XV
THIN XXX
THIN XXXI
THIN XXXII
THIN XXXIII
THIN XXXIV
THIN XXXV
THIN XXXVI
THIN XXXVII
THIN XXXVIII
THIN XXXIX
THIN XXII
THIN XXIII
THIN XLI

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T
THIN XII
THIN III
THIN XI
THIN XIII

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
Li m u

Hn Phi T l t tng gia cui cng ca thi Tin Tn, tp i thnh cc php gia (cc nh cho
rng tr nc, dng php lut c hiu qu hn, l nhng ngi ch trng php tr, tri vi Khng,
Mc ch trng nhn tr) trong ba bn th k, nn trc khi gii thiu i Tng v t tng ca
Hn Phi, chng ti n li hai thi Xun Thu v Chin Quc v phng din x hi, chnh tr v hc
thut, lc thut t tng v chnh sch ca cc php gia trc Hn Phi: Qun Trng, T Sn, L
Khi, Ng Khi, Thn Bt Hi, Thn o, Thng Ung.
Ba im chnh trong hc thuyt ca Hn l:
- Trng ci th: Ngi cm quyn khng cn phi hin v tr, m cn c quyn th v a v. Hin v
tr khng cho m ng phc tng, m quyn th v a v khut phc c ngi hin. Trng
th th tt nhin trng s cng ch: vua nm c quyn lp php, hnh php v t php, v phi
c tn trng trit , bt cht th phi cht.
- Trng php lut: M php lut phi hp thi, d bit d thi hnh, phi cng bng.
- Trng thut tr gian: Dng ngi, im ny rt quan trng. Hn a ra nhiu thut tn nhn ri
dng nhiu c s dn chng, i khi cng nh Kautilya n sau cuc xm lng n ca
Alexandre le Grand, mt th k trc Hn Phi; v nh Machiavel, tc gi cun Le prince cui
th k XV.

Hc thuyt ca Hn gip Tn Thu Hong thng nht Trung Quc, nhng t i Hn nh hng
ca Hn gim nhiu, nh hng ca Khng hc li mnh ln.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

T nm 1977, c nhn ri, ti li tip tc nghin cu ht cc trit gia ln i Tin Tn, thc
hin xong chng trnh ti vch t su nm trc, v son thn nm cun na: Mc Hc, Lo
T, Lun Ng, Khng T, Kinh Dch.

(theo hi k Nguyn Hin L)

*****

y l 1 cun sch rt kh nh, c bit l nhng on Hn Vit, nn cc bn u phi b


nhiu cng sc v s kin nhn vo .

Rt mong website no ng li cun Hn Phi T nh km theo danh sch ny

c bit xin ghi nhn s gip ca hai bn cunhoi v heo_mapyeu, lc no cng vui lng nhn
ht nhng phn vic khi thiu ngi nh. Cm n tt c cc bn.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
PHN I - Chng 1

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


THI XUN THU V CHIN QUC
TNH HNH X HI

Hn Phi l t tng gia cui cng ca thi Tin Tn, tp i thnh cc Php gia trong ba bn th k,
nn trc khi gii thiu i sng cng t tng ca ng, chng ti ngh cn n li hai thi Xun Thu
v Chin Quc v phng din x hi, chnh tr v hc thut. C sch cho vua Vn Vng l ngi
khai sng nh Chu; s thc ng ch l mt ch hu (Ty B) c ti c c di quyn vua Tr nh
Thng (cng gi l nh n). Chnh con ng, V Vng, mi dit Tr m ln ngi, m u cho nh
Chu (nm -1122)[1].
Qua i sau, con V Vng l Thnh Vng cn nh[2], Chu cng tn l n, em V Vng (tc l
ch ca Thnh Vng) lm chc Trng T, coi vic nc, sa sang li ch , nhc l, gio ho, lm
cho nh Chu cng thnh, vn minh. T ch phong kin ln ln thay ch th tc. S chp
u i Chu c ti 1600 ch hu, chng ti ngh l nhng b lc, cha tht s l ch hu nh gia
i Ty Chu tr i[3].
Theo b Mnh T (Vn chng h - bi 2) i khi ch phong kin i Chu nh sau:
V tc v cc vua trong thin h c 5 bc: 1- Thin T, 2- Cng, 3- Hu, 4- B v 5 - T vi Nam
cng bc.
V php phong t th c 5 hng: 1- t ca Thin T vung vc mt ngn dm; 2- t ca Cng v
Hu vung vc trm dm; 3- t ca B by chc dm; 4- t ca T v Nam nm chc dm.
Binh lc cng quy nh tu theo nc ln nh. Thi ch dng chin xa, cha c b binh v k
binh. Mi chin xa c 4 nga, mt ngi nh xe gia, mt qun bn cung bn tri, v mt qun
cm thng bn phi. Nc ca Thin T c vn chin xa, nc ca Cng Hu c ngn chin xa,
di na l trm chin xa.
Ch hu c bn phn tun lnh, trung thnh vi thin t; ngc li thin t c bn phn che ch,
gip ch hu. ng mt k hn no , cc ch hu phi ti triu cng thin t; v theo l, c
nm nm mt ln, thin t i thm khp cc ch hu, xem xt chnh tch ca h, tnh hnh trong x:
i sng ca dn chng, l nhc, nht l ca dao, v ni vui bun, lo lng ca dn hin r trong ca dao
hn ht (kinh Thi s d c trng ngang kinh Th, kinh L l v vy)

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Ch chia t cy cho dn, ch "tnh in" c l xut hin t i H[4], sang i Chu c
chnh n li, mi ming t vung vc 900 mu (mi mu theo Wieger, bng khong 600 mt
vung) chia lm 9 phn bng nhau nh hnh trn, mi phn 100 mu. Tm phn chung quanh chia
u cho 8 gia nh; phn gia li mt t lm ch cho 8 gia nh, cn bao nhiu 8 gia nh cy
cy chung, np la cho nh vua. Hnh ming t khi chia nh vy, ging ch nn gi l php tnh
in.
Ngoi cng vic canh nng ra, dn cn phi sn chn, trng du, nui tm, dt la qu tc may
y phc.
y l cha k lu lu phi li nh qu tc hu h na. i h vt v tht, nhng x hi c t chc
nn i sng cng c bo m t nhiu. t cn rng, dn cn tha, gp nhng lnh cha tt th
nhng nm khng c chin tranh v ma gi thun ho, h c th n, mc, sng vui v.
Ch phong kin tp trung quyn hnh trong tay qu tc, lm cho hng ny c n sung mc
sng, c th gi nhn ri hc hnh, trau di vn th ngh thut, nh vy m vn minh Trung Hoa
di i Chu pht trin. c hng th, gii qu tc thch sng thnh th hn, v u h
cng khuyn khch cng ngh, thng mi, do thnh th mc nhiu v mau thnh.
Nhc im ca ch l nn tng khng vng c lu, phi da trn uy quyn ca qu tc. Uy
quyn m suy nhc, hoc bn cm quyn m tham nhng, l ni lon ni ln lin: ch hu

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

khng tun lnh thin t, dn khng tun lnh cc quan, k mnh hng c mt phng, thn tnh k
yu chung quanh m lm b ch. S b lc nh c gim dn t 1600 xung 1000, 500, vi trm,
mt trm... m cc ch hu hng cng, t ai mi ngy mt rng, dn chng mi ngy mt ng,
gp nm gp mi ca thin t.
Nh Chu ch thnh trn mt th k, t i V Vng n ht i Chiu Vng. Qua i Mc Vng
("trc Ty lch" -1001 - 936) bt u suy, ti i U Vng (th k th 8 trc T.L.) th triu
nh lon, U Vng b r Khuyn Nhung git; thi t ni ngi l Bnh Vng, s cc r pha Ty
(Ty Nhung) li uy hip na, phi di qua Lc p (-700) pha ng, trong s gi l i ng
Chu(-700 221). T vua Chu tuy vn cn gi ci danh thin t, nhng mt ht c quyn hnh,
thng b ch hu ln p m ch phong kin ln ln lung lay.
Trong Chin Quc sch, phn 1 trang 100 (L Bi 1973) chng ti ni rng s phn chia i
ng Chu chia thnh hai thi k
- Thi Xun Thu (-700 - 403) t i Chu Bnh Vng ti gn cui i Chu Uy Lit Vng.
- Thi Chin Quc (-403 - 221) t gn cui i Uy Lit Vng ti khi Tn dit T v thng nht
Trung Quc c mt im gng: nm -403 khng nh du mt bin c g quan trng m u
mt thi i, ch l nm ba i phu nc Tn: Hn Kiu, Triu Tch, Ngy T c vua Chu phong
hu (do m sau Tn tch ra thnh ba nc Hn, Triu, Ngy), cn x hi, lch s Trung Hoa vn
bin chuyn lin tc, khng b gin on, t ch phong kin ti ch qun ch chuyn ch, t
tnh trng phn tn ti tnh trng thng nht. Tuy nhin c iu ny hin nhin l cng v sau x hi
cng lon, bin c cng dn dp, v xt chung th thi Chin Quc qu c nhiu im khc thi
Xun Thu.
V kinh t, canh nng, phng php canh tc rt tin b. Thi n ngi ta dng li cy bng g,
thi Ty Chu c li cy bng ng ; cui thi Xun Thu Ng v Vit, ngi ta tm ra st.
St lc gi l "c kim" (vng, bc, ng l m kim) v ch dng ch to nhng dng tm
thng nh li cy, li cuc... Nm -513 vua Tn bt mi ngi dn phi np mt t st c
nhng nh ghi hnh lut. Cng vo khong xut hin nhng truyn thuyt v hai thanh gm Can
Tng v Mc Da, bn hn nhng thanh gm thng dng nhiu, ch v c bng st v t st
mi c dng lm binh kh. C xng c phi dng ti ba trm ngi ko b cho l nng m
lm chy c st. Ti thi Chin Quc, st thng dng, v sch Mnh T, Thin ng Vn
Cng thng, bi 4, chp mt cu Mnh T hi Trn Tng: "Ha T c dng ni ng, trch t
nu n khng, c dng (li cy bng) st m cy khng?" (Ha T d ph tng thon, d thit canh
h?).
Nh li cy bng st, nh bit dng b ko cy, m cy su hn, nhanh hn, tn sc hn.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Ngi ta li bit b phn, lm hai ma, o kinh dn nc. Nc ch hu no cng mun ph cng
thn tnh cc nc bn cnh, m mun ph cng th trc ht phi khuch trng canh nng,
ngha l phi va ci tin phng php canh tc va khuyn khch khai ph t ai mi, va thay i
cch nh thu.
S khai ph t ai mi c hiu qu hn ht m cng cp thit nht v dn s tng ln kh mau (tng
s nhn khu tht quc i ng Chu hai chc triu, ti u k nguyn Kit, tng ln su chc
triu) ti ni Mnh T lo thiu thc phm v nguyn liu, nn phi khuyn cc nh cm quyn
cm dn ba li mt nh qu trong cc bng, h, cm n cy ph rng si ma, (Lng Hu
Vng - bi 3); v mt trm nm sau Hn Phi phi phn nn dn s tng ln qu mau, (theo cp
s nhn, chng hn mt ngi c 5 ngi con trai, mi ngi con trai li c 5 ngi con trai na,
thnh th ch trong hai th h, khong bn nm chc nm, mt ngi thnh ra hai mi lm ngi),
thc phm mi ngy mt kh kim.
Mun m mang t ai th nn khuyn khch hoc bt buc thanh nin thot ly gia nh i tm t
mi, v ng hn ch s t canh tc ca mi gia nh. V vy ch tnh in khng hp thi na,
d Mnh T bnh vc n n my th n cng phi b; m s d ng hng hi binh vc n chnh v
n b b vi nc ri. Theo Maspro trong La Chine Antique (PUF -1965) th Tn l nc u
tin b chnh sch tnh in t thi Xun Thu, trc thi Mnh T mt hai trm nm. Sau Mnh T,
Tn Hin Cng nghe li khuyn ca Thng ng b chnh sch t nm -350, cho dn c t
do khai hoang canh tc. B chnh sch tnh in th ng thi cng b lun php nh thu thi
gi l tr (gip): tm gia nh lm gip mt khong rung cng gia cho ch in (tc l cho chnh
ph, cho qu tc), m thay bng th thu thng bng mt phn mi hu li,hu li c khi tnh
tng nm mt, c khi ly s trung bnh ca nhiu nm. Li sau ny bt li cho nng dn: nm c
ma, la thc d nhiu, chnh ph c th thu nhiu m li thu t, dn tiu pha ht khng chu
dnh; ti nm mt ma, hu li ch tr ph tn canh tc th chnh ph li bt np s, dn i
phi vay nng li ca ch in, ca con bun, c k tr n sut i khng ht, nh n gn y.
Gn thi Chin Quc, cc ng vua ch hu cn tin mua kh gii, nui binh lnh, nh thu rt nng,
c ni bng 50% hu li ca dn, dn tnh cc iu ng. Tuy nhin chnh sch ng thu vo hu
li cng c li cho nng dn v mt khc: h tng i c t do, c lp hn i vi ch in,
khng b "ct" vo cng in na.
Cng ngh u i Chu cn th s: dn chng a s ch to ly dng trong nh v lm rung;
mt s n l chuyn mn ch to kh gii v cc dng p v qu cho giai cp qu tc, lm vic
trong cc xng ca quc gia hoc trong nhng gia nh ln. c tiu thuyt ca Gogol, Tolstoi,
Tourgueniev, ta thy th k XIX Nga c li cng ngh , cc i in ch Nga c hng ngn,
hng vn "linh hn (tc nng n), v trong in trang ca h, c hng chc, hng trm nng n n
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ng v n b chuyn xy ct, ng xe, dt vi, ch to nng c v dng c cho ch. Rt t khi in


ch mua c th trn - thng rt xa - ch v in trang dng.
Ti thi Xun Thu, cng ngh pht trin hn, cc ng bng ng , cc cn, khm t
c k thut cao, bc v bng ngc xut hin.
Qua thi Chin Quc, thm sn, thu tinh; k thut gm, k thut dt v nhum (c khi
ngi ta nhum ti by mu), rt tin b v ngi ta tm c nhng hp kim ch to nhng
tm gng soi mt rt tt. Ngoi ra, chnh sch thc sn ca Qun Trng nc T (thi Xun Thu)
: khai m, c tin, nu nc b lm mui, lp kho lm... c nhiu kt qu, lm cho T ph cng,
v qua thi Chin Quc, nc no cng chu nh hng ca T. Thng mi cn pht trin hn cng
ngh na. Nhng ni nh Hm Dng Tn, Lm Tri T, Hm an Triu, i Lng Ngu
u l nhng th trn thng mi rt ng dn v thnh vng.
S cn chp tn nhng thng gia danh ting nh n, ngi nc L, oan Mc T (tc T
Cng, mt mn ca Khng T), c hai u cui i Xun Thu; qua thi Chin Quc c nhng
ph thng rt c th lc, giao thip vi hng vua cha, c k c giao ph chc tng quc na
nh L Bt Vi. Mt ngi bun sc vt Trnh, tn l Huyn Cao, trong khi em sc vt ra ch bn,
gp mt o qun ca Tn mun xm chim nc mnh, bn gi lm s gi ca vua Trnh, dng o
qun tin bc v sc vt xin h ng tin qun na; vy m h tin, bit bn ph thng
c trng ra sao.
Thng gia ni ting nht u th k th V l Phm Li. ng vn l mt trung thn ca Vit
Vng Cu Tin, gip Cu Tin bo th Ng Vng Ph Sai; khi toi ch, ng khng thch lm
mt quan ln trong triu nh Vit, v s lu n thn, b nc Vit, qua nc o, i tn l o
Chu Cng, kinh doanh bun bn m giu ln. Quy tc lm giu ca ng l p dng lut cung cu
bit lc no nn tr hng, lc no nn bn ra. Nh nm hn hn, thuyn r, nn mua tr sang nm
ngp lt bn ra; tri li nm ngp lt nn mua tr xe nm hn hn bn ra. ng tnh rng trong 12
nm th no cng c mt nm i ln, v trung bnh c mt nm c ma, li c mt nm mt
ma. ng cn b vn vo vic khai thc m st v bt k cng vic no c li, khng bao gi tin
nm yn trong nh, m cho n lu thng khng ngng, cho nn ch trong t nm gy c mt sn
nghip v i. Tht l mt chnh tr gia kim mt nh kinh doanh i ti ca Trung Hoa thi Tin
Tn.
Hng con bun nh, chng cn mo him kinh doanh, c b tin cho vay li cng sung sng,
chng cn cy cy, nui tm, dt la m cng n ngon mc p; nng dn khi tng tin, cn bn nng
c cho h, h mua r, bng na gi; ri ti ngy ma, cn chuc nng c v, h bt tr gp i.
C l chnh v bn m dn tc Trung Hoa t giai cp thng dn sau ba giai cp s, nng, cng;
ch hng i kinh doanh nh Phm Li th khng bao gi b khinh, m tri li bn qu tc cn mun
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

lm quen vi h, mi h "ngi cng xe" na.


V chnh tr v x hi, thi Chin Quc khc thi Xun Thu cng r rt, c phn r rt hn v kinh
t na, v kinh t bin chuyn u u, cn chnh tr c th vi nc nh S, Tn c nhng bc
nhy vt.
- Ch phong kin suy vi. Trong Chin Quc sch (trang 10,11) chng ti vit: t khi di
sang pha ng (Lc p), nh Chu suy nhc ln ln, t ai th phi chia ct phong cho cc ch
hu cng khanh, nn mi ngy mi thu hp li (ho ra ngho), ch cn trng cy vo s cng hin
ca cc ch hu m ch hu nh nc L, trong 242 nm ch triu cng c ba ln: khng nhng vy,
v ci danh ngha thin t, i khi cn phi gip lng thc cho ch hu nhng nm h mt ma
hoc c chin tranh.
Nh Chu suy nhng mt s ch hu mi ngy mt mnh v chnh tr tt, kinh t pht t nh T,
hoc v thn tnh c nhng nc nh hn, khai thc c nhng t mi nh S, Tn. S ch hu
trc kia cn ngn ri, ti thi ng Chu (Xun Thu) ch cn li trn mt trm, qua thi Chin
Quc, gim xung na, cn di mt chc: T, Tn, S, Hn, Ngy, Triu, Yn; trong s tht hng,
mnh nht l Tn, S, T v t ai rng (nht l S) m ti nguyn li nhiu. Gn cui thi Chin
Quc h thnh nhng quc gia c lp, khng phc tng nh Chu na, khng chu xng b m t
xng vng (tc t coi mnh ngang vi nh Chu) nh T, Ngy nm -334, Tn nm -325, Hn, Yn
nm -323...; sau Tn Chiu Tng vng cn t xng l (Ty ) - nm -228 - sai s lp vua T
lm ng na, ngha l coi Trung Quc khng cn nh Chu, ch cn Tn v T l ng lm thin
t ca cc ch hu thi, Tn lm ch phng Ty, T lm ch phng ng. H thnh nhng quc
gia c lp.
Trong quc gia ca h, h cng b ch phong kin m dng ch qun huyn. Tn l nc u
tin lp ra mt huyn, huyn Khu Trung thi Xun Thu (cui th k th VII), sau khi chim c
mt min ca mt r v pha ty. Sau l cc nc S, T, Ng, nhng nhng qun huyn thi
vn cn c vi nt thi p, v quyn cai tr vn cn cha truyn con ni. Qua thi Chin Quc, nht l
t nm -350, Thng ng lm tng quc Tn, ch qun huyn thc s mi c ph bin v
mt hn tch cch thi p, ngha l vin quan cai tr do chnh quyn trung ng b nhim, c th b
thay th bt k lc no, y nh mt cng chc thi nay. l mt tin b ln a ti ch qun ch
chuyn ch cc i sau ny.
- Mi khi mt nc ch hu b thn tnh - m sut i Xun Thu v Chin Quc, c hng trm nc
nh vy- th mt bn qu tc mt a v, tc nh trng hp Khng T. T tin ng vn ngi nc
Tng. v b mt quyn tha p bc, h Khng phi di qua nc L, c nm i th sinh ra ng.
Gia nh sa st, mi tm tui cha c mt chc v g c, mi chn tui thnh gia tht ri mi nhn
chc y li, coi vic gt thc kho, sau lm t chc li (chc t li?), coi vic nui b d dng
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

vo vic cng t, u l nhng chc thp nht trong chnh quyn. Mnh T cng ging ng, thuc
ging di cng tc Mnh Tn nc L, nhng n i ng cha sa st, tuy l qu tc m sng
nh bnh dn.
Qua thi Chin Quc, mt s vua ch hu mun tc quyn ca bn qu tc, mt mt khng phong
thi p cho h na, mt mt thu tc lc ca con chu nhng ngi c phong, nh nc S
di triu iu Vng u th k th IV, Ng Khi vch cho iu Vng thy ci hi ca bn i
thn c phong qu ng, khin cho nc ngho, binh yu, nn khuyn iu Vng sau ba i th
thu tc lc li. iu Vng nghe theo, b cc chc quan khng cn thit, bt lng bng ca mt
s khc, ly tin nui chin s. Bn qu tc bt mn, khi iu Vng cht, bn ha nhau hm hi
Ng Khi, git v cht chn tay Ng Khi. Gia th k th IV, Tn cn lm mnh hn na, t ra
bn mi mt qun huyn trong khp nc, hng trm gia nh qu tc mt a v.
Tm li thi Chin Quc, gia cp qu tc c ln ln tan r, khng nm quyn hnh na, v mt gii
hu sn mi ln thay: h l nhng ngi khai ph nhng t mi, nhng thng nhn lm giu ri
mua t v thnh nhng tn a ch, li sng cng nh bn qu tc c, nhng t tng tin b hn,
v mt s c ti nhy ra lm chnh tr. Thi Xun Thu c mt s t ngi trong giai cp chim
c nhng a v cao: nh Bch L H, Qun Trng, Ninh Thch..., nhng thi Chin Quc mi
thc l thi ca h tung honh. H l nhng k s o vi[5] gii v chnh tr, ngoi giao, kinh t hay
v b, lm qun s hoc tng quc cho cc vua cha. H l T Tn, Trng Nghi, Cam Mu, Phm
Tuy, Ng Khi, Bch Khi, L Bt Vi, L T...
H thng minh, c ch, quyt lp nn s nghip, trau di kin thc, tm hiu tnh hnh mi nc, ri
i kim mt ng vua th. H phi ch ngi gii thiu hay t lt mua chuc bn hu cn nh
vua xin uc tip kin. c tip kin, h phi dng ba tt li thuyt phc nh vua - coi thin
Thu nan (trong phn dch sau), c gi s thy thut thuyt phc kh khn v nguy him ra
sao. Khi thuyt phc c ri, ngha l nh vua chu nghe theo k hoch ca h, tin dng h, th mt
bc h nhy ln chc tng quc. Nhng mun gi a v , h phi nh t nh hng ca bn
"cha anh" nh vua, tc bn qu tc c, bn ny vn bo th, mun bm ly quyn li, ght mi s
ci cch, ghen quyn hnh ca h, nn nhiu khi lm cho h mt mng, nh trng hp Ng Khi,
Thng ng - coi thin C phn trong phn dch. S thng tin ca k s l mt nt c bit
trong thi Chin Quc.
- Mt nt c bit na l thi Xun Thu, cc vua cha cn trng nhn ngha, vi ba ng cn dng
nhn ngha tr dn; qua thi Chin Quc, h ch dng thut. Nh vy mt phn do xu th ca
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ng thi, mt phn cng do s thc y ca bn s k trn.


Ngi ta thy chnh sch "nhn chnh" dng nhn ngha tr dn ca Nghiu, Thun m Khng,
Mnh cao nu khng phi l vu khot th cng chm c kt qu, khng th thi hnh c.
Ti thi Mnh T cn c mt s vua ch hu thch nghe thuyt nhn chnh, nh T Tuyn Vng,
Lng Hu Vng, nhng h ch nghe thi, ch khng kin nhn theo. Nh Lng Hu
Vng phn nn vi Mnh T rng ht lng tr nc theo nhn ngha, cu gip dn ngho m sao
kt qu khng hn g cc nc lng ging, dn s vn khng ng hn cc nc y. Mnh T em
trn chin ra gii thch, bo:
- "Qun hai bn giao chin, m qun ca nh vua thua, ci b o gip, ko ao thng m chy, k
chy trm bc m ngng, k nm chc bc ri ngng. K chy nm chc bc c quyn ch k
chy trm bc khng?"
Hu Vng khng p, v Mnh T kt lun:
-"Vy th nh vua cng ng nn mong nc nh vua ng dn hn cc nc chung quanh".
Ngha l cha thy kt qu ch ti cha thi hnh nhn ngha n ni n chn, cn phi kin nhn
nhiu, gng sc nhiu na, mi by nhiu tuy kh hn cc vua khc, nhng cha .
Ngay nh ng Vn Cng thnh tm tin thuyt nhn chnh, gng sc thi hnh, nhng b T, S p
hai bn, lm le thn tnh, nn lun lun lo s mt nc, my ln khn khon xin Mnh T ch cho
cch i ph. Mnh T chng a ra k hoch no hay c, trc sau cng ch khuyn rng cng vi
dn khng chin, khng chin khng c th b nc m i. Li cng lm ng Vn Cng lo
thm. B qu Mnh T nh phi bo: "Nh vua c lm iu thin i, i sau s c ngi lp c
nghip vng m thng tr thin h". Tht l mt li v trch nhim, nc sp mt y, dn sp lm
n l y, mng mnh khng bit cn hay khng y, m hy vng i sau!
Khng c li no t c s tht bi ca chnh sch nhn chnh v t c tm trng xt xa ca cc
Nho gia thi Chin Quc bng li Mnh T trch T Tuyn Vng di y:
"C ngi hi nh hc o (tr quc) ca thnh hin, ln ln mong thi hnh s hc ca mnh. Nhng
nh vua li bo: Khoan, hy qua mt bn s hc ca nh ngi m lm theo ta ". Nh vy
mi lm sao! Nay nh vua c mt ht ngc cha mi, d ng vn dt th cng giao cho th ngc
mi da. n vic tr nc th nh vua li bo: "Khoan, hy qua mt bn s hc ca nh ngi m
lm theo ta ! Sao hnh ng li khc khi giao ngc cho th mi da?" (Lng Hu Vng, h 9).
Hnh ng phi khc ch, sao li khng? Ht ngc em mi da ngay th n p ln ngay, ch
khng hi g c. Cn dng s hc ca Mnh T tc nhn chnh, tr nc T th T khng th
mnh ln ngay c m cn c th b Tn, S nh bi na. Mnh T c tt v von, thnh th l lun
ca ng nhiu khi bng lng, khng thc t.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Thi Chin Quc l thi by ngi ui bt mt con hu, k no mu m, nhanh chn kho tay l
c. Nhn ngha i khi cng c ch y, nhung khng , phi lm sao cho nc mau giu, mau
mnh, phi dng thut - thut hiu theo hai ngha: k thut v tm thut (tc th on). Cho nn bn
Ng Khi, Thng ng, T Tn, Trng Nghi... t cch km xa Mnh T, Tun T m c trng
dng, lm cho Tn, S mau hng cng.
Trong khi Nho gia ch bn v nhn ngha, ch k thut (Khng t ch mt mn l qu ma v hi
ng v ngh nng), cho s ci cch ch , kinh t l tm thng (Mnh T ch s nghip ca Qun
Trng l thp km) th bn s kia tm cch ci thin chnh tr, canh nng, binh b, dng thut ngoi
giao lm hu thun, dng thut kim sot, iu khin b ti cng c qun quyn, kt qu ch trong
nm, mi nm l thy r, nn ng vua no m chng tin h?
- Quan trng nht l s ci thin k thut chin tranh. Thi Xun Thu chin tranh cn theo lut qun
t.
c Tam Quc Ch chng ta mm ci khi thy hai bn dn trn ri, tng bn ny xng ra, ma
gio thch , c khi s v hoc ma mai khuyn nh tng bn kia; h i p vi nhau mt hi ri
mi xp li sc nhau, trong khi qun lnh ng sau ng. Khng bit thi Tam Quc ngi ta
nh nhau nh vy c tht khng, nhng thi Xun Thu th chc chn nh vy, c khi ngi ta cc
k l vi nhau l khc. Marcel Granet, tc gi cun La Civilisation chinoise (Albin Michel - Paris
- 1948) trong mt chng rt l th, chng La vie publique, cho ta bit thi Xun Thu, trc khi
lm chin, tng hai bn phi s gi nh gi giao tranh. Khi ra trn, tng hai bn ng trn chin
xa ci u ba ln cho nhau; nu tng bn y thy tng bn kia chc tc hoc danh ting ln
hn mnh nhiu th xung xe, lt m tr cho na. C khi h cn trao i thc n v ru vi
nhau. Mt nh qu tc m ra trn th ch git nhiu lm l ba tn ch ch khng git hn. C k
nhm mt m bn ch, nu l m trng th l ti s phn ca ch. Nc ci nht l trong mt cuc
giao chin gia Tn v S, mt chin xa ca Tn sa ly, tin khng c, tnh cnh nguy ngp,
tng Tn loay hoay khng bit lm sao. Tng S ng bn ng, ri ch cho cch g b bt then
ngang cng c v kh gii i, qun Tn nghe theo thot ra khi ch ly c.
D nhin cng c nhiu lc h hng hi chm git nhau, nhng khng bao gi ngi ta mun tn dit
qun ch, v c ngi khng mun tha lc ch cha chun b kp m tn cng ngay, cho vy l
khng qun t. Chng hn mt ln Tng v S giao tranh Trc Cc. Qun S ng qua sng.
Qun Tng i tha dp tn cng ngay. Tng Tng cng khng cho, bo ch qua sng . Khi
qun S qua sng ht ri, qun Tng li xin tn cng. Tng cng cng bo: "Khoan, i chng dn
trn xong ". S dn trn xong, nh bi Tng, Tng cng b thng, m cn bo:" Bc qun t
khng nh qun ch khi h trong bc cng khn". Truyn chp trong thin XXXII sch Hn
Phi t, s dch sau.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Tn Vn cng ng thi vi Tng Tng cng (ng ny mt nm -637 th nm sau Vn cng ln


ngi) cng v ham ci ting nhn ngha m c mt hnh ng mu thun: trong chin tranh vi S,
H Yn khuyn ng nn dng mu gt S, cn Ung Qu khuyn ng ng, ko mt ch tn, tri o.
ng theo H Yn, thng S ri th thng cng Ung Qu hu hn H Yn, v theo ng, Ung Qu
bit "ci li mun i" cn H Yn th ch ngh n ci li nht thi m thi. (Hn Phi ch thi
trong thin XXXVI - coi phn dch.)
Chin tranh thi Xun Thu chc cht t ngi lm.
Nhng qua thi Chin Quc th khc hn. Mnh T phi phn nn rng cc ch hu u "tranh
thnh d chin, tranh a d chin", "st nhn doanh d, st nhn doanh thnh. Ht ci lut qun t,
m ch cn ci lut rng r: chm git cho tht nhiu, cp bc cho tht nhiu.
K thut chin tranh, kh gii c ci thin. Ngi ta dng n ging bng chn, bn c xa hn,
tng truyn l bn c k th cch xa non mt cy s.
K binh xut hin; nh rt kinh nghim ca Hung N, ngi ta va phi nga va bn. Nm -307,
Triu V Linh vng c l l ng vua u tin n mc nh ngi H, ci nga bn cung nh ngi
H, ngha l dng k binh nh ngi H chng li h. (coi Chin Quc sch - Triu II.4 - L Bi
- 1972). B binh cng xut hin v thnh binh chng quan trng nht. C nhng o qun hng trm
ngn ngi. Ngay t th k th IV, Tn l nc u tin bt buc mi ngi mnh m phi i lnh.
Ngi ta ch nhng ci thang my, nhng ci thp cng ph thnh ch; c nhng cuc cng ph
ko di ti hai, ba nm. Ngi ta dng thut do thm, tuyn truyn, ngha l dng c chin tranh tm
l.
Cng v cui thi Chin Quc, chin tranh cng tn khc; kinh tm nht l tng Tn Bch Khi
chn sng bn chc vn qun Triu u hng (nm -260)
- Do tnh hnh dn chng tht iu ng. Gi na dn phi i lnh, k nh phi np thu c khi
ti ba phn t hoa li. Nhng nm c ma, dn cng khng c hng v triu nh thu ht la
nui lnh; m nhng nm mt ma th k gi, ngi bnh cht hng lot trn ng, trong rung.
D chin tranh chm dt th ha cng ko di hng chc nm, "v tn ph vo chin tranh, mi nm
thu la cng cha b. Qun i m chin u xong th mu v kch gy, vng v dy cung t, n
hao tn, xe h hng, nga mt mi, tn mt i gi na, o gip cng binh kh triu nh pht ra,
k s v i phu du i mt phn, s tt ly trm i mt phn, d thu thu rung mi nm cng
cha b vo" (Chin Quc sch - T V.I). y l cha k bao nhiu ngi cht, bao nhiu t ai
b b hoang, nhn lc v ti nguyn quc gia c th b kit qu.
M chin tranh trong hai nm cui cng thi Chin Quc lin min bt tuyt, c khi no chm dt
u, ch tm dng nc ny hay nc khc chun b cho mt chin tranh khc.
Dn chng kh s v ni bn vua cha try lc, bc lt na. Bn ny sng cc k xa hoa trn xng
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

mu ca dn: v h eo y chu bu, ngc thch, h ngi trong nhng xe ph gm vc, sng trong
nhng lu i lng ly, tic tng sut ngy ny qua ngy khc, c ba tic hng trm mn n, ti ni
"mt khng nhn thy ht c, tay khng gp ht c, ming khng nm ht c". Mt v i
thn nc Ngy (tc nc Lng) m c my trm c xe trang hong p , c ngn con nga mp
v my trm nng hu n mc nh cc cng cha. Nh vy ta tng tng cch sng ca cc vua
nc ln nh T, Tn, S ra sao.
Quan li a s tham nhng: T M Thin trong b s K, thin 119, ch chp truyn c nm v quan
tt (tun li) m thin 122 chp truyn mi tn quan xu (khc li) iu rt c ngha. K s ch
tranh nhau n, ti ni Phm Tuy, t tng Tn, t cch cng chng cao p g m cng phi v h
vi by ch ca vua Tn: "(khi bnh thng) nm th cng nm, i th cng i, ngng th cng
ngng, khng cn nhau; nhng h nm cho chng mt khc xng th chng vng dy, nhe nanh ra
cn nhau. Ch ti tranh n" (Chin Quc Sch - Tn III.13).
Thy x hi t trn xung di y trm cp nh vy, bn qu tc sa st bt bnh, mun tr li thi
Xun Thu, n nh hn, nhng bt lc; hng th sinh th ch th di, ging nhn ngha; cn hng v
dng th ch bit dng thanh gm ra nhc cho k b oan c, bnh vc k b p bc, thnh bn
thch khch m ngi ta gi l hip s. Chng ta khng thy lm l rng thi Chin Quc c nhiu
hip s hn cc thi khc, v T M Thin khng tic li ca tng h trong thin 124: Du hip.
H tic thi c, mun tr li thi Xun Thu, mt phn v thi n nh hn, tn trng nhiu gi tr
tinh thn (nhn ngha...) hn, mt phn cng v mun khi phc li a v c ca h. Nhng h li
bt lc; ging lch s ch chy xui ch khng chy ngc.

Ch thch:

[1] C sch cho nh Chu bt u t nm 1134, nm V Vng ni ngi cha lm Ty b.


[2] i Thng, vua cht th truyn ngi cho em trai, khng c em trai mi truyn cho con. i Chu
i hn: ch truyn cho con, khng c con mi truyn cho em.
[3] Cc hc gi Trung Quc cha nht tr v s phn nh cc thi i. Quch Mt Nhc trong
Trung Quc c i x hi nghin cu (Khoa hc xut bn x Bc Kinh 1960) cho i n l ch
th tc, Ty Chu l ch n l, ng Chu l ch phong kin; cn L Chn V ng thi vi
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

Quch cho n l ch n l, Ty Chu l ch phong kin (Phong l rng cy chia ranh gii, kin
l kin quc; phong kin l ct t, nh ranh gii cho ch hu lp quc).
[4] Theo Quch Mt Nhc (sch dn) th ch tnh in cn l mt nghi vn, v trong cc kinh
Thi, Th khng thy ni ti, m n cng kh thc hnh c, nhng Maspro trong Le Chine
antique (PUF 1965), trang 90, chng minh l n c.
[5] o vi tc l gc bnh dn, khng phi trong gii qu tc, ch khng hn ngho v ngho qu th
khng hc hnh c

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
Chng 2
CC PHP GIA TRC HN PHI

Chin Quc l mt thi i c bit chng nhng trong lch s Trung Hoa m c trong lch s nhn
loi na. c lch s th gii thi thng c v trung c, chng ti khng thy mt dn tc no c
mt chng s nh vy: t ai rng chia lm thnh nhiu nc nh, dn ng m lon lc lin min
trong ba th k, cng lon, dn tnh cng kh, m nh no cng ch ngh cu dn ra khi cnh lm
than, thng nht quc gia bng cch ny hay cch khc, tch cc c, tiu cc c, mt cnh "trm hoa
ua n", trong hai ngn nm sau khng h ti hin na.
Lm Tri, kinh nc T, c th coi l kinh vn ho ca Trung Hoa thi , ni t tp ca cc
danh s bc nht. T tng c hon ton t do, m vua T trng i mi nh, cho h trong
nhng dinh th lng ly Tc mn, ca ty kinh (do c tn l Tc H tin sinh), tng h chc
tc (lit i phu) v lng bng rt hu, ch thnh thong hi kin h v vic nc, hoc mi
h v triu ging o l, vit sch truyn b o ca h. Ring Mnh T, thi T Tuyn Vng cng
dt my trm mn sinh vi mt on xe my chc chic li kinh T trong my nm; Thun
Vu Khn, Thn o, Hon Uyn, in Bin..., cn bit bao trit gia khc cng qua : nh vy ta
tng tng c s thnh vng ca vn ho ra sao.
T l nc giu nht thi , c th nui hng ngn hng vn k s; ngay nc Tn l nc khng
giu bao nhiu, m cng l ni trng i k s, a s l php gia. Theo Lon Vandermeersch[1] th
T Sn, ng Tch, L Khc, Ng Khi, Thng ng, Thn Bt Hi u c thi sng Tn hoc
nhng nc chu nh hng Tn.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Sau cng ti i Tn Thy Hong, Hm Dng l kinh vn ho cng(?) Trung Hoa thng
nht. L Bt Vi tp hp cc hc gi danh ting ng thi, cp dng cho h h son chung b
L Th Xun Thu, gm 26 quyn, chp li Nho thut v t tng ca o gia, Mc gia, m dng
gia.
Ngi ta thng gi thi Chin Quc l thi ca Bch gia (trm nh) ch t, li khng qu ng.
Trong Chin Quc sch, trang 17 - 19, chng ti sp xp t tng ca nhng trit gia mun vn
hi trt t cho Trung Hoa thi thnh hai ch trng.
"Mt ch trng mun gi li ch c, ch phong kin, tng uy quyn cho thin t, bt cc ch
hu phi phc tng;
"Mt ch trng p ch c v bit rng n khng tn ti bao lu na, m lp mt ch mi.
"Theo ch trng th nht c Nho gia v Mc Gia. Mi u Khng T mun cu vn nh Chu. Ri
sau, Mc T, Mnh T, Tun T thy nh Chu suy qu, khng th cu c, mong c v minh qun
thay th nh Chu thng nht Trung Hoa m thi hnh ch c sau khi sa i t nhiu. R nht l
ch trng ca Mnh T. Mt ln Lng Tng vng hi ng: "Khi no thin h yn nh c?"
ng p: Khi no thng nht thin h th yn nh c...v ai khng thch git ngi th thng
nht c... Hin nay trong thin h chng c bc chn dn no m chng ham git ngi. Nu c
mt v vua c lng nhn, chng ham git ngi hi chng th mi ngi trong thin h s quay u
ngng c trng v v y" (Lng Hu vng, thng -6). Ngha l ng khng tin g nh Chu na,
mun gp bt k ng vua no bit theo o ca ng - bit dng nhn ngha tr dn - ng ph t
thng nht thin h.
"Theo ch trng th nh, c o gia v Php gia. o gia mun dng chnh sch phng nhim,
gim thiu chnh quyn, c theo t nhin nh thi s khai; h tin rng khi khng cn giai cp th s
ht lon, chng cn thng nht cng nh thng nht. Nh vy phi ny o mt ci cu (ch
phong kin) tr v mt ci cu hn (x hi nguyn thy).
"Php gia tri li, khng mun tr v ci cu, m mun tin ti mt ch mi; h mun dng
chnh sch c ti, dng v lc lt ch phong kin m lp mt ch qun ch chuyn ch. H
cho o "V Vi"[2] ca Lo, Trang l hoang ng, h mun cc "hu vi"; h li ngh rng "vng
o" ca Khng, Mnh, ch lm quc gia thm lon, nn h ch trng "b o".
Trong cun ny vit v Hn Phi, ngi tp i thnh t tng ca cc php gia thi Xun Thu v
thi Chin Quc, chng ti ng v mt kha cnh khc m chia li, cng lm hai ch trng:
1- Ch trng l tng, trng o c ca Nho (Khng, Mnh, Tun) Mc, Dng, Lo, Trang.
2 - Ch trng thc t, trng quyn lc ca Php gia, nh Qun Trng, Thn o, Thn Bt Bi,
Thng ng, Hn Phi...
Phi trn hon ton l nhng trit gia bn v chnh tr; phi di gi l trit gia cng c, nhng
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

thc s h l chnh tr gia hn trit gia. Phi trn c cng vi trit hc, o c, vi s o to tm
hn dn tc Trung Hoa nhng hon ton tht bi v chnh tr (Khng c cm quyn L khng
lu; Mnh ch lm khch khanh T, Lng, ng; Tun ch lm mt vin huyn lnh; Mc bn ba
khp ch hu m khng ai theo hc thuyt ca ng[3], cn Dng, Lo, Trang th lnh i).
Phi di tri li, hon ton thnh cng thng nht c Trung Hoa, lp c ch qun ch
chuyn ch nh h:
- Khng ngn cn s bin chuyn ca ging lch s m cn thc y n tin mau hn.
- Trng thc t, khng bn sung, ch nhm kt qu ngn hn, tch ri chnh tr v o c[4]
i sau c nhiu ngi khng phc h v h khng ng v quan nim ca dn, m ng v quan
nim ca vua (ca quc gia); nhng chnh sch ca h t Tn, Hn tr i khng thi no nh cm
quyn khng theo, sau khi dung ho n t nhiu vi chnh sch ca Nho gia
Trong chng ny chng ti xt s lc s tin trin ca hc thuyt Php gia trong thi Xun Thu v
Chin Quc, tc t tng ca mt s Php gia quan trng c gi nhn c uyn nguyn ca
hc thuyt Hn Phi.
QUN TRNG
Ngi m ng cho cc Php gia l Qun Trng. Khng ai bit ng sinh nm no, ch bit ng lm
tng quc cho T Hon cng t nm -685 n nm -645, nm ng mt.
Thi T Tng cng hoang dm v , b mt cng tn l V Tri git, nc T lon. Hai v cng
t c t cch ni ngi l cng t C v cng t Tiu Bch. Bo Thc Nha l i phu nc T em
Tiu Bch chy sang nc C lnh nn, cn Qun Trng a cng t C sang L.
Qun Trng tn l Di Ng ngi t Dnh Thng (T), sinh trong gii bnh dn, nhng c hc, nh
ngho, phi i bun du, hi tr chi thn vi Bo Thc Nha. Hai ngi hn vi nhau sau h ai thnh
cng th gip ngi kia. Nm -648, V Tri b mt i phu git, nc T khng c vua, Bo Thc
mn qun i ca C a Tiu Bch v; L cng a cng t C vi Qun Trng v. Tiu Bch v
trc, c th gi sp t i ph vi L, L thua, cng t C cht, Qun Trng b cm t tr v
T. Tiu Bch ln ngi, tc T Hon cng. Bo Thc bit ti Qun Trng, chng nhng thuyt phc
c Hon cng tha ri trng dng Qun Trng, m cn t t di quyn Qun Trng na.
Hon cng phong Qun Trng lm tng quc, trng ng nh cha ch, nn gi ng l Trng ph
(cng nh thc ph). Hon cng l mt ng vua rt tm thng hiu sc, thch n ngon, a nnh, ch
nh bit tin dng Qun Trng trong 40 nm lin tip, mi vic trong nc u giao ph cho ng ht,
m nc T ng suy ha thnh, thnh b ch cc nc ch hu. Qun Trng cht ri, T li suy
lin v Hon Cng khng nghe li Qun Trng, dng bn tiu nhn Dch Nha, Th iu..., v hai
nm sau b bn ny nht, bt nhn i, cht, thy thnh di m khng c chn.
i sau truyn li b Qun T (gm 86 thin, mt 10 thin) chp thnh tch chnh tr, t tng cng
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

php ch ca Qun Trng. T M Thin, trong S k bo c nhng thin Mc dn, Sn cao,


Tha m, Khinh trng, C ph ca Qun Trng, li bo b nhiu ngi c; Hn Phi cng bo
trong dn gian nhiu nh c b , vy ta c th tin rng n xut hin tr lm vo cui i Chin
Quc. Nhng ht thy cc hc gi i sau u nhn rng n khng phi ca Qun Trng son, m
ca ngi i Chin Quc vit v trong b c nhiu on trng nhau, nhiu ch mu thun, nhiu
t tng y ht hc thuyt Php gia i sau. Tuy nhin n cng cha mt phn di thuyt ca Qun
Trng, v di y l nhng iu chng ta c th gn tin c, sau khi tham kho mt s sch khc
nh S k, Trung Quc c i chnh tr gia, Trung Quc chnh tr t tng s...
1/ Ch trng ca Qun Trng l "li bn lun khng cao xa m d thi hnh (lun ti nhi d hnh),
ngha l ng c c thc t, khng bn chuyn vin vng, trnh nhng l thuyt cao siu (nh Mc t,
Lo, Trang sau ny).
2/ Mc ch tr nc theo ng l lm sao cho quc ph, binh cng. ng ch trng nht n s ph
quc v "kho lm y ri mi bit l tit, y thc ri mi bit vinh nhc".
Thi l Xun Thu, T cng nh mi nc khc trng nng nghip hn ht. Nhng T tng i
hp hn cc nc khc, m li gn bin v c nhiu m, nn ng khuyn khch s khai thc m
c tin, nu nc bin lm mui. Mui sn xut c nhiu, ch i bn cc nc khc xa b bin,
thnh mt mi li ln, nh vy m T mau giu.
ng li bit lu thng ho vt , thu mua hng ha trong thin h mt ch, i dp gi cao bn ly
li, lp ra 300 nh n l (tc nh thanh lu) cho khch bun i li t hp, thu thu. Nh vy ng
xng ra hai ci cch: coi cng v thng cng quan trng ngang nng nghip, nu khng hn, v
quc hu ho mt s ngun li trong nc.
3/ Mun cho binh cng, ng c sng kin "ng binh nng" (gi vic binh vo ngh nng ), thi
bnh dn lm rung, nhng lc rnh ri th luyn v b, c bao nhiu nng dn kho mnh l c c
by nhiu binh s.
Nh vy cn phi nhiu gip binh; ng t ra l cho chuc ti: ti nng th chuc bng mt ci t
gip (o gip bng da con t), ti nh th chuc bng mt ci quy thun (ci thun bng mai ra); ti
nh th np kim kh, ti cn nghi th tha hn; cn nh hai bn tha kin nhau m bn no cng c li
mt phn th ng bt np mi bn mt b tn ri x ho.
ng t chc li qun i: nm ngi hp thnh mt ng, nm chc ngi (tc mi ng) thnh mt
tiu nhung, hai trm ngi thnh mt tt, hai ngn ngi thnh mt l, mt vn ngi thnh mt
qun. Ma xun t chc nhng cuc i sn nhn th chn chnh hng ng; ma thu cng nhn
nhng cuc i sn m luyn tp binh s.
4./ V quc ch, s t chc cng ht sc nghim mt: nm nh thnh mt qu, mi qu thnh mt
l, bn l thnh mt lin, mi lin thnh mt hng; nh vy mi hng gm hai ngn
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

(5x10x4x10) ngi.[5]
ng cho bn hng dn (s, nng, cng, thng) trong nhng khu ring: bn s nhng khu yn
tnh, bn cng nhn gom li gn nhng quan nha dinh th, bn thng nhn nhng vng th t,
cn nng dn quy t in d; nh vy con em d luyn tp quen tay ngh, khng vt v m cn
nhiu kt qu.
5./ Trong b Qun t c nhiu thin bn v php lut nh: Bn php, Lp php, Php cm, Trng
lnh, Php php...,v c tc gi nh Tiu Cng Quyn trong b Trung Quc chnh tr t tng s
(Trung hoa vn ha xut bn - 1961) cn c vo m cho rng Qun Trng lp ra mt hc
thuyt rt hon b v php lut, xt v cc vn :
- Lp pht l quyn ca vua, quy tc lp php l phi ly tnh ngi v php tri lm tiu chun;
- Hnh php th phi chun b, cng b cho r rng, thi hnh cho nghim chnh, ng thay i hoi,
m phi ch cng v t, "vua ti sang hn u phi theo lut php", thng pht phi nghim minh,
tm li nu "danh chnh, php hon b th bc minh qun chng c vic g phi lm na, v vi m
c tr".
Chng ti ngh iu kh tin c, tc gi Qun t em t tng ca cc Php gia i Chin
Quc m gn cho Qun Trng y thi. i khi chng ta ch c th cn c vo cu ny ca T M
Thin "Ngi trn c php th su ngi thn mi c yn n" on rng Qun Trng trng
php lut, t ra mt s cm lnh v mong rng ngi trn (vua, quan, cha, anh) theo ng l lm
gng cho ngi di, nh vy x hi mi c trt t c.
6 / ng ch trng tn qun nh mi t tng gia thi Xun Thu, nhng s tn qun ca ng c
im khc vi Nho gia. Chng hn Khng t, sinh sau Qun Trng khong trm ri nm, tn qun
v vua l ngi c nhn lnh mnh ca tri tr dn, cho nn i ngang qua ngai vng d khng
c vua ngi, ng cng t v s st. Vua c li ng khng dm trch thng, nhng khi vua L say m
sc p, ca ht, b b vic nc, ng mun b i nc khc nhng phi i vua L lm l t Giao,
khng chia tht cho cc quan, ri mi t chc, qua nc V, t rng vua khng mun dng mnh
na nn mnh mi i, ch khng phi l ng ch vua v o ham m tu sc.
Qun Trng khc hn, tuy khng lm tri Hon cng, kho can gin Hon cng khng nn v gin
Thiu C, mt qu phi l v l vi mnh, m em qun nh nc Thi, li mc Hon cng gn
gi vi bn tiu nhn Dch Nha, Th iu; nhng i vi Hon cng ng c thi thn mt, m
Hon cng cng trng ng nh cha ch, c h nh ng tn qun ch v vua i biu cho quc gia;
lng trng vua ca ng khng c cht mu sc thn quyn hay tn gio g c. Chc chn ng khng
tin rng vua l "con tri". ng khng i hi g nhiu Hon cng, khng mong rng Hon cng
phi sng sut, c uy, c c; ch cn tin dng ng, nghe li ng, yu dn mt cht, ng tn bo,
ngoi ra, c ham tu sc m ng try lc th cng khng sao, v ng ngh cn mnh th bn Dch
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Nha, Th iu khng lm hi x tc c.
Cch dng ngi, ng ch ch trng ti ti nng, khng cn bit n giai cp ca h, chng hn gii
thiu Ninh Thch, mt n s chn b, vi Hon cng, v Hon cng phong lm i phu, cho cng coi
vic nc vi ng. iu d hiu, chnh ng cng trong giai cp bnh dn m c Bo Thc
tin c vi Hon cng.
Tuy nhin, i vi cc qu tc T, nh h Cao, h Quc, ng t ra nh nhn, khng nghi k tm
cch trit h quyn li ca h nh Ng Khi v Thng ng sau ny; mt phn do ng n ho,
khn kho, mt phn c l do bn qu tc thi uy quyn cn mnh lm, khng suy nh cui i
Chin Quc, ng bit rng khng th lt h c.
7/ Qun Trng bit thun dn, "dn mun g th cp cho ci , khng mun ci g th tr cho ci
" (S k). ng tm cch gip dn, gim bt thu m, khuch trng cng thng, dng chnh
sch kinh t t do lm cho dn giu.
C ngi cho rng ng yu dn l v th on, ngha l yu dn khng v dn m v vua, v quc gia;
chng ti ngh li ch v cn c v cng v l: ng va lm li cho nc, m li va lm li cho
dn th l thnh cng ln, cn i g hn na.
8/ Sau cng ng cng ch trng n o c, bo l, ngha, lim, s l bn iu ct yu (t duy)
trong nc, ngi cm quyn rng gi m tr dn.
Xt k tm im k trn, hai im cui cng rt hp vi quan im ca Nho gia, im 6 cng hi
ging Nho gia, cn nm im u l nhng sng kin rt thc t ca Qun Trng nh hng ln n
cc Php gia sau ny. Cho nn chng ta c th coi ng l thu t ca Php gia m cng l chic cu
ni Nho gia[6] vi Php gia, bit dung ho thc t vi l tng, trng kinh t, v b m cng bit l
ngha, nhn tn. Cng ca ng rt ln chng nhng i vi T, m i vi c vn minh Trung Quc
na. Cho nn chnh Khng t hai ln khen ng.
Bi 18 - chng Hin vn (Lun ng) - "T Cng hi:
- Qun Trng khng phi l ngi nhn chng? Hon cng git cng t C (cha ca Qun Trng),
ng ta khng cht theo m cn lm tng quc gip Hon cng.
Khng t p:
- Qun Trng gip Hon cng lm b ch ch hu, bnh nh c thin h. Dn ti nay cn mang
n ng. Nu khng c ng th chng ta thnh mi r, u dc tc, o ci nt bn tri ht ri.
Nghi l Khng t nh n Qun Trng dp r h phng Bc, cu nn vn minh Trung Quc.
Ln khc ( bi 17 cng chng trn), T L cng ch Qun Trng bt nhn, khng cht theo cng t
C.
Khng t p:
Hon cng chn[7] ln hp ch hu m khng dng n v lc (binh xa), l nh ti sc Qun
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Trng. Nh vy chng phi l nhn sao? Chng phi l nhn sao?[8]


Cn Mnh T, sinh sau Qun Trng ba trm ri nm, ch Qun Trng c chuyn dng bn chc
nm m ch gip Hon cng lp c nghip b, th ti cha gi l cao. c v kin thc Mnh
t qu cha bng Khng t; ng ta cha bit rng thi Qun Trng, Trung Quc cha lon lc lm,
ch phong kin cn kh vng, ch hu, ngay c T vn cn tn trng nh Chu, cha c vn
phi thng nht nh sau ny.
T SN
T Sn sinh sau Qun Trng mt trm nm, cm quyn nc Trnh t -554 n khi cht -523 (hay 522); vy c th ln hn Khng t ba bn chc tui (Khng t sinh nm -551).
ng l mt cng tn (chu vua, ngnh th) ca nc Trnh, tn l Kiu, nn thng gi l Cng tn
Kiu. Trnh thi l mt nc nh, thnh v thng mi, c nhiu tn a ch, nm kp gia hai
nc mnh: Tn Bc, S Nam, li thm pha Ty c Tn, pha ng c Tng, T, L, thnh mt
ci ch cho mi mi tn nhm vo, thng b ln bang xm phm, kh m t cng c, c gi
c cho khi b dit vong l may.
vy, triu nh li hn n, quyn hnh trong tay bn cng t, cng tn, h honh hnh, tranh
dnh ngi vua, chm git nhau, c k mun nh cy Tn hoc S tiu dit k ch ca mnh a
mnh ln ngi na.
T Sn c lng i quc cao, hi tr chuyn tm hc hi, ln ln lu ti vic nc, khng ch
trng dng v lc m dng ngoi giao cu nc. Nh hc rng, c ti ngoi giao, m t cch li
cao, ng c cc chnh tr gia ng thi (nh n Anh T, Qu Trt Ng, Thc Hng
Tn...) qu trng, cc nc khc khng gy s vi Trnh na. Trong nc ng cng quyt v ngay
thng p dng Php ch, ta ln bn th gia ho phit m an nh c x tc. Khi t ra mt lut l
mi, ng cho dn t do ph bnh. ng lp ra nhiu "hng hiu" (trng lng), dn thng ti
bn v chnh s. C ngi khuyn ng nn dp i, ng bo: "Ti sao li dp? C cho dn ti m
bn bc, a kin. Dn thch iu g th ta theo, khng thch th ta sa i, dn l thy ca chng ta
m".
ng tn trng d lun nh vy li thng dn na, c mt ln cho ngi dn ngi xe ng qua
sng. Mnh t ch rng lm chnh tr sao m lo ban nhng n hu nh mn cho dn nh vy, th gi
u m lo vic ln na; nhng Khng t li khen l ngi nhn.
Trc Tun T my trm nm, ng o d oan: c ln Trnh b lt ln, dn cho rng ti cc
con rng tranh u nhau, xin ng cu o long thn, ng p: "Rng tranh nhau l vic ca rng, lin
quan g ti vic ca chng ta? Chng ta khng cu g rng, th rng cng khng cu g chng ta".
Ln khc sao chi xut hin, c ngi bo bn nc Tng, V, Trn, Trnh sp b ho tai, xin ng
cu o cho Trnh trnh c ha, ng khng nghe. Sau qu nhin bn nc u b ho tai, ngi ta
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

li thc ng cu o, ng p: "o tri xa, o ngi gn, khng lin quan g ti nhau". T
tng nh hng ti Tun t v mt s Php gia i sau nh Hn Phi.
Nhng l do chnh chng ti t ng vo phi Php gia, l ng cho c "hnh th", ngha l cho c
nhng ci nh ghi li hnh php.[9]
H c quc gia th tt nhin phi c php lut v Trung Hoa c php in t lu. Tng truyn c
cc b V hnh (i vua V), Thang hnh (i vua Thang) v Cu hnh (i Chu), c ba u thnh
lp trong khi quc gia ri lon. Li c thuyt cho rng i vua Thun (trc i vua V na) ng
Cao Dao coi vic hnh. Nhng hnh lut c chp trong s mi nc. Chng c l trong ln
hp ch hu Ninh Mu (Sn ng) nm -653. Qun Trng bo T Hon cng rng cc quyt nh
trong cuc hi hp u c ghi vo s mi nc ch hu, tc khc trn th tre, ct trong th kh
ca mi triu nh.
Ti nm -536, mi tm nm sau khi cm quyn, T Sn mi cho c hnh php ca Trnh trn
nhng ci nh bng st[10] ri nm -513, Tun Dn v Triu ng noi gng, cng cho c hnh
php ca Tn trn nh.
Khng T v Thc Hng nc Tng u ch trch hnh vi ca T Sn, khng phi v c trn
nh th hnh php s c tnh cch c nh, khng thay i c, cng khng phi v nh vy hnh
php s c cng b, dn chng ai cng bit ri s kh tr (d khc trn th tre hay c trn nh thi
cng vn l triu nh, dn chng lm sao v m c c); m ch v l c trn nh, hnh
php c tnh cch bt b mt: cc quan coi v hnh khng cn c gi ring nhng th tre ghi lut
php na, khng th t gii thch lut php na, m h gii thch sai th cc quan trong triu so
snh vi bn vn trn nh, khng ai ct giu c m s ch trch, bt gii thch li.
Chng ta nn nh thi cc quan coi v hnh cng nh cc quan i thn triu nh u trong
gii qu tc, h thng gii thch lut php theo quan nim l tc ca h, c li cho h. Vic c
hnh th lm cho h mt quyn gii thch php lut theo t , tc l lm gim quyn uy ca h. H
c gi cc tc "l bt h th nhn, hnh bt thng i phu" (L k), ngha l gia h vi nhau c
xy ra vic g th h theo php in bt thnh vn (l) ca h m dn xp; cn i vi dn thng h
mi dng hnh m ch h c bit thi.
V vy Thc Hng ngi ngi ta s tranh nhau gii thch hnh th mi ngi mt , ri nn hi l
s ny n, nc s lon, "ti i con chu chng ta, nc Trnh s nguy mt". T Sn p: "Kiu ti
bt ti, u dm ngh n i con i chu chng ta, ch mong cu i lc ny thi. Nhng mc du
ti khng vng li ngi, ti vn khng dm qun ci c ln ca ngi" (tc lng nhn t ca ngi i
vi ti).
T Sn cha phi ch trng php tr, nhng cng lm cho php lut c tnh cch khch quan hn
trc, nh cm quyn khng th t gii thch theo quyn li ca mnh na; v dn ng tc mt
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

cht quyn ca giai cp qu tc, tc giai cp ca ng. ng thc s c lng yu dn v ngay thng.
Cho nn Khng T d ch vic c hnh th m vn khen ng l ngi qun t: "khim cung i vi
ngi, th vua th knh trng, thng ban n hu cho dn, sai khin dn mt cch hp l" ( Lun Ng
- Cng D Trng - 15). Tng truyn khi hay tin T Sn cht, ng khc.
Theo Hn Phi (thin XXX) th trc khi cht, T Sn dn d Du Ct, ngi s ni chc ng:
- Ti cht ri, ng s cm quyn nc Trnh, ng phi nghim khc tr dn. La c v d dn, nn t
ngi b cht thiu; nc c v nhu nhc nn nhiu ngi cht ui. ng nn dng hnh pht
nghim khc, ng cho dn cht ui v s nhu nhc ca ng.
Du Ct khng nghe, ti khi thanh nin mun ni lon, mi n hn thng tay trng tr. Nu truyn
ng th Thng ng v Hn Phi sau ny u chu nh hng ca T Sn.
L KHI
Th k th 4 trc T.L., cc php gia ni tip nhau xut hin. ng ghi trc ht l L Khi s k
thi Chin Quc. C sch gi ng l L Khc (c l v m Khc v m Khi gn nhau), c sch gi
ng l L oi (v ch Khc vi ch oi rt ging nhau). ng lm quan th t Thng a
ri lm tng quc cho Ngy Vn hu, khng r nm sinh t, ch bit sng hu bn th k th 4.
Tng truyn ng vit b Php kinh gm 6 thin v Thng ng sau ny dng b bin php
Tn. B tht lc. ng li c cng a ra thuyt "Tn a lc" tc tng gia nng sn ti mc
ti a.
Hn Phi chu nh hng t nhiu ca ng v trong thin XXX - Ni tr thuyt thng (coi phn dch)
c nhc ti ng nh sau:
Khi lm quan th Thng a, mun cho dn ni bn gii, ng ra lnh rng h trong vic tranh
tng m cn h nghi th cho hai bn bn vo ch, ai bn trng s thng kin, ai bn trt s thua. Dn
ua nhau tp bn, ho ra bn gii, nh vy m khi chin tranh vi Tn, ng i thng.
NG KHI
ng chnh l mt Binh gia, nhng ng thi cng l mt Php gia v thc hnh: Binh gia v Php
gia tinh thn c nhiu im ging nhau. ng sng cng thi vi L Khi, mi u l tng qun
nc S, sau lm quan th t Ty H v tng quc cho Ngy V hu, con Ngy Vn hu, sau
cng lm tng quc cho S iu vng. Theo Hn Phi th thi ca Hn, ngi ta cha ct nhiu
sch ca Thng Qun, Qun t, Tn t, Ng t. Ng t tc Ng Khi v b binh th ca ng gm
18 thin.
Khi lm quan th t Ty H, mun trit h mt ci "nh ca Tn bin gii m khng phi trng

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

binh, ch dng dn trong min thi, ng ngh ra mt thut: chng ci cng xe ca bc, bo ai di n
qua ca nam th s c thng rung v nh thng hng. Mi u dn khng tin, ch ci; sau
c mt ngi c th di i, qu nhin c thng nh ha. Mt lt sau ng t mt thch (10
u) ca ng bo ai di qua ca ty th cng s c thng nh trc; dn tranh nhau di i.
Ri ng li ra lnh hm sau nh chim ci nh, ngi u chim c s c phong chc i
phu, thng rung v nh thng hng. Dn tranh nhau tn cng, ch trong bui sng chim c.
C l Thng ng sau ny dng thut c lng tin ca dn chng nc Tn trc khi ng
bin php.
Lm tng quc nc S, thy quyn th bn qu tc qu ln, ng mun tc bt, khuyn vua ra
lnh rng con chu cc v hu c phong t, c ba i th thu tc lc li. ng c l l ngi u
tin dm tn cng bn qu tc, h rt on ng, cht chn tay ng khi iu vng cht, ngha l ch
mt nm sau khi k hoch ca ng c thc hin.
Hn Phi trng v thng ng mun cho S c ph cng m phi cht thm, nn hai ln nhc ti
ng trong tc phm ca mnh, mt ln thin XXX, mt ln thin XIII. Trong thin XIII, Hn vit:
"S khng dng Ng Khi b mt nc v lon, Tn thi hnh php ca Thng Qun (tc Thng
ng) m ph cng. Li hai ng y u ng m Ng Khi b cht chn tay, Thng qun b xe x
thy l ti sao? Ti bn i thn on php thut m dn chng ght s cai tr."
THN BT HI
Qun Trng v T Sn u tn trng o c, vn cn t cch ca Nho gia. Thn Bt Hi mi cho
chnh tr ly khai o c, nn c ngi cho chnh ng mi thc l thu t ca Php gia. ng thuc
giai cp a ch mi nn mi chng l, cao php.
Thin 63 trong S k, T M Thin sp ng chung vi Hn Phi v cho bit qua loa v i ca ng.
ng gc gc t Kinh thuc nc Trnh, (ng lm Kinh l nc S), mi u lm mt chc
quan nh Trnh. Chuyn hc v hnh danh (hc thuyt ca phi Danh gia), sau c Chiu Ly hu
nc Hn (Trnh lc ny b Hn thn tnh) dng lm tng quc.
Trong 15 nm - t -351 n 337,[11] c sch chp l t - 355 n -341, x xch 4 nm - nh ti ni
tr v ngoi giao ca Thn m Hn thnh mt nc mnh, khng b nc no xm ln c.
Thn li hai thin, nhan l Thn t.
V nm sinh nm t, S k khng cho ta bit. Cc hc gi i sau a ra hai thuyt:
- Sinh nm -401, mt nm -337 ("-" trc Ty lch).
- Sinh nm no cha quyt, mt nm -341.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Chng ta cn nh nm -376, nc Tn chia ba thnh Ngy, Hn, Triu. Trong ba nc , Hn nh


nht, t li kh cn, dn chng ngho kh. Khi Thn Bt Hi lm tng quc cho Chiu Ly hu,
nc Hn mi thnh lp c vi chc nm, cha t chc kp, lut l c ca Tn cha b m li
ban thm lut l mi, c khi mu thun nhau, ni chnh ri lon, quan li khng bit p dng lut l
no, k di c khi khng phc tng k trn. Thn Bt Hi phi lp li trt t trc ht, theo thuyt
hnh danh (danh phi ng vi thc), ch trng "tn qun, ti (tri vi tn) thn, sng thng c h".
ng ch trng nht n "thut", tc phng tin, mu m t c mc ch: vua chn v dng
b ti cch no, th ti h, iu tra h ra sao.
Cun Thn t khng cn, hc thuyt ca ng, chng ta ch bit c i khi nh t on trong
thin nh php (coi phn trch dch sau) ca Hn Phi.
Gn u thin , Hn vit: Thut l nhn ti nng m giao cho chc quan, theo ci danh m trch
c ci thc (tc l ni sao th phi lm ng nh vy, hoc gi chc v no th phi lm ng nhim
v); nm quyn sinh st (cho sng hay bt b ti cht) trong tay, m xt kh nng ca qun thn.
l ci m bc vua cha phi nm trong tay.

(Thut gi, nhn nhim nhi th quan, tun danh nhi trch thc, thao st sinh chi bnh, kha qun thn
chi nng gi d, th nhn ch chi s chp d).
Gn cui thin Hn Phi li vit: Thn t bo: "Quan li khng c vt chc, d bit cng khng
c ni" ( - Tr bt du quan, tuy tri bt ngn).
Nghi l theo thut hnh danh, gi mt chc quan no th phi lm ng chc quyn ca mnh
thi, vic g ngoi chc quyn th d bit cng khng c ni[12].
Cng trong thin Hn Phi ch Thn Bt Hi ch chuyn dng thut, khng lo v php, nn c k
li dng s mu thun gia lnh c ca Tn v lut l mi ca Hn m lm nhiu iu gian tr, thy
lut lnh no c li cho h th h theo. Do , Hn c mt vn c chin xa, Thn cm quyn c
mi by nm m Hn khng lm b ch c. Li c phn nghim khc qu. Thn khng a
Hn ln ngi b ch c v c nhng nc mnh hn Hn nhiu nh Tn, S, T, Triu, nht l
nc Tn lc ln li c Thng ng gip m hng cng ln rt mau. Hn lm sao bng
c? V ni tr, ng c l cha dit ht bn tham nhng nh Hn Phi trch, nhng v ngoi giao,
ng gip cho nc Hn khi b xm ln, nh vy cng kh ri.
Trong thin XXXIV - Ngoi tr thuyt hu thng, Hn cn dn mt on ca Thn, i khuyn
bc vua cha phi c ci thut "b him ng l ra cho b di bit s sng sut hay khng sng
sut, s hiu bit hay khng hiu bit, s yu hay ght ca mnh; nu khng k di phng, tm
cch gt, nh mnh. Cui cng Thn bo "Ta khng da vo u m bit ngi (b ti) c, ch c

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

v vi (khng lm g c) l c th d xt c h m thi". C l v cu m T M Thin bo hc


thuyt ca Thn gc Hong, Lo chng? B Thn t tht truyn, chng ta khng bit chc c
Thn chu nh hng ca Lo t ti mc no: nhng xt chung th php v vi ca php gia khc
xa thuyt v vi ca o gia - im ny chng ti s xt k trong mt phn sau.
Chin quc sch (Hn sch III - 5) chp li chuyn di y ca Thn Bt Hi: Hn vi Ngy l hai
nc ngang hng nhau m Thn Bt Hi vi Chiu Ly hu cm khu ngc li yt kin vua Lng
(tc vua Ngy), khng phi l thch s ti tin m ght s tn qu, cng khng phi l vng suy m
tnh lm. "Thn Bt Hi mu tnh nh vy: "Ta cm ngc khu yt kin vua Ngy, vua Ngy tt t
c rng Hn phi thn phc mnh, tt s mit th thin h, th l nguy cho Ngy v ch hu ght
Ngy tt s th Hn, m ta chu khut thn di mt ngi c dui mnh trn vn ngi. Lm
cho binh lc ca Ngy suy nhc i m lm cho quyn th ca Hn mnh ln, th khng gi bng
triu phc Ngy". Ri khen Thn "Chiu Ly hu thi hnh k qu l mt v minh qun; Thn Bt
Hi mu tnh vic nc m by k , qu l mt trung thn". Chuyn c th tin c m cho ta
bit mt "thut" na ca Thn Bt Hi v ngoi giao. R l ci khng kh ca thi Chin Quc, thi
ca cc bin s o vi m Thn Bt Hi l mt.
THN O
Chng ta c bit rt t v i Thn o, mc d hc thuyt ca ng c nhu ngi nhc ti; nh
Tun t, Hn Phi, v tc gi thin Thin h[13] trong Trang t. Nguyn do c l ti ng khc hn cc
Php gia trc v sau ng, khng lm chnh tr, nn s khng nhc ti[14]. ng thun ty l mt t
tng gia.
Cc sch chng ti c ch ni rng ng ng thi vi Thn Bt Hi, Thng ng; duy Trung Quc
trit hc i cng ca V ng (Thng v n th qun - 1958) l cho bit ng sinh vo khong
370, mt vo khong -290 m khng h dn chng hoc cho xut x.
S k ca T M Thin c hai ch nhc qua ti ng:
Thin 46 v in Knh, Trng Hon, bo T Tuyn Vng trng k s i du thuyt, nh Tru Din,
Thun Vu Khn, in Bin, Tip D, Thn o, Hon Uyn, phong h chc i phu v cho h nh
ti Tc H. C ti 76 ngi nh vy, ngi ta gi h l Tc H tin sinh. Ri sau s tng ln ti
c trm, c ngn. H t do tranh lun nhng khng d vo vic tr nc ca T.
- Thin 74 v Mnh Kha, Thun Vu Khn, Thn o, Trn Thch, Tun Khanh, cho ta bit thm
rng Thn o l ngi nuc Triu, in Bin, Tip D l ngi nc T, Hon Uyn l ngi
nc S, ht thy u theo o Hong Lo.
ng vit 12 bi lun, c sch ni l 42 thin sch, nhng tht truyn[15]
Thin Thin h trong Trang t bo ng ch trng "b tr tu, qun mnh i, c theo th bt c d
m hnh ng, thn nhin thun theo s vt, nh vy hp vi o l (...) ng trn tra theo s bin
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ho, b quan nim th phi khi b ly v vt, ng khng tin tri thc cng s suy ngh ca mnh,
khng bit trc sau, ng mt mnh mt ci..." Vy l ng cng mt ch trng vi Lo, Trang.
Tun t trong thin Phi thp nh t sp ng vo phi Php gia, ch ng qu trng "php" v "th".
"Ni rng trng php m chnh mnh li khng gi php lut, cho vic tu thn tr quc l thp m
a by t sinh s, trn khin c vua nghe theo, di lm cho bn th tc va lng, sut ngy ni
cng dn vn trng in, nhng xt k th thy bng lng xa vi, khng a ti u, khng kin thit
c quc gia, chun nh c ch , vy m bin lun vn c chng c, bn lun vn mch lc,
gt gm bn ngu, l trng hp Thn o v in Bin".
Nt chnh trong t tng ng l trng "th", m h trng th th t nhin trng php lut.
Theo Hn Phi trong thin Nn th, th Thn o bn v "th" nh sau:
"Con phi long ci my (m bay ln tri), con ng x (mt loi rn nh rng, khng c chn) ch
ng sng m m ln trong . My tan, sng tnh ri th hai con cng ch nh con giun, con
kin v mt ch da. Ngi hin m chu khut k bt tiu l v quyn (th) nh, (a) v thp; k bt
tiu m phc c ngi hin l v quyn trng, v cao. Nghiu hi cn l dn thng th khng tr
c ba ngi, m Kit khi lm thin t th c th lm lon c thin h. Do ti bit rng quyn th
v a v nh cy c, m bc hin, tr khng cho ta hm m.
Cy n yu m bn c mi tn ln cao l nh sc gi a i, k bt tiu m lnh ban ra c thi
hnh l nh sc gip ca qun chng. Nghiu khi cn l k l thuc, i ging dy th dn khng
nghe; n khi ngi quay mt v phng Nam, lm vua thin h, ban lnh l ngi ta thi hnh lin,
cm on l ngi ta phi ngng ngay. Do m xt th hin v tr khng cho m ng phc
tng; m quyn th, a v khut phc c ngi hin.

Thn t vit: Phi long tha vn, ng x du v, Vn bi v t, nhi long x d dn ngh ng h, tc


tht k s tha d. C hin nhn nhi khut bt tiu gi, tc quyn trng v tn d. Nghiu vi tht
ph bt nng tr tam nhn, nhi Kit vi thin t nng lon thin h. Ng d th tri th v chi tc th, nhi
hin tr chi bt tc m d.
Ph n nhc nhi th cao gi, kch phong d. Thn bt tiu nhi lnh hnh gi, c tr chng d.
Nghiu gio l thuc nhi dn bt thnh, ch nam din nhi vng thin h, lnh tc hnh, cm tc
ch. Do th quan chi, hin tr v tc d phc chng, nhi th v tc d khut hin gi d.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Thn o cao sc mnh v tc dng ca quyn th, a v; iu ng. Nhng khng . Khng
r trong 42 thin tht truyn, ng c bn g thm khng, c xt quyn th, a v do u m c, khi
no th chnh ng, khi no khng, v mt khi c c ri th lm sao gi c... V trng "th"
nn Thn o ch trng tp quyn, cm khng c lp b ng, a v v quyn li ca v ln b,
con c con th phi r rng, i thn khng c ln vua, phi b ring m ch theo lut.
THNG NG
Php gia c ba phi chnh, phi trng thut l Thn Bt Hi, phi trng th l Thn o, phi th ba
trng php l Thng ng. V i ca Thng ng chng ta c bit kh y . S k dnh
ring mt thin v ng: Thin 68 Thng Qun ng.
ng, khng r sinh nm no, c th vo khong -388, sng cng thi vi Thn Bt Hi v Thn
o, nh tui hn Thn v ln tui hn Thn. ng l ngi nc V (v vy cn gi l V ng),
mt nc nh ph dung ca nc Ngy, tn h l Cng tn (vy l ging di qu tc sa st, khc
hn Ng Khi v Thn Bt Hi) cho nn cn gi l Cng tn ng.
ng thch mn hc hnh danh, lm chc Trung th t, tc nh b th, cho quan tng quc nc
Ngy l Cng Thc Ta (c sch ni l dy con cho Ta); Cng Thc Ta khen l c k ti, khi au
nng, tin c ng vi Ngy Hu vng v dn: " Nu i vng khng dng hn th git hn i,
ng cho hn ra khi nc Ngy". Lc Hu vng ra v ri, Cng Thc Ta li bo nh V ng;
"Ta tin c thy vi nh vua v dn nh vua nu khng dng thy th nn git thy i. Ta coi nh
vua khng mun dng thy u, vy nn mau mau trn i". ng im nhin p: "Nh vua
khng nghe li ngi m dng ti th l no li nghe li ngi m git ti", ri c li nc Ngy. Nu
chuyn c thc th V ng qu l bit ngi, gan d m c bn lnh cao. Trong thi gip vic
cho Cng Thc Ta, chc ng c bit t tng ca Ng Khi.
Sau nhn dp qua vua Tn Hiu cng cu hin, V ng qua Tn nm -361, nh mt vin quan thn
tn ca Hiu cng l Cnh Gim tin c, c Hiu Cng cho yt kin. Mi u ng bn v o lm
"" (tc o tr nc ca cc bc thnh nh Nghiu, Thun), Hiu cng chn khng bun nghe. Ln
sau, ng h thp xung, bn v o lm "vng (vng o), dng nhn ngha tr dn, Hiu cng
cng khng thch. Sau cng, bn v b o th Hiu cng l nt vui, nghe V ng thuyt my ngy
m khng chn. Truyn cha chc c tht, nhng cho ta bit rng thi o Nho suy, cc vua
ch hu ch thch dng b o thi, cho vng o l vu khot.
V ng c trng dng ngay, hai nm sau (-359) a ra mt ci cch v php lut. Mt v i
thn tn Cam Long phn i, bo:
- Thnh nhn ty theo dn m dy, theo php lut c m tr, nh vy khng mt sc m thnh cng.
V ng p:
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

- l li th tc, bn ngi thng thch gi tc c, khng bit rng tam i (H, Thng, Chu), l
khng ging nhau m u lm c vng nghip, cc ng b, php lut khng ging nhau m u
lp c b nghip. Bc tr nhn lp ra lut php mi, bc hin nhn t ra cc iu l mi. Khng
phi ch c mi mt cch tr nc. Vua Thang, vua V khng theo c m lm bc vng, H v n
c thi theo c m mt nc. Vy lm khc thi trc cha hn l ng ch, m c cha hn l ng
khen.
Hiu cng cho V ng l c l, v theo ngh ca ng m ra lnh:
- T chc lin gia 5 nh v 10 nh, bt phi t co ln nhau[16], thy k c ti m khng t co th b
chm ngang lng, t co th c thng nh chm c mt u gic; cha chp k gian th b x
nh ti hng qun ch.
- C hai ngi con trai trng thnh tr ln m chung nh th ngi trong nh phi ng thu gp
i.
- Ai c chin cng th c phong chc, ai gy ln nhau th b trng tr.
- Ai cy cy, nui tm, dt la nng sut trn mc nh th khi phi lm kh dch; ai lm giu
bng thng mi hoc lm bing khng sn xut th phi lm n l.
- Qu tc m khng c chin cng th s h xung thng dn.
Trc khi ban b sc lnh, s dn khng tin, Thng ng dng thut di y:
ng cho dng mt khc cy di ba trng ca Nam ch Kinh , bo h c ngi no di c
khc cy y qua ca Bc th c thng mi nn vng[17]. Dn ly lm l; vic d nh vy sao
m thng hu nh vy, ng triu nh c n g nn do d. Hm sau ng li ra lnh di c th
thng nm chc nn vng. Mt ngi th di khc cy xem sao, qu nhin c thng nm mi
nn. T dn Tn tin rng lnh ca triu nh ban ra th thi hnh ng. C s ny rt ging c s
v Ng Khi Ty H m chng ti dn trn; Thng ng chc chu nh hng ca Ng
Khi.
Lnh ban ra, trong triu nhiu ngi chng i, m dn chng cng ko nhau c hng ngn ngi ti
kinh phn khng. Chnh Thi t cng bt bnh, c ln phm php. Thng ng bo mi
ngi chng k sang hn, u bnh ng v php lut. Nhng thi t s ni ngi vua, vy hai s ph
ca thi t phi chu ti thay. T dn u s lnh ca ng, trong mi nm ca ri ngoi ng
khng ai dm lm, ti rng ni cng khng cn trm cp, chng bao lu Tn hi mnh, thng
c Ngy mt trn
T nm -350 n -348, Thng ng li bin php ln na, ln ny v hnh chnh v ti chnh:
- Cm cha con anh em ng c cho cng vic khn hoang mau pht trin.
- Chia nc thnh qun huyn.
- M mang t ai, ai v thm c t th lm ch t, t mt th thu cng bng, ai cng nh ai.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hai vic lp qun huyn v m mang t ai ny c t thi Xun Thu, Thng ng ch c cng
a ra thnh quc sch, v p dng mt cch i quy m thi.
- Thng nht o lng.
t nm sau, Tn mnh ln, thng Ngy mt trn ln M Lc, git c tng Ngy v cm t thi
t Ngy. T Ngy khng ngc u ln c na, vua Ngy chc n hn khng nghe li Cng
Thc Ta, khng dng m cng khng git Thng ng.
Danh vng, chc tc ca Thng ng by gi ln n tt bc. Tn Hiu cng phong cho ng mt
khu gm 15 p t Thng, vi tc Thng qun, v vy ng c tn l Thng ng. Tt c triu
nh, nht l gii qu tc, cha anh ca vua u ght ng. S d ng cn ng vng c ch nh
Hiu cng che ch. Chin Quc sch (Tn sch -I.1) chp rng khi Hiu cng au nng, mun truyn
ngi cho ng, ng khng nhn v gi ng ch trng ca Php gia: b ti gi phn b ti.
Hiu cng mt ri, Hu vng ln thay. Hu vng chnh l thi t hi trc b Thng ng
lm nhc. C ngi bo Hu vng:
- i thn m quyn ln qu th nc nguy; k t hu thn cn qu th bn thn nguy. Nay Tn,
n b tr con u ni: php lnh ca Thng qun, ch khng ni php lnh ca i vng, th l
chnh Thng qun mi lm vua, m i vng ho thnh b ti. V chng Thng qun chnh l k
th ca i vng, xin i vng xt k.
Hu vng sai bt Thng ng, ng trn ra bin gii, ti mt l im, ch l im khng dm
cha, bo: "theo lnh ca Thng qun, khch ti tr phi c "thn phn chng", tc nh th cn
cc. ng khng c, cha ng ti s b ti."
Thng qun nh phi trn sang Ngy, ngi Ngy ui ng v Tn. Cng qu, ng liu tr v t
Thng, dng binh t Thng chng li triu nh, tht bi b git Thng Tr (thuc t Trnh).
Thy ng b "xa lit": ct u v tay chn vo 5 con nga, ri nh cho nga chy v 5 pha. Nm
l nm -338; ng sng khong 50 tui. Ngi ght ng, cho rng ng b qu bo, nhng ngi phc
ng nh Hn Phi thng ng cht v bn phn, v l tng.
Sch Hn ch chp rng ng c son mt b nhan Thng t nay cn 24 thin, nhng theo cc
hc gi gn y th b hon ton ca ngi sau vit.
Ch trng ca ng l:
- Php lut phi rt nghim, ban b khp trong nc, v t trn xung di ai cng phi thi hnh,
khng phn bit giai cp; php nh ri th khng ai c bn ra bn vo na, khng c "dng
li kho m lm hi php", ngha l lm sai ngha ca php tm li cho mnh.
- Ti d nh cng pht rt nng, cho dn s, m sau khi phi dng hnh pht. l cch "dng
hnh pht tr b hnh pht" (D hnh kh hnh). T Sn cng ch trng nh vy trc khi dn
Du Ct phi dng hnh pht cho tht nghim. V vic thng, ng cho rng lm iu thin l bn
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

phn ca dn, khng ng thng; nhng ng li trng thng bn co gian, l im mu thun.


Hn Phi rng ri hn, bo lm iu thin cng ng khuyn khch.
ng bo: "Nc s d c trng, vua s d c tn l nh sc mnh" - M mun cho nc mnh
th phi trng nng v chin, nng nui chin: hc thut v c cng ngh, thng mi ng cho l
v dng, c hi cho nc: "C ngn ngi dn lm vic nng, chin, m c mt ngi c thi th,
tranh bin nhau v tr tu, th ngn ngi kia u ha ra lm bing v nng chin. C trm ngi dn
lm vic nng, chin m c mt ngi lo v k ngh th trm ngi kia u ho ra lm bing v vic
nng chin. Nc nh nng, chin m yn, vua nh nng chin m c tn".
V vy ng khuyn khch, gn nh bt buc nng dn phi khn hoang, cho h lm ch t h khai
thc c; mt khc bt ton dn phi l lnh (chng ta thy ng chu nh hng ca Qun
Trng): "trng nam hp li thnh mt qun, trng n hp li thnh mt qun, cn cc ng gi b c
hoc n ng n b m yu hp thnh mt qun gi l tam qun. Qun trng nam th cho n nhiu
v luyn tp vic binh, sp hng i ch, qun trng n cng cho n nhiu v p thnh, sp hng
i lnh; (...) Qun gi yu th chn b, d heo, trng trt, kim cy c, thc n no n c th thu
thp nui bn trng nam, trng n"
Theo Hu Hn th, chnh sch c rt hiu qu; qua i Hn, ngha l trn mt trm nm sau khi
Thng ng mt, Quan Ty, ngha l t Tn, pha Ty ca i Hm cc, ph n cn bit
dng kh gii ra trn.
Hn na, Thng ng cn mun to mt giai cp qu tc gm cc qun nhn - nh giai cp
noblesse d pe thi Trung c chu u; ng ngh: "Ch bn nh gic mi c giu sang[18],
nh vy dn nghe thy ra trn l chc mng nhau, ng ngi n ung lc no cng ca ht chin
tranh".

- Ph qu chi mn tt xut binh, th c dn vn chin nhi tng h d, khi c m thc s ca dao


gi chin d - "Ai cht c u gic th tc c thng mt cp, mun lm quan th c mt
chc quan lng bng l 50 thch (100 thng l mt thch); cht c hai u gic, tc c thng
hai cp, mun lm quan th c mt chc quan lng bng l 100 thch; quan tc thng u xng
ng vi cng chm u gic".
Nh vy l Thng ng nh mt n mnh vo giai cp qu tc ng thi khng c cng lao g
vi quc gia m cng c hng tc lc ng cha truyn li. C l v im ng cng chu
nh hng ca Ng Khi v Ng Khi ngh vi S iu vng: i vi con chu nhng ngi
c phong th c ba i s thu tc li. Nhng thi giai cp qu tc cn mnh, h qut li: Ng
Khi v Thng ng u b h git mt cch tn nhn. Phi i ti i Hn, giai cp tn a ch

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

mi thng c giai cp qu tc v c mt a v vng vng.


Nh vy l giai cp tn a ch vi mt s qu tc tin b nh T Sn v tin dn nh Mc T
can m tranh u khong nm th k - c k b bn qu tc qut li ti ch cht khng ton thy mi xo b c mt s c quyn ca qu tc, b c l "hnh bt thng i phu, l bt h th
dn" u i Chu; v ln ln to c mt x hi tng i cng bng (th dn c tuyn dng
v x theo lut php cng nh qu tc), mt x hi tm n nh trong non 2000 nm, c ting l
dn ch sm hn Ty phng mi th k
Mi ti gn th k chng ta, sau hai cuc cch mnh lin tip ca tiu t sn v v sn, tnh trng x
hi u i Chu mi lt ngc li; giai cp v sn dnh c quyn li v a v ca giai cp qu tc
ba ngn nm trc. Mt chu k chm dt. Ri bt u mt vng trn c khc chng?
Ti y hc thuyt ca Php gia c ba phi: Th ca Thn o, Thut ca Thn Bt Hi, v Php
ca Thng ng; k nh hon b. Ch cn mt ngi tp i thnh, sa cha, thm bt. Ngi
l Hn Phi m chng ti s xt trong cc phn sau. Nhng Hn Phi mun lm chnh tr m khng
c dng; ngi p dng hc thuyt ca ng lm cho Tn thng nht c Trung Quc l L T,
mt bn hc ca ng.
Xt li, trong thi Xun Thu v Chin Quc, nhng ngi c cng thc y s bin chuyn ca x
hi Trung Hoa t ch phong kin qua ch qun ch chuyn ch, khng phi Nho gia, Mc gia
hay o gia m chnh l Php gia. Nhng nc T, Trnh, Hn, Ngy, Tn nh Qun Trng, T Sn,
Thn Bt Hi, Ng Khi, Thng ng, L T thay nhau ni bt ln nhiu hay t trong s cc
nc ch hu, nh du nhng giai on quan trng, v vy m c nh nh Vandermeersch[19]
ngh nn chia li thi Xun Thu v Chin Quc theo nhng giai on , m b li phn chia t
trc ti nay ch cn c vo s ca nh Chu. kin mi m v c l mt phn.
Ch thch:
[1] La formation du Lgisme - cole franaise d Extrme Orient - Paris- 1965.
[2] Hn Phi cng dng ting "v vi", nhng theo mt ngha khc. Khi xt hc thuyt Hn Phi chng
ti s ging r.
[3] Thuyt Mc t tng lm quan Tng b cc hc gi c ting bc.
[4] Xt chung th cc trit gia theo phi trn hu ht trong giai cp qu tc suy vi, cn mun duy
tr quyn li ca giai cp mnh nn c tinh thn bo th hoc phc c (Khng t, Lo t, Mnh t,
Tun t); cn phi di trong giai cp a ch mi, nn chng li giai cp qu tc c (L Khi,
Ng Khi, Thn o, Thn Bt Hi). Nhng cng c nhiu l ngoi; Mc t trong giai binh u
chng c qu tc ln a ch mi; Trang t trong giai cp qu tc suy vi m qu ym th, hoi
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

nghi; Thng ng, Hn Phi u trong giai cp qu tc m chng li giai cp , bnh vc giai
cp a ch mi
[5] Theo Cng gim di tri lc ca Ng Tha Quyn ( i Thanh) th nc T chia lm 21 hng, 6
dnh cho cng ngh v thng mi, 15 dnh cho s v nng - 21 hng tc 2000 x 21 = 42.000
ngi. Sao m t vy? 420.000 ngi th ng hn.
[6] Chng ta nn nh o Nho c trc Khng t. T Nghiu, Thun, hoc tr nht l t Chu cng,
cho nn Khng t bo ng ch thut o ngi xa ch khng sng tc.
[7] Thc ra l 11 ln
[8] Nguyn vn: "nh k nhn?" C th hiu l: Hy lm nhn nh ng y.
[9] Theo L Th Xun Thu th ng Tch l ngi u tin nc Trnh nu vic phi t ra hnh
php. ng v phe cc tn a ch, thng ch trch cc lnh ca giai cp qu tc, T Sn cm
khng c. ng c c "thy ci", xi ngi ta kin nhau. Tng truyn c ngi vt c xc mt
ngi nh giu, gia nh ngi ny xin chuc. Ngi vt xc i nhiu tin qu, ngi nh giu ni
vi ng Tch. ng bo: "c yn, mc h, h cn bn c cho ai u?". Ngi vt c xc m
lo, li hi ng, ng bo: "c yn, mc h, h cn mua u c na". ng c ci ti ly tri lm
phi, ly phi lm tri; li dm t ra php lut ring chp ln th tre, treo trc ca khin cho d
lun xn xao. T Sn phi git ng, nhng vn dng chnh sch ci lng php lut ca ng.
Sch T Truyn bo T Thuyn git ng Tch ri dng Trc hnh ca ng, nh vy ng vi T
Sn khng sng cng mt thi.
C hc gi li cho rng h sng cng thi, nhng ng Tch cht sau T Sn hai chc nm.
Cha bit thuyt no ng
[10] C hc gi ng l bng ng v thi Trnh hoc Tn cha c st hoc mi c m ch lm
nhng thng dng thi.
[11] Chng ti b du trc nhng nm ny, v khng th lm c l nm Ty lch
[12] Hn Phi ch ch trng , coi mt chng sau
[13] Trong b Trang t a ra nhng l l ti sao tc gi khng tin thin ny l do Trang t vit
(N.X.B Vn Ho, 1991) (B.T.)
[14] Mnh t, Co t h, bi 8, c chp truyn Mnh t thuyt Thn t ng nghe li vua L, em
qun nh T. Thn t l ngi khc, khng phi Thn o.
[15] (Chin Quc sch - S II.7- c mt truyn l th v Thn o, nhng khng ng tin nn khng
chp vo y ).
[16] Chnh sch co gian ny, Mc t ngh khong 100 nm trc - coi cc thin Thng
ng- b Mc t
[17] Nguyn vn l "kim". Ch ny c th tr mt ng tin vng, mt nn, mt dt, mt cn vng;
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T
li c th tr mt kim loi khc, nh ng.

[18] Mc t cng ngh ch ngi hin mi c giu sang, cn qu tc bt ti th cng phi


ngho hn - coi cc thin Thng hin, b Mc t
[19] Sd, trang 275

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
PHN II - Chng 1
HN PHI: I SNG V TC PHM
I SNG

V tiu s Hn Phi chng ta ch c ba ngun ti liu: Chin Quc sch, Hn Phi T v S k ca T


M Thin; nhng nhng ti liu y a s u mp m hoc khng ng tin, c khi mu thun nhau
na.
Trc ht chng ta c th gt b ti liu trong Chin Quc sch, tc bi Diu C p vua Tn (Tn V.8- bn dch ca chng ti, nh L Bi 1973) v Chin Quc sch khng ng coi l mt tc phm
v s, (nhiu bi ch c gi tr v vn hc, v lun thuyt thi, iu ny chng ti trnh by trong
phn gii thiu Chin Quc sch trang 40, nht l bi Diu C p vua Tn c ging tiu thuyt qu,
khng th tin c). i khi truyn nh sau:
Hn Phi thy Diu C l ngi nc Ngy, gip vua Tn (Thy Hong) c lc c phong chc
thng khanh, m ghen ght, dm pha, tu vi vua Tn: "C em chu bu, pha Nam i s Kinh
(tc nc S), Ng, pha Bc i s Yn, i. Ba nm sau, tnh giao thip vi cc nc v tt dng
quyn ca i vng, bo vt ca quc gia m t kt giao vi ch hu xin i vng xt li. V li
tn lnh gi ca ca nc Lng n cp Lng, li c ln lm b ti Triu m b ui (...)
m em bn vic x tc vi hn th cn u ci nghim khc i vi qun thn"
Vua Tn bn vi Diu C v hi. C nhn ht, nhng bo Thi Cng Vng, Qun Trng, Bch L
H u xu xa tin v Thi Cng Vng c lc lm tn t, Qun Trng vn l mt con bun
tham b, Bch L H l mt tn n xin t Ngu, vy m vua Vn vng, vua T Hon cng, vua
Tn Mc cng vn dng h m nh h lp c nghip vng, nghip b, cn hng cao kht nh
cc n s Bin Thy, V Quang, Thn ch th khng vua no dng c, nn h chng gip g
cho x tc. Vy l khi dng ngi, nh vua ch nn xem xt k gip c vic cho mnh khng,
ch ng cu n h d bn, xu xa; nht l ng nghe li gim pha m s khng c b ti trung vi
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

mnh u
Rt cuc, "vua Tn khen l phi, li dng Diu C m git Hn Phi".
Nhn vt Hn Phi trong bi b bi nh qu thnh mt bin s h ng, v t cch m Tn Thy
Hong cng khng ng l mt ng vua dng c nghip ln nht thi Chin Quc: h nghe
li Hn Phi, ri li d dng b Diu C thuyt phc, git Hn Phi mt cch v l. S thc, Hn c th
b L T (v c l c Diu C na) gim pha, nhng cht v mt l do khc hn.
Chin Quc sch ch chp mi truyn v Hn Phi. B Hn Phi T cho ta c nhiu ti liu hn:
nm thin ht thy.
Thin I - S kin Tn, m nhiu tc gi ch gii l bi biu Hn Phi dng vua Tn trong ln hi kin
u tin, nhng h khng cho ta bit vic xy ra nm no. i bi bo Tn ng s lc quc
(Triu, Yn, Ngy, Kinh "S", T, Hn) hp tung nh Tn v kho lm ca h trng rng m s tt
ca h s cht, nn h s thua. Cn Tn c iu kin lm b ch, s d cha thn tnh c thin
h v mu thn bt ti, bt trung (Hn dn chng Tn v lm ln m ba ln l c hi lm b).
Cui cng, Hn kt: Thn khng s cht, xin yt kin i vng bn v cch ph th hp tung
ca cc nc trong thin h, thng Triu, dit Hn[1] bt Kinh, Ngy phi thn phc, bt T, Yn
phi kt thn vi mnh, thnh ci danh b vng. Xin i vng th nghe thuyt ca thn, mt ln
ra qun m qun trong thin h khng b ph () danh b vng khng thnh, ch hu bn phng
khng thn phc th xin i vng chm u thn i mi ngi trong nc bit rng thn mu
tnh m khng trung thnh vi cha.
C ba l do nghi ng bi khng phi ca Hn Phi:
- Khng c mt sch no khc chp truyn c, trc sau Hn Phi ch i s Tn c mt ln dng
vua Tn bi biu Tn Hn (coi phn di) thi.
- Ging bi cng l ging bn bin s nh T Tn, Trng Nghi, ch khng phi ging mt t
tng gia v chnh tr nh Hn. C ngi ng l ca Thi Trch (ngi nc Thi, ly tn nc lm
tn h, lm t tng Tn Chiu vng sau khi Phm Tuy t chc); nhng Chin Quc sch cho l
ca Trng Nghi thuyt Tn Hu Vng. Bi trong Chin Quc sch (Tn sch I.5) y ht bi trong
Hn Phi t, cha r b chp b no.
- T tng ca Hn Phi trong bi , tc thin 1- S kin Tn tri ngc hn vi thin 2 Tn Hn.
Trong S kin Tn Hn Phi nguyn gip Tn dit lc quc, trong c nc Hn, t quc ca Hn
Phi. Trong Tn Hn, tri li Hn Phi c thuyt phc Tn Thy Hong duy tr nc Hn:
Lc Triu v Tn xch mch vi nhau, Tn mun chim Hn trc v Hn nm gia Tn v Triu.
Hn Phi khuyn ng nh Hn v Hn t trc vn cng np v thi hnh mnh lnh ca Tn, cha
chc dit ngay c, Hn s c th; trong khi Ngy, Triu s hng v T, khi hp tung s
mnh m Tn s nguy:
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn vn l mt nc nh, phi chng c s cng kch bn pha, cha nhc, ti kh, trn di
cng lo lng vi nhau t lu ri, cho nn phng b k, phng k ch mnh, tch tr lng thc,
xy p ho ly c th. (Nh vy) Tn m nh Hn th mt nm cha chc dit c, cn nu
nh ch chim c mt thnh ri rt lui th quyn uy ca Tn s b thin h coi thng, m thin h
s b gy binh ca ta, (v) Hn m phn (chng) Tn th Ngy s hng ng, Triu s da vo T,
c T hu vin. Nh vy Hn, Ngy thm s cho Triu, mn ci phc ca Triu, ci ha ca
Tn
V vy tt hn, Tn nn giao ho vi Kinh (S), Ngy, ri nh Triu, thng c Triu, T ri th
t nhin Hn, Ngy, Kinh u qui phc Tn: Theo k ngu ca thn th nn (mt mt) sai ngi i
s Kinh, dng l hu mua chuc cc b ti c trng trch, trnh by cho h thy Triu khinh nhau
(hay gt) Tn ra sao; mt khc trao i con tin vi Ngy cho Ngy an tm, ri c sut qun ca Hn
nh Triu[2], d Triu c lin kt vi T cng khng ng lo. Dp xong hai nc (Triu, T)
ri, ch cn gi mt bc th l nh c nc Hn. Nh vy l nht c m hai nc b suy vong, li
thm Kinh, Ngy cng t qui phc ta
on trn, Hn Phi gi c t cch mt s gi, cao tinh thn on kt quyt tm c th ca vua
ti Hn; on di l lun vng nn Tn thy Hong c v xiu, nhng cn do d.
Thin Tn Hn c hc gi cng ng khng phi ca Hn Phi, v ging cng hi c ging bin s
nhng s vic k trong thin th chc ng, v hp vi S k ca T m Thin (coi on sau)
- Thin 3 Nan ngn, nhiu nh ch gii cng cho l mt bi biu ca Hn Phi v m u Thn l
Phi, khng phi l kh ni.. m t tng cng hp vi Hn Phi (so snh thin vi thin XII
Thu Nan), nhng khng hc gi no bit c bi biu dng vua no, nn chng ti khng th
dng vit tiu s ca Hn c.
- Thin 19 Sc t - Bi ny cng c ging mt bi biu, cc nh ch gii cho l Hn Phi vit dng
vua Hn, khuyn ng nn tin d oan, ng nn trng cy vo nc ln, ch nn tin chnh mnh
thi, v mun nc mnh th vua phi sng sut trong vic thng, nghim khc trong vic pht,
thng v pht khng c qu ng m cng khng c bt cp.
Nhng t tng ng l ca Hn Phi, nn chng ta c th tm tin c.
Sau cng Thin XLII Vn in c chp mt on Hn Phi tr li ng Kh cng, mt mu thn
ca nc Hn.
ng Kh cng cnh co Hn Phi rng lp ra php lut v thut th s nguy cho thn nh Ng Khi
v Thng ng. Hn p rng mnh vn bit vy nhng t ra php lut l vic li cho dn, cho
nn mnh c lm, d c gp b trn hn m, khng hiu mnh m b tai ha ra sao th cng chu, nh
vy mi ng l bc nhn, tr.
on r rng l ca ngi sau vit v khng ng tin, v theo mt hc gi Trung Hoa hin i,
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Trn Thin Qun, th ng Kh Cng ln hn Hn Phi khong by chc tui, kh c th ni


chuyn vi Hn Phi nh vy c. (Coi Lon Vadermeersch sch dn trang 58-59) Tm li
nhng ti liu trong Hn Phi t ch c hai im ny l c th tin c:
- Hn Phi mun cho nc Hn mnh, khuyn vua Hn nn trng php lut, ng tin d oan, ng
trng cy nc ln.
- Hn Phi rng thuyt phc Tn Thy Hong bo tn nc Hn.
Chung qui, ti liu gip chng ta c nhiu nht vn l S k ca T m Thin. Trong S k c ba
thin nhc ti Hn Phi:
- Thin 63: Lo t, Trang t, Thn Bt Hi, Hn Phi trong phn Lit truyn.
- Thin 6: Tn Thy Hong trong phn Bn k.
- Thin 45: Hn trong phn Th gia.
Thin 63, T m Thin vit:
Hn Phi l mt cng t[3] ca nc Hn, thch ci hc v hnh danh, php, thut, nhng gc l ci
hc ca Hong , Lo t.
ng vn c lm, ni khng hay nhng vit hay. ng cng vi L T theo hc Tun Khanh; L T t
xt khng bng ng. ng thy nc Hn mt t, suy nhc, my ln dng th can gin vua Hn[4],
nhng vua Hn khng bit dng ng, nn ng bc mnh rng nh vua tr nc khng lo sa cha,
lm sng t php ch, khng nm ly ci th ch ng b ti, lm cho nc nc giu binh mnh,
khng tm hin ti giao cho chc v m tri li, ct nhc bn su mt by b, trng dng chng hn
hng ngi tht c lng. ng cho rng bn Nho s dng vn lm lon php lut, cn bn hip s dng
v m phm cm lnh. Thi thong th (bnh an), nh vua qu hng ngi c danh ting (ho), n khi
cp bch th li dng k s mang o gip, i m tr (nn trn), nh vy k dng c khng nui
m k c nui li khng dng c. ng bun v ni k lim khit ngay thng l nn nhn ca
bn b ti gian t, cong queo, xt cc bin c nn hay hng trong thi trc, m vit cc thin C
phn, Ng , Ni, ngoi tr, Thu nan.gm trn mi vn ch.
C ngi em sch ca ng n nc Tn, vua Tn[5] c cc thin C phn v Ng , bo: A,
nu qu nhn c gp ngi ny, giao du vi ng ta th cht cng khng hn! L T tu rng tc
gi nhng thin l Hn Phi.
Lc Tn ng nh nc Hn. Vua Hn trc kia khng dng Hn Phi, by gi lm nguy mi
sai Hn Phi i s Tn. Vua Tn thch ng nhng cha tin dng th L T v c l Diu C mun hi
ng, gim pha ng vi vua Tn rng: Phi l cng t nc Hn. Nay nh vua mun kim tnh ch
hu; rt cuc Phi tt v Hn ch khng v Tn u, nhn tnh nh vy. Nh vua khng dng hn, gi
hn lu y ri cho v Hn th l t chuc ly ha vo mnh. Sao bng buc ti hn ri git i.
Vua Tn cho l phi, x ti Hn Phi. L T sai ngi em thuc c cho Hn Phi, bo nn sm t
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

x, Hn Phi mun trn tnh, xin yt kin vua Tn m khng c. Sau vua Tn n nn, sai ngi tha
cho Hn Phi th Hn Phi cht.
Nguyn nhn ci cht ca Hn Phi y ng tin hn trong Chin Quc sch, hp vi thin Tn
Hn trong Hn Phi T. Hn Phi c nh vua Hn Vng An phi qua thuyt phc Tn Thy Hong
nn tn Hn, nhng Hn Phi tht bi, b vua Tn nghi ng m cht oan.
Thin 6: Trong phn Bn k cho ta bit thm: nm th 10 i Tn Thy Hong, L T bn vi vua
Tn chim Hn trc cho cc nc khc s. Vua Tn bn phi L T qua Hn thuyt phc vua
Hn thn phc Tn. Vua Hn cm thy Tn mun thn tnh mnh, bn vi Hn Phi v cch lm cho
Tn yu i. Bn nm sau, tc nm 14, Hn Phi c phi qua Tn thuyt phc vua Tn tn Hn,
nhng vua Tn nghe li L T[6], mun chim Hn, nn gi Hn Phi li v Hn Phi cht Vn
Dng. Nm 17, Tn chim Hn, i thnh qun Dnh Xuyn.
Sau cng, thin 45, phn th gia T M Thin chp:
Nm th 5 i (Hn) Vng An: Tn nh Hn, Hn lm nguy, phi Hn Phi qua Tn, nhng Tn
gi Hn Phi li x t.
Nm th 9 i Vng An, Tn bt sng c Vng An, chim ht nc Hn, i thnh qun Dnh
Xuyn. Hn b dit.
Vy T M Thin ghi r Hn Phi cht nm th 14 i Tn Thy Hong tc nm th 5 i Hn
Vng An, Ty lch l -234 v bn nm sau, tc nm -230 Hn b dit.
Tt c cc ti liu chng ti kim c i Hn Phi ch c by nhiu. Tm li, chng ta c th tin
c nhng iu di y:
Hn Phi l mt cng t nc Hn, hc rng, bit c o Nho (v l mn ca Tun T), o Lo,
nhng thch nht hc thuyt ca cc Php gia, c nhiu t tng mi v chnh tr, c L T phc l
gii. ng trong giai cp qu tc nhng c tinh thn tin b, trng k s gii php thut (tc bn tn
a ch), ch bn trng nhn (qu tc) l c h, v dng.
ng c tinh thn i quc cao. Nc Hn nh Thn Bt Hi m c yn n mi lm nm. T khi
Thn cht, nc Hn li rt suy nhc. t hp, khng c ngn dm m vo mt v tr nguy
him, ti ngay ca ng ca Tn. Khi Tn mnh ln, mun thn tnh ch hu, Hn thnh ra ci ch
ca cc ch hu nhm vo. Th Tn khng c, s b Tn nut; m chng Tn th khng sc.
Hp tung hay lin doanh th Hn a u, bao gi cng b tai ha trc nht. Cho nn trong thin
Ng (coi phn trch dch), Hn Phi rt ght bn du thuyt dng ming li ngoi giao nay lin kt
vi nc ny, mai lin kt vi nc khc, ch ngh n li ca h m khng ngh n ci li nc.
Theo ng mun cho nc mnh, th phi dng thut v php, ci t li ni chnh, ng trng cy vo
ngoi giao. Chc ng nhiu ln ngh vi vua Hn nh vy m vua khng nghe, nn ng bun
ru. Thin C phn (coi phn dch) ca ng c l vit vo lc ng khng c dng Hn, ch
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

khng phi trong khi b giam Tn.


Mi ti khi Hn lm nguy, sp b Tn thn tnh, Vng An mi phi ng i s qua Tn thuyt
phc Tn Thy Hong bo tn Hn, nhng Tn Thy Hong khng nghe li ng m nghe li L T,
ng ng khng thc tnh m ch lm li cho Hn thi nn git ng nm 234. C sch chp l u
nm -233. Chng ti dng nm ny. Ba nm sau Vng An b bt sng, t quc ng b dit.
Nm t ca ng khng cn g nghi ng c. Cn nm sinh th T M Thin khng cho ta bit, nhng
cc hc gi gn y, chng hn Tin Mc da vo cc gi thuyt ny: Hn Phi v L T cng hc
chung mt thy l Tun t, tui chc xp x nhau; ri on rng L T khi ti Tn, t nht cng
khong ba chc tui, Tn khong bn chc nm ri mi b Nh th Hong (H Hi) git nm 208; nh vy L T phi sinh vo khong by chc nm trc, tc khong -280, m Hn Phi cng
vy.
Cc sch chng ti c u theo thuyt , nhng chng ta nn nh rng nin i -280 ch l phng
chng, c th l sai mi nm.
C ngi c tiu s Hn Phi trong S k a ra nghi vn ny: L T vn l con ngi th on, bit
Hn Phi gii hn mnh, tt ghen ti Hn Phi, ti sao li gii thiu Hn vi vua Tn khi m vua Tn
khen cc thin C phn v Ng ca Hn? M gii thiu ri, ti sao sau li gim pha bn b x
t? Rt cuc l Hn cht v yu nc hay v b gim pha? Chng ti ngh rng c th v c hai: L T
c th v tnh, but ming ra m bo tc gi l Hn Phi, khng ng rng sau Hn Phi i s qua Tn,
m vua Tn c gp ri thch; ri ti khi Hn Phi thuyt phc vua Tn duy tr Hn, tri vi ch
trng ca L T th tt nhin phi bc, gim pha Hn l t im li ni che y mu gian, v nu
vua Tn nghe m Tn v Hn thn thit vi nhau th li cho Hn, nht l cho Phi v Phi s c
trng dng.
Nhng truyn vua Tn thch vn ca Hn Phi ti ni than rng c gp th cht cng khng hn, c
ng tin khng ? Chng ti ng rng ch l mt giai thoi cho vui thi, v T M Thin mu
thun vi chnh ng. Trong tiu s Hn Phi , ng bo vua Tn c hai thin C phn v Ng
trc khi gp Hn Phi; ri cui b S k, trong thin 130 Thi s cng, t ng li bo Hn Phi b
giam Tn nn mi vit hai thin Thu Nan v C Phn. Vy th thin C Phn vit lc no? Trc
khi Hn Phi qua Tn hay khi Hn Phi (ch ny chc sp ch thiu) ch l mt giai thoi, nh vy ci
cht ca Hn Phi rt d hiu: L T s thuyt ca Hn Phi lm tr ngi ch trng ca mnh nn mi
tm cch hi Hn Phi, v Hn Phi cht v c ti bnh vc cho t quc.
Tinh thn i quc ca Hn Phi tht ng khen, chng ti c ln ni (trong Chin Quc sch) rng
quan nim quc gia ca ngi Trung Hoa thi Xun thu v Chin quc khng nh quan nim ca
chng ta ngy nay. Thi tuy Trung Hoa chia lm nhiu nc, phong tc, ngn ng, y phc mt s
nc phng Bc (nh Yn, Triu) rt khc mt s nc phng Nam (nh S, Vit), mt s
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

nc phng ng (nh T, L) cng rt khc mt nc phng Ty (nh Tn) nhng ht thy


u tn nh Chu l thin t, t mnh cng l ch hu c - t nht trn danh ngha v cho ti gia i
Chin quc v vy mt trit gia hay mt k s ny, khng c vua mnh trng dng vn thng
i nc khc tm mt minh qun th, coi mi ngi trong thin h l dn ca nh Chu[7] u
l anh em vi nhau c; Khng T, Mnh T, Tun T..u nh vy ht, ni g ti T Tn, Trng
Nghi, Thi Trch.
c Hn Phi T, chng ta thy Hn c mt l tng r rt: gip cc ng vua lm cho nc ph
cng ln m ht lon. Sut i ng hoi bo l tng , nhit tm vi n ti ni bit rng mnh ni
ra khng ai nghe, s b c lp v mnh phi chi li ca cha, chng li bn b ti gian t, ch
c mt ming m mun tranh vi c nc (C Phn); hn na, c th nguy ti tnh mng v ngi ta
c th vu oan cho ti li ri dng php cng git, nu khng th s tm cch m st, ngha l c th
chu cnh ca Ng Khi, tng quc ca S iu vng b git v cht tay chn, hoc cnh
Thng ng tng quc ca Tn Hiu cng b x xc, nhng ng vn gi l tng, khng s
cht m ch hn rng khng gp c mt bc vua cha bit nghe nh S iu vng, nh Tn Hiu
cng ng c cht nh Ng khi v Thng ng sau khi lm sng t php lut v thut ca
ng (Ha Th). Tc gi thin Vn in hiu tm s ca ng, nn cho ng tr li in Kh cng
nh trn chng ti tm tt.
By gi xt li i ng, chng ta thy ng sinh vo khong -280 th
- Nm tng Tn l Bch Khi nh Triu,
- Nm -260 (Hn Phi mi vo khong hai chc tui), Bch Khi li thng Triu, chn sng bn chc
vn qun Triu u hng.
- Bn nm sau, nm -256, Tn v Chu, Chu phi dng ht t cho Tn.
Vy khi Hn Phi dng c hc thuyt ca ng v chnh tr ri (trn di ba chc tui) th ng tt
thy r rng trong tht hng, Tn mnh nht, ch c Tn mi thng nht c Trung Quc v thi c
gp lm ri, mun thc hin l tng ca ng th phi v vi Tn. Thi , nh chng ti dn
chng, b t quc m th nc khc l chuyn bnh thng. Chnh L T bn hc ca ng, ngi
nc S m cng th Tn, v chng ai trch c. Vy m ng khng b Hn qua Tn, mc du ng
khng c trng dng Hn, li bit Hn rt suy nhc ti Triu v S kia, ln gp my Hn m
khng chng ni Tn th sm mun g cng b Tn thn tnh. ng trung vi Hn ti pht cht, ti
khi vua Hn phi ng qua Tn thuyt phc Tn ng dit Hn, ng vn lm trn s mng ca ng,
khin L T phi nhn rng li vn, ging bin thuyt ca ng tht ti, c sc m hoc mnh m. V
chnh v vy m ng b git! Cho nn Vng Sung i Hn tic rng vua Hn khng nghe li ng
nn mi mt nc v gn y Trn Khi Thin bo ng b L T hi m thc ra l ng hi sinh cho t
quc.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Tht chua xt cho ng. Th gp c mt ng vua bit nghe mnh, thc hin mt phn l tng ca
mnh ri b git nh Ng Khi, Thng ng th ng cng cam tm, ng ny, ch v mt ng vua
tm thng, khng chu nghe li ng, ng phi cht oan ung m khng ch g cho t quc c: ba
nm sau khi ng mt, nc Hn b Tn tiu dit.
Lng i quc ca ng ngang vi Khut Nguyn m cn c k cn cn c vo bi biu S kin Tn
khng mt cht g ng tin trch ng l rc voi v giy m na! Nhng thn tm ca ng
c lu li thin c trong hai thin C Phn v Thu nan m t T M Thin n nay ai cng nhn
l bt h.
Li ny ca ng cui thin Nan ngn: D l hin thnh cng khng trnh c cht chc v lng
nhc (...) ch v bn ngu kh thuyt phc c l mt li chua xt hn l mt li t ph.
Ch thch:
[1] Chng ti nhn mnh
[2] V Hn t coi l mt qun huyn ca Tn
[3] Tc con trai th ca mt vua ch hu: con trng l thi t hay th t.
4] Hn Vng An
[5] Tn Thy Hong
[6] Trong thin II Hn Phi t sau bi Tn Hn ca Hn Phi, c nhn bi biu ca L T khuyn vua
Tn ng nghe li Hn Phi v Hn Phi ch mun mu li cho nc Hn thi, m nn tn cng ngay
Hn i.
[7] Cho nn dn khi mun trong nc mnh na v vua tn bo hay v chin tranh lin min th
chy qua mt nc khc m ng vua no cng mun dn cc nc khc v vi mnh: dn c ng
nc mi mnh.
NIN BIU HN PHI

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
Chng 2
TC PHM
1.

Cc bn t trc ti nay.

Theo nin biu chng trn th Hn Phi bt u vit sch vo khong nm th 8 i Tn Thy
Hong v theo S k th nm, su nm sau khi Hn Phi i s Tn, c L T v Tn Thy Hong u
c c mt phn tc phm ca Hn. Thi ngi lm sch v k sao li u phi khc ch
ln th tre hoc dng que nhng vo sn ri vit ln la. Vy m ch trong c my nm, tc phm
ca Hn Phi vt bin gii Hn v qua Tn, bit n ni danh v ph bin rt mau.
Sau khi Hn Phi mt, L T v Tn Nh th Hong u c dn li trong sch ca Hn (coi thin
Truyn L T trong S k).
Hn mt trm nm sau T M Thin bo tc phm ca Hn Phi gm trn mt vn ch v c nhng
thin C phn, Ng , Ni, ngoi tr, Thuyt Lm, Thu nan, m khng cho bit trn b c bao
nhiu thin. Ti khong u k nguyn ty lch, Lu Hng l con ca Lu Hm mi thu thp li
c 55 thin, nhng khng chia thnh quyn. Bn ngy nay chng ta dng c l l bn i Hn hay
i Lng .
Gn y, nghe ni Trung Quc, ngi ta khai qut c mt bn trong ngi m i Hn, khng r
bn ny c khc nhiu khng.
T i Hn n i Tng, cc bn sao hay khc li u mang nhan l Hn T. Bt u t i
Tng, mi c nh gi l Hn Phi t phn bit vi b Hn t ghi chp t tng ca Hn D, c
Nho gia tn trng gn ngang vi Mnh t.
Tuy nhin i Tng v i Minh vn c nh dng nhan c, qua i Thanh, nhan Hn Phi t
mi tht thng dng.
Theo Trn Khi Thin trong Hn Phi t hiu thch (Trung Hoa tng th 1958) th t thi Bc Ngy

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ti nay c t nht l 30 tc phm hiu nh v ch thch Hn Phi t; mi thi tin b hn mt cht,


nhng hin nay vn cn t ch sai hoc thiu.
H Trn khen bn Hn Phi t tp gii ca Vng Tin Thn (i Thanh) l tp i thnh nhng bn
hiu thch ca ngi trc, nhng c ch cn sai st.
ng cng c nhc ti bn Hn Phi t b tin ca Cao Hanh, nh ny cng c ting, ci chnh c
nhiu ch, pht minh c ngha mi, gip cho ng nhiu, nhng ng ch c c trn tp ch Vn
Trit qu san, quyn II, s 3 v 4 (1933) ca trng i hc V Hn, khng bit ti nay xut bn
cha.
Ngoi ra hai bn:
-

Hn Phi tp gii cc (gic) chng ca Vng Thc Mn (Dn)

Hn Phi t tp gii b chnh ca Long V Thun cng c ch dng c, nhng c hai cng

ch mi ng trn tp ch.
Chng ti ch kim c 3 bn ch Hn:
-

Hn Phi t tp gii ca h Vng: bn ny khc t nm Quang T th 22 (1896), khng chm

cu, ch thch s si, rt kh c.


-

Hn Phi t bch thoi ch gii ca Dip Ngc Ln (Hoa Lin xut bn x khng in nm

no), ch tuyn 33 trong s 55 thin. Ch thch s si, ch c ci li l dch ra bch thoi, nhng c
nhiu ch dch khng chc ng.
-

Hn Phi t hiu thch ca Trn Khi Thin. Bn ny qu nht. H Trn b ra hng chc

nm nghin cu Hn Phi t, thu thp c nhiu bn c, tham kho nhiu nh, hiu nh v ch
thch li rt k, a kin v vn chn, ngy ca mi thin, cui b li c phn tiu s Hn Phi,
tng hp t tng Hn Phi, sau cng chp thm c nhng li ph bnh Hn Phi t i Hn ti nay.
Ton b gm trn mt ngn trang kh ln. Tht l mt tc phm rt cng phu (tuy hi rm) gip
chng ti c nhiu. Khng nh mt ng bn ng T Trng Hip kim gim cho b th cha
chc chng ti quyt tm vit v Hn Phi.
-

V mt bn Vit dch ca Nguyn Ngc Huy (La thing xut bn 1974) gm hai cun. Bn

dch ny kh cng phu, dng c[1], cn c vo bn Vng Tin Thn v c l mt phn vo bn


Trn Khi Thin na. ng Nguyn ch thch k, gm cc ch thch vo cui mi cun v cui b li
thm mt bn Mc lc cc nhn danh v a danh, vi mt bn Mc cc ti.
Ngoi ra chng ti tham kho thm ba b di y:
-

La Formation du Lgisme ca Lon Vandermeersch (Ecole Franaise dExtrme Orient

Paris 1965);
-

Trung Quc chnh tr t tng s ca Tiu Cng Quyn - (Trung Hoa Vn ha xut bn x -

i Bc 1961);
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Trung Quc c i chnh tr gia ca Tn Cnh Dng (Hoa Quc xut bn x Hng Cng

1950)
-

Lch s t tng chnh tr Trung Quc ca L Thin V bn Vit dch ca Trn Vn Tn,

xut bn nm 1963 H Ni, khng bit do nh no v mt ba

2.

Ni dung tc phm:

Cc bn Hn Phi t ngy nay u theo ng cch trnh by ca ngi xa, chia ra lm 20 quyn, 55
thin. S xp t cc thin kh tp lon, khng hp l, khng theo mt qui tc no c. Trn Khi
Thin c sng kin sp t li, chia thnh mi quyn theo qui tc ny: nhng thin no quan trng
nht nh Hin hc, Ng , Nn th a ln trn, nhng thin km quan trng hoc cn nghi l
khng phi ca Hn Phi vit th a xung di.
Ngay trong tng thin, i khi ni dung cng khng c nht tr, chng hn thin 42 Vn in gm
hai on khng lin quan g vi nhau: on trn bn v l nn c cc quan vn cng nh v t
chc thp ln ln ln chc cao; on di l li Hn Phi p ng Kh cng, i rng mnh t
ra php lut s lm li cho dn, d c b hn qun hm hi cng can tm. Thin 18 Nam din
cng vy: phn u ni v thut dng b ti, phn cui bn v l khng ngi sa i php ch thi
c.
V nhan ca mi thin, a s tm tt c ni dung ca thin, nh C phn, Thu nan, Nh bnh,
Bt gian, Bt kinh, Gii lo, D lo, Hin hc, Ng , nhng cng c nhiu thin ch dng hai
ch trong cu u lm nhan , nh thin Vn in ghi trn. Thin 52 Nhn ch cng vy: on
trn ni v th, ngha ging thin Nh bnh, on di ni v s th ght nhau gia cc k s gii
php thut v bn qu tc cm quyn, ngha ging thin C phn. Nhng nhan l Nhn ch tc
hai ch u thin khng lin quan mt cht g vi ni dung c. Nhng nhan nh vy c th do
ngi sau t, ch khng phi ca Hn.
Khuyt im th nh l trong mt thin, s trnh by c khi lng lo: trn h m di khng ng nh
th l thiu, hoc trn khng h m di li ng, nh vy l tha. Chng hn trong thin 33 Ngoi
tr thuyt t h, c c s nu ra trong phn Kinh m khng thy gii thch trong phn Truyn; ngc
li trong phn Truyn c nhng c s khng lin quan g ti phn Kinh.
Khuyt im th ba: c nhiu lp i lp li mt cch v ch, chng t rng Hn Phi khi vit khng
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

b cc trc, c thun tay ngh ti u vit ti , hoc c th do nhiu ngi ch khng phi mt
mnh Hn Phi vit. Nh thin 52 Nhn ch lp li nhng trong hai thin 7 Nh bnh v 11 C phn
nn b nghi ng l ca ngi i sau ngy tc. Hai thin 12 Thu nan v 3 Nan ngn u din t ni
kh khn, nguy him ca bn bin s mun thuyt phc cc vua cha. Cch dng ngi v nht l
cch thng pht c nhc i nhc li trong c chc thin;
Khuyt im th t l t tng c nhiu ch mu thun: chng hn cc thin 49 Ng , 46 Lc
phn, 47 Bt thuyt, 30 Ni, tr thuyt thng ch nhn ngha; m thin 27 Dng nhn li c cu
cao lim s, nhn ngha; thin 51 Trung hiu ch Nghiu Thun khng bit l vua ti, m thin 25 An
nguy, 26 Th o li cao Nghiu Thun; thin 3 Nan ngn, thin 10 Thp qu khen Quan Long
Phng l ngi hin, m thin 44 Thuyt nghi li ch Quan l can gin mnh bo, mun thng vua,
hm cha, cht l ng; Ng T T cng vy, thin 3 Nan ngn, thin 25 An nguy, thin 26 Th o
khen, m thin 44 Thuyt nghi li ch.
Do bn l k trn: ni dung tp lon trnh by khng k, cch t nhan khng nht tr, nhiu lp
li, mt s t tng mu thun; v cng do l li vn c thin gi dn nh Thu nan, C phn, c
thin rt tm thng nh thin Nhn ch; a s hon ton l vn xui, mt s t li dng vn vn, s
ch mi v cn nhau (thin Ch o v thin Dng gic) nn hc gi no cng nhn rng Hn Phi
t khng phi hon ton ca Hn Phi, m c nhiu thin do ngi sau ngy tc thm vo. V vy
trc khi nghin cu t tng Hn Phi, chng ta cn xt thin no l chn, thin no l ngy .
Cng vic ny rt kh. Chng ti tham kho kin ca Trn Khi Thin v Lon Vandermeersch
v theo qui tc, thin no ni dung tri vi thuyt Hn Phi th c th tin l ngy m gt b i, thin
no m mi nh u bo l ca Hn Phi th gi li; c nhng thin no t tng hoc ging vn cn
c iu ng ng th tn nghi.
Chng ta c mt bn dch y ri bn ca ng Nguyn Ngc Huy nn trong cun ny,
chng ta ch dch tt c nhng thin chc chn ca Hn v mt s thin na, tuy kh nghi nhng
chng ti cho l quan trng thi.
cho nhng c gi no khng c bn dch ca ng Nguyn Ngc Huy cng c c mt khi
nim v ni dung ton b, chng ti tm tt trong bn di y chnh ca mi thin v a thm t
nhn xt v s chn ngy ca tng thin. V s th t cc thin, chng ti vn theo cc bn c
c gi d kim trong cc bn ch Hn.
(Ch thch ca ngi hiu nh: ch ny Nguyn Hin L lm thnh 1 bng k cu, mi hng l mt
thin, c 4 ct l: S, Nhan , Ni dung, Nhn xt. V din n vnthuquan khng hin th dng bng
ny c, nn chng ti phi chp li thnh hng dc. Vy ngi c c nh, mi thin nh vy c 4
phn, mi phn l 1 ln cch hng.)
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

S: 1
Nhan : S kin Tn
Ni dung: Bi biu Hn Phi dng vua Tn bo c th thn tnh thin h, ph th hp tung ca lc
quc (trong s c Hn) m thnh b, v lc quc kho lm rng m qun lnh s cht.
Tn my ln mt c hi lm b v thiu b ti trung. Hn Phi nguyn lm ti trung ca vua Tn.
Nhn xt: Chc chn khng phi ca Hn Phi v ni dung tri vi thin 2. Dung Triu T v Trn
Khi Thin bo l ca Thi Trch. Chin Quc sch chp l ca Phm Tuy (Tn 1.5)

2
Tn Hn
Bi biu Hn Phi dng Tn Thy Hong khi vng lnh vua Hn qua thuyt phc vua Tn ng nh
chim nc Hn
C phn chc chn l ca Hn Phi, mc du c ngi ng l ca ngi sau chp.

3
Nan ngn
Bi biu ca Hn Phi dng mt ng vua (c ngi bo l vua Hn, c ngi bo l vua Tn) vch ra
12 l do ti sao thuyt phc vua cha l vic kh li nguy him, v dn chng trong s c hn
10 ngi b ci ha v ni thng.
Chc chn ca Hn Phi v ni dung hp vi thin Thu nan m ai cng nhn l ca Hn.

4
i thn
Ci nguy ca vua l b ti giu qu, ch hu ln qu. Mun ch ng h, vua phi nht thit theo
ng php lut, phng b trc m gi cho h ngay thng.
T tng rt hp vi Hn Phi, nhng li vn hi khc cho nn cn ng.

5
Ch o
Dng thuyt v vi ca Lo, thuyt hnh danh ca Danh v thuyt thng pht ca Php. Vua phi h
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

tnh, gi cho hnh v danh hp nhau, thng pht cho ng


Khng phi ca Hn Phi, m c l ca mt o gia. Vn c vn, ging vn Hoi Nam t (theo
Lng Khi Siu)

6
Hu
i l vua phi dng php nc, ch ng theo mnh. Dng php th b ti khng ln mnh c.
Trong thin c on nh v on cui hn ging Qun t m Qun t do ngi i Chin Quc vit,
u thi Hn thm tht. Nn cha quyt c l ca Hn hay khng mc du t tng u hp vi
Hn Phi.

7
Nh bnh
Nh bnh l hai quyn bnh ca vua, tc thng v pht. Thng pht th danh phi hp vi hnh, vua
phi b ham, ght i, ng c t .
V li vn c ch khc vi thin chc chn ca Hn, nn cn phi tn nghi, mc du t tng hp
vi Hn.

8
Dng gic (nhiu bn chp l Dng quyn, hai ch quyn gic hi ging nhau)
Dng gic c ngha l a ra nhng ct yu (ca vic tr nc). i nh thin Ch o. Bn v
thut vua ch ng b ti. Cng theo Lo (v vi), theo Danh (hnh danh), theo Php (thng pht).
c bit c mt on v s mu thun quyn li gia vua ti.
Vn cng c vn, c bn ch l mt v nh thin Ch o, nn chc chn khng phi ca Hn Phi.

9
Bt gian
Xt tm l b ti ho gian; mun phng th vua phi dng thut no.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

C l ca Hn Phi, ch hi ng ng c on ni v vic tin c k hin ti, khng hp vi t tng


ca Hn Phi.

10
Thp qu
Dng c s chng minh mi ci li ca vua. Nhng c s cng thy chp trong nhiu khc
nh Quc sch, Hoi Nam t, L gim T tng c v hp vi Hn Phi.
Bt php km, li rm, nn rt ng ng.

11
C phn
K s gii php thut v bn qu tc cm quyn khng th cng sng vi nhau c. Tranh nhau vi
bn qu tc th k s s cht. Bn qu tc chuyn quyn che lp nh vua m nc s nguy. Ci li
ca chng vi ca vua tri ngc nhau.
Chc chn ca Hn Phi, vit hi khng c trng dng Hn.

12
Thu nan
Du thuyt l vic kh v nguy him. Nhng trng hp nguy vo thn. Chng c trong lch s. Cn
nht l phi bit vua cha thch ci g, ght ci g m ng lm cho h gin.
Chc chn ca Hn.

13
Ho th
Ni dung ging thin C phn. Bn s cao php thut cng khng c m cn nguy vo thn
nh ngi h Ho c ngc bch dng vua m b cht chn, v khng ai bit l ngc qu. Dn chng
Ng Khi v Thng ng b git
Chc ca Hn

14
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Gian kip th thn


Bn gian thn dng thut no la vua? Mun nga h th phi gi quyn th v lm sng t
php lut. Phi dng nghim hnh, ng dng nhn ngha.
T tng hp vi Hn Phi. Nhng c mt on gia ni v Xun Thn Qun, Thng ng, Ng
Khi khng c cht lin lc g vi on trn v on di, nn ng l ca thin Ho th t lm v
y.

15
Vong trng
K 47 im suy vong. Nhng nu bit dng thut v php th vn c th cu c.
T tng hp vi Hn, tr iu 43, ni n ci hiu ca vua cha vi ci hiu ca k tht phu, th
ging li khng phi ca Hn, nn cn tn nghi.

16
Tam th
Vua phi gi ba iu: ng tit lu, ng nghe li khen ch k khc, ng giao quyn cho ai, b
ti khi cp mt ci danh, cng vic v quyn hnh pht ca mnh.
Khng chc ca Hn nhng cng khng c xc chng rng khng phi ca Hn.

17
B ni
Bc vua cha m tin ngi th s b p ch. Ngay v con cng khng nn tin. ng tin b ti m cho
h c quyn th.
C phn tin c l ca Hn.

18
Nam din
Thut ch ng b ti: lm r php lut v xt xem li ni ca b ti c ng vi vic lm khng.
on cui khng lin lc vi hai on trn, v xt v l c th thay i php c.
C phn tin c ca Hn.

19
Sc t
Gi php th mnh; ng tin d oan c thng pht cho ng, khuyn khch b ti b t tm m lo
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

cho ngha cng.


ng ng v c on khen tin vng, khng hp vi t tng Hn Phi; li thm on ni v T M
T Phn y ht mt on thin Thp qu. Khng phi ca Hn Phi.

20
Gii Lo
Trch mt s on o c kinh ri gii thch. T tng hp vi Lo, tri hn vi php.
Khng phi ca Hn.

21
D Lo
Ly vic c dn d cho d hiu hc thuyt Lo T. Xt chung th t tng hp vi Lo T, tr
mt vi ch hi hp vi Php gia.
Cng khng phi ca Hn.

22
Thuyt lm thng
Hn Phi c nhiu sch, gm trong thin ny v thin sau mt s c s cho bit thut ca ngi xa;
nhiu c s chp trong Chin Quc sch.
Lng Khi Siu bo hai thin Thuyt Lm c h nh l ti liu Hn Phi d b vit cc thin
Ni ngoi tr thuyt sau.
Chc chn ca Hn

23
Thuyt Lm h
(nh trn)
(nh trn)

24
Quan hnh
Thin ny din hai : bc vua cha phi dng o m sa thn mnh cho ngay; nhn ci th mnh c
c m tm ci o d thi hnh, nh vy t tn sc m nhiu kt qu.
T tng ca o gia, khng phi ca Hn Phi.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

25
An nguy
C by thut lm cho nc yn n v su con ng khin cho nc nguy. Phi nghe can gin ca
b ti trung mc du n chi tai; phi sa mnh nh vua Nghiu.
cao Nghiu, Thun, tri vi t tng Hn Phi. Khng phi ca Hn.

26
Th o
Php gi nc l thng cho hu v pht cho tht nghim.
Hp vi t tng Hn Phi, nhng c cu khen vua Nghiu sng sut, khng lt k gian, nn chc
ca ngi sau bt chc Hn, khng phi ca Hn.

27
Dng nhn
i : php dng ngi phi theo tri, thun ngi v lm r vic thng pht. Phi khuyn khch s
lim s, vi bc nhn ngha ti gip. ng t ra vic kh lm, thng k d, pht k khng ng
pht.
cao lim s, nhn ngha, khng phi t tng ca Hn.

28
Cng danh
Xt v o lp cng v thnh danh; phi theo thin thi, nhn tm, dng ti nng, dng quyn th,
a v.
Thuyt theo thin thi v nhn tm (nh thin trn) khng hp vi Php gia m hp vi o gia.
Khng phi ca Hn.

29
i th
Nhn mnh tri m nm ct yu ca vic tr nc, khin cho dn khng mc ci ti ri (khng theo)
php lut, nh c mc ci ho ri khi nc.
Mnh tri y l l t nhin. Ch trng theo t nhin ny ca o gia, tri hn ch trng ca Php
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

gia. Khng phi ca Hn.

30
Ni tr thuyt thng
Thin ny v nm thin sau u gom gp cc qui tc, cc c s v vic tr nc, cho vua cha
dng. C su thin cng theo mt li trnh by: mi u a ra ci cng yu lm quy tc, gi l
phn kinh, sau dn nhng c s gii thch phn kinh, gi l phn truyn. Thin ny a ra by
thut v vic xem xt cho , thng pht cho nghim v minh, nghe ht li b ti trnh by gi v
ra lnh, tp hp cc ngun tin, i li, tro vic bit tnh gian ca b ti.
C hc gi cho phn kinh l ca Hn, phn truyn l ca ngi sau; nhng cng c hc gi cho rng
c hai phn kinh v truyn u ca Hn, ch nhng ch: nht vit: (c thuyt khc bo) mi l ca
ngi sau. Vy ta c th coi 6 thin i khi l ca Hn. Thin no cng kt cu cht ch, c gi tr
v lun thuyt, tr vi ch chp thiu c trong truyn m khng c trong Kinh hoc ngc li.

31
Ni tr thuyt h
Nhn nh chung nh trn. Thin ny ni v su iu bc vua cha phi d xt: quyn giao cho k
di, li ca vua ti khc nhau, k di da vo s di tr, li hi u c b tri, a v khng r
ngoi quc can thip vo vic nc mnh.
Nhn nh chung nh trn.

32
Ngoi tr thuyt t, thng
a ra 6 thut tr nc dng ngi; xt xem hnh ng ca b ti c hp vi li ni hay khng, xem
li c thc dng khng, ng khen tin vng, khng t lm th dn khng tin, ng dng k s bn
sung, phi gi ch tn, ri mi hnh php.
nt

33
Ngoi tr thuyt t, h
Li a ra 6 thut na: thng pht cho ng, trng cy vo th v thut ca mnh, c theo kh nng
m dng ngi, ng cho b ti qu xa x hoc qu bin ln
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

nt

34
Ngoi tr thuyt hu thng
Li a ra 3 thut na: b ti no khng ci ho c th git i, ng l s thch v ght ca
mnh, ngi thn cng theo php m tr.
nt

35
Ngoi tr thuyt hu h
Li a ra 5 thut na: v s thng pht, ng tin bn bin s, tr quan li ch khng tr dn, tu
theo vic m lm
nt

36
Nn nht
Thin ny v ba thin sau u ch trch hnh ng ca mt s nh cm quyn v hc gi thi xa,
nh Khng T, Qun Trng, T Hon cng, n t, T Sn.v.v. lm r ch trng ca Php gia.
Chng hn thin ny ch trng: ra trn th cn phi gian tr, tr dn th c gi ci th m ra lnh,
khng cn phi ci ho dn, khng cng th khng nn thng, vua phi gi o vua, b ti phi gi
o b ti, c ti th phi tr khng tha.
Chc chn ca Hn Phi.

37
Nn nh
Nhn nh chung nh thin trn. i : hnh pht m xng vi ti th khng ngi nhiu, khng xng
ng vi ti th mi l nhiu; ng nn nhn t, phi dng hnh danh thng nht, s o lng lm
tiu chun; thu c nhiu ho vt v tt l tt.
Duy c on 3 c cu theo o th nn v vi, ng cho thy" c h hp vi o gia hn l php gia.

38
Nn tam

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Nhn nh chung nh thin 36. i : phi pht k giu ci c, thng k t co bn gian t, ng


nghe li gi di ca b ti, ng cho b ti ln vua, phi tn ln Hong hu, con th ln con c, php
phi ban b r rng, thut th ng nn cho ngi ta bit
Chc chn ca Hn Phi.

39
Nn t
Nhn nh chung nh thin 36. i : vua gia phn vua, b ti gi phn b ti; vua nn nghim
khc m sng sut; gin v ght phi ng lc
nt

40
Nn th
Ph bnh v b tc thuyt gi th (tc ch quyn) ca Thn o.
nt

41
Vn bin
Thin ny dng vn p, khc hn cc thin trn. Hn Phi ght khng kh tranh bin thi Chin
Quc. Hn tm cch ngn s tranh bin: vua c coi hnh vi ca b ti xem c cng dng khng, ngn
hnh phi c ch mi c; h bn bc m khng hp vi php lnh th tr ti.
Chc chn ca Hn Phi.

42
Vn in
Thin ny gm hai on khng lin lc g vi nhau. on trn din : dng ngi th ng c
ngay ln mt chc cao, cho ngi tin ln ln tng cp. - on di bo Hn Phi nh php
thut lm li cho dn, d c b ti cng khng n hn.
on di nht nh khng phi ca Hn Phi, m do ngi sau vit. Do on trn cng ng ng.

43
nh php
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi ph bnh Thn Bt Hi v thut v Thng ng v php, bo phi dng c hai thuyt
, thiu mt khng c.
C phn chc chn l ca Hn Phi.

44
Thuyt ngh
Xt v thut dng b ti. Phi cm b ti c lng gian, c li gian, c hnh vi gian. Nm hng ngi
khng dng c.
Nn cm 5 ci gian, ph 4 ci tng t nh nhau so snh vi nhau, chng i nhau (con v l vi
con ch, thip vi th, b ti vi tng quc, b ti c vua yu vi vua), ng sinh lon.
Th vn c v nh lun thuyt li c v nh mt bi biu, nn cn tn nghi.

45
Ngy s
Ba o tr nc l li, uy v danh. Vy m ngi ng thi li trng nhng k tri vi o tr nc
nh cao, hin, trung, lit, dng m khinh hng ngi lm li cho nc.
Cho nn cch thng pht cng ngc i ht. Nguyn tc l phi t ra php lnh, b ci ring
t.
Chc chn ca Hn Phi.

46
Lc phn
Su hng ngi ng pht m dn li khen (l mn Lo, Nho, m dng gia, Danh, Mc)
ngc li su hng ngi ng thng th b ch. Ai cng tham li, cha con cng ch ngh ti t li.
Cho nn phi dng hnh php cho nghim, phi xt hnh vi v li ni ph hp nhau khng.
Chc chn ca Hn Phi.

47
Bt thuyt
Tm hng ngi khng nn dng. Dng ngi phi c thut nghe b ti t co ln nhau. Lp php
phi theo thi theo vic. Thi khng dng nhn i c. ng cho sng thn ra lnh.
Cng c phn chc l ca Hn Phi., nhng ni dung thin ny hn tp.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

48
Bt kinh
Tm thut tr nc: thng pht, nghe ca mi ngi, phng gian, cch xt b ti, phi b mt
Ni dung hp vi thuyt ca Hn Phi, nhng hnh nh nguyn vn thiu st ngi sau thm vo, nn
kh hiu.

49
Ng
Nm hng mt dn: nho gia, bin s, hip s, bn th thn, bn cng v thng. Quan trng nht l
lch s quan ca Hn Phi: thi d tc s d, s d tc bin, v ch trng: php vi gio, d li vi s.
Chc chn ca Hn Phi. L T tng dng trong thin ny.

50
Hin hc
o cc thuyt ni danh, c th lc ng thi: Khng v Mc, Nho v hip s (Mc gia) khng
cy rung, khng nh gic, v dng. o Nho vu khot, khng cn dng nhn ngha, ch cn sc
mnh.
nt

51
Trung hiu
chnh l trng php ch khng trng hin. Nghiu, Thun, Thang, V l bt trung bt hiu
(trung, hiu theo quan nim Php gia).
Ni dung tp: on cui bn Tung honh gia, khng lin lc vi cc on trn. Chc chn l ca
Hn.

52
Nhn ch
nh hai thin Nh bnh v C phn: b ti m c th mnh hn vua th nguy cho vua; bn s cao
php lut l k th ca bn qu tc cm quyn thi .
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Li vn km. Chc l ngi sau vit thm.

53
Sc lnh (Chnh l hiu lnh cho nghim chnh)
Cng li xt v cch thng pht: hnh phi nghim, thng nn t; c chin cng mi cho quan
tc.
v li nhiu ch ging Thng qun th (tng truyn ca Thng ng nhng khng chc
Thng ng vit); v vy cn ng, khng bit ca ai, sch no chp ca sch no.

54
Tm
Tm y l lng dn. Lng dn thch lon; ght kh nhc nn thng phi sng sut, hnh phi
nghim. Vua phi ngn k ch bn ngoi, chn t tm t ca b ti bn trong, ch trng cy ni
mnh thi.
th ging Hn Phi m li th khc. Nn cn tn nghi.

55
Ch phn
Bn v php ch nh thng pht, v phn bit cng vi ti. Hnh, thng nn nng v phn minh.
Bt dn phi co gian, lin i chu trch nhim. Khng c b php lut m dng tr tu.
nt

Ch thch:
[1] Chng ti c nhiu im khng ng vi ng Nguyn, nhng ngay cc nh hiu ch Trung Hoa
ti nay vn cha c ai hon ton ng vi ai th bn dch ca ng v ca chng ti s phi c

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T
nhng im khc nhau, khng th trnh c.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
P3 - Chng 1
HC THUYT HN PHI

LCH S QUAN
T Khng T, khng trit gia no khng bt mn v x hi thi ng Chu, nh no cng a ra mt
bin php cu th. i khi c hai phi: phi qu tc suy vi khng mun i mi, phi tn a ch
mun i mi.

Trong phi trn, Lo t ch trng hon ton thoi ha, tr v ch b lc thi nguyn thy. Nng
ct t tng v chnh tr (m cng v nhn sinh na) ca ng trong cu: phn gi o chi ng
(o c kinh- chng 40).

Ch phn c th hiu theo hai ngha:


- Ngha th nht l tun hon, ht mt vng ri li tr v, nh trng trn ri li khuyt, mt tri ln
ti nh ri li xung, triu dng ri rt, ht ng ri sang xun, tm li l vt cng tc bin, vt cc
tc phn
_- Ngha th nh l tr v ci gc, tc ci t nhin nh v. V theo ng, vn vt t ci hu m ra,
ci hu li t ci v m ra.
V vy, ng cho rng tr nc tt nht l v vi, m l tng l mt nc nh, dn t m khng i
u xa. C xe thuyn m khng ngi, c gm gio m khng by. B ht vn t, dng li tht dy
(kt thng) i thng c; ai ny ch n no, mc m, yn n; n cht cng khng qua li cc nc

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

lng ging. Nh cm quyn khng can thip n i sng ca nhn dn dn sng theo t nhin.
(Xem i cng trit hc Trung Quc ca chng ti, quyn h, trang 690, 691- Co thm- Si Gn,
1996).

Khng T mun duy tr ch phong kin, nhng ngh rng phi ty thi bin dch, cho nn tuy ng
t thut Nghiu Thun, hin chng Vn V[1] (bt chc vua Vn, vua V nh Chu), khen t
chc nh Chu l rc r, ng theo (Chu gim nh i, c h vn tai! Ng tng Chu: Nh Chu noi
theo hai nh Thng v H m nh l tit, rc r, p thay, cho nn ta theo l tit nh Chu- Bt
dt-14) m cng c tinh thn ci cch cho hp thi:
1/ a ra ch trng chnh danh- phi c t cch ng vua th mi ng gi l vua- vit sch Xun
Thu chnh danh t, nh danh phn, ngu bao bim.
2/ Bo vua phi vy mi gi l cha m dn c (dn chi s hiu, hiu chi, dn chi s , chi, th
chi v dn chi ph mu- i hc), v k cai tr dn m dng chnh h khc th cn gm hn cp (L
K).
Trn mt th k sau, x hi lon hn, bn qu tc suy hn, bn tn a ch ln mnh, Mnh t ng
v pha bn tn a ch, c t tng tin b hn, c h khng tin cy g nh Chu na, mun ng h
bt k mt ng vua Ch hu no chu thi hnh nhn chnh thay th nh Chu. ng qu dn hn
Khng t, bo: dn vi qu, x tc th chi, qun vi khinh, ln ting mt st nhng ng vua tn bo
ham git ngi, xa x, cho dn i, bo Tr l tn tht phu, git Tr l git mt tn tht phu ch
khng phi th qun, mng Lng Hu vng l cho loi th n tht dn; c ln cn da T Tuyn
vng l coi chng ko b trut ngi, khin cho Tuyn vng bin sc (Vn Chng h-9). ng cho
b ti c quyn coi vua l gic: Vua xem b ti nh ch nh nga th b ti xem vua nh ngi l
trong nc, vua xem b ti nh t nh c th b ti xem vua nh gic nh th (Qun ch th thn
nh khuyn nh m, tc thn th qun nh khu nh th Li Lu h).

Mnh cn sng kin a ra thuyt nht tr nht lon trong lch s: Thin ng Vn cng h, bi 9,
ng bo mt mn l ng thi vua Nghiu, cc dng b ngn nn chy nghch, nc ngp trn
ci Trung Quc. Cc ging rn rng ln ln vi ngi trn mt t, dn khng c ni yn. K
di thp phi lm chi m , k trn hang phi o hang m tr. Kinh th chp: Nc trn ta nn
phng b. Nc trn b l nn lt (hng thy) y.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

l mt thi lon.

Vua Thun sai ng V tr thy. ng V o vt nhng ch b tc cho nc chy ra bin. ng ui


rn rng ra ni ng xa c rm. Cc dng nc mi theo chiu t ma (m?) chy, l my sng
Giang, Hoi, H, Hn. Nhng ci ngn tr sng rch dp xong, loi chim loi th hi ngi u b
tiu dit, t nhn dn mi c t bng m . l thi tr.
Vua Nghiu vua Thun mt, o tr quc ca hai ng thnh mi ngy mt suy. Nhng ng
vua bo ngc ni nhau m ngt ngng trn ngai; h ph cung tng, nh ca bch tnh o ao
xy h, dn chng chng c ch an ngh. H ly rung t ca bch tnh lm vn bch tho, bch
th, khin cho dn thiu n thiu mc. Li thm nhng t thuyt bo hnh ni ln. Vn bch tho
bch th, ao h, bi (h trng hoa), m ngy cng nhiu th cc chim v th qu t cng ng. Ti
i vua Tr lon cc im. li l mt thi lon na.
By gi, ng Chu cng gip ng V vng, git vua Tr, pht nc Yn, ba nm mi git c vua
nc Yn, ui Phi Lim (k sng i ca vua Tr) ra tn gc bin m git. Nm chc vua ch hu
(theo nh Thng, tc theo vua Tr) b V vng tiu dit ht. Nhng on th nh cp, beo, t, voi
(vua Tr nui), ng th ra v ui i xa. Thin h rt mng r. l mt thi tr na.

Ri i cng suy, o cng km, nhng t thuyt, bo hnh li ni ln, c k b ti git vua, c k
lm con git cha. li l mt thi lon na. Khng t s, mi son b Xun Thu, chp hnh vi
cc vua rn i ().
Ngy nay bc thnh vng khng ra i, cc vua ch hu th lung tung, m hng x s th bn
ngang lun cn, hc thuyt ca Dng Chu v Mc ch lan trn thin h, khi bn bc ngi no
khng theo Dng th theo Mc. Dng ch bit c mnh, nh vy l khng c vua; Mc thng tt
c mi ngi (nh nhau), nh vy l khng c cha. Khng vua, khng cha, tc l cm th. Lon
cc ri. Mnh t cn bo c nm trm nm li mt thi thnh, ri ly s ra chng thc:
_T vua Nghiu, vua Thun n vua Thang l trn 500 nm (1);
_ T vua Thang n Vn vng l trn 500 nm (2)
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

_T Vn vng n Khng t l trn 500 nm na. (3)[2]


(Tn tm h-38)
ng bit rng t Khng t n ng mi c trn trm nm, nhng li khng tnh theo t Khng t,
m t vua Thang n ng c non 1500 nm (s thc cng gn ng), nn ng hi vng n mt
thi thnh, ng c th ni nghip ca Khng t c. ng tht vng: thuyt nht thnh nht suy
ng (c bao gi mt triu i, mt dn tc thnh hoi c u) nhng ci lut 500 nm ca ng sai
(t Vn vng n Khng t l 634 nm) m ng cht ri ( nm -289), Trung Quc cn tip tc lon
thm 68 nm na, n nm 221, Tn Thy Hong mi dit ht lc quc, thng nht c ton ci.
Thc ra sut triu Tn, Trung Hoa cng khng th coi l tr c, phi i n nm -206, Hn Cao
T ln ngi, mi bt u mt thi bnh tr, vy l t khi V vng cht phi i 909 nm sau mi c
mt thi tr (-1115 n -206) ch khng phi 500 nm.
a ra thuyt nht tr nht lon l Mnh t trnh by mt lch s quan ri. Trc th k th 4
trc T.L, Trung Quc cha xut hin mt lch s quan no c; t th k ni tip nhau, chng ta
c ti ba lch s quan: ca Mnh t, ca Tru Din v ca Thng ng.
Tru Din (-340 _ -260) sinh sau Mnh t, thuc phi m dng, cng ch trng thnh suy hu
thi, nhng thuyt ca ng rt k cc, dng ng hnh ng gi l ng c- ging lch s. Theo
ng th ng c chuyn di, tr cc hu nghi. Ng hnh thay phin nhau: th ri ti mc, mc ri ti
kim, kim ri ti ha, ha ri ti thy, ht thy ri li tr v th; c mi hnh thnh cc ri li suy v
ci hnh khc n ln thay n (mc khc th, kim li khc mc, ha li khc kim, thy li khc ha,
th li khc thy), nh vy l ng c chuyn di, v ngi tr dn, cm quyn trong nc phi
hnh ng hp vi hnh no ang thnh thi mnh, nh vy l tr cc hu nghi. Khi mt thi i
no suy n cng cc, thi i khc sp dy ln th tri c im bo cho dn bit.
Thi Hong , hin ra im cc loi cn trng vng. Mu vng l mu ca th. Hong bit l
khi th mnh, cho nn ng chung mu vng, v cng vic ch trng vo t. Ti thi vua V (nh
H) c im cy c ma ng, ma thu khng tn li, ng bit l khi mc mnh, nn chung mu
xanh (mu ca mc) v cng vic ch trng vo cy ci. Qua i vua Thang (nh Thng) c im
cc loi kim thuc sinh ra cht nc (?), ng bit l kh kim mnh, nn chung mu trng (mu ca
kim), v cng vic lm theo tnh cht ca kim(?). n i Vn vng (nh Chu), c im con qu
ngm sch vng trn nn th nh Chu, ng bit l khi ha thnh nn chung mu v cng vic lm
theo tnh cht hnh ha. Thay th hnh ha tt sc l hnh thy, tt cng s c im khi thy mnh,
v ng vua thi sau s chung mu en (mu ca thy), cng vic l s theo tnh cht hnh thy. Ti
khi hnh thy suy cc ri, s tr v hnh th. Cc thi i trong lch s c ni tip nhau, thay nhau
theo lut ng hnh , ht mt vng ri tr v th l nguyn thy, hi ging thuyt phn gi o chi
ngca Lo t.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Nhng thuyt ca Lo t hp vi thin nhin, cn thuyt ca Tru Din c tnh cch thn b, phn
khoa hc m cng khng th chng minh bng lch c. Thi vua Thang c tht chung mu trng
khng, m cng vic lm tnh cht hnh kim l nh th no? V kim thuc sinh ra cht nc l kim
thuc no? Truyn con qu ngm sch vng u trn nn th nh Chu l truyn hoang ng, v
chng ta cng khng hiu cng vic lm tnh cht hnh ha l lm sao?
Tuy nhin t tng ca Tru Din cng c im ng: ng nhn ra rng lch s lun lun bin ng,
theo nhng mu thun bn ngoi (mu thun ng gi l s xung khc ca ng hnh); v mi thi
c mt ch , vn ha ring (ng gi l cng vic lm theo tnh cht ca mi hnh); ci g khng
hp thi u phi b, i sau khng nn theo chnh sch ca i trc. ng bo:
Chnh tr, gio dc, vn ha, nghi thc c th l nhng ci b cu cho thi o. Hp thi th
dng, li thi th b, (thi th) c thay i th thay i. Cho nn ngi c chp m khng bin i th
cha thy vic chnh tr c t n ht mc vy (Theo sch Hn th, chng Nghim An truyndo L Chn V trch trong sch dn-trang 190).
*
Lch s quan th ba ca Thng ng. Thng ln tui hn Mnh. Theo Hn Phi th thi ng
nhiu ngi cn gi b Thng Qun th. B c th khng phi ca Thng ng vit, v
cng nh b Qun t, do ngi i sau ngy to, vy khng ng tin hn. Nhng cc hc gi gn
y nh Phng Hu Lan, Tn Khi Thin, L Chn V u cho rng Thng ng c thuyt
tam th, nn di y chng ti cng dn mt on trong chng Khai tc v thuyt :
C tri t lp ra ri mi c dn, thi by gi dn bit m m khng bit cha; o l ca h l thn
cn vi ngi thn thuc v yu ci ring t (). Ngi th ng m ai cng lo cho ci ring t,
khng bit n ai th s gy ra lon. thi y dn ch nhm li cho mnh v dng sc m nn
nhau. Mun c li cho mnh th phi nn nhau; tranh ginh nhau th phi kin tng nhau; kin v
mt lng ngay thng th s khng cn l bn tnh ca mnh. Cho nn khi ngi hin t ra l cng
bng v o v t th dn li dn dn yu thch o nhn. V lc by gi ngi ta b vic thn yu
ngi thn thuc, m tn qu ngi hin v lp h ln (). ng ngi m khng c ch nht
nh () th s c lon, cho nn bc thnh nhn nhn thy iu mi c s phn bit rung t, ti
sn v nam n. Phn bit nh vy m khng c ch gi gn th khng c, cho nn t ra
php lnh cm. t ra php lnh m khng c ngi thi hnh bo v th khng c, cho nn phi
t ra quan. C cc quan ri m khng c ngi thng nht li mt khi th khng c, cho nn lp
ra vua. lp ra vua th phi b l tn qu v lp ngi hin, m li qu trng ngi sang m lp h
ln. Nh vy l thi thng c th thn yu ngi thn thuc v qu chung ci ring t, thi trung
th th yu qu ngi hin v yu thch o nhn, thi h th th qu ngi sang v tn trng cc
quan. Tn qu ngi hin l ly vic gip nhau lm o; m lp ra vua l khin cho ngi hin
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

thnh v dng; thn yu ngi thn thuc l ly ci ring t lm o l; m lp ra o cng th lm


cho ci ring t khng thc hnh c. Ba iu khng phi l tri ngc nhau nhng khi o
trong dn xu nt th phi i i (L Chn V trch trong sch dn, trang 193-194).
Thi m Thng ng gi l thng th tc l thi nguyn thy, thi x hi gm nhng b lc
m gia nh theo ch mu h. Trung th l thi theo ch ngha nhn tr, tc nh nh Nho gi l
thi Nghiu, Thun. Cn h th l thi quan tr, tc php tr, thi ca Thng ng. Thuyt
cha pht hin c quy lut ca lch s; m quan nim thnh lp vua, quan ca ng cng khng
ng: cc nh x hi hc ngy nay cho rng chin tranh gia cc b lc to nn quc vng v quc
gia. (Xem Ngun gc vn minh Chng III, tit I, Ngun gc quc gia ca Will Durant- bn dch
ca ti, nh Phc Hng 1974). Tuy nhin lch s quan vi hai lch s quan trn ca Mnh t v
Tru Din tin b hn c: khng c cht g thn b, m c tnh cht tt nhin; khng c thi no tt
p hn thi no, khng c mt hong kim thi i trong d vng nh Lo, Khng tin tng v theo
ng, thn yu ngi thn, theo ci ring t, hay tn qu ngi hin m gip ln nhau, hoc lp ra
vua quan, theo o cng, ba ci , khng tri ngc nhau ng mun ni l u theo lut t
nhin c, u l hp vi mi thi c, khng th gi l tt hay xu c, h vic i bin i th vic
hnh o cng phi khc.
Cho nn ng bo: Phi ty thi i m nh ch , mi ci u phi thun theo hon cnh ca n.
Trong phn I chng ti dn li ng p Tn Hiu cng: Thi tam i (H, Thng, Chu) l
khng ging nhau m u lm c vng nghip; cc ng b php lut khng ging m u lp
c b nghip (). Vua Thang, vua V khng theo c m lm bc vng, H v n c thi theo c
m mt nc. Vy lm khc thi trc cha hn l ng ch m theo thi c cng cha hn l ng
khen. Qui tc l phi theo thi v hp l.
L v php lut phi theo thi m qui nh; ch v php lut phi thun theo l phi m thch
nghi vi hon cnh; qun i, v kh, cc dng u phi thun tin cho vic s dng.
*
Nu nhng on chng ti mi dn thc l t tng ca Thng ng (do ngi i sau chp
li) th Hn Phi chu nh hng rt ln ca ng.
Hn cng a ra thuyt tam th. Thin Bt thuyt ng vit: Ngi i (thng) c gp lo v c
hnh, ngi i Trung c ganh nhau v tr, ngi i nay tranh nhau v sc mnh. (C nhn cu
c, trung th trc tr, ng kim tranh lc). Thi thng c t vic m dng thit b n gin,
cht phc, th lu m khng tinh, cho nn mi v trai ln dy c, dng xe bnh khng c tay hoa.
Thi thng c t ngi m thn nhau, ti vt nhiu nn ngi ta khinh ci li v d nhng nhau,
do mi c vic vi nhau m nhng thin h (m ch vic Nghiu, Thun nhng ngi).
Thi thng c theo Hn l thi Nghiu, Thun, Thang, V, thi trung c l thi Xun Thu, cn thi
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ng kim l thi Chin Quc. Chng ta nhn thy Thng ng bo thi thng c th thn
yu ngi thn, m Hn Phi cng ni thi thng c t ngi m thn nhau. Nhng thuyt tam
th ca Hn Phi khng tinh vi bng thuyt ca Thng ng.
Li thm s phn chia ra thng c, trung c, hin kim ca Hn cng khng nht tr. u thin Ng
, ng cho thi thng c l thi Hu So, Toi Nhn, tc thi loi ngi cn n lng l; thi
trung c l thi ng V tr thy (tc thi m trong thin Bt thuyt ng gi l thi thng c); thi
cn c l thi ng Thang nh Thng v ng V Vng nh Chu:
i thng c nhn dn t m cm th nhiu, nhn dn khng thng ni cm th, trng rn. Sau
thnh nhn ra i, kt cnh lm (trn cy) cc loi khi xm hi, nhn dn mng, tn lm
vua thin h - (quan nim v s lp vua ny cng khc ca Thng ng) - gi l h Hu So (c
). Nhn dn n tri cy, rau c, trai hn, tanh tao hi hm hi rut, bao t, nhiu ngi au m. Sau
cc thnh nhn ra i, dng ci toi di cy kh ly la, nng cc thc n cho ht tanh tao,
nhn dn mng, tn lm vua thin h, gi l h Toi nhn. Thi trung c, thin h b lt ln, ng
Cn v ng V (ngi sng lp ra nh H), khi ngi (cho nc rt). i cn c, Kit Tr bo lon,
ng Thang, ng V Vng chinh pht h (Ng ).
Chc hai thin Bt thuyt v Ng vit cc nhau kh xa v Hn Phi khng coi li, nhng im
khng quan trng. Chng ti ch nhn vo ch ng ch trng phi bin c v dng sc mnh, y
chng ti xem xt im th nht: bin c, trong mt chng sau chng ti s xt trit l sc mnh
(lm cho quc gia ph cng) ca ng.
Cng nh Thng ng, ng bo thi i khc th vic cng phi khc (th d tc s d). Cho nn
sau on trong thin Ng chng ti mi dn trn, ng vit tip: Nu c ngi i H dy dn
kt cnh lm hoc dng ci toi ly la, tt b ng Cn, ng V ch ci; c ngi i n
(Thng), Chu khi ngi, tt b ng Thang ng V ch ci. Hin nay nu c ngi li ca tng o
ci ng Nghiu, Thun, V, Thang, V tt b cc ng thnh i nay ch ci. Vy th thnh nhn
khng nht nh phi theo c, gi cu l m phi xt vic ng thi ri ty nghi tm bin php.

(Thnh nhn bt k tun c, bt php thng hnh, lun th chi s, nhn vi chi b).
Thin Bt thuyt, ng cng bo : Sng thi nhiu vic tc thi ng m dng nhng kh c ca
thi t vic, khng phi l cch x s ca ngi c tr. Gia thi tranh u gay gt m theo li vi
nhng, khng phi l php tr nc ca thnh nhn.
Li rt ng. Chng ta cn nh giai thoi vua Yn tn l Khoi th k th 4 trc TL, khi v
gi, v mun c ngi ta khen nh vua Nghiu, nn nhng ngi cho T Chi, ch trong vi nm
nc Yn i lon, b T nh, c vua Yn ln T Chi u b git.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Ngi khng bit cch tr nc tt bo: Khng bin c, khng i tp tc. Thnh nhn khng
nht nh phi bin i hay khng bin i, min vic tr nc c thch nghi m thi

(Bt tri tr gi tt vit: V bin c, v dch thng. Bin d bt bin, thnh nhn bt thnh, chnh tr
nht d). Y Don khng bin i nh n, Thi cng khng bin i nh Chu th vua Thang vua V
u lp c nghip vng. Qun Trng khng bin i nc T, Quch Yn khng bin i nc
Tn th T Hon cng v Tn Vn cng u lp c nghip b (Nam din).
Thi Hn Phi, sau nhng cuc tn cng mnh bo ca L Khi, Ng Khi, Thn Bt Hi, Thng
ng vo giai cp qu tc c, trong ci kh th ng ln ca bn bin s T Tn, Trng Nghi, chc
c t vua cha v chnh khch no ch trng phc c. Ngay n Nho gia cui cng ca thi i l
Tun T cng khng php tin vng m php hu vng ngha l khng theo php ca
cc vua thi xa xm v trc m theo php ca cc vua gn Tun hn nh t cc vua u i Chu
tr i cng o ch th tp; d l con chu cc Vng cng m khng c ti c c, khng
thuc l ngha, th cng phi lm thng dn, con thng dn c ti c c th cng c lm khanh
tng, i phu. Nhng cng cn mt bn qun s v nhiu x s khng lnh trch nhim g triu
nh vn cao thi Nghiu Thun, vin dn li Nghiu Thun mt st thi hin ti, lm ngn tr
mt phn cng vic ci cch ca cc k s ch trng dng php thut ch khng dng nhn ngha,
nn Hn Phi rt ght bn . Trong Hn Phi t c trn chc ln ng ln ting mng m h, ma mai
h v ngn bt ca ng lun lun sc bn.
Trong thin Hin Hc, ng bo cc vic vin dn Nghiu Thun l v cn c, nu khng phi l ngu
th l la gt:
Khng t v Mc t u xng tng Nghiu Thun m ch trng khc nhau v u t cho l chn
truyn ca Nghiu Thun. Nghiu Thun khng th sng li th ai l ngi quyt nh c hc
thuyt no mi thc l ca Nghiu Thun? i Ngu v i H di trn 700 nm, i n v Chu di
trn 2000 nm[3] m cn khng quyt nh c Nho hay Mc l chn chnh; nay mun kho st
o cch y 3000 nm ca Nghiu Thun th c h khng sao xc nh c! Khng tham nghim
m c xc nh th l ngu; khng xc nh c m dng lm chng c th l lng gt ngi ta.
Vy cn c vo cc tin vng m theo o Nghiu Thun th nu khng phi l ngu, cng l la gt
thin h. Ci hc ngu v gt ngi y, h tp v mu thun y, bc minh ch khng th chp nhn
c.
Hn Phi mun ni Khng T v Mc T sng tng i gn i Nghiu Thun m cn khng bit
chc thi Nghiu Thun ra sao (nn mi nh hiu Nghiu Thun mt khc); th th nhng ngi thi
ng, sng sau Khng t v Mc t, cn cch xa Nghiu Thun hn na, lm sao bit c thi

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

m dm vin ra lm chng c.
Vic thc c (vin dn thi c) rt d, ai lm cng c, mun ni sao th ni, hiu cch no th
hiu, v c ai bit thi c ra sao u bt b. Y nh cc chuyn v qu Hn chp trong Ngoi tr
thuyt t thng vy:
C ngi v cho vua nc T. Vua T hi:
- V ci g kh nht?
Ngi p:
- V ch, nga kh nht.
- V g d nht?
- Ma qu d nht.
(V) ch vi nga ai cng bit, cng thy trc mt t sng ti chiu, khng th v by c, cho
nn kh v. Cn ma qu khng c hnh trng, khng thy trc mt nn d v.
Khng k trng hp ngi thc c thiu chnh trc v tinh thn, c hiu sai, b cong t tng
c nhn cho ph hp vi ch trng ca mnh; ngay gia ngi thnh thc m thiu thng minh
khng chu suy xt, tham kho, cng gn cho c nhn nhng khng phi ca c nhn, m hng
ngi ngu thi no cng rt nhiu. Hn Phi cng trong thin k trn a ra ba v d, chng ti xin
php chp li hai:
(Chu) th c cu th n, buc n. Mt ngi nc Tng c ti y ly hai ci dy lng t tht
buc bng. Ngi ta hi:
- Lm g (k) vy? p:
V sch dy vy.
Sch dy vic tu thn, phi gi gn, lm ch dc vng ca mnh, ng phng tng, ch u phi bo
ct bng cho chc.
Mt ngi khc t Dnh (kinh nc S) vit th cho v tng quc nc Yn. Vit ban m,
la khng sng, bn bo ngi cm uc: a cy uc ln
(Ming ni vy) tay chp ngay vo th a uc ln. My ch khng phi l trong th.
Tng quc nc Yn c ti mng lm, bo: a cy uc ln l trng s sng, trng s sng
tc l tin c, b dng ngi hin. Ri ng ta tu vi vua, vua hoan h (theo li) v nh vy nc
Yn thnh tr. Tuy thnh tr y nhng u phi l trong th. a s cc hc gi ngy nay ging nh
vy. Hai trng hp , gi l n c, tin tng ch ca c nhn, khng c phn on, thnh th c
nhn ni mt cch, ta hiu mt cch, hoc c nhn lm ln m mnh c tin l ng.
Thi khc th s vic phi khc. D chnh sch ca tin vng c hay m khng hp thi th cng
phi b. Thi ca Hn ngi ta tranh nhau v sc mnh th em nhn ngha ra dy i, ca tng tin
vng l v ch. Thin Hin hc, ng vit:
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Khen Mao Tng, Ty Thi (hai m nhn i c) c ch g cho mt mnh u; dng son, phn, du,
than (thuc mu en) m t im th mt mi p gp bi. Khen tin vng l nhn ngha, c ch li
g cho vic tr nc u; lm sng php , thng pht cho ng v nghim, mi l th son
phn, du, than ca quc gia. Cho nn bc minh ch gp lo vic c kt qu (tc php , thng
pht) m hon ci vic ca tng tin vng li.
Bn ca tng tin vng, khoe khoang rng c nghe theo li h, theo php ngi xa m tr nc th
s lp c nghip vng l bn ni lo ng khinh nh bn c ng thy cng:
Bn c ng thy cng bo mt ngi: ti s cu cho ng sng ngn vn nm tui. Nhng ting
ngn vn nm tui lon c tai ngi m khng c g chng t rng ngi th thm c mt
ngy, v vy m ngi ta khinh bn thy cng c ng. Ngy nay bn Nho s thuyt cc vua th
khng ch cch thi nay phi tr nc ra sao m c k ci kt qu tr nc thi xa, khng xt n
cch tr dn ca quan li cng lng k gian t, m ch k nhng li khen i thng c truyn li,
dng s nghip ca tin vng. H khoe khoang: C nghe li ti th s lp c nghip b vng;
h chnh l bn thy cng c ng trong gii du thuyt y; bc vua cha c php khng dng h.
Bc minh ch v ci thit thc, b ci v dng, khng ging thuyt nhn ngha, khng nghe li ca
bn hc gi (Hin hc).
Hn ch chnh sch nhn ngha ca c nhn l khng hp thi, v dng, ch nh nhng tr chi ca
tr con. Thin Ngoi tr thuyt t thng ca ng vit:
Tr con chi vi nhau, ly t lm cm, bn lm canh, dm bo lm tht, nhng chiu th v nh n
cm, v cm bng t, canh bng bn, chi th c ch n khng c. Khen nhng iu thi
thng c truyn li, nghe th hay m thc t th v dng; ging thuyt nhn ngha ca tin vng
m khng bit cch chnh l quc gia, cng l nhng vic chi ch khng em tr nc
c
.
.

(Ph anh nhi tng d h d, d trn vi phm, d vi canh, d mc vi chi, nhin ch nht vn, tt qui
hng gi, trn phan canh kh d h nhi bt kh d thc d. Ph xng thng c chi truyn tng,
bin nhi bt khc, o tin vng nhn ngha nhi bt nng chnh quc gia, th dic kh d h nhi bt
kh d vi tr d)
Thin Gian kip th thn, ging ng cn gay gt hn na:
Cc hc gi ngu trn i, u khng hiu tnh hnh tr lon, c lm nhm tng hoi sch c, lm
lon s cai tr hin thi; tr l ca h khng trnh ci h by m li ch by cc thut s (k s

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

dng php thut). Nghe li h th nguy, dng k h th lon, ngu ti nh vy l cng cc m hi cng
l tt bc.

(Th ph th chi ngu hc giai bt tri tr lon chi tnh, chip gip a dng tin c chi th, d lon
ng th chi tr; tr l bt tc d tnh tnh chi hm, hu vng phi hu thut chi s. Thnh k ngn gi
nguy, dng k k gi lon, th dic ngu chi ch i, nhi lon chi ch thm gi d).
Trong Ngoi tr thuyt t thng Hn dn chng:
Trng nhn ngha (tc theo o ca tin vng) th nc yu lon, l ba nc Tn (tc Hn
Ngy Triu t Tn tch ra); khng trng nhn ngha m mnh l nc Tn.
ng nhn thy thi ng nc no lon cng c ci thi: bn hc gi th khen o tin vng, t
khu l trng nhn ngha, trau chut dung mo, y phc v li n ting ni lm lon php ng
thi, lm m hoc lng vua cha

(Lon quc chi tc k hc gi tc xng tin vng chi o, d t nhn ngha, thnh dung phc nhi sc
bin thuyt d nghi ng th chi php nhi nh nhn ch chi tm Ng )
V ng gi bn hc gi l mt loi su mt ca quc gia. H ngu xun cng nh anh chng nc
Tng m cy i th:
Nc Tng c ngi i cy, trong rung c mt gc cy kh, mt con th m b vo, gy c, cht.
Anh ta thy vy, b cy m m gc cy kh, hy vng li bt c con th na. Th khng c
thm m b c nc ci ch (Ng ).
V anh chng nc Trnh tin ci ni m khng tin mnh:
Mt ngi nc Trnh mun mua giy, o bn chn mnh ri t ci ni ch ngi. Anh ta ra ch
m qun em ci ni theo. Tm c i giy mun mua ri, anh ta (sc nh li), bo: Ti qun em
ci ni theo, ti tr v ly. Ri quay v nh, khi tr li th ch tan, khng mua c giy.
Ngi ta hi: Sao anh khng ly chn th giy? Anh ta p Nn tin ci ni ch khng nn tin
mnh.
*
Tuy nhin chng ta cng nn nhn rng Hn Phi v b bn hc gi qu tin c lm cn tr vic thuyt
phc vua Hn theo chnh sch dng php thut ca ng, nn thng nng li vi h, ch ng khng
phn c n trit , ci g ca thi xa cng l phi b ht. Rt cuc ch trng ca ng cng nh
ca Thng ng: khng nht nh b c hay chy theo c, c ci g hp thi th lm, min vic tr

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

nc c thch nghi m thi. Chng hn ng cng tn qun nh Nho gia, cn hn Nho gia na,
vn trng nng nh Nho gia, trng li nh Mc gia c iu v quan nim v qun" (vua), v li
ca ng c khc quan nim ca Nho v Mc, nh trong mt chng sau chng ta s thy.

Ch thch:
[1] V trong thin nhin th dn tc Trung Hoa bit lut thnh suy hu thi t hi mi c nng
nghip, m Lo t, Khng t cho n l mt lut t nhin
[2] S thc th (1)= -1783-(12357) = 574 nm; (2)= -1185-(-1783) = 598 nm; (3)= -551- (-1185) =
635 nm
[3] Coi ch thch chng 5 trang 138 Phn V thin Hin hc

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
Chng 2
X HI QUAN
A DN
Trong chng ny v hai chng sau chng ti xt quan nim ca Hn Phi v:
- Bn tnh con ngi.
- Vua
- V Quc gia.

V lch s quan, Hn chu nh hng trc tip ca Thng ng, ch khai thc t tng ca Thng
ng, m khng pht huy thm c g. V x hi quan, Hn cng chu nh hng trc tip ca
thy, tc Tun t nhng c nhiu sng kin v a ti nhng kt lun ngc hn vi Tun: Tun ch
trng tnh c khuyn nh cm quyn dng l gio un nn li ci tnh cho dn, cn Hn ch
trng dng hnh pht ngn nga nhng hnh ng ca dn c hi cho nc. C phi v i ngc

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

li ng li ca Tun m Hn mun trnh khng nhc Tun trong khi thng nhc ti Qun Trng,
Thng ng, Thn Bt Hi, Ng Khi c b Hn Phi T chng ti ch thy Tun xut hin hai
ln: mt ln u thin Hin hc: c Nho phi ca h Tn [1] v mt ln thin Nn tam trong
cu: T Khoi nc Yn cho T Chi l hin m khng chu Tn Khanh cho nn thn cht m b ch
ci. Nhng s kin T Khoi khng chu Tn Khanh ra sao th t trc ti nay khng ai tra ra
c, v vy c ngi ng Tn Khanh khng phi l trit gia Tun Hng, ngi a ra thuyt
tnh c.
Chuyn khng quan trng, chng ti s d ghi li cho c gi thy Hn Phi l mn ca Tun
t m sm tch bit vi Nho gia, ng hn v pha Php gia.
Hn Phi chu nh hng ca Tun t t nht l v hai im: tnh c v khng tin tri, qu thn (thin
nhin bt tng quan). Chng ti xin xt im tnh c trc .
Tun t l trit gia ln nht cui thi Tin Tn, t tng rt c h thng, vit ring mt thin
thin Tnh c - thuyt tnh thin ca Mnh t. Trong b Tun t chng ti phn tch thuyt
v trn thin Tnh c, y ch xin trch dn vi on quan trng nht. [2]
Tun: nh ngha ch tnh l ci t nhin tri sinh ra, ci sinh ra c sn khng i lm (hc tp)
ri mi c (Sinh chi s d nhin gi, v chi tnh - Bt s nhi t nhin gi, v chi tnh)
V ng bo rng: Ci tnh ca con ngi l i th mun n, mt th mun ngh. (Kim nhn chi tnh,
c nhi dc bo, lao nhi dc hu, th nhn chi tnh tnh d)
Ba c im na ca con ngi l hiu li, k, thch thanh sc: Tnh con ngi sinh ra l hiu
li, thun theo tnh th thnh ra tranh ot ln nhau m s t nhng khng c; sinh ra l k,
thun theo tnh th thnh ra tn tc, m lng trung tn khng c; sinh ra l c lng mun ca tai
mt, c lng thch v thanh sc, thun theo tnh th thnh dm lon m l ngha, vn l khng c.
Nh th th theo ci tnh ca ngi ta, thun ci tnh ca ngi ta, tt sinh ra tranh ot, phm vo
ci phn (tc quyn li ca nhau), lm lon ci l m mc ci li tn bo. Cho nn phi c thy, c
php ci ho ci tnh i, c l ngha dt dn n, ri sau mi c t nhng hp vn l m thnh
ra tr. (Kim nhn chi tnh sinh nhi hiu li yn, thun th c tranh ot sinh, nhi t nhng vong yn;
sinh nhi hu tt yn, thun th c tn tc sinh, nhi trung tn vong yn. Sinh nhi hu nhi mc chi
dng hu hiu sc yn, thun th c dm lon sinh, nhi l ngha vn l vong yn. Nhin tc tng nhn
chi tnh, thun nhn chi tnh, tt xut v tranh ot, hp vu phm phn lon l, nhi qui vu bo. C tt
tng hu s php chi ho, l ngha chi o, nhin hu xut t nhng, hp v vn l nhi qui vu tr
Tnh c).
Vy theo Tun t, tnh ca con ngi l tnh tha mn ba nhu cu chnh: n, ng, truyn chng;
ngoi ra li cn hiu li, k.
Hn Phi khng phi l mt trit gia, ch l mt l thuyt gia v chnh tr, c c thc t, khng bn v
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

tnh nh Mnh t, Tun t. Chng ta ch bit theo ng th con ngi thi thng c cht phc, thn
vi nhau, trng c hn thi trung c, v ngi thi trung c li hn ngi thi ng. Vy c thc
ng ch trng rng bn tnh con ngi thi nguyn thu vn tt ri sau v hon cnh x hi m ho
xu khng? ng khng h ging r iu cho ta. Mt khc, ng li bo tr mt s t thnh nhn,
cn th hng thng nhn
- tranh nhau v li
- lm bing, khi c d n ri th khng mun lm g na.
- ch phc tng quyn lc
Vy th c h ng cho rng con ngi c mt s rt t tnh vn thin, cn i a s tnh vn c, ng
thin v Tun, nhng cng nhn Mnh c l phn no chng?
V tnh ham li, ng bi quan thi qu, cho rng ngay gia cha con v chng ch ng ni gia vua
ti, bn b, ngi ta hnh ng, c x vi nhau cng ch v t li.
Cha m khng sn sc con k khi n cn nh th ln ln n on mnh. Con c nui cho thnh
ngi ri m cung dng cha m khng c hu th cha m gin on trch n. Cha con l tnh ch
thn m c khi cn trch nhau, on nhau l do ai ny u mun cho ngi khc phi v mnh (cha
mun con phi v cha, con mun cho cha phi v con), ch khng mun cho mi ngi phi v bn
thn ngi thi
, ; , , . , ,
,
(Nhn vi anh nhi d, ph mu dng chi gin, t trng nhi on. T thnh trng thnh nhn, k cung
dng bc, ph mu b nhi tiu chi. Ph t ch thn d nhi hoc tiu hoc on gi, giai hip tng v
nhi bt chu v k d Ngoi tr thuyt t thng).
Ri Hn so snh vi vic ch nui th:
Mn ngi gieo m, cy rung cho mnh th ngi ch khng ngi ph tn m cho h n ngon, li
cn la tin, vi tt m tr cng cho h, nh vy khng phi v yu thng h u m v ngh: C
vy h cy mi su, co c mi k cho mnh. Ngi lm cng ht sc cy v co c, sa sang li
b rung, khng phi v yu ch m v ngh: C vy ch mi cho n ngon, m tin, vi mi tt.
Nh vy mt bn cung dng hu h, mt bn gng sc lm vic, c ci n trch gia cha con, hai
bn u ht ngha v (v) u mu ci li cho chnh mnh c. Bi vy con ngi lm vic vi nhau,
cho, tng nhau, nu thy c li cho mnh th d l ngi nc Vit (thi ngi Trung Hoa min
bc coi ngi nc Vit min ng Nam l ngoi nhn) cng d ha, nu lng thy c hi th d l
cha con cng xa nhau, on nhau.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

(C nhn hnh s thi d, d li vi chi tm, tc Vit nhn d ha, d hi chi vi tm, tc ph t li th on
Nh trn)
on di y trong thin Lc phn cn tn nhn hn na:
Cha m i vi con, sanh con trai th mng, sanh con gi th git, trai gi u trong lng cha m m
ra, m con trai th mng, con gi th git, l do ngh n sau ny, a no c li lu di cho mnh
hn. Vy cha m i vi con m cn em lng tnh ton li hi, hung h l nhng ngi khng c
tnh cha con vi nhau

(Ph mu chi t d, sn nam tc tng t, sn n tc st chi. Th cu xut ph mu chi hoi nhm


nhin nam t th h, n t st chi gi, l k hu tin, k chi trng li d. C ph mu chi t d, do
dng k ton chi tm d tng i d, nhi hung v ph t chi trch h!)
Tnh gia cha con nh vy th tnh gia v chng cng khng hn g:
Cha c vn c xe, vua c ngn c xe th hong hu, th phi, phu nhn, ch t (th no cng) c
ngi mun cho vua cht sm. Lm sao bit c nh vy? L v v khng c tnh ct nhc vi
chng, h yu th thn, khng yu th s. Tc ng c cu: M c yu th con c chiu. Ngc
li h m b ght th con b b. n ng nm chc tui vn cn hiu sc m n b ba chc tui sc
tn. V sc tn m th ng chng hiu sc th tt ngi mnh b ht hi, con tt ng s khng
c ni ngi. l l ti sao hong hu, th phi, phu nhn mong cho vua cht sm. () Do m
c nhng v u c bng ru v tht c ln. V vy m sch o Ngt Xun Thu bo: Bc vua
cha cht v bnh cha c phn na. Lm vua m khng hiu iu th lon s sinh ra nhiu.
Cho nn c cu: S ngi c li thy vua cht m nhiu th tnh mng ca vua s nguy.

(Li qun t gi chng, tc nhn ch nguy B ni)


Gia vua v ti, khng c tnh ct nhc m ci li hi cn khc nhau, nu khng mun ni l
ngc nhau: b ti mun khng c cng m c thng, cn vua th mun b ti phi hi sinh cho
mnh m ng k cng. ci th mun khng c cng m c thng, cn vua th mun b ti
b buc khng th khng th vua th b ti tt lun lun d xt lng vua, khng mt lc no ngng

( Nhn thn chi k qun, phi hu ct nhc chi thn d, phc th nhi bt c bt s d, c vi
nhn thn gi, khuy sim k quan tm d, v tu du chi hu B ni) (V vy m c v L oi lm
quan thi ph nc Triu, theo phe Hu vng, bao vy cung ca Triu Ch Ph Ch Ph cht

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

i; v T Hon cng cht my chc ngy khng c chn ti ni gii b ra ca phng v bit bao
v b ti git vua.)
Hnh ng no ca con ngi cng v li c:
Thy lang kho mt vt thng, ngm mu bnh nhn u phi l v tnh ct nhc m ch v li.
Th ng xe mong cho nhiu ngi giu sang, cn th ng quan ti th mong cho nhiu ngi cht
yu, khng phi l th ng xe c lng nhn m th ng quan ti tn nhn, ch v ngi ta khng
giu sang th khng mua xe, ngi ta khng cht th quan ti khng bn c. Th ng quan ti
khng phi l ght ngi, nhng ngi ta cht th ch ta mi c li

(Y thin dun [3] nhn chi thng, hm nhn chi huyt, phi ct nhc chi thn d, li s gia d. D
nhn thnh d, tc dc nhn chi ph qu; tng nhn thnh quan, tc dc nhn chi yu t d. Phi d
nhn nhn nhi tng nhn tc d; nhn bt qu tc d bt th, nhn bt t tc quan bt mi. Tnh phi
tng nhn d, li ti nhn chi t d B ni)
Thi Tin Tn, khng c tc gi no cc t lng v li ca con ngi bng Hn trong nhng on
dn trn. ng nhn rng thi ng, con ngi xu xa hn cc thi trc, nh vy ch v dn ngho,
ngi ng m ti vt t, phi lm lng cc nhc, tranh ginh nhau mi sng c.
Thin Ng c mt on bt h cho Hn Phi lu danh li cho hu th. ng thy dn s tng
gia theo cp s nhn c hai ngn nm trc nh kinh t hc Anh, Malthus: thi c n ng khng
phi cy rung, tri cy v ht c n ri; n b khng phi dt vi, da cm th che thn ri.
H khng phi gng sc m n mc, nhn dn t m vt dng tha, cho nn khng tranh ginh
nhau. V vy khi phi thng hu pht nng m dn t nhin khi lon. Ngy nay mt ngi c
nm ngi con, khng phi l nhiu, mi ngi con li c nm ngi con na, thnh th ng cha
cht m c hai mi lm a chu, v vy nhn dn ng m ti sc t, phi lao lc nhiu m thc
n mc li t, cho nn h phi tranh ginh nhau, d c thng hu gp hai, pht nng gp my th
cng khng trnh khi lon.

(C gi trng phu bt canh, tho mc chi thc tc thc d; ph n bt chc, cm th chi bi tc y d.


Bt s lc nhi dng tc, nhn dn thiu nhi ti hu d, c dn bt tranh. Th d hu thng bt
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

hnh, trng pht bt dng nhi dn t tr. Kim nhn hu ng t bt v a, t hu hu ng t, i ph


v t nhi hu nh thp ng t tng. Th d nhn dn chng nhi ha ti qu, s lc lao nhi cung dng
bc, c dn tranh. Tuy bi thng ly pht nhi bt min lon).
V l tnh trng kinh t nh hng ln nu khng phi l quyt nh ti tm tnh, cch c x, i
sng tinh thn ca con ngi, nn ngi thi c c t nhng hn ngi i nay cng khng ng
khen, ngi i nay c tn bo hn ngi thi c cng khng ng ch, ch l lut t nhin c. Hn
Phi vit tip:
ng Nghiu lm vua thin h m nh lp bng c tranh khng xn, ct rui bng g khng o, n
cm go xu vi canh rau l, rau hoc, ma ng mc o da hu da nai, ma h mc o vi th, du
k canh cng cng khng sng m bc hn. ng V lm vua thin h m t cm ba xch st i
trc nhn dn, i v ng chn tri ht lng, n k n l cng khng cc kh hn. Do m xt,
cc vua thi c nhng ngi thin t th cng ch l t b cuc sng ca ngi gi cng, i lao kh
ca tn n l, c g ng khen u. Mt vin huyn lnh ngy nay khi cht ri th con chu my i
sau cn c (ung dung) nga xe, v vy m ngi ta qu chc huyn lnh. Cho nn v ci vic t
nhng, thi xa nhng ngi thin t tht l d m ngy nay t chc huyn lnh tht kh, ch do
ci li hu hay bc khc nhau xa () Ma xun nhng nm i km, d l em rut cn nh, ngi ta
cng khng nhng cho thc n, ma thu nhng nm c ma (ma thu l ma gt la Trung
Hoa), d l khch l n cng mi n, u phi s vi tnh rut tht m thn vi khch qua ng,
ch l v thc phm cn nhiu hay t y thi. Cho nn c nhn khinh ti vt khng phi l c lng
nhn, m v ti vt c nhiu; ngy nay ngi ta tranh ot ca nhau khng phi l ti tin m v ti vt
c t. Ngy xa ngi ta coi thng v t b ngi thin t khng phi l cao thng m v quyn th
t, ngy nay ngi coi trng v tranh nhau quan chc khng phi l tin m v quyn th nhiu.

(C c tu chi xun u bt hng, nhng tu chi thu, s khch bt t, phi s ct nhc i qu


khch d, a thiu chi thc d d. Th d c chi d ti phi nhn d, ti a d; kim chi tranh ot, phi b
d, ti qu d, khinh t thin t phi cao d, th bc d: trng tranh s thc phi h d, quyn trng d
Ng )
Hn t i sng cc kh ca vua Nghiu chc l qu ng: d nhin vua Nghiu khng c nh cao
ca rng, c nga xe gm vc nh mt vin huyn lnh thi Chin Quc, nhng d l mt t trng
th ng ta cng c k hu ngi h, c tht n v thi th rng khng him, u ti ni phi n
ton rau l rau hoc. Nhng ci tinh thn khinh ti vt ca ngi thng c th c thc, khng phi

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ch v ti vt nhiu m cn v nhu cu ngi thi t na. Ai cng bit cc dn tc bn khai hiu


khch hn cc dn tc vn minh chng ta. ng Will Durant trong sch dn chp li mt
chuyn l th: Mt ngi Anh tn l Turner k cho mt th dn Samoa nghe tnh cnh bn ngi
ngho Ln-n (London) th ch mi rt ngc nhin hi: Lm sao c th nh vy c ka?
Khng g n? Vy h khng c bn b, khng c nh ca sao? Nhng h u m ra? Cn nh
ca ca bn b ch? Ngi da no i c i xin n l c lin; ngho ti my th cng khng ai t
chi mt ngi i: Trong thnh ph m cn la th khng ai b nhn i c (trang 35 36)
Ci l c hng sn ri mi c hng tm Qun Trng ging cho T Hon cng t i Xun Thu,
ri Mnh t nhc ti hai ln, trong Lng Hu vng thng 7: Khng c hng sn m ch c
hng tm th ch k s mi c nh vy. Cn thng dn, nu khng c hng sn th khng c hng
tm, v trong ng Vn cng thng 3: Cch n ca dn l: c hng sn mi c hng tm,
khng c hng sn th khng c hng tm (Dn chi vi o d: hu hng sn gi hu hng tm; v
hng sn gi v hng tm). Nu dn i th h tranh ginh nhau, v thi Hn Phi l thi ngi ta
tranh ot ca nhau, thi trng sc mnh.
Hn Phi thy lut u tranh sng. Lut thi Chin Quc tht gay gt. Nh phn I
chng ti ni, bn tn a ch c hc vn ti nng, trong Chin Quc sch gi l k s, trong Hn
Phi t gi l k s gii php thut phi tranh u vi bn qu tc c, tc bn cha anh ca vua cha,
bn trng nhn nm ht quyn hnh triu nh.
Trong Chin Quc sch (L Bi 1972) phn I chng ti ni bn bin s nh T Tn, Trng
Nghi, Phm Tuy..phi t lt k hu cn cc vua ch hu, phi n dm nm d trong mt qun tr
mt kinh no mi xin c vo yt kin vua. c yt kin, trnh by k hoch ca mnh,
c vua chp nhn ri cn phi nh t bn cha anh nh vua; bn ny nh hng ln ti chnh
sch ca nh vua, m v quyn li nn c tinh thn bo th, ght bn bin s. (Bn bin s s th lc
ca bn cha anh nht. Tnh mng h trong tay bn ny; ngy no m vua khng dng h,
nghe li bn cha anh th h phi trn i nc khc ngay, nu khng th cht, c khi trn m khng
thot, rt cuc cng b phn thy (trng hp Thng ng). Cho nn h lun lun nhc vua cha
phi trng k s, tc trng h, () nhc vua cha v cch dng ngi theo ti nng
phi i ph vi bn qu tc, cc bin s cn phi i ph vi chnh bn h vi nhau na v
chnh h vi nhau cng thng gim pha nhau, la gt nhau, kn ca nhau nh Cam Mu v Cng
Tn Din (Tn II 13) Cng Tn Hn i vi in K (T I - 8) (trang 54 58)
H cng phi tranh u gay gt non hai th k, ti u i Hn a v mi c th gi l vng.
Hn Phi hiu rt r tnh cnh v chnh ng phi chin u v tht bi m lu li li ai on
trong thin C phn. ng bo bn s gii php thut nh ng vi bn trng nhn th nhau n mt
mt mt cn, m bin s gii php thut c nm ci th bi:
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Bn i thn c cm quyn t khi khng c tin yu, li c vua cha bit t lu, cho nn n
c vua, vua thch hay ght ci g th h cng thch hay ght ci , nh vy m tin thn. Quan
tc cao qu m b ng li ng nn c c nc khen. Cn k s gii php thut, c mun c
yt kin vua th th thiu tnh thn yu tin cy, khng c ci may mn vua bit t lu, m li
em li php thut ra kiu chnh lng vua, tt lm tri vua. a v h thp m khng b ng nn b
c lp. H l k s tnh m mun tranh vi k thn cn ca vua, tt nhin khng thng c; h mi
ti m mun tranh vi k quen bit t lu, tt nhin l khng thng c; h a v thp hn m
mun tranh vi vi k cao qu, tt nhin l khng thng c; h ch c mt ming m mun tranh
vi c nc (v ngi ta v ha vi bn quyn qu cn dn th ngi s ci cch ca h) tt nhin l
khng thng c. K s gii php thut vo nm ci th khng th thng c (). Th
khng thng c m li khng sng chung c (vi bn trng nhn) tt c k mt ngi cn, k s
gii php thut lm sao khi b nguy? Bn trng nhn nu c th vu ti li cho ai th s dng php
cng m git ngi ; khng th vu c th sai ngi m st. Tm li, lm sng t php thut m
tri vua cha, nu khng b quan git, tt cng cht v b m st. (C phn).
T quan nim u tranh sng ti quan nim u tranh giai cp, con ng c v nh khng xa.
Vy m thi Chin Quc, Php gia tc giai cp tn a ch l t nh vo giai cp lnh cha c bng
cc hnh th, bng qui tc mi ngi bnh ng trc php lut, bng chnh sch tc quyn th tp
ca qu tc nh chnh sch ca Ng Khi, Thng ng (c Tun t na), nhng khng c mt nh
no c mt quan nim giai cp c; h cng khng lp nn mt on th chnh tr na, nh Khng gia,
Mc gia.
Trong cun Nho gio, mt trit l chnh tr v i cng trit hc Trung Quc chng ti nhiu ln
nhn vo tnh cch chnh tr ca Nho gio: Nhn o, Chnh vi i Ng kinh ca
Khng t u c mc ch chnh l dy v chnh tr, m cun i hc dy cch sa mnh t gia tr
quc v bnh thin h, ngha l thnh mt ngi dn tt, mt ng quan, mt ng vua tt. Vy c
th ni trng hc ca Khng t l mt trng dy chnh tr m ng cng my ngn mn sinh l mt
on th chnh tr, mt chnh ng [4] .
Xt li ng nhn nh v s trng ca cc mn sinh trong chng Tin tin 2, ta cng thy ng c
o to nhng ngi ra lm vic nc. ng bo: V c hnh c Nhan Uyn, Mn T Khim,
Nhim B Ngu, Trng Cung; v ngn ng (ti n ni) c T Ng, T Cng; v chnh tr c Nhim
Hu, Qu L; v vn hc c T Du, T H.
Khii ng bn ba cc nc ch hu, ng dt cc mn sinh theo v khi phi giao thip vi ngi ngoi,
ng thng sai T Cng, T Ng i thay, coi h nh nhng nh ngoi giao.
Mnh t ni ch Khng T cng dy hc v dt cc mn sinh i khp cc nc, ln no cng gm

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

my trm ngi trn my chc c xe.


Cn o Mc th r rng l mt on th chnh tr c qui lut nghim khc hn c mt chnh ng
ngy nay: mn sinh phi tuyt i tun li Mc t. ng thnh mt ng ch, gn nh mt gio ch.
Ngi c ti c trong ng c c lm c t (tc nh th lnh) v cc ngi trong ng h lm
quan, c lc phi np c t mt phn chi dng cho ng. C mt ln Dng Thnh, tm mi
ba t cng cht theo mt c t tn l Mnh Thng; ln khc con trai mt c t tn l Phc Thn
git ngi, Tn Hu vng thng Phc Thn gi m ch c mnh n l con, tha ti cho n; Phc
Thn khng tha, t git con, v phi theo lut ca o Mc: h git ngi th phi n mng.
Lo t v Trang t tuy c bn v chnh tr - Lo t ch trng v vi, Trang t ch trng hon ton
t do, gn nh v chnh ph - nhng khng hot ng v chnh tr. (Trang t mun lm con ra sng
m lt ui trong bn cn hn mt con ra cht c trn tng miu ng) cho nn khng lp
ng, m khng c hoc c rt t mn sinh. L y l d hiu.
Nhng Php gia hu ht trong giai cp tn a ch, chuyn hot ng v chnh tr m trong sut ba
bn chc nm khng nh no o to mn sinh, thnh lp mt ng, l ti sao? H ri rc: Thng
ng khng nhn l mn ca Ng Khi, Hn Phi khng coi Thng ng l thy. Hnh nh h
ch nh ngi phng Ty ngy ny gi li technocrate (k phit), ch l nhng k thut gia v
chnh tr, v php thut, khng c nh giai cp bourgeoisie ca Php th k XVIII, nn khng
gy c mt cuc cch mng, khng c lt qun quyn, tri li cn qu tn trng qun quyn
na. Hn Phi tp i thnh t tng cc Php gia i Tin Tn, hc thuyt ca ng tuy c h thng
nhng ng qu ch trng ti thut tr nc, cn tinh thn tranh u ca ng km Thng ng, ch
nhn thy rng cc huyn lnh thi ng khi cht ri, con chu my i cn c (ung dung) nga
xe (Ng ) cn cc nng dn, chin s lm cho nc giu v mnh th sng cc kh; khng thy
ng ch trng trit cc c quyn ca giai cp qu tc, mt phn c l giai cp l giai cp ca
ng.
Tm li, cng nh cc Php gia khc, ng khng c thc r rt v giai cp u tranh. Phi chng
l mt hn ch ca thi i? Nu h c thc v lp c mt ng chnh tr th lch s v vn
minh Trung Hoa c l thay i hn.
*
V bn tnh th nh, Tun t bo con ngi mt th mun ngh (c th hiu l t chu gng sc);
Hn Phi gay gt hn, cho l lm bing, h c d n ri th khng mun lm g na. Hn cng c l:
loi ngi thi n lng l chc chn l nh vy. Mt ngi esquimau (th dn Bc M sng gn
Bc cc) bo: Khi ti d tht n ri th ti chng ngh ti g c V theo ng Loskiel th mt b lc
lng ging s chia lng thc cho h. V nhng b lc ny thy ngi sing nng c phi nui bo
c k lm bing, nn cng ngy trng trt cng t i (Will Durant sch dn).
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Tuy nhin, Hn cng nhn rng c mt s t rt sing nng c dng m vn chu gng sc, nh h
m nhn loi mi tin b c; nhng ngi tr dn l tr s ng, nn bt buc dn phi gng sc,
Thin Lc phn ng vit:
Con ngi bm sinh h c ti sn dng ri th ha ra li bing, khng chu gng sc, b trn
khng nghim tr th k di phng tng lm by. Ti sn dng ri m vn gng sc lm lng th
ch c Thn Nng thi; b trn khng nghim tr m k di c c hnh th ch c Tng Sm v S
Ng. Hng dn thng khng bng c Thn Nng, Tng Sm v S Ng l iu hin nhin ri
() Cho nn bc minh ch tr nc phi thch nghi vi thi m sn xut nhiu ti vt, nh thu m
sao cho giu ngho bnh qun (cng bng), ban nhiu tc lc dng ht ti nng trong dn, dng
hnh pht nng ngn cm gian t, khin cho dn h gng sc lm lng th s giu, h c cng
nghip th s sang, lm by th b ti, c cng th c thng, ch khng mong c b trn nhn
t ban cho n hu..

(...)

...
(Phm nhn chi sinh d, ti dng tc tc huy dng lc, thng tr na [5] tc t vi phi. Ti dng
tc nhi lc tc gi, Thn Nng d; Thng tr na nhi hnh tu gi, Tng S d. Ph dn bt cp Thn
Nng, Tng S dic d minh h (..) C minh ch chi tr quc d, thch k thi s d tr ti vt, lun
k thu ph d tun bn ph, hu k tc lc tn hin nng, trng k hnh pht d cm gian t, s dn
d lc c ph, d s tr qu, d qu thu ti, d cng tr thng nhi bt nim t hu chi t.)
H ai gng sc nhiu th c hng nhiu, c giu sang, lm bing th chu ngho. Nhng v qu
mong cho nc giu v mnh, qu theo ch ngha thc li, nn c khi ng bt cng, tn nhn vi
ngi ngho:
a s hc gi ngy nay ni n vic tr nc u bo: Cp t cho dn ngho, cho ngi khng c
t sn n. Nay c ngi cng nh nhng ngi khc, khng trng ma, khng c ngun li
no khc m ring c d n, th nu khng phi l nh sing nng, tt l nh tit kim. Li c
ngi cng nh ngi khc khng gp nm i km, khng b bnh tt, ti li g m ring cng
khn, th nu khng phi l do xa x, tt l do bing nhc. Xa x v bing nhc th ngho, sing nng
v tit kim th giu. Nay bc vua cha thu thu ca ngi giu b th cho ngi ngho, th th
cp ca ngi sing nng v tit kim phn pht cho k xa x v bing nhc, nh vy m mun
cho dn gng sc lm lng tiu pha bt i th khng th c

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

(Kim chi hc s ng tr gi, a vit: d bn cng a, d thc v t. Kim ph d nhn tng nhc
d, v phong nin bng nhp chi li, nhi c d hon cp d phi lc tc kim d. D nhn tng
nhc d, v c cn tt cu ha ti, chi ng, c d bn cng gi, phi xa tc na d. Xa phi ha gi
bn, nhi lc nhi kim gi ph. Kim thng trng lim ph nhn d b th bn gia, th ot lc
kim nhi d na d, nhi dc sch dn ch tt tc nhi tit dng, bt kh d Hin hc).
C phi ngi ngho no cng do xa x hoc lm bing c u, c phi ngi giu no cng do tit
kim v sing nng c u, nht l trong x hi thi ng m phi nhn rng s u tranh sng
rt gay go. M trong x hi l tng ca ng, thng pht rt cng minh, th vn c nhng ngi sinh
ra yu ui, n n hn ngi khc, hoc cha m ngho nn khng nui nng gio dc nh nhng
ngi khc, nhng ngi khn kh u phi ti h, sao li khng cu mang, b th cho h. Tm l
Hn ng l tm l hng tn a ch, tn trng s cn kim nhng bt cng v c phn tn nhn.
*
Bn tnh th ba ca con ngi theo Hn, l ch phc tng quyn lc m thi. V im ny ng hon
ton khc Tun t. Tun tin cng dng ca s gio ha bng l, ngha, ng th khng.
Thin Lc phn, ng vit:
M yu con gp bi cha yu con m cha ra lnh th con tun lnh gp mi m ra lnh. Quan li
khng yu g dn m lnh c dn tun lnh gp vn ln ca cha m. M tch ly lng yu con m
lnh khng c theo; quan li dng oai nghim m dn tun lnh. Vy dng oai nghim hay dng
lng yu, cch no nn theo l iu d quyt nh c ri

(mu chi i t d bi ph, ph lnh chi hnh t gi thp mu. Li chi dn v i, lnh chi hnh
dn d vn ph. Mu tch i nhi lnh cng, li dng uy nghim nhi dn thnh phng; nghim i chi
sch dic kh quyt h).
Thin Ng , ng cho s gio ha khng c cng hiu, ch c nghim hnh mi tr c thanh nin:
Nay c a con h, cha m gin la , n khng sa tnh, ngi trong lng trch n, n c tr tr,
thy dy n, n cng khng cha. Lng yu ca cha m, hnh ng ca ngi trong lng, v li gio
hun sng sut ca thy dy, c c ba ci p m chung qui chu b em binh ti thi hnh
php nc, lng bt k gian, lc n mi hong s, thay i tnh kh, hnh kim. Vy lng yu ca
cha m khng dy con, phi i c nghim hnh ca chu b mi c, v dn vn c yu

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

th nhn, phi dng uy lc mi chu nghe.

(C ph mu chi i bt tc d gio t, tt i chu b chi nghim hnh gi, dn c kiu i, thnh


uy h).
Cha m yu con, con v tt khng lon. Vua cng vy, d yu dn nh con, dn cng v tt cng
khng lon. Mun ngn lon, dng nhn ngha khng c phi dng uy th. V bn tnh ca dn l
ch s hnh pht, tin tnh thin ca h l lm ln.
Bc thnh nhn tr nc, khng mong g dn lm iu thin [6] , ch ct sao cho dn ng lm by
th khp nc c th khng lm by. Ngi tr nc dng chnh sch no thch hp vi i chng,
m b chnh sch no thch hp vi mt s t ngi, cho nn khng v c m ch v php lut.

(Ph thnh nhn chi tr quc, bt th nhn chi v ng thin d, nhi dng k bt c vi phi d. Th nhn
chi vi ng thin d, cnh ni bt thp s, dng nhn bt c vi phi, nht quc kh s t. Vi tr gi
dng chng nhi x qu, c bt v c nhi v php Hin hc)
Hn Phi tht bi quan, khng cho hng bnh dn c mt c no c, ch ch h l t t t li, bing
nhc, khng dy c kt lun rng mun tr h ch c mt cch l dng nghim hnh, nhng ng
qun rng thin Ng ng bo d c thng hu pht nng cng khng lm cho dn khi lon
c! l mt im mu thun ca ng.

Ch thch:
[1] Tun t l Tun Hng, ngi trong thi tn xng l Khanh; Tun v Tn c ging nhau, nn
Tun Khanh thnh ra Tn Khanh

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

[2] Trang t - Nam Hoa kinh, NXB Vn Ho, 1994


[3] C ngi c l duyn
[4] Trong Lun ng (T l - 18) Khng t c dng ch ng ng m c ngi dch l xm ti, c
ngi dch l on th ca ti.
[5] Cng c l nhu
[6] Nguyn vn: vi v nghim, c th hiu l lm iu thin theo ta

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
Chng 3
X HI QUAN
B - VUA
Php gia l nhng chnh tr gia rt thc t, ch tm nhng php thut lm cho nc giu v mnh,
khng thc mc v ngun gc ca ch phong kin qun ch. ng vua no trng dng th h th,
khng th b, tm ng vua khc, khng bao gi t hi mt ngi vua c truyn ra sao, mt ng vua
no gi ngi vua c xng ng khng. V im , h khng "kh tnh" nh Nho gia. Chng hn
sch Lun ng, chng Thut nhi, bi 14 chp truyn T Cng thy Khng t khen B Di, Thc T,
bit rng thy mnh kn o ch vua V (Cp ngi cha trong khi cha t lon nc ngoi) tt khng
chu th. Qu nhin sau , Khng t dt mn b nc V m i [1] . Chng ti khng thy mt
Php gia no c thi ca Khng t.
H c mt im tin b l khng tin rng vua c Tri giao cho s mng thay Tri tr dn, v theo
h th c h nh x hi t ra vua. mt chng trn chng ti dn mt cu ca Thng ng,
i bo phi t ra php lnh gi gn trt t trong x hi; c php lnh th phi c ngi bo v
php lnh, v vy phi t ra quan, t ra quan ri li phi t ra vua "thng nht" thnh mt khi,
tc cm u ht thy. Cn Hn Phi th bo thi thng c, Hu So v Toi Nhn c cng vi
nhn dn - mt ng vua ch cho dn kt cnh lm , mt ng tm ra cch ly la - nn nhn dn

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

mng, tn lm vua thin h.


Thng v Hn ch ni s si vy thi, khng o su vn . C l h ch trng rng quyn th
ca vua nu l th quyn th chnh vua thit lp nn l tt hn c. Quyn th c chnh ng hay
khng, h khng cn xt k, nhng h rt quan tm n vn lm sao nm vng c quyn th.
Mun nm vng c quyn th th vua phi ch thn v mt mnh gi quyn thng pht m Hn
Phi gi l "nh bnh" (hai quyn ca vua), tuyt nhin khng c san s quyn cho mt ngi
no, nu khng th s b b ti ch ng lin. Thng pht l cng c hiu lc nht tr dn. Trong
chng trn chng ta thy thng dn ch ham li v ch phc tng quyn lc. Bn tnh ca dn
nh vy th tr dn phi thun theo n, li dng lng ham li ca dn, ngha l khen thng khi dn
c cng vi quc gia, v nh vo lng s quyn lc ca dn, ngha l trng tr khi h c ti.
Mt mnh nm ht quyn thng pht nh vy nht nh l chuyn ch ri, v hi Trung Hoa
cha bit thuyt phn quyn: lp php l do vua, hnh php cng do vua m quyn thng pht (t
php) cng do vua na.
Hn Phi cng nhiu ln nhc vua phi ch cng v t, phi b t li t tm m theo php cng th
nc mi thnh c. Thin Hu ng vit:
"Khng nc no lun lun mnh, khng nc no lun lun yu. Ngi thi hnh php lut (tc
vua) m cng cng th nc mnh, ngi thi hnh php lut m nhu nhc th nc yu ( ...). Cho
nn vo thi ny, nh cm quyn no bit b t li t tm m theo php cng th dn s yn, nc
tr: bit b hnh ng ring t m lm theo php cng th binh s mnh, m ch s yu".

(...)

( Quc v thng cng, v thng nhc. Phng php gi cng, tc quc cng, phng php gi
nhc, tc quc nhc (...). C ng kim chi thi, nng kh t khc, tu cng php gi, dn an nh
quc tr, nng kh t hnh, hnh cng php gi, tc binh cng nhi ch nhc).
Nhng Hn ch cnh co, nhc nh cc vua cha nh vy thi, cn nh nu gp ng vua hn m nh
Kit, Tr chng hn th Hn khng ngh ra cch no ngn cn c, m hng s gii php thut c
lng nh ng nh trn qua nc khc hoc chu cht; cn dn chng th Hn li cng khng quan
tm ti, h phi rng m chu. Hn khng cho dn chng c quyn lm cch mng nh Mnh t,
cng khng dm ni rng dn nh nc, vua nh thuyn, nc ch thuyn m cng lt c thuyn.
c b Hn Phi t chng ti thy Hn Phi nh trnh vn , ch by mu thut cho vua, nm
dn(?) ch tm cch lm cho nc giu v mnh, m khng xt n ni au kh ca dn, ch cho dn

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

mi ci quyn ny: k lm li cho nc th c thng, th thi. Mun c hng ci quyn ,


dn v cc quan ln nh tuyt i phi phc tng vua:
"Ngi hin lm b ti th (...) khng c hai lng, triu nh khng dm t chi mt a v thp
hn, trong qun i khng dm t chi vic gian nan, mt mc thun tng vic lm, php ca
vua, h tm (ngha l khng sn c ring) i mnh lnh, khng dm d ngh phi tri; cho nn
c ming m khng c ni ring, v nh cnh tay, trn che u, di che thn, thn th nng hay
lnh th phi cu, d c li kim Mc Da k thn cng khng dm khng bt."

, ; , , ,
. , ,

(Hin gi chi vi nhn thn... v hu nh tm: triu nh bt cm t tin, qun l bt cm t nan, thun
thng chi vi tng ch chi php, h tm d i lnh, nhi v th phi d. C hu khu bt t ngn, hu
mc bt t th, nhi thng tn ch chi. Vi nhn thn gi, th chi nhc th, thng d tu u, h d tu
tc, thanh non hn nhit, bt c bt cu, Mc Da ph th, bt cm pht bc - Hu ).
Tht ngc hn vi Mnh t.
Hn na, Hn cn cho hng n s ng git v tuy h khng lm hi g cho nc nhng cng khng
lm li g cho nc. Thin Ngoi tr thuyt hu thng ng chp truyn Thi Cng Vng khi mi
c phong nc T, sai git ngay hai anh em rut Cng Dt v Hoa S ch v h u l c s,
"cy rung m n, o ging m ung, khng cu g ngi, khng nhn bng lc, danh hiu ca
vua". Chu Cng n ngc nhin sai ngi ti hi ti sao li git nhng ngi hin nh vy, Thi
Cng Vng p: "H khng chu lm b ti thin t (nh Chu) th Vng ti (ch hu) khng coi h
l b ti c; h khng chu lm bn ch hu th Vng ti khng th sai khin h c; h cy
rung m n, o ging m ung, khng cn g ngi khc th ti khng th thng pht, khuyn
cm h c. V li h khng nhn danh hiu ca vua ban th h d c ti tr cng khng th cho
Vng ti dng; h khng cn bng lc th d h c hin c cng khng lp cng vi Vng c.
H khng chu lm quan th khng tr h c, h khng chu lnh nhim v th h khng trung vi
mnh. Tin vng s d sai khin thn dn c l nh tc lc hoc hnh pht. Nay dng c bn ci
khng sai khin h th Vng ti sai khin c ai by gi? (...). H t cho l hin s trong i
m khng cho cha dng (...) c khc chi con nga k (chy rt nhanh) m khng li qua t qua
hu c, v vy m ti phi git".
Chuyn chc l ba (Hn khng nghim trc khi dn chng) v thi gian ngi ta cn

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

trng cc n s nh B Di, Thc T, m Thi Cng Vng l ngi tt, c thi n cu c trn
sng V, u c hnh ng nh vy. l ch trng ca php gia. Trang t m sng nc Hn,
cng thi vi Hn th kh m c lt ci ui trong bn"!
V Hn Phi khng xt quyn uy nh th no l chnh ng, khng t vn nu vua dng by
quyn uy th sao, ch tn qun trit m khng qu dn, cho nn mc du hc thuyt ca ng c
nhiu im c o m hu th cng ch coi ng l mt l thuyt gia v chnh tr, ch khng phi l
mt trit gia. Ngi ta cn trch rng chnh v Thng ng v ng m Tn mi c cu: "Vua bt b
ti cht m b ti khng cht l bt trung". - Quan nim qui g v o trung qun ca Php gia
ch u phi ca Nho gia.
*
S cch bit gia vua v dn c l cng v Php gia m rng thm, su thm. Ch trng ca Hn
Phi l dng uy quyn, dng sc mnh v thi ng l thi trng sc mnh (Nc s d c trng, vua
s d c tn l nh sc mnh) ch khng dng nhn ngha, nhn ngha l nhu nhc.
Chng trn chng ta thy v quyn li ngc nhau, vua phi coi b ti nh k lc no cng
mun ot ngi ca mnh, khng nn tin h m phi phng h. Chng ny chng ta li thy vua
khng c thng dn, khng cn c lng dn, v dn nh tr con, khng bit ci li lu di, ch
nhn ci li trc mt thi, theo dn th s lon. Thin Hin hc, Hn vit:
" Bn khng bit tr nc ngy nay nht nh bo: "Cn c lng dn". Nu c lng dn l nc
c tr th cn cn dng g n Y Don (khai quc cng thn ca vua Thnh Thang), Qun Trng
na, c nghe li dn l ri, nhng ci tr ca dn khng dng c, cng nh ci lng ca tr con
vy. Mt a tr au u, khng co u th n li au li, khng nn mn nht cho n th mn
nht ngy cng ty ln. Mun co u nn mn nht th mt ngi phi gh n cho m hin ca
n lm vic y. Nh vy m n cn go khc khng ngng, v n khng bit phi chu au mt cht
ri mi c ci li ln (l ht bnh). Nay bc vua cha gp v t, cy rung dn c thm ti sn
m dn on l tn khc; sa hnh php v trng pht ngn cm bn gian t m dn on l nghim
khc; thu thu bng tin go cho kho lm c y m cu t khi i km, cung cp cho qun i,
m dn on l tham lam (...) gom sc li nh cho mnh bt gic m dn on l tn bo. Bn vic
tr an m dn khng bit mng. S d vua cha cu bc s thnh tr l v dn tr khng cho
mnh theo c. Ngy xa ng V khi sng (Dng T), o sng (Hong H) m dn gom ngi
v (tnh nm ng).T Sn v t trng du m ngi nc Trnh ch bai. ng V lm li cho
thin h, ng T Sn bo tn cho nc Trnh m u b hu bng, nh vy dn tr c th dng c
khng l iu ta thy r ri. Cho nn (...) lm chnh tr m mong va lng dn u l mi lon,
khng th theo chnh sch tr nc c".

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

[]

()
( Kim bt tri tr gi tt vit: "c dn chi tm". c dn chi tm nhi kh d vi tr, tc th Y Don,
Qun Trng v s dng d, tng thnh dn nhi d h (...) Kim thng cp canh in khn tho, d
hu dn sn d, nhi d thng vi khc; tu hnh trng pht, d vi cm t d, nhi d thng vi nghim;
trng ph tin tc, d thc thng kh, th d cu c cn, b qun l d, nhi d thng vi tham [2]
tnh lc tt u s d cm l d, di nh thng vi bo. Th t gi s d tr an d nhi dn bt tri d. Ph
cu thnh thng chi s gi, vi dn tr chi bt s dng. Tch V quyt giang tun h, nhi dn t ngo
thch, T Sn khai mu th tang, Trnh nhn bng t. V li thin h, T Sn tn Trnh, giai d th
bng, ph dn tr chi bt tc dng dic minh h. C (...) vi chnh nhi k thch dn, giai lon chi oan,
v kh d vi tr d).
on ng ch Nho v Mc l m dn. Thin Lc phn, ng ni r thm:"Dng php lut (nghim
khc) th trc chu kh sau c li lu bn; cn theo o nhn t th mi u c vui m sau s
khn cng. Bc thnh nhn cn nhc, la ci li ln cho nn dng php lut m bt nhau chu cc, v
b s nhn i i vi nhau." ng a mt s th d chng ta d thy; gia ch no bt con em chu
lao kh, cn kim th s kh ln, d gp nm mt ma cng c no m, cn gia ch no v thng
con em cho chng khng vui chi th tt s nguy, m gp nm i km, tt phi bn v con.
Sau cng, thin Nam din, ng bo khi nc lon th phi cng quyt, nghim khc lp li s bnh
tr, ng ngi b m st, nh Thng ng i u lc no cng dng ci "th" (mt binh kh di, c
mi nhn) st, ci thun nng phng, nh Tn Vn Cng phi dng v s, v T Hon Cng
phi dng xe c v trang phng dn chng.
Dn khng phi l lun lun ngu nh Hn ngh, m i a s l ngi s thay i, mun c yn
thn, khng ngh xa; phi kin nhn, kho lo ging cho dn hiu, m khi dn vui v theo ng
li ca chnh quyn ri th kt qu s nhiu, cn nh dng chnh sch mnh ca Hn th kt qu c
th s mau y nhng khng bn. Hn ch dn chng ch thy ci li trc mt m khng thy ci
li lu di, nhng chnh Hn cng mc ci li .
L nht l Hn bo quan, dn phi b lng trung vi vua, ngha l c thi hnh ng lnh ca vua, gi
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ng php lut ch khng c hi sinh cho vua, khng c t lng yu vua. Trong Ngoi tr thuyt
t h, ng k chuyn Tn Chiu Vng pht dn v dn cu nguyn cho mnh ht bnh:
"Tn Chiu Vng au, dn chng mi l (hai mi lm nh l mt l) chung nhau mua b v nh
no cng cu cho vua ht bnh. Cng Tn Thut ra ngoi thy vy, bn vo mng vua: "Trm h u
chung nhau mi l mua b cu nguyn cho vua ht bnh". Chiu Vng sai ngi i hi, qu c
nh vy, ra lnh: "Pht mi l phi np hai o gip (bng da t ngu). Khng ra lnh m t cu
nguyn l thng qu nhn. H thng qu nhn th qu nhn cng phi i php lut m lm va
lng h, nh vy php lut khng ng c, s a ti lon v mt nc. Khng bng pht mi l
hai o gip m lm cho nc c tr tr li".

,
, ; , .
( Tn Chiu Vng hu bnh, bch tnh mi ngu nhi gia v vng o. Cng tn Thut xut kin
chi, nhp h vng vit: "Bch tnh ni giai l mi ngu v vng o". Vng s nhn vn chi, qu
hu chi. Vng vit: "T chi nhn nh gip. Ph phi lnh nhi thin o gi, th i qu nhn d. Ph i
qu nhn, qu nhn dic th ci php nhi tm d chi tng tun gi, th php bt lp, php bt lp
lon vong chi o d; bt nh nhn pht nh gip, nh phc d vi tr).
Tht l tri nhn tnh. Chng ta tng tng mi mt x hi m t trn xung di ch bit tun
php lut, khng cn lng thng, khng cn cht tnh ngha g na, v k no t ra c cht tnh
ngi th b nghi ng ngay l v li, v b pht. Truyn l mt c s hay ch l mt ng ngn Hn
t ra?
*
Gi uy th, nm quyn thng pht, sinh st trong tay l bt cc quan li lm vic cho mnh;
nhng trc ht phi la ngi, b dng ngi trc . Sut thi Tin Tn, m c l c hai ngn
nm sau na, khng c mt chnh tr gia no xt k vn dng ngi nh Hn Phi.
ng coi s dng ngi l mt ci thut rt kho, thut hiu theo hai ngha l k thut v tm thut v chng ta c th bo, theo Hn, thut tr nc ch l thut dng ngi, c "th"- tc uy quyn- ln
php lut, chung quy cng ch l ch ng, sai khin ngi.
ng bo mt ng vua gii phi bit cch tn dng tr lc ca ton dn:
"Sc mt ngi khng ch ni m ng, tr mt ngi khng bit c mi vic; dng mt ngi
khng bng dng c nc (...). Bc vua thp km dng ht kh nng ca mnh, bc vua trung bnh

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

dng ht sc ca ngi, bc vua cao hn dng ht tr ca ngi (...). Khin cho ngi no cng dng
ht ti tr ca mnh th vua nh thn, vua nh thn th k di tn lc, k di tn lc th b ti
khng li dng vua c; o lm vua nh vy l hon tt" (Lc bt ch chng, tr bt tn vt, d k
dng nht nhn, bt nh dng nht quc (...) H qun tn k chi nng, trung qun tn nhn chi lc,
thng qun tn nhn chi tr (...) S nhn tng dng tc qun thn, qun thn tc h tn, h tn tc
thn bt nhn qun, nhi ch o tt h - Bt kinh). Vua phi hi kin, d xt lng ca mi b ti, m
khng l tnh cm, mun ca mnh ra; nh vy c th dng c ht ti nng ca h, ch ng
c h m khng h on c ngha ca mnh, m mnh s nh bc thn linh. Cng trong
thin Bt kinh, Hn Phi cn bo vua phi nh tri, nh qu :"Trut ging hay ct nhc ngi di m
khng theo php ch th quyn ln; thng pht m k di cng c d vo th uy ca vua b chia
x. Bi vy bc minh ch khng v thng yu m nghe li ngi, khng v vui thch m tnh vic.
Nghe li ngi m khng tham kho xem c ng khng th quyn s b chia cho k gian; khng
dng tr thut th b khn v b ti. Cho nn bc minh ch thi hnh php ch th (khng thin v) nh
tri, dng ngi th (kn o) nh qu. Nh tri th khng b ch, nh qu th khng b ngi ta d
xt m li dng." (C minh ch ch hnh ch d thin, k dng nhn d qu. Thin tc bt phi, qu tc
bt nhn). Vy vua phi va l tri, l thn, va l qu. Mun vy iu quan trng nht l phi b yu
ght: "Nu vua l lng ght ca mnh th b ti che giu ci xu ca h; vua l lng yu thch
th b ti lm ra b ti nng hp vi s thch ca vua; vua l lng mun th b ti sa i tnh
tnh thi thch ng vi lng vua m cu li. Cho nn T Chi lm b hin nhn m ot c
ngi vua; Th iu, Dch Nha li dng s thch ca vua (T Hon Cng) m ln vua; (kt qu l) T
Khoi (vua Yn nhng ngi cho T Chi) cht v ni lon, Hon Cng cht n khi gii b ra khi
phng m cha c chn. Nguyn do ti u? Ti vua l tnh dc ca mnh b ti li dng
(m mu li cho h). B ti v tt yu vua, h ch tnh ci li ln cho h thi. Bc vua cha khng
che du tnh dc, b ti c c hi ln t mnh th b ti hc ci thi ca T Chi, in Thng u
c kh. Cho nn bo: "Vua b yu, b ght i th chn tng ca b ti s hin, m vua s khng b
che lp"... C qun hin tc qun nc oan, qun hin tc qun thn vu nng, nhn ch dc hin tc
qun thn chi tnh thi c k t h (...). C vit: kh hiu, kh , qun thn hin t, tc nhn qun
bt t h - Nh bnh).
Khng c t tnh thng hay ght, m cng khng c gi v thng hay ght, v nu "gi
thng ri th khng tr li ght c na, gi ght ri th khng tr li thng c na." (Ngoi
tr thuyt hu h). Phi lm l b mt chng nhng i vi b ti m ngay c vi v con na, v nh
chng trn chng ta thy, d v con cng khng tin c, v con cng c th v t li ca h m
mong cho vua cht, v khng thiu g k gian thn ng v phe h lt mnh. Tuyt nhin khng
c tin ai c. Nht l nhng khi vua mu tnh chuyn quan trng th cng phi kn ting phng
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

c trong gic ng: phi ng mt mnh, s ng m ni m m ngi khc nghe c.


Vua li phi gi im ny na, n mc, c x, li sng phi hon ton khc ngi, khng cho
dn c th lm mt ngi khc vi mnh c; khi i ng, khng ngi cng xe vi ngi y phc
cng p nh mnh; ti nh th khng chung vi ngi trong h, ngi ngoi khi lm ngi
l vua. (Ngoi tr thuyt hu h).
Quan nim "vua phi hon ton b mt" , Hn Phi chc mn ca Thn Bt Hi ri khai trin ra
thi. V theo Hn (trong Ngoi tr thuyt hu thng) th Thn Bt Hi ni : "S sng sut ca b
trn m l ra th ngi di s phng, s khng sng sut ca b trn m l ra th ngi
di s gt b trn; s hiu bit ca b trn m l ra th ngi di s t im s tht, s khng
hiu bit ca b trn m l ra th ngi di s giu s tht; s khng ham mun ca b trn m
l ra th ngi di s rnh b trn, s ham mun ca b trn m l ra th ngi di s nh b
trn".
Li ca Thn v Hn u ng c y, u hp l y, nhng khng hp tnh. Con ngi m nm
ny qua nm khc khng l mt cht tnh cm trong i cng cng nh trong i t, i vi
ngi ngoi cng nh i vi v con, anh em, khng tin mt ai, c liu, lnh lng nh mt bng o,
lm l b him nh con c v, con ngi c th l tri, l thn, l qu, nhng khng c tnh ngi,
m t khi c nhn loi ti nay v t nay ti khi khng cn nhn loi, khng th c c mt nh cm
quyn nh vy.
Hn Phi rt thc t, qu thc t khi khuyn cc vua cha nh rng tr dn l tr s ng, ch khng
phi tr mt s t siu nhn nn ng cn dn phi c nhn ngha, min h tn trng php lut, khng
lm by l c ri; nhng ng li qun hn nguyn tc i m bt cc vua cha phi l mt hng
siu qun, b ht tnh ngi, c nh tri, nh thn, nh qu m mu ci li cho quc gia.

PH LC

V vua nm ht quyn hnh trong nc cho nn cng chu ht trch nhim v s thnh suy ca quc
gia.
Trong Hn Phi T c mt thin, cch trnh by rt n gin, ch k vn tt bn mi by "im"
(cng tc l nguyn nhn) mt nc (Vong trng), khng ging gii ph bnh g c. Hn phn tch rt
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

t m, nhng khng tng hp, khng sp t, cng khng phn bit nguyn nhn no quan trng,
nguyn nhn no th yu.
Tng hp li chng ti thy ba nguyn nhn chnh:
- Vua thiu t cch: xa x (im 4), nhu nhc (im 8), tn bo (im 23, 26, 35), ng ngnh, t
tin qu (im 12,18), ham li (im 9) cng li khong 13, 14 im;
- Vua khng bit t gia, trong cung khng c trt t, c k dm lon, mu thun gia hong hu v
cung phi, ch t v th t, tt c khong mi im (17, 20, 30, 34, 37, 38...)
- Vua khng bit tr nc, khng dng php thut, khng bit dng ngi, k kiu c ln t
mnh..., tt c hn hai chc im (1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 14, 15, 16, 25, 28, 29, 33, 40, 44, 45...)
Vy th thuyt tu (thn) t (gia) tr (quc) ca Nho gia cng p dng c trong php gia? V Php
gia tuy ch trng php tr m vn trng t cch, ti tr ca nh cm quyn nh ch trng nhn tr?
M bt k trong mt vic g, phng php tuy quan trng nhng yu t nhn s vn l cn bn?
Khng c ngi tt th phng php hay ti my kt qu vn hng.

Ch thch:
[1] Coi Nh gio h Khng - Co Thm - 1972, trang 77 - 78
[2] y c 9 ch khng ai hiu ngha, ng rng thiu st hoc sai lm.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
Chng 4
X HI QUAN (tip)
C- QUC GIA

Thi ca Hn Phi l thi tranh hng gia Tn v Lc quc. Nc Hn ngay ca ng ca Tn (ca


Hm Cc nm trn bin gii chung ca Hn v Tn), m li nh v yu, cho nn vo th nguy
nht: Tn ch lm le chim Hn tin qua pha ng m thn tnh cc nc S, Ngy, T, Triu,
Yn; nm nc ny cng mun chim Hn bt ca Hm Cc, nu khng th buc Hn phi theo

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

mnh chn Tn.


Vn l cng t nc Hn, li c tnh i quc cao, Hn Phi mun lm cho t quc ng mnh ln
, ch cha tnh ti vic thng nht Trung Quc nh Mnh t, Lng Tng vng[1] thi trc,
hoc nh Tn Thu Hong thi ng. Cui bi biu dng Tn Thy Hong (bi Tn Hn), ng bo
nu Thy Hong lm theo k hoch ca ng th c th khng tn sc m lm cho Triu T, Ngy,
S, Hn quy phc, ngha l lm cho thin h quy v mt mi. Nhng ch l v mun cu t quc
nn ng khuyn Tn nh Triu, ng vi xm chim Hn, ch cha chc ng thc tm mong
Tn thng nht Trung Quc. Nu Tn trng dng ng m ha ho vi Hn th c th ng gip Tn
y, nhng L T bit ti ng ri, u c chu cho ng ln ti mnh.
Vy hc thuyt ca Hn ch nhm mc ch lm cho mt quc gia mnh ln chng vi cc nc
khc; mt khi mnh ln ri, c xm chim cc nc khc khng, l iu ng khng bn ti. Cho nn
ng ch xt ci li ca quc gia, ch khng mu ci li cho khp thin h nh Mc t.
Tri vi Mnh t, ng coi quc gia trng hn dn. Mnh bo : dn vi qu, x tc th chi, qun vi
khinh. Hn bt dn phi hi sinh cho vua, vua phi lm cho nc mnh v giu, ngha l cng phi
phc v cho quc gia. Vua phi phc v cho quc gia th cng phi trng ci li ca quc gia m
khng c c t tm, t tnh, khng c ngh ti ci li ca ring c nhn mnh.
im quan trng nht i vi mi ngi trong nc, t vua ti quan li, dn chng, l phi phn bit
minh bch cng v t. Thin Ng , Hn vit:
Nc S c ngi c ting l ngay thng, cha n trm cu, anh ta bo quan. Quan lnh don ra
lnh : Git n i, v anh ta ngay thng i vi vua m li c li vi cha, cho nn tuy bo quan m
b git. Do m xt, ngi b ti chnh trc i vi vua l a con hung bo i vi cha. (Ph qun
chi trc thn, ph chi bo t d).

Nc L c k theo vua ra trn, ba ln nh, ba ln chy. Trng Ni hi nguyn do, ngi p :


Ti c cha gi, ti cht th khng ai nui. Trng Ni khen l hiu, tin c ngi vi vua L. Do
m xt, ngi con c hiu vi cha l k b ti phn vua.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

(Ph ph chi hiu t, qun chi bi thn d).


Cho nn quan lnh don nc S git k t co m khng ai t co k gian vi b trn na; Trng
Ni thng k b chy khi ra trn m dn L d hng gic, bi tu; ci li ca ngi trn k di (tc
ca quc gia v ca c nhn) khc nhau nh vy . Bc vua cha mun va khen hnh tt ca nhn
dn, va mu ci phc cho x tc th tt khng th c. i xa, ng Thng Hit t ra ch vit
dng ci hnh nh ci vng trn khp () gi l ch t (ngha l ring), tri vi t l gi l
cng () (chung); vy ng Thng Hit bit rng cng v t tri nhau ri. Ngy nay coi cng
v t li hi nh nhau l d ci ha ca s khng bit thm xt.
,.,,
,.

,,.,.,

(C lnh don tru nhi S gian bt thng vn, Trng Ni thng nhi L dn d hng bc. Thng h
chi li, nhc th k d d, nhi nhn ch kim c tht phu chi hnh nhi cu tr x tc chi phc, tt bt
c h. C gi Thng Hit chi tc t d, t hon gi v chi t, bi t v chi cng. Cng t chi tng
bi d, ni Thng Hit c d tri chi h. Kim d vi ng li gi, bt st chi hon d).
y l mt im rt quan trng m t xa ti nay c h nhn loi vn cha gii quyt c n tho:
S mu thun gia cng v t, gia trung v hiu.
Truyn Khng t khen ngi con v hiu m o ng, khng bit c tht khng. Nu c tht th ng
ng trch : ch nn xin gim ti cho ngi thi ch khng nn tin c : m vua L cng ng
trch : khng nn bt ngi ra trn, nn cho lm mt cng vic khc c th gn cha m gip
nc c, hoc triu nh nn c mt t chc nui nhng ng gi con h c th hi sinh cho t
quc m khi lo lng cho cnh ca cha gi. V vy chng ti cha tin hn truyn .
Cn trng hp ca cha n trm cu v con t co th Lun ng c chp nhng hi khc, v Khng
T ch con ngi : Dip cng ni vi Khng t : xm ti[2], c ngi rt ngay thng nh
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

cha n trm cu th con ng ra lm chng, khai tht. Khng T bo : Ngi ngay thng trong
xm ti c x khc vy : cha che li cho con, con che li cho cha; nh vy l ngay thng (trc ti k
trung h). ( T L-18). C l Khng t mun bo : Khng nn t co, cng khng nn ni ngc
li, c im lng nh khng bit th thi.
n cp l mt ti nh, nu cha phm mt ti nng hn nhiu, nh git ngi th sao ? Trng hp
ny Mnh t rn tm li gii quyt :
Mt mn ca ng l o ng hi ng :
Vua Thun lm thin t, ng Cao Dao coi v hnh pht, nu ng C Tu l cha vua Thun git
ngi th x cch no ?.
Mnh t p : C vic bt ng C Tu ch c g u ?
- Vy vua Thun khng cn ?
- Vua Thun lm sao ngn cn c ? Php truyn t i n sang i kia l php cng m.
- Nh vy ng Thun nn lm nh th no ?
- ng Thun (khng mng ngi vng), coi thin h nh mt i dp rch vy, s cng cha m
chy ra b bin , trn i vui v (v gi c o hiu) m qun thin h i (Tn tm thng
35).
Chng ta khng bit vo trng hp Mnh t, Khng t s tr li ra sao, ch cch gii quyt ca
Mnh t lng tng lm, khng n : cng cha i trn cng l tri php lut v nh vy vn l mt cch
ngn cn s thi hnh ca php lut : m li cn lm cho quc dn mt mt ng vua nhn t hin
minh.
Nhng bi cng cho thy rng thi Mnh t, nu dn tc Trung Hoa cha c thc r rt v s
phn bit quyn hnh php v quyn t php th t nht cng nhn rng mi ngi ng c bnh
ng v php lut. Chng ta nn nh Mnh t ng thi vi Thn Bt Hi, Thn o, Thng ng.
Khng gio coi trng o hiu, cho rng n l gc ca o trung. Quan nim y khng phi l v l
hon ton v thi gia nh quan trng hn thi chng ta nhiu, qu tht l nn tng ca x hi, gia
nh c vng vng th x hi mi vng : v li thc t m xt chung th con ngi c hiu thi
thng l ngi ti trung. Cho nn trong t tng ca Khng Mnh, cng v t cha phn bit c
r rng.
Mc gia v Php gia cho rng cng v t mu thun ln nhau v phi hi sinh t cho cng. mt
chng trn chng ti k truyn con mt c t o Mc phm ti git ngi, Tn Hu Vng
thng c t tn l Phc Thn gi c mi mnh n l con trai, nn tha ti cho n. Nhng Phc
Thn khng chu, tu : Ci php ca o Mc, git ngi th phi ti cht, thng ngi th b ti
hnh, nh vy cm git ngi v thng ngi ; cm git ngi thng ngi l i ngha
ca thin h. Mc du nh vua tha ti, khng git n nhng Phc Thn ti khng th khng thi hnh
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

php ca o Mc. Ri ngi cha t git con. Trong lch s Trung Hoa, cha bao gi s mu
thun gia gia nh v x hi c gii quyt mt cch bi thm gh gm nh vy.
Php gia o tt c nhng ci g gi l t : t li, t dc, t tnh, t hc (ci hc khng hp vi
ng li ca quc gia nh Nho gia, Mc gia thi Hn Phi), t kim (tay kim ring, ngha l bn
hip s dng cy kim chm git nhau ch khng tr ch) Sng thn ca vua m phm ti th
cng b git nh in Hit trong truyn thin Ngoi tr thuyt hu thng ; Thi t m phm php
th cng b trng tr nh con vua Trang vng nc Kinh, trong truyn cng thin , hoc nh con
Tn Hiu cng (coi i Thng ng - phn I). Vua khng th v tnh ring m khoan hng vi
sng thn, vi con c v k phm php, b lnh, khng tn knh x tc l ln quyn vua, phm
thng. B ti ln quyn th ca vua th vua mt uy, k di phm thng b trn th nguy. Uy mt,
a v nguy th x tc khng gi c. Mo ngi bnh ng trc php lut tc l mi ngi u
phi trng cng li hn t li, phi t quc gia ln trn gia nh.
l mt tin b : c trng cng hn t th nc mi mnh c, nhng Php gia cha t ra vn
nu vua phm php th sao. l mt hn ch ca thi i. Ngy nay khng cn vua th trung vi
vua thnh ra trung vi nc, a v ca gia nh khng quan trng nh hi xa, khng cn i gia
nh, ch cn tiu gia nh tc v chng con ci v thnh nin, th hiu thnh ra hiu vi dn ; nhng
con ngi, nh Hn Phi nhn thy, vn bm sinh ngh ti t li trc ht, th mu thun gia c
nhn v x hi vn cn ; vn l phi tm cch ho gii m gim ln ln mu thun i ty tng giai
on.
*
Mt im tin b na ca Hn Phi l chinh sch t cng, v ch tin sc mnh ca mnh thi,
khng tin mng tri hay thn quyn, cng khng tin nc ngoi.
ng cng nh T Sn, Tun t cho rng nc m thnh hay suy l do ngi ch khng do tri. T
Sn bo : o tri xa, o ngi gn, khng lin quan g vi nhau. (coi tiu s T Sn - phn
I).
Tun T bo : Sao m sa, cy m ku l ci bin ho ca tri t, m dng, l s t khi xy ra
ca vn vt ; cho l qui l th nn, m lo s th khng nn. Mt tri mt trng c khi n ln nhau,
ma g c khi khng hp thi, nhng ngi sao l c khi hin ln bt ng[3], nhng ci khng
thi no khng thy. Ngi trn sng sut m chnh tr phi l th d tt c nhng ci qui l u
xut hin cng khng sao. Ngi trn m m m chnh tr him c th d khng c qui l no xut
hin, cng khng hay g (Thin lun).
u thin Hu , Hn Phi vit : Ngi thi hnh php lut m cng cng th nc mnh ; ngi
thi hnh php lut ma nhu nhc th nc yu, i cng nh hai cu cui ca Tun t.
Thn Sc t, ng o thi bi ton, tin cc sao tt, sao xu, k trng hp nc Yn bi mi ra
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

c thi, c qu i ct m li thua Triu ; Triu cng c qu i ct m thua Tn.


Tin cy vo nc ngoi cn tai hi nhiu na. Cng gn ti cui thi Chin Quc th cc tung honh
gia li cng tha h tunh honh. Bn bin s khng c l tng g c, chng trung vi mt vua no
c, nc no mnh th theo h nc chim c mt nc khc th k cng m xin chia t
ca nc b dit ; nu ri m phi th mt nc yu th n hi l ca nc mnh m khuyn vua ct
t th nc mnh.
T Tn, mt bin s, m cng phn ut v bn lm, my ln ln ting mng h : S: "Cy ci
uy lc ca Tn nc ngoi m trong hip p vua mnh i vua ct t cho Tn, i nghch,
bt trung n vy l cng cc (S - I 16).
Ri Triu :
H cu ho vi Tn th c th xy ct i cao, sa sang cung p () ri khi c ci ha v Tn th
b mc vua (Triu II 1).
() Nhng chnh T Tn mun d vua cc nc (S, Triu) theo k hoch hp tung cng ha
dng h nhng sn phm, bo vt cng gi p ca nc m T ng phng s. Cho nn thi
ng ci nm np xe nga ca cc v s thn m xe no cng ch y vng bc gm vc
(Chin Quc sch trang 67,68 L Bi 1972).
Vua quan nc Hn cng b bn bin s m hoc, thao tng nn mi ngy mt suy, Hn Phi au
xt nn trong thin Ng cnh co nh cm quyn:
Qun thn bn v i ngoi, nu khng chia ra hai phe hp tung v lin honh th cng nhn c mi
th vi nc khc m mn sc mnh tr th. Hp tung l lin hp cc nc yu (tc lc quc)
nh mt nc ln (Tn) ; lin honh l th mt nc mnh nh cc nc yu, hai phe u
khng duy tr c quc gia.
"Bn b ti ni chuyn lin honh u bo: "Khng th nc ln th tt b ch xm lc." Th nc
ln u phi l ni sung, tt phi em bn nc mnh v n ca cc quan giao cho nc ln
xin h phn pht. Dng bn th nc b ct xn, giao n th danh phn b h thp; t ai b ct
xn th yu i, danh phn b h thp th chnh tr ri lon. Vy l theo ch trng lin honh th
nc ln, li cha thy m thy mt t v lon chnh.
Bn b ti ni chuyn hp tung u bo : Khng cu nc nh m nh nc ln th thin h s b
thn tnh m thin h mt th nc mnh nguy, nc nguy th vua ho thp hn. Cu nc nh cha
chc bo tn c nc m nh nc ln v tt khng c s s h (?), c s s h th s b
nc khc ch ng. Xut qun th qun thua, lui v th thnh b ph. Vy l theo ch trng hp tung
cu nc nh, li cha thy m mt t thua qun.
K ch trng th nc mnh ch mong nh th lc nc ngoi c quan chc ln trong nc;
k ch trng cu nc nh ch mong mun dng th lc ca nc mnh m cu li nc ngoi.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Quc gia cha c li g m h c t phong, lc hu ; a v ca vua b h thp m quyn th


ca b ti li thm cao, t ai ca quc gia b ct xn m nh ring (ca b ti) th giu thm. Vic
thnh th h c nm quyn m c trng dng hoi ; vic hng th h cng giu c ri, lui v m
hng."
Trong on trn Hn phn tch k v ng chnh sch ngoi giao ca bn bin s, nht l lng gian
tr, t t li ca h. C nhn hnh ng v t li th quc gia cng vy, khng bao gi c nc no
m tht tm gip nc no, hon ton v li ca nc h m gip c. Trong Thin Thuyt lm
thng, ng k hai trng hp cc vua cha suy ngm. Trng hp th nht l nc T i vi
nc Hnh :
Nc Tn nh nc Hnh, T Hon Cng mun cu. Bo Thc tu :
- Cn sm qu ! Nc Hnh khng mt th nc Tn khng mt: Tn khng mt th T khng c
trng. V li ci cng cu mt nc nguy khng ln bng ci cng phc hng mt nc mt. Tt
hn i vng nn chm cu nc Hnh lm cho nc Tn mt, i Hnh mt ri mi phc hng
li cho, nh vy xt v thc lc c li, m xt v danh li cng tt.
Hon Cng khng cu Hnh na.
Trng hp th nh l Kinh (S) i vi Tng :
T nh Tng, Tng sai Tang Tn t xung pha Nam cu cu vi nc Kinh. Vua Kinh rt mng,
ha s tn lc gip. Tang Tn t lo lng ra v, ngi nh xe thy vy hi :
- Vic cu cu c kt qu m sao ngi li c v lo lng ? Tang Tn t p :
- Tng nh m T ln. Cu nc Tng nh m cho nc T ln ght, iu ai cng ly lm lo
m vua Kinh li mng, chc ng ta (ha ho) chng ta kin tm chng c. Chng ta nu kin tm
chng c, T s mt, l iu li cho Kinh. (Qu nhin) T chim nm thnh ca Tng ri m
Kinh vn cha em qun cu.
Tang Tn t tht l sng sut. Mt chnh khch ng by chc nm trc khuyn mt nh cch
mng ca ta : c nhn c th v tha nhng mt quc gia th bao gi cng ngh ti ci li ca mnh
trc ht. Trong lch s ngoi giao ca nhn loi, nhng truyn gi nhn gi ngha, phn nc bn
nh T, S khng th no chp ht c. Khng c nhn ngha, ch c li thi, khng c tnh cm
ch c sc mnh thi. Mnh th khng b ngi tn cng m c yn n, li c th tn cng ngi
m thm mnh. V Hn khuyn :
M ci s mnh v tr (yn n) th khng th trng vo vic ngoi giao, n tu ni chnh (tt hay
khng). Khng thi hnh php lut trong nc m c trng vo mu tr i ngoi th khng th tr
v mnh c. Tc ng c cu Tay o di th kho ma, tin ca nhiu th kho bun, ngha l c
nhiu vn th d thnh cng. Nc tr v mnh th d mu s, nc yu v lon th kh thit k. Cho
nn dng nc Tn (nc mnh) mu c th thay i mi ln cng t tht bi : dng nc Yn
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

(nc yu) mu ch mt ln thay i m cng t thnh cng ; khng phi v mu dng Tn u


khn c, mu dng Yn u ngu c, ch v ci vn tr hay lon khc nhau y thi.

(Tr cng bt kh trch ngoi, ni chnh chi hu d. Kim bt hnh php thut ni, nhi s tr
ngoi, tc bt ch , tr cng h. B ngn vit: Trng t thin v, a ti thin c. Th ngn a t
chi d v cng d. C tr cng d vi mu, nhc lon nan vi k. C dng Tn gi, thp bin nhi
mu hi tht, dng Yn gi, nht bin nhi k hi c. Phi dng Tn gi tt tr, dng Yn gi tt
ngu d. Ci tr lon chi t d d Ng ).
Hn a ra chng c: Chu li khai Tn m theo hp tung, mi na nm mt. V li khai Ngy m
theo lin honh, mi na nm mt. Gi Chu v V khoan tnh ci k hp tung hay lin honh, m
gp lo vic tr nc, lm cho php lnh nghim minh, thng pht xc nh, khai ph ht t ai
sc tch cho nhiu, khin cho dn xut t lc ra gi vng thnh tr th thin h d c chim c t
mnh, li cng khng c bao, cng ph c nc mnh th tn tht cng nng (). l ci
thut chc chn gi nc cho khi mt.
Li khuyn tht xc ng. Khng mt nc no c th c lp c, ngoi giao tuy cn, v cng phi
c lc nh n nc ngi y, nhng trc ht chnh mnh phi mnh , m khi mnh mnh th
khng phi l nh ngi m l sai ngi.
Mun cho nc mnh th ton dn phi l mt khi, khng c ri rc, cho nn Hn rt ch trng
n s co gian kim sot tng hnh ng ca mi ngi dn, v thng nht t tng.
Chnh sch co gian (t co k gian) ng mn ca Mc T v Thng ng. V tin rng bn tnh
con ngi ch mu t li, v chng, cha con, vua ti u c th l k th ca nhau c, cho nn Hn
Phi thy trong x hi ton nhng k gian, gn nh thin no trong sch ng cng khuyn nh cm
quyn phi phng k gian, c bit l cc thin Bt gian, Gian kip th thn, Bt thuyt, Bt kinh.
ng cho s co gian l bn phn ca mi ngi, mt hnh ng tt, ng thng, v ai cng c
php t co bt k ai, triu nh, trong cc nha s v khp cc lng xm, chu qun.
Thin Bt thuyt ng vit:
Ci o ca minh qun l ngi hn c t co vic gian ca ngi sang; thng cp c ti, thuc
h khng t co th b lin ly; vua mun bit r s thc th phi tham bc kin ca nhiu
ngi.
Thin Bt kinh, ng li ni:

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Trong mt huyn, nh no cng gn nhau, hp nhau thnh tng ng (nm nh), tng lin (hai
trm nm mi nh), h ai t co li ca ngi khc th c thng, khng t co th b trng tr.
B trn i vi ngi di, ngi di i vi b trn u nh vy c; nh vy th trn di, sang
hn u em php lut ra rn nhau, em iu li ra dy nhau.

(Ng, gia, lin, huyn nhi ln, yt qu thng, tht qu tru. Thng chi h, h chi thng dic
nhin. Th c thng h qu tin tng y di php, tng hi d li).
Trong thin Nn tam, ng chp li truyn di y:
L Mc cng hi T T (chu ni ca Khng T):
-

Ta nghe ni con ca Bng Gin bt hiu. Hnh kim n ra sao?

T T p:
-

Ngi qun t tn hin trng c, nu iu tt ra khuyn ngi, cn nhng hnh kim lm

ln l cho tiu nhn nh, thn khng bit ti.


T T lui ra, T Phc L B (mt i phu nc L) v, Mc cng hi v con h Bng Gin, T
Phc L B ni:
-

N c ba ci li m nh vua cha c nghe.

T Mc cng qu T T v coi thng L BT T theo c ng li dy: Qun t thnh nhn chi m ca ng ni. Php gia cho dy dn
nh vy l lm lon nc. Hn dn li ca Giang t bo vua nc S, i rng nu ngi qun t
khng che ci tt ca ngi, khng vch ci xu ca ngi th nhng k lm lon s thnh cng m
nc s nguy.
ng bit Thng ng l nn nhn ca chnh sch mnh, nhng ng can m bo nu gp mt
ng vua theo php thut ca ng lm cho nc mnh th d cht thm nh Thng ng ng
cng khng ngi; m lch s chng minh rng trong thi lon, chnh sch mnh ca Thng
ng lm cho quc gia mau mnh, nhng lch s cng chng t thm rng nu ch dng chnh sch
thi th kh m bn c, nht l khi k th st bin gii lun lun tm cch khai thc s bt
mn ca dn trong nc.
Hn Phi cng rt nghim khc v vic thng nht t tng: cm t hc, cm tranh bin. Hc t
l cc thuyt ca Nho, Mc, Lo, Trang, Tru Din v ca cc bin s, cn hc cng l php lnh
ca quc gia. Php gia cm tt c nhng ci ring t m hc t l ci nguy him nht, lm cho vua
quan v dn chng hoang mang, chia r, hoang mang th khng tin chnh quyn, chnh quyn kh sai
khin, m chia r th yu.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Thin Hin hc, ng vch nhng mu thun ln nhau gia cc hc thuyt lu hnh ng thi, m
cc vua cha khng bit phn on u tin c, thnh th khng c ch trng nht nh, u mi ca
lon. ng a ra hai th d: Mc khuyn phi tit kim trong vic chn ct, m Nho th ph sn trong
vic chn ct. Nho v Mc tri nhau nh vy, nu khen Mc l tit kim th phi ch Nho l xa x,
nu khen Khng T l hiu th phi ch Mc t l c ti, vy m cc bc vua cha li tn trng c
hai! Tt iu ch trng h ai khinh mnh, d l vua cha mnh cng dm ni gin m p li, cn
Tng Vinh t (Tng Khanh) th li khng cho b ngi ta khinh l nhc. Hai nh tri nhau nh
vy, nu khen Tt iu l cng trc th phi ch s khoan th ca Tng Vinh t l sai; ngc li
nu khen Tng Vinh t l phi th phi ch Tt iu l tri, vy m cc bc vua cha li trng c hai.
Ri Hn Phi kt:
Ci hc ngu v lng gt, cc li tranh bin hn tp v mu thun , cc bc vua cha u tin c,
cho nn k s trong thin h khng ly g lm tiu chun, hnh ng khng c ch trng nht nh
(). Nay cng nghe theo nhng ci hc hn tp, cng lm theo nhng li mu thun nhau th lm
sao khi lon cho c?
(...)

(T ngu vu chi hc, tp phn chi t tranh, nhi nhn ch cu thnh chi, c hi ni chi s, ngn v nh
thut, hnh v thng nh () Kim kim thnh tp hc, mu hnh ng d chi t, an c v lon h?
Hin hc).
Thin Ngy s, ng ni thm:
t ra php lnh l b ci ring t, h php lnh c thi hnh th ci o ring b ph. Ring t
l ci lm lon php. K s c hai lng, theo ci hc ring, trong ni trong hang, mn c tm
nhng su xa, ln th mt st i, nh th lm m hoc k di m b trn khng cm li cn theo,
tng h danh hiu tn qu cng ti sn, nh vy l k khng c cng th c vinh hin, k khng
lm lng kh nhc th c giu c. Nh vy k s hai lng theo ci hc ring, lm sao m khi c
tm ra nhng m h cho l su xa, gng dng li xo tr ph bng php lnh, t to ra ci th
chng li i? () Nhng k c ting l thnh tr hp thnh m ng, lp thuyt ging hc
ch bai php lut trc mt b trn; b trn khng cm ch, li cn theo m tn trng, nh vy l
dy k di khng nghe li ngi trn, khng tun php lut.
V vy phi cm ngt mi ci hc t, ch dy ci hc cng, tc php lut:
Mt nc c minh ch th khng dng vn hc trong sch, ch ly php lut m dy dn, khng
dng li ca cc tin sinh (cc hc gi nh cc Tc h tin sinh) ch dng quan li lm thy (dy
php lut). Khng c bn hip khch hung hn, ch chm c u gic mi l dng cm. Nh vy

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

dn trong nc h m lun l cn c theo php lut, h hnh ng l hng v s lp cng, s dng


cm em dng ht vo vic qun m thi bnh th nc giu, lc c gic th binh mnh. l ci vn
lp vng nghip.



(C minh ch chi quc, v th gin chi vn; d php vi gio; v tin sinh ng, d li vi s; v t kim
chi hn, d trm th vi dng. Th d cnh ni chi dn, k ngn m gi tt qu php, ng tc gi
qui chi cng, vi dng gi, tn chi qun, th c v s tc quc ph, hu s tc binh cng, th chi
v vng t Ng ).
Ngha l nhng kinh, th ca Khng T, Mc T, Lo t phi b ht ro, cc trng ca phi ny
phi n phi ng ca ht (ngay c trng ca Tun t cng vy).
Thin Vn bin, ging ca Hn cn cng quyt hn:
Trong nc ca mt v minh qun th lnh l li rt qu, php lut l vic rt thch ng. Cho nn li
ni v vic lm m khng theo php lnh th phi cm.

(Minh ch chi quc, lnh gi ngn ti qu gi d; php gi s ti thch gi d. Ngn v nh qu, php
bt lng thch, c ngn hnh nhi bt qu php lnh gi, tt cm).
Cn trong mt nc lon th vua ban lnh m dn ly vn hc ch bai, cng s c php lut l
dn ly hnh ng ring sa php lut theo mnh, vua lm lon php lnh m trng tr lc,
hnh vi ca bn hc gi, v vy mi c nhiu vn hc.
L T chc c thin Ng v c th c thin Vn bin ca Hn, khi dng Tn Thy Hong t
s bt h ngh t sch chn Nho m chng ti xin trch mt on do Trn Trng Kim dch
(Nho gio, quyn thng trang 350-351, Tn Vit in ln th ba, khng nm):
Thu trc thin h tn lon khng c thng nht, cho nn ch nho dy ln, ng ni ci g l ni
thi c lm hi i kim, trang sc nhng li h ngn lm ri mt s tht. Ngi no cng cho
ci hc ring ca mnh l phi, m ch bai nhng iu kin lp ca ngi trn (). Mi khi nh vua
c mt hiu lnh g xung, h c ly ci hc ca h ngh lun, vo th trong lng khng cho l
phi, ra th tm nm tm ba li bn tn, khoe ci ch kin ca mnh ly ting, c lp d ci cch
tho th lm cao, em k qun h t li hy bng Vy phi t ht thi th cng Bch gia
ng, ai dm th thm vi nhau v sch Thi, Th th chm b xc ngoi ch, ai ly i xa ch i
ny th chm c h (v ngn v nh qu). Nhng sch li l sch thuc, sch bi (L khc Hn

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

im sch bi ny), sch trng cy. Ai mun hc php lnh th phi ly k li lm thy (D li vi
s).
ng l l lun v ngn ng ca Hn Phi. Th l chm dt mt thi t do t tng ko di my trm
nm, sut thi Xun Thu v Chin Quc, thi rc r nht ca Trit hc Trung Hoa. Lut t nhin
nh vy; lon qu th phi tr, t do qu th phi chn li. m phn ng th bao gi cng mnh qu
mc cn thit. Hn Phi bo thuc c ng mi ht bnh, c m nht nht mi lnh.
Quc gia ca Hn khng cn Thi, Th khng cn vn hc, coi bn hc gi khen o tin vng, bn
bin s gian tr l nhng loi mt (Ng ) Ch bn bin s gian tr thi v bin s m trng php
thut nh ng th tt nhin l ng c tn trng ri ti nng phu v chin s; nng phu c tn lc
th nc mi giu, mi c la nui chin s; chin s c hi sinh th nc mi mnh m thng c
ch, l d hiu. Rt nhiu ln Hn cao cng lao ca php thut chi s, ca nng chin chi
s, v mt st bn cng thng v theo ng hai hng ny l ci ngh ngn (ngh nng l ngh gc),
khng sn xut c g c m cn c hi cho nc. Chng hn thin Ngy s, ng bo:
Kho lm y l nh ngh gc, tc canh nng, th m nhng k lm nhng ngh ngn nh dt gm
vc, chm v li giu. Danh s d thnh c, t s d m rng c l nh chin s, m nay con ci
ca t s cht i xin n ngoi ng, cn bn h, kp ht, ru ch li ngi xe, mc la () B
trn cm php chuyn nm quyn sinh st trong tay, m nay k s gi php mun em lng
trung can gin th khng c yt kin, cn k kho ni, bm mp, dng mu gian, may mn m
thnh cng i th li thng c vua vi.

(...)

(Thng lm chi s d thc gi, canh nng chi bn v d, nhi c t cm t, khc ha vi mt tc gi


ph. Danh chi s d thnh, a chi s d qung gi chin s d, kim t s chi c, c ng khut o,
nhi u tiu tu chi thuc tha xa y ti () Thng c lng s d thin sinh st chi bnh d,
kim th phng lng chi s, dc d trung anh thng nhi bt c kin, xo ngn li t hnh gian
qu d hnh thu, th gi sc ng).
ngha on cng l trong nhng hng: "lm cho thng pht nghim minh, thng pht xc
nh, khai ph ht t ai sc tch cho nhiu khin cho dn xut t lc gi vng thnh tr
l ci thut chc chn gi c nc cho khi mt m chng ti dn trn (trang 83).

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Bn thng nhn v bn cng nhn b Hn Phi lit vo hng du th du thc, hng mt ca x hi:
Chnh sch tr nc ca bc minh ch l khin cho bn thng nhn, cng nhn v bn du th du
thc t i v b khinh cho dn x vo cc ngh gc m b cc ngh ngn. Nay () quan tc
c th mua c th cng nhn v thng nhn (nh giu c) khng cn thp hn na. Ca gian v
gian c dng ch th thng nhn tt nhiu. Tin ca h tch t c nhiu gp bi nh nng
m a v ca h li cao hn nng gia v chin s, nh vy th chin s tt t m bn con bun phi
nhiu (Ng ).
Hn bnh vc tn a ch, ght thng gia, nhng thng gia giu c ri th tt mua t m thnh tn
a ch, lc ng i vi h ra sao?
Rt cuc, Hn cng gi truyn thng trng s v nng, cng thng; ch khc giai cp s ca ng ch
gm php thut chi s v chin s, cn cc k s khc (Nho s, bin s, hip s) u phi dit cho ht.
Tm li, quc gia l tng ca Hn Phi l mt nc:
-

Theo ch qun ch chuyn ch; vua c uy th tuyt cao, nm ht quyn hnh, ch thn ch

ng qun thn, khng y mt cht quyn cho ai c.


-

Theo ch ngha php tr: ai cng phi theo php lut, k c vua, ch cng v t, m khng

dng nhn ngha, tnh cm.


-

Thng nht v t tng, khng dung np cc t hc tc cc hc thuyt tri vi ch trng

ca chnh quyn, cm s tranh bin v ch dy php lut cho dn thi (thy hc l cc quan li).
-

Trng nng v c (gm) cng thng).

Trng v lc theo ch ngha qun quc militarisme.

Trong mt quc gia nh vy, khng c nm hng mt ny:


1 Bn hc gi khen o tin vng, t khu l trng nhn ngha, trau chut dung mo, y phc v
li n ting ni lm lon php , lm m hoc lng vua cha (m ch Nho gia);
2 Bn du s dng thuyt gian tr, mn th lc ca nc ngoi t c t li, lm thit hi
cho quc gia;
3 Bn eo gm tp hp n em, lp tit tho ni danh m phm cm lnh (m ch Mc gia);
4 Bn th thn nnh b, tch t ti sn, n hi l, mn ci th ca nh cm quyn m xin min
dch cho k hi l h;
5 Bn thng gia v cng nhn sa li nhng xu x, tch tr nhng vt thng dng i
thi bc lt ci li ca nng phu. (Ng )
Cn su hng s c hi cho nc m li c ngi i khen, th cng phi dit:
1 Hng s qu trng s sng, s cht, trn trnh hon nn, hng gic.
2 Hng s Vn hc lp nn hc thuyt lm tri php lut;
3 Hng s ti nng khng, n bm
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T
4 Hng s bin tr ni quanh co by b.
5 Hng s dng cm hung bo, gii m chm ngi.

6 Hng s ho hip cu sng gic, giu dim k gian (khng co gian).


Trong quc gia l tng ca Hn, thng mi ch l trao i t hng ha thng dng, cng ngh
cng ch ch to t dng c cn thit, m ngh khng c, khng c m nhc, ca ht, trng hc,
nu c th cng ch dy mt s t ngi bit c, bit vit, thuc php lut lm quan v ging
gii cc php lnh cho dn. tr nc, vua ch cn gi ci th, thi hnh php lut v kho dng
thut ch ng b ti. Trong nhng chng sau, chng ti s ln lt xt ba vn : th, php v
thut.
Ch thch
[1]Mi gp Mnh T ln u, Lng Tng vng hi ngay : Thin h lm sao yn nh c
?. Li hi : Ai gom c v mt mi?. Mnh t p : ng vua no khng ham git ngi (ngha
l thi hnh nhn ngha) th gom c v mt mi. (Mnh T - Lng Hu vng - thng bi 6).
[2]Nguyn vn l ng, mt khu c 500 nh l mt ng. Cng c th l on th.
[3]Trong b i cng Trit hc Trung Quc, quyn h trang 195 (Co Thm 1966) chng ti dch
l hin tng chm. Nhng nhiu hc gi cho ch ng hin nn sa l thng hin v khng
bao gi cc sao xut hin tng chm c.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
Chng 5
TH
Trong phn I, chng ti ni Php gia u tin bn v ci "th " l Thn o. i ng v vua vi
con rng, rng nh c my m bay ln cao c. Hin v tr khng cho m ng phc tng m
quyn th v a v khut phc c ngi hin. Chng hn "vua Nghiu (bc hin tr) hi cn l
dn thng th khng tr c ba ngi, m Kit khi lm thin t th c th lm lon c thin h,
ngha l ban lnh no - d lnh xu - dn chng rm rp theo ht.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Ch trng ngc vi ch trng ca Nho gia m Hn Phi trnh by trong thin Nn th, on
"C k tr li Thn t..." (coi phn dch). Nho gia trng hin tr hn a v, v ci uy th ca vua do
gi tr ca vua hn l do a v. Con rng m bay c, nh rng da vo ci th ca my, nhng
trc ht l nh ci ti ca n, ch nu l con giun v ti th d c my cng khng ci c. V
li ci th - tc ci ngi vua - t n khng th khin cho ngi hin dng n, k bt tiu khng dng
n. Ngi hin dng n th thin h tr (nh vua Nghiu) k bt tiu dng n th lon (nh vua Kit).
Tnh tnh con ngi, hin th t, bt tiu th nhiu. Ly ci li ca uy th m gip k bt tiu thi lon
th k da th lm lon thin h s ng, ngi nh th lm li cho thin h s rt t (... ). Gip cho
k bt tiu c th lc, tc l chp cnh cho cp. (Nn th). Vy Nho cho rng vua xu khin cho thi
lon.

Hn Phi bc ch trng ca Nho trong on "Li c k tr li cu hi trn..." (Nn th). on ny


c vi ch kh hiu, chng hn trong mi hng u Hn phn bit "th t nhin" v "th do ngi
lp ra" (nhn s thit) m khng cho bit th no l th t nhin, cho nn c hc gi hiu l thin
mnh, l thi th, c hc gi li hiu l s truyn ngi. Chng ti on Hn mun ni rng thi suy
nh thi Kit th sinh ra vua xu, ngc li vi thuyt ca Nho gia: vua xu lm cho thi lon.
Nhng on vy c sai chng v Hn vn tin rng thnh suy do sc ngi, khng lin quan g vi sc
tri kia m.

Ri nhng hng sau, Hn dn truyn ngi bn mu v thun khoe thun mnh chc, khng g m
thng c, lt sau li khoe "mu mnh bn khng g l m khng thng". Trn Khi Thin hiu
rng Hn mun bo s hin minh vi ci th khng dung nhau c nh ci mu v ci thun;
Vandermeersch li bo Hn cho rng khi l lun m a nhng trng hp cc oan ra (nh Nghiu
Thun, Kit Tr) th l l no vng ti my cng c th bc c v c mu thun. Trn Khi Thin
v Vandermeersch, ai hiu ng Hn Phi? B nhng ch kh hiu i, c k c on, ti thy
Hn r rng bnh vc thuyt ca Thun o, cho rng ci "th" khng lin quan g vi gi tr v o
c v ti tr ca con ngi; v trong vic tr dn, c i c ng vua hin th ngn i mi gp mt
ng, khng l trong chn trm chn mi chn i kia, cho dn lon sao. ng vit:
"Nghiu, Thun, Kit, Tr ngn i mi xut hin mt ln; s rt t[1]. M ci thng thy trn
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

i th l hng ngi trung bnh, cho nn ti ni v th l ni v hng trung bnh. Hng ngi trung
bnh th trn khng bng Nghiu, Thun, di khng n ni nh Kit, Tr. Nu c gi cht php
lut, dng quyn th th nc tr, quay lng li, b quyn th th nc lon. Nay b quyn th, quay
lng li php lut m i Nghiu, Thun; Nghiu Thun ti l nc tr th ngn i lon mi c mt
i tr. Gi cht php lut, dng quyn th m i Kit, Tr ; Kit, Tr ti l nc lon th ngn i
tr th mi c mt i lon (...) V li (....) ni v vic tr nc, khng a ra trng hp Nghiu,
Thun th a ra trng hp Kit, Tr lm lon nc; nh vy tc ni v khu v, nu khng a ra
ng mt th a ra rau ng, rau ay; ngh lun nh vy l ni cho nhiu m khng hp l hp
php v a ra hai trng hp cc oan, lm sao c th bt b nhng li hp o l c?" ...

(...)(...)

(.... Trung gi, thng bt cp Nghiu, Thun, nhi h dic bt vi Kit, Tr; bo php x th tc tr,
bi php kh th tc lon. Kim ph th bi php nhi i Nghiu, Thun, Nghiu Thun ch ni tr, th
thin th lon nhi nht tr d; bo php x th nhi i Kit, Tr; Kit, Tr ch ni lon, th thin th
tr nhi nht lon d (...) Th (...) tr, phi s Nghiu, Thun d, tt tc s Kit, Tr lon chi; th v phi
di mt d, tt kh thi, nh lch d, th tc tch bin lon, li l tht lut, lng mt chi ngh d, h
kh d nn, ph o l chi ngn h tai! (Nn th).

Hn Phi vu oan cho Nho gia. Nho gia c bao gi mong ng vua no cng c nh Nghiu,
Thun u; ch ni rng vo a v ng vua, c quyn th ca ng vua, m c ti tr hin c, th
nc mi tr, nu tn bo th nc cng lon thm, Nghiu Thun, Kit Tr ch l nhng th d vy
thi. M chnh php gia cng nhn rng vua cn sng sut, c ti nng mi p dng php thut, h
lun lun nhc n bc "minh ch" bit dng php thut l v vy. H c khc g Nho gia u.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Nho gia cng khng khc h im nhn rng a v, uy quyn - tc ci th - rt quan trng, cho nn
h mi tn qun. Chung quy h ch khng ng vi nhau mi im ny: Nho gia t ti c ln
trn a v, phi c ti c ti mt mc no th mi xng ng vi a v, mi khng lm hi dn.
Php gia t a v, quyn th ln trn ti c; min l ti c trung bnh m c quyn th l tr nc
c ri; Nho ch trng nhn tr, Php ch trng Php tr, nhng d ch trng nhn tr th cng
khng th b php, m ch trng php tr th cng khng th b nhn, ngha l b ci yu t
ngi (facteur humain ) i.
*
Trng ci th tc l trng s cng ch. C th ni Php gia hiu ngha, mc ch ca quc gia
nu khng ng hn th cng thc t hn Nho gia, v t hi no ti gi, mc ch ca quc gia l
yn n trong ni b chin u vi ngoi quc ; v chnh quyn no cng phi p ch - nhiu t
ty thi - bng cch ny hay cch khc gi c trt t, thc hin mt chng trnh.
V trng s cng ch, cho nn php gia ch trng :
1 Ch quyn (lp php, hnh php, t php) tp trung c vo mt ngi l vua ;
2 Vua phi c tn knh tun theo trit : dn khng c quyn lm cch mng, khng c
tri vua, vua bt cht th phi cht, khng cht tc l khng trung, iu chng ti xt
chng trn; hn na, d vua c nhng ngi cho, cng khng c nhn, v nu nhn th vua s
thnh b ti ca mnh mt, tri php, bt trung. Hn Phi nhiu ln o chnh sch thin nhng.
Trong thin Ng , ng cho vic vua Nghiu truyn ngi cho ng Thun l khng hp thi, m
hnh ng cng khng cao qu g v thi lm vua khng sng : nh tranh, n cm go xu
vi rau, mc o da th hoc vi th ; nhng ngi thin t ch l t b cuc sng ca ngi gi cng,
ca tn n l, khng c g ng khen.
Trong thin Trung hiu[2], Hn cn mt st Nghiu Thun l lm lon o ngha. Thin h u cho
rng o hiu, , trung, thun l phi nhng khng ai xt k bn o thi hnh cho ng, v
vy m thin h lon.
Thin h u cho o ca Nghiu Thun l phi m theo, v vy mi c nhng v th vua, khng
coi cha l cha. Nghiu, Thun, Thang, V phn li ngha vua ti, lm lon s gio ha i sau . (
Nghiu lm vua m li lm cho b ti ( tc Thun ) thnh vua ca mnh ; Thang, V m lm vua m
li th cha, chm thy cha[3]. Vy m thin h li khen, cho nn thin h n nay vn khng tr .

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

( Thin h giai d hiu trung thun chi o vi ph d, nhi mc tri st hiu trung thun chi o
nhi thm hnh chi, th d thin h lon. Giai d Nghiu Thun chi o vi th nhi php chi, th d hu
th qun, hu khc ph. Nghiu, Thun, Thang. V hoc phn qun thn chi ngha, lon hu th chi
gio gi d. Nghiu vi nhn qun nhi qun thn k thn, Thun vi nhn thn nhi thn k qun ;
Thang, V vi nhn thn nhi th k ch, hnh k thi, nhi thin h d chi, th thin h s d ch kim bt
tr gi d)
Vy vua d l tn bo nh Kit, Tr, b ti cng khng c nh git, nh git tc l tri o b
ti, l nghch thn ch khng bo l cu vt dn c ; cn Nghiu nhn ngi vua cng l tri o b
ti. Tn qun n vy l cc im, tri hn vi ch trng ca Nho gia.
3 Sau cng quy kt th ba ca ch trng trng s cng ch ; l hai ci cn , hai quyn bnh
trong tay nh vua, ca ring nh vua. Mun cho nc tr th vua ch cn dng thng pht ch
khng cn dng gio ha, l nhc. y cng l mt im tri hn vi Nho gio. Nho gio dng sc
gio ha dn d, k no khng th cm ha bng c c th mi bt c d phi dng n hnh
pht .
Khng t bo :
Bc Thi thng (tc cao nht ) ly c dy dn, m ly l t dn (t l sa li cho ngay ). Bc
th nh ly chnh s m khin dn v ly hnh (pht) m ngn cm : hnh t ra nhng khng dng
n. Ch c lc ha dn m dn khng theo n hi ngha nt tc th by gi mi phi dng hnh
vy.

( Thi thng d c gio dn, nhi d l t chi. K th d chnh s o dn, d hnh cm chi, hnh bt
hnh d. Ha chi pht bin, dn chi pht tng, thng ngha nhi bi tc, th h dng hnh h Khng t gia ng- Ng hnh gii)[4].
Dng c v l cm ha dn, kt qu tt hn dng hnh pht, nn chng Vi chnh, bi 3 (Lun
ng) ng ni thm : Dng php ch m bt dn dn, dng hnh pht m sa dn cho ngay th dn
khng phm php nhng khng bit xu h ; dng c m dt dn, dng l m sa cho ngay th dn
bit xu h m tr nn tt .

(o chi d chnh, t chi d hnh, dn min nhi v s, o chi d c, t chi d l, hu s th cch).


To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ng cn mong t c l tng trong nc khng cn s tranh ginh, kin tng na : X kin th


ta cng nh ngi, ct sao cho khng cn kin tng mi hay.

( Thnh tng ng do nhn d, tt d s v tng h - Nhan Uyn 13)


V Php gia cho s thng pht l cch tt nht tr dn, nn chng ti ring tit di y xt
quan nim v thng pht ca Hn Phi.
Thng Pht.
Hn Phi cho rng tr mt s t siu nhn, cn th hu ht loi ngi c nhiu tt xu tham li, tranh
ginh nhau, lm bing, ch s sc mnh ( coi phn I ) nn khng mong g h lm iu thin c,
ch cu sao h bit s m ng lm iu c thi, vy phi dng chnh sch cng ch ch khng cm
ha c. Tnh ngi l c a c ght a t li, a c khen, ght b cc kh, b hnh pht cho
nn c th dng s thng pht dt dn dn, ngn cm h. o tr thin h ch c vy thi (
Bt kinh ).
Chnh sch cm ha ca o Nho p nht y nhng Hn ch l khng thc t ; lu c kt qu m
phi bc hin minh nh Nghiu, Thun mi may ra thi hnh c : dng s thng pht kt qu rt
mau ( ch trong mi ngy, khng phi i ti mt nm ) m ng vua tm thng no cng lm
c. Thin Nn tht, Hn chp li mt truyn thuyt v cch cm ha dn ca vua Thun :
Nng phu Lch Sn ln rung nhau ; ng Thun li cy rung c mt nm th b rung
u chnh t c. Dn chi b sng Hong H tranh nhau cc bi trn sng : ng Thun n
nh c, c mt nm th ngi tr nhng nhng bi cho ngi ln tui. gm th ng Di
lm u xu, d v ; ng Thun li lm, gm c mt nm, gm u tt, chc chn .
Khng t khen ng Thun l bc thnh, dng c m cm ha c dn.
Hn Phi ch : ng Thun sa khuyt im (cho dn ), mt nm mi sa c mt tt, ba nm c
ba tt. Tui th ca ng c hn m tt ca dn th v cng : ly ci hu hn tr ci v cng, th tr
c bao nhiu u ? Nu dng s thng pht bt dn thi hnh m ra lnh rng : H lm ng
php th c thng, tri php th b pht th sng ban lnh, chiu s tnh thay i, chiu ban
lnh th sng hm sau s tnh thay i, ch trong mi ngy l khp nc thay i c, u phi i
n mt nm ? ( ) V li nu phi ch thn chu lao kh ri mi cm ha c dn th ngay
Nghiu, Thun cng kh lm c, cn dng (quyn) th m un nn thin h m li b ci cch
mt v cha tm thng cng d dng lm, th k cha c th cho lm chnh tr c .

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

(...)

( Th Thun cu bi, c nin d nht qu, tam nin d tam qu, Thun th hu tn, thin h qu v d
gi, d hu tn trc v d, s ch gi qu h. Thng pht s thin h tt hnh chi, lnh vit : Trng
trnh gi thng, pht trng trnh gi tru. Lnh triu ch m bin, m ch triu bin, thp nht nhi hi
ni tt h, h i c nin ? ( ). Th ph d thn vi kh nhi hu ha dn gi, Nghiu, Thun chi s
nan d ; x th nhi kiu h gi, dung ch chi s d d, Tng tr thin h, thch dung ch chi s d d.
Tng tr thin h, thch dung ch chi s d d. Tng tr thin h, thch dung ch chi s d, o
Nghiu, Thun chi s nan, v kh d vi chnh d).
Hn Phi cho cch thng pht l mm tr hay lon ca quc gia nn gn nh thin no ng cng
nhc ti, trc sau c ti trn trm ch, di y chng ti tng hp li tm ra nguyn tc chnh.
1- Thng th phi tn , pht th phi tt (Ng ) : Ch tt chng ti dch l cng quyt,
ngha l h k c ti th phi trng tr ch khng tha : ch tn kh dch hn, chng ti dch tm l
xc thc, ngha l h c cng th phi c thng theo nh lut nh, tri li khng c ti th d l
k mnh ght cng khng c trng pht ; khng c cng m thng th l thi n, mm ca lon v
dn s khng gng sc lm vic nc c thng m tm cch hi l quan li, quan li s thi n
cho dn mua lng dn, ko h v phe mnh m mu t li. Ngay vua cng khng c thi n cho
dn, v nh vy l tri php, bt cng, v li dn s trng vo s thi n m bing nhc cng vic. (
Thng v cng tc dn du hnh nhi vng thng - Nn nh).
Hai ch Tn , "Tt" cn c ngha l khng c mu thun trong vic thng pht ; chng
hn ban tc cho k c (qun) cng m li khinh th quan v, thng k gng canh tc m li coi r
ngh nng (Ng ) : hoc thng ngi chm c u qun ch, m ng thi li cao hnh
vi nhn t ; ( ) trng cy vo nng dn cho nc giu, trng cy vo qun lnh c ch m
ng thi li trng k s chuyn v vn hc ( Ng ) tc nhng k ch ni sung, ch bai php
thut, ngn cn vic tr nc, ch khng gip ch c cht g c.
Nu khin cho k phm iu mnh cm li c li, k lm li cho mnh li b cm ; hoc khen k
c ti, ch k ng thng th s thng pht ch lm cho nc thm lon. (Ngoi tr thuyt t h)
2- Thng th phi trng hu, pht th phi nng. Thng trng hu th dn mi thy li m ham :
pht nng th dn mi s m trnh.
Thin Lc phn, Hn Phi vit :
Cc hc gi u bo : Phi gim nh hnh pht i , l thut lm cho lon vong. Thng pht
m xc nh l khuyn thin cm c. Thng hu th mau c ci mnh mun, pht nng th mau

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

cm c ci mnh ght ( ) Cho nn rt ham bnh tr th phi thng cho hu, rt ght ri lon th
phi pht cho nng ( ) V li hnh pht nng khng phi ch tr ti nhn, n cn lm sng
php ca vua ( ) cho nn bo : Pht ti mt k gian m ngn cm c mi s gian t trong
nc ( ) k b pht nng l k cp m k s hi l lng dn ( ). Cn vic thng hu khng
phi ch thng cng, cn khuyn khch ton dn trong nc na. Ngi c thng vui v
c li m ngi cha c thng s ham c thng (). Nay nhng k khng bit cch tr
nc u bo : Hnh pht nng lm thng tn dn, hnh pht nh c th cm gian c ri, cn g
phi dng hnh pht nng ? . l khng xt k v s tr nc. Mt ti c c th ngn cm bng
hnh pht nng th cha chc ngn cm c bng hnh pht nh ; cn mt ti c ngn cm c
bng hnh pht nh th cng d ngn cm bng hnh pht nng. Cho nn t ra hnh pht nng th mi
s gian t s chm dt, mi s gian t s chm dt th thng tn cho dn ch no ? ( )

( Ph d trng ch gi, v tt d khinh ch d : d khinh ch gi, tt d trng ch h. Th d thng thit


trng hnh gi nhi gian tn ch ; gian tn ch, tc th h thng dn d?)
Vy dng hnh pht nng th dn mi s m mau c kt qu, nc s ht lon, ch c li cho dn
ch khng lm thng tn g cho h c. Hn na, cn l nhn t i vi dn na, v nu dng hnh
pht nh, dn khng s m mc ti, nh vy khng khc g by dn, cn dng hnh pht nng l
trnh cho dn sa vo by (Lc phn).
l ch trng ca Thng ng : dng hnh pht b hnh pht ( hnh d kh hnh ) tri vi ch
trng t ra hnh pht m khng dng (hnh bt hnh) ca Khng.
Nu k phm ti m trn c th phi truy n cho ti cng, quyt khng cho mt ti no
pht gic m thot khi li php lut y cng l mt quy kt ca nguyn tc pht th phi
tt .
Trong Ni tr thuyt thng Hn Phi a V T Cng ra lm gng : Thi V T Cng c ngi
b ti trn qua nc Ngy v tr bnh cho hong hu ca Ngy Tng vng. T Cng hay tin sai
ngi em nm chc ( lng hay dt ?) vng mua ngi c ti ; s gi i i v v nm ln m
vua Ngy khng chu giao : T Cng bn ly p T th i .
em mt p i ly mt tn phm ti v m trng tr, c kim chc cha c ai nh ng vua nc
V . Qun thn can, ng p : Mun tr nc th ng coi thng nhng vic nh, lon khng
phi l ton l do vic ln m pht u. Php lut khng vng, hnh pht khng cng quyt th d
c mi p T Th cng v ch, ngc li php lut m vng, hnh pht m cng quyt th d mt
mi p T Th cng khng hi.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

( Ph tr v tiu nhi lon v i. Php bt lp nhi tru bt tt, tuy hu thp T Th, v ch d, php lp
nhi tru tt, tuy tht thp T Th, v hi d)
Trc s cng quyt ca V T qun, vua Ngy nh phi trao k tr bnh m mnh,
khi mt tnh ha hiu vi bn ch hu. Cu ch Hn chng ti dn trn tm tt c mt cch
mnh m s quan trng ca php v hnh theo Php gia.
3 - S thng pht phi theo ng php nc, ch cng v t.
Thin Hu , Hn bo :
Php lut nghim l ngn cm ti li, tr b ring t : hnh pht gt l lnh c thi hnh
khp v trng tr k di . Ni ti thng pht, nht l pht, Hn thng km theo vi php lut. V
php lut nh ci dy mc, ci thy chun, ci quy ci c, c theo th hnh ng khng sai ; d l
ngi th kho n my cng phi dng nhng ci lm tiu chun, khng nn theo mnh.
Dng php lut tr nc ch l khen ng ngi phi, trch ng k quy m thi. Php lut
khng th a dua ngi sng cng nh dy mc khng th un theo g cong... (cho nn) Tr ti th
khng cha cc quan ln, thng cng th khng b st dn thng ( ). Hnh pht nng th ngi
sang khng dm khinh k hn; Php lut phn minh th ngi trn c tn trng, khng b ln.
(...),(...)

( C d php tr quc, c th nhi d h Php bt a qu, thng bt nao khc ( ) Hnh qu bt t i


thn, thng thin bt di tht phu ( ). Hnh trng tc bt cm d qu d tin, php thm tc thng
tn nhi bt xm - Hu )
Thin Ch o, cng bo : Nu qu thc c cng th d l k khng thn v hn mn, cng
thng, nu qu thc c ti th d l k thn i cng pht .
Thin Ngoi tr thuyt hu thng, Hn nhc li na : Khng trnh ngi thn v i thn, thi
hnh vi c ngi mnh yu v k ra hai c s m chng ti dn trn. Truyn Tn Vn Cng
ri l cho vin li chm in Hit sng thn ca ng, v ti ti tr trong mt bui i sn ; v
truyn thi t nc Kinh S phm cm, b vin nh l coi sn chu pht, khc lc xin vi vua
cha, vua cha khng an i m cn bnh vc vin nh l.
Tm li thng pht khng c v t tnh, khng c c t , khng c l vui bun ca
mnh ra na, mt phi lnh nh tin : hu thng pht nhi v h n - Dng nhn
C theo ng php lut m thng pht, th k b trng pht khng on b trn, k c thng cng
khng mang n b trn, v khng coi s c thng l mt n hu, ch l mt s cng bng m

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

thi.
u thin Ngoi tr thuyt t h, Hn k li hai c s dn chng: Mt ngi phm ti, b T
Cao lm chc coi ngc x ti v cht chn. Sau T Cao b truy n v b nghi l lin ly trong mt v
lm lon, ngi ct chn khng on, khng t co. T Cao ngc nhin, hi ti sao khng on
mnh, ngi p : Ti b cht chn v ti ti ng vy, lm sao khc c ? .
-

Chu Mo c cng du thuyt m cu Ngy khi b Tn v Hn nh, Ngy Tng vng

thng ng lc nm c xe, ng khng mang n m cn ch l thng t.


Theo ng php lut th hnh pht s thch ng, nhiu hay t khng thnh vn : nc lon, nhiu
k phm php th trng tr nhiu, tuy nhiu cng v hi. u thin Nn th, Hn Phi chp truyn n
Anh trch kho T Cnh Cng dng nhiu hnh pht qu, Cnh Cng nghe li, b bt i nm hnh
pht, Hn Phi ch n Anh khng bit thut tr nc.
Hnh pht m thch ng th nhiu cng v hi, nu khng thch ng th tuy t cng l hi. n T
khng ging cho vua l thch ng m ch ch l nhiu qu, l ci hi v thut. Pht qun thua trn
th n s ngn, s trm vn cha ngn c s bi tu, vy th hnh pht dp lon ch s khng
xu m k gian vn cn. n t khng xt l thch ng hay khng m ch cho l nhiu qu, chng l
by ?

!
(Ph hnh ng v a, bt ng v thiu, v d bt ng vn nhi d thi a thuyt v thut, chi hon
d. Bi qun chi tru d thin bch s, do bc th bt ch, tc tr lon chi hnh, nh khng bt thng nhi
gian thng bt tn. Kim n t bt st k ng ph, nhi d thi a vi thuyt, bt dit vong h ! - Nn
nh .
Sau cng, nu theo ng php lut th khng lm dng hnh pht m khi mt nc (Vong trng im 10).
4- Vua phi nm ht quyn thng pht:
Quyn thng pht l mt li kh, ch thn vua phi nm ly, khng c y quyn cho ai c ; giao
cho ngi th uy ca vua s phn tn, v s b b ti che lp, khng ch ng h c. Hn Phi cnh
co cc bc vua cha nhiu ln nh vy, nh trong cc thin Bt kinh, Ni tr thuyt thng, Ni tr
thuyt h, Ngoi tr thuyt hu h c bit l trong thin Nh bnh.
ng cho rng vua s d ch ng c b ti l nh hai ci quyn (nh bnh) : thng m ng gi l
c v pht m ng gi l hnh , nu khng t nm ly hai quyn m giao cho b ti th
dn s s m quy phc bn b ti m coi thng vua. Hai quyn nh nanh vut ca cp vy :
Cp lm cho ch khip phc l nh nanh vi vut, nu cp b nanh vut i cho ch dng th

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ngc li n phi khip phc ch .

(Ph h s d nng phc cu gi, tro nha d, s h thch k tro nha nhi s cu dng chi, tc h phn
phc cu h - Nh bnh)
Bc vua cha dng hnh v c ch ng b ti, nu b hai quyn cho b ti dng th ngc
li b b ti ch ng.
V vy vua khng c giao mt quyn no cho b ti c. Giao quyn thng th nguy cho vua nh
ri, nh trng hp T Gin Cng quyn thi n cho mt i phu l in Thng dng (in
Thng c php ban tc lc cho qun thn) m rt cuc b in Thng git, ri sau con
chu h in cp lun ngi vua T ; ngay n vic giao quyn pht cho b ti cng rt tai hi na.
Hai ln - thin Nh bnh v thin Ngoi tr thuyt hu h, Hn Phi dn truyn vua Tng (khng
r l ai ) b T Hn m nhim vic hnh pht, vic m ng ta cho l b dn ght :
T Hn tu vi vua Tng : Khen thng v ban n l lm cho dn thch, vic xin nh vua m
nhim ly : chm git, trng pht l lm cho dn ght, vic ny thn xin m ng .
Vua Tng cho l T Hn yu mnh, chu nhn ting xu thay mnh, chp nhn lin, t h c vic
phi ban lnh ra oai, trng tr i thn th bo : Hy hi T Hn . V vy m i thn u s T
Hn, dn chng u theo T Hn; c mt nm ng b T Hn git ri cp ngi.
Cho vua nm ht quyn thng pht ri buc vua phi tun theo php lut, l mt iu hp l v
nguyn tc : uy quyn ca vua c mnh nhng hi b hn ch v cn c php lut hm li : nhng
em ra p dng th khng hp tnh. Hn cho rng con ngi ai cng c t tnh, t li, th sao li
mong vua - hng vua bnh thng dung ch - b vic t tnh m lun lun gi ng php lut
c. Thuyt ca ng nu khng mu thun th cng khng thc t. C nh cm quyn no t xa
ti nay b c yu ght, vui gin u ? Cng cha h c nh cm quyn no ch dng chnh sch
thng v pht - tc nh ngi phng Ty gi l c c rt v cy gy m tr nc c lu, v
con ngi cn bit trng ci khc ngoi ci li, bit s ci khc ngoi hnh pht, x hi khng phi l
mt chung th ca mt gnh xic.
Vua Hn khng theo chnh sch ca Hn cha chc hon ton v l.

Ch thch:
[1]Nguyn vn: t kin ty chng nhi sinh d". Chng ti dch theo Trn Khi Thin. C v ngc

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T
vi nguyn vn m th hp vi c on.

[2]Thin ny c ngi ng khng phi ca Hn Phi vit ( coi phn I) nhng t tng trong on
chng ti trch y hp vi php gia, nn c th dng c.
[3]Vua Thang git Kit, dng nn nh Thng; vua V ( nh Chu ) nh bi Tr, Tr nhy vo la
t thiu, m vua V cn xng vo chm thy Tr.
[4]Do Trn Trng Kim dch v dn trong Nho Gio - Quyn thng sch dn. Nhng (nhng?)
ch trong du mc cho (do?) chng ti thm vo

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
Chng 6
PHP

Nho gia dng ch php theo ngha php tc, nh trong cc t ng tin vng chi php, hu
vng chi php (php tc ca tin vng, ca hu vng); cn Php gia ni ti php l lun lun
tr php lut.
Trong thin nh php, Hn Phi nh ngha ch php nh sau: Php l hiu lnh cng b cc
cng s, thng hay pht u c dn tin chc l thi hnh, thng ngi cn thn gi php lut,
pht k phm php, nh vy b ti s theo php.

(Php gi hin lnh tr quan ph; thng pht tt dn tm, thng tn h thn php, nhi pht gia
h gian lnh gi d; th nhn thn chi s s d).
Thin Hu , ng v php lut vi dy mc, ci thu chun, ci qui, ci c, tc nhng dng lm
tiu chun. Php lut tc l mt th tiu chun bit u l chnh, u l t, khen ng ngi
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

phi, trch ng k quy.


Trong phn I (tiu s T Sn) chng ti xt s tin trin ca nim v php lut thi Xun Thu
v Chin Quc ra sao, v cc php gia t Qun Trng ti Thng ng ln ln ly php lut thay
cho l, b tnh cch giai cp ca l ra sao. C iu ng l s tn qun cng tng th nim v
php lut cng mnh. Nho gia tuy tn qun nhng coi vua l ngi ch nhn s mng ca tri, m
dn l tri, nn i vua phi c o c (vua c ra vua th b ti mi gi o b ti) ng vua no
khng c t cch u b Khng T, Mnh T ch hoc mt st; m Nho gia li chnh l nhng chnh
tr gia ch c nim v o c (nhn) v bn phn (ngha) ch cha c nim v php lut. Tri li
Php gia tn qun hn Nho gia nhiu (coi chng II v III phn ny) th li c nim rt r v php
lut v i hi cc vua cha phi lun lun p dng ng php lut. C h h cm thy rng phi c
php lut gim bt uy quyn ca vua. H khng ni n mnh tri, dn na, khng cao nhn
ngha na m ch ni n php lut, cao php lut. l mt s bin chuyn ln trong t tng
chnh tr ca Trung Quc thi Chin Quc m chng ti cha thy hc gi no phn tch.
Ba thuyt th, php, thut ca php gia lin quan cht ch vi nhau, chng ln nhau: th nh ci
khung ca t v, php v thut nh hai chn ct ca ca; c ci th mi thi hnh c php, thut;
m c php, thut th mi gi vng c ci th, h thiu mt l sp ht. V vy m khi xt ti
mt trong ba ci , phi nhc ti hai ci kia, khng th tch ri hn ra c. Chng ti bt c d
phi tm chia lm ba chng: th, php, thut ch cho d trnh by, ch thc s mun hiu r mt
chng no th phi tham kho thm hai chng kia.
Tnh cch ca php lut theo Hn Phi.
Theo ch trng ca Php gia, vua tng trng cho quc gia, vua l quc gia, nn nm ht uy quyn:
lp php, hnh php, t php. Tuy nhin vua khng th mun t lut php ra sao cng c, m
phi theo ba qui tc chnh di y:
1- Lut php phi hp thi: Trong chng Lch s quan ca Hn Phi, chng ti ni Hn cng nh
Thng ng cho rng lch s bin chuyn, thi sau khng ging thi trc, m h thi khc th
vic cng phi khc (th d tc s d), thnh nhn khng theo c, phi xt tnh hnh hin ti m tu
nghi tm bin php.
V vic lp php, Hn tt nhin khng th ch trng khc c. Thin Tn [1] c cu:
Php lut cng vi thi m thay i th nc tr, tr dn m hp vi i th c kt qu () Thi
thay m php lut khng i th nc lon, i thay i m cm lnh khng bin th nc b chia
ct. Cho nn thnh nhn tr dn th php lut theo thi m i, cm lnh cng vi i m bin.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

(...)

(Php d thi chuyn tc tr; tr d th nghi tc hu cng Thi di nhi php bt dch gi lon, th
bin nhi cm bt bin gi tc. C thnh nhn chi tr dn d, php d thi di, nhi cm d th bin).
2- Php lut phi son sao cho dn d bit, d thi hnh.
Thin Ng , Hn vit:
Php lut khng g bng thng nht, c nh cho dn d bit.

(Php mc nh nht nhi c, s dn tri chi) Thng nht ngha l php lut phi qui nh cho c nc
theo, ch nu mi min c lut l, cm lnh ring th dn min ny qua min khc, c tng lut l
cng nh min mnh m v tnh phm php mt. Thng nht cn c ngha l khi ban b mt
php lnh mi th phi b php lnh c i, nu khng th k gian s li dng tnh trng mp m ,
la php lnh no c li cho h m theo, nh trng hp nc Hn khi mi tch ra khi nc Tn,
php lut ca Tn cha b m php lut ca Hn ban hnh, v vy m nc Hn chu cnh hn
lon mt thi gian, khng mau mnh ln c (nh php). C nh ngha l khng c thay i
hoi, mi ban mt lnh c t ngy hay t thng ban mt lnh ngc li. Vic thng pht cng
vy, thng th khng i , pht th khng n x.
Php lut l cho ton dn theo, cho nn phi tng tn cho ngi khng c hc cng hiu c,
li phi d thi hnh:
Ci g m k s c c tinh t mi bit c th khng nn ban lm lnh, v dn khng phi ngi
no cng c c tinh t c. Ci g m bc hin mi lm c, th khng nn dng lm php tc v
khng phi ngi dn no cng hin c.

(St s nhin hu nng tri chi, bt kh d vi lnh, ph dn bt tn st. Hin gi nhin hu nng hnh
chi, bt kh d vi php, ph dn bt tn hin Bt thuyt).

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Nht l phi son ra sao cho minh bch, mi ngi u hiu nh nhau; nu tnh lc qu, mi ngi
hiu mt cch th sinh ra nhiu vic tranh tng, v c nhng k li dng s mp m ca php lut m
lm by. Php lut m tnh lc th dn chng hay tranh tng, v vy m () php lut ca minh
ch ghi vic rt tng tn.

(Php tnh nhi dn manh tng, th d () minh ch chi php tt tng s. - Nh trn).
3- Php lut phi cng bng binh vc k yu, s t, nh vy mi c trt t trong nc c:
Bc thnh nhn xem s thc ca s phi quy, xt tnh hnh ca s tr lon, cho nn tr nc th
minh nh php lut, t ra hnh pht nghim khc cu lon cho qun chng, tr ho cho thin
h, khin cho k mnh khng ln k yu, m ng khng hip p s t, ngi gi c hng ht
tui tri, bn tr ci c nui ln, bin gii khng b xm phm, vua ti thn nhau, cha con bo v
nhau, khng lo b git hay b gic cm t, cng l ci cng cc ln vy.

(Thnh nhn gi thm th phi chi thc, st tr lon chi tnh d. C k tr quc d, chnh minh php,
trn nghim hnh, tng d cu qun sinh chi lon, kh thin h chi ho, s cng bt lng nhc,
chng tt bo qu, k lo c toi, u c c trng, bin cnh bt xm, qun thn tng thn, ph t
tng bo, nhi v t vong h l chi hon, th dic cng chi ch hu gi d Gian kip th thn).
Trn b Hn Phi t ch c my hng l c ging thng dn. T tng khng khc m c phn
y hn ca Mnh T trong cc thin Lng Hu vng thng v h:
ngi by chc tui c la m mc, c tht m n, dn cng khi i, khi lnh
trn th phng dng cha m, di th sc nui v con, nm c ma th mi mi no ,
nm mt ma th cng khi cht i, gi m go v gi l quan, gi m go chng gi l qu,
gi m khng c con gi l c, tr m m ci cha gi l c. l bn hng cng kh nht trong
thin h, khng bit nh cy vo ai. Vua Vn vng bt u tr nc, thi nhn, lu tm ti bn hng

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ngi y trc nht.


Hn khc Mnh l ch trng khng ban n hu cho dn, khng b th, bt dn phi tn lc ri mi
thng. Thin Ngoi tr thuyt hu h, ng chp li truyn Chiu Tng vng nc Tn t chi
khng pht rau qu cho dn i v mt ma, ly l rng:
Theo php lut ca nc Tn ta th dn c cng mi c thng, c ti mi b pht. Nay pht cho
dn rau qu trong nm vn (ca ng) tc l dn c cng hay khng c cng u c thng l
gy lon trong nc.
Xt chung, cc Php gia ch mun cng bng m khng mun c tnh thng; nhng thiu tnh
thng th c th cng bng c khng? Cng bng cn c ngha l mi ngi, chng k sang hn,
u bnh ng trc php lut. im ny c tnh cch tin b, ngc li vi tnh cch gia cp ca
l. Thi Xun Thu, hnh bt thng i phu, bn qu tc khng b hnh pht nh thng dn,
khng b tr theo php nc m c x theo l, tc theo cc l ring ca qu tc vi nhau. Thng
ng v Hn Phi mun dng lut tr ci c quyn ca qu tc, ko h xung ngang hng vi
bnh dn.
4- Php lut c tnh cch ph bin, tri vi l c tnh cch b mt. Php lut phi c ph bin
khng mt ngi dn no c th vin c rng mnh khng bit php lut nn l phm php. Thin
Nn tam, Hn Phi phn bit php v thut nh sau:
Php lut l ci chp trong sch v, by cng s v cng b cho ton dn. Thut l ci giu
trong lng so snh mi vic m ngm ch ng qun thn. Cho nn php lut khng g bng phi
by ra cho mi ngi bit m thut th khng mun cho ngi khc thy. Bc minh ch ni n php
lut th ht thy nhng k ti tin trong nc u c nghe bit; cn nh dng thut th nhng k
yu mn, thn cn cng khng c nghe

(...)

(Php gi, bin tr chi tch, thit chi quan ph, nh b chi bch tnh gi da. Thut gi, tng ch
hung trung, d ngu chng oan nhi tim ng qun thn gi d. C php mc nh hin, nhi thut
bt dc hin. Th d minh ch ngn php, tc cnh ni ti tin mc bt vn tri d, dng thut tc
thn i cn tp, mc chi c vn d).
C hai cch ht thy nhng k ti tin trong nc u c nghe bit:
a) Vit hay khc ln th tre treo ch cng cng, nh ng Tch lm t thi Xun Thu. Nhng
th gi l trc hnh. Cng c th c ln cc nh bng st, nhng nh ch by trong cung hay

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

miu ng, dn thng khng ti coi c nn km tnh cch ph bin;


b) Sai cc quan li dy cho dn. y l chnh sch ly php lut m dy dn dng quan li lm
thy m Hn Phi ni trong thin Ng . D php vi gio tc l em b lut lm sch gio
khoa, d li vi s tc l dng quan li lm gio vin, nh vy php lut va c thng nht va
c ph bin.
Vy t thi Chin Quc, ngi Trung Hoa c dy php lut chng nhng cho quan li m c
cho dn chng na. Ch trng hp l v thc t, nu c p dng lu, chng hn mt th k,
th cha bit chng Php gia s gy c mt ng phi chnh tr c quyn hnh ln m s din bin
ca lch s Trung Hoa c th khc. Nh Tn b dit ri, li phi i mi hai th k sau, mt nh
cch mng l Vng An Thch mi c dy lut cho k s sau b dng h; nhng ng cha kp
ci t nn gio dc khoa c chuyn v th ph lm hi nhn ti, th phe ng b cu ng
(ng th cu) lt , m li hc t chng li sng thm tm th k na.
*
Thin nh php, Hn Phi bo php v thut u l cng c ca vng, khng th thiu mt trong
hai ci , cng nh n v mc u cn thit nh nhau cho cuc sng c. Vua c thut m b ti
khng c php lut th nc s lon; c php lut m vua khng dng thut bit k gian th nc
c giu, mnh cng ch li cho bn i thn thi. V vy Hn lun lun nhc cc bc vua cha phi
theo php thut, phi trng k s gii php thut.
Tuy nhin trong thin Hu , ng li bo:
Ngi thi hnh php lut m cng cng th nc mnh, ngi thi hnh php lut m nhu nhc
th nc yu.
Nh cm quyn no bit b t li t tm m theo php cng th dn s yn, nc s tr; bit b
hnh ng ring t m lm theo php cng th binh s mnh, ch s yu. Cho nn vua (theo php
m) xt s thnh bi ca vic, dng ngi bit gi php m t ln trn cc qun thn th khng
k no gian tr gt vua c; (theo php m) xt s thnh bi ca vic, dng ngi bit cn nhc
m giao cho cc vic xa th khng k no la gt v vic quan trng hay khng quan trng trong
thin h c.

(Nng kh t khc, tu cng php gi, dn an nhi quc tr; nng kh t hnh, hnh cng php gi,
tc binh cng nhi ch nhc. C thm c tht, hu php chi ch gi, gia qun thn ch
thng, tc ch bt kh khi d tr ngu; thm c tht, hu quyn hnh chi xng gi, d thnh vin s,

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

tc ch bt kh khi d thin h chi khinh trng. Hu ).


ng mun ni c theo php cng - tc theo php lut th nc yn v mnh, m khng b b ti
lng gt. Vy ng c v nhn rng php lut quan trng hn thut.
Gn cui thin ng li ni:
p dng php lut th k tr phi theo m k dng khng dm ci () Khin cho ton dn noi theo
mt ng th khng g bng php lut () Php lut phn minh th ngi trn c coi trng,
khng b ln; ngi trn c tn trng khng b ln th vua mnh, nm c cc mi quan trng.
V vy tin vng qu php lut m truyn li i sau.
(...),(...)

(Php chi s gia, tri gi pht nng t, dng gi pht cm tranh () Nht dn chi qu, mc nh php
() Php thm tc thng tn nhi bt xm, thng tn nhi bt xm tc ch cng nhi th yu. C
tin vng qu nhi truyn chi).
Vy mc du khng th thiu thut, php lut vn quan trng nht, cho nn p dng chnh sch
thng pht gi ci th, vua phi theo ng php lut nh chng trn chng ti ni, m dng
thut tuyn v iu khin b ti, vua cng phi theo php lut, nh chng sau c gi s thy.
V php lut l ci qui ci c Ngi th d kho, mt nhn v on khng sai vi dy mc, nhng
cng phi dng ci qui ci c o trc ; ng vua vo hng thng tr tuy c s nhanh chng v
thch ng cng phi dng php ca tin vng lm tiu chun.

(Xo tng mc trng thng, nhin tt tin d qui c vi ; thng tr tip c trng s, tt nhin d
tin vng chi php vi t - Nh trn). Ngha l khng c theo ring, m cng khng c tin
cy s sng sut ca mnh, m nht thit hnh vi no cng phi theo php lut.
Thin Nn tam, Hn Phi dn truyn T Sn nh thng minh, gii nhn xt, suy lun m pht gic
c mt v v git chng.
Sng hm T Sn i qua ca phng ng Tng, thy c mt ngi n b khc, bn bo
ngi nh xe dng li, ng lng nghe mt lt, ri sai thuc h bt ngi n b li tra hi, th ra
m t tay tht c chng. Ngi nh xe hi ng lm sao m on c, ng p: V thy
ting khc m run s. Thng tnh h ngi thn ca mnh mi au th mnh lo lng, khi sp cht
th mnh run s, khi cht ri th mnh au xt. M khc chng cht, khng au xt m run s, v
vy m bit l c tnh gian.
Nu chuyn c tht th T Sn c th l thu t ca cc nh trinh thm Trung Hoa, l thy ca
Bao Cng sau ny. Nhng Hn Phi ch:

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

T Sn tr dn cch cng chng rc ri ? Phi i trng thy, nghe thy ri mi bit l gian
th nc Trnh bt c t k gian lm. Khng dng bn li coi ngc tng, khng dng chnh sch
kho st nhiu mt, khng lm sng t php o lng, m cy vo s tn dng tr thng minh, s suy
t mt tr ca mnh mi bit c k gian, chng l thiu thut qu ?
Li ch bt cng. T Sn l mt chnh tr gia gii, cho c hnh th, vy l trng php lut;
trc khi cht li dn ngi s ni chc ng Du Ct - phi dng hnh pht nghim khc cho dn
s m tn trng php lut, khi phm cm. Vy c l no ng khng dng bn li coi v ngc tng,
khng lm sng t php o lng, m ch cy vo s suy t mt tr bit c k gian. Vic T
Sn pht gic n mng ch l do ngu nhin, khng th cn c vo m bo ng ch trng ch
dng mu tr tr quc. Nhng li khuyn ca Hn Phi ng.
Chng ny cha nhiu t tng rt tin b ca Hn ni chung l ca Php gia chng sau Hn
Phi s h m cho ta ci tr khn ca c nhn.
Ch thch:
[1] Nhiu hc gi ng ging vn thin ny khng phi ca Hn nhng nhn rng t tng hp vi
Hn, nn c th tm dng c. Ring my hng u di y th r rng l kin ca Hn.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
Chng 7
THUT
Ch trng ca Php gia l bc vua cha c nhim v lm sao cho dn theo ng php lut, nh vy
l nc tr. Cng vic nhiu qu, vua khng th lm ht c, phi giao cho quan li, h quan li tt
th dn khng lon, h dn ni lon th lun lun l do quan li xu. V vy bc minh ch tr quan li
ch khng tr dn.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

(Vn hu li tuy lon nhi hu c thin chi dn, bt vn hu dn lon nhi hu c tr chi li, c minh
ch tr li bt tr dn - Ngoi tr thuyt hu h - Kinh 4) Rt cuc thut tr nc tc l tr quan li.

Hn Phi rt ch trng n thut tr quan li, ring c chc thin xt ring v vn : Bt thuyt,
Bt gian, Bt kinh, Nam din, Gian kip th thn hai thin, bn thin Ngoi tr thuyt; ngoi ra hu
ht cc thin khc cng c vi cu nhc ti.
Danh t thut ng dng c hai ngha:

K thut: Tc phng n tuyn, dng, xt kh nng ca quan li, ng vi nh ngha

ca Thn Bt Hi:

Thut l nhn ti nng m giao cho chc quan, theo ci danh m trch c ci thc, nm quyn sinh
st trong tay m xt kh nng ca qun thn (nh php) Thut l thut hnh danh hoc danh
thc (s c xt sau) c th cho mi ngi bit, vua khng cn phi giu.
-

Tm thut, tc nhng mu m ch ng qun thn, bt h phi l thm ca h ra,

nh nhng thut trong Ngoi tr thuyt hu thng:


+ Lm b nh ra lnh v ra lnh gi.
+ Giu iu mnh bit ri m hi bit thm nhng iu khc.
+ Ni ngc li nhng iu mnh mun ni d xt gian tnh ca ngi.
+ Ngm hi nhng b ti mnh khng cm ho uc, .
Cui thin Nn tam, Hn Phi bo: Thut th khng mun cho ngi khc thy dng thut th
nhng k yu mn, thn cn cng khng c nghe; ch thut ng dng c ngha l tm thut.
Trong chng ny chng ti khng xt cc tm thut v chng nhiu qu, thin bin vn ho, khng
theo mt qui tc no khc, ngoi qui tc ny: gt ngi sao cho c kt qu; c gi s thy chng ri
rc trong cc c s Hn ghi li trong cc thin Ni tr thuyt, Ngoi tr thuyt, Nn, Thuyt
lm Di y chng ti ch phn tch k thut tr gian v dng ngi ca Hn Phi
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

A - TR GIAN
Hn cho rng ci li ca vua ti khc nhau, m ai cng ch lo cho t li, nn b ti no cng mang
phn vua (ch b ti y c ngha rng tr c anh em, v con ca vua) v ng khuyn cc vua
cha: Bc minh ch khng nn vo ci l b ti khng phn mnh m vo ci l h khng th
phn mnh c; khng vo ci l h khng gt mnh m vo ci l h khng th gt mnh c

(Minh ch gi bt th k bt ng bn d, th ng bt kh bn d; bt th k bt ng khi d, th ng bt
kh khi d - Ngoi tr thuyt t h).

Trong thin Bt kinh, Hn k su hng ngi c th lm lon: m vua, hu phi, con chu vua, anh em
vua, i thn, ngi ni danh l hin, c lng dn.

Trong thin Bt gian, ng tr li vn , vch ra tm hng gian thn: bn chung ging vi vua
(v vua, cung nhn, sng thn p trai), bn t hu thn cn (h, kp ht), bn cha anh ca vua,
bn tho lng ham vui, ham sc ca vua, bn lm hao tn ca cng mua chuc lng dn, bn n
ni kho lo lm m hoc vua, bn t tp cc hip s, kim khch t ci uy ca h, v bn th
nc ngoi.

S lit k ln xn: sp li th c th chia lm hai hng: k thn thch ca vua v qun thn. C hai
u nh vo tnh cm, th dc v nhc im ca vua lung lc, che giu vua. H lp b ng

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

trong nc, ngm giao kt vi nc ngoi, nui uy th khi mnh ri th lt vua. t do


honh hnh, h ngn cn, hm hi cc trung thn. Hn Phi coi h l by ch d ca nc.

Thin Ngoi tr thuyt hu thng, ng k truyn nc Tng c ngi bn ru ngay thng, n cn


vi khch, ru li ngon m bn vn ch v tim nui mt con ch d, h thy ngi ti mua l
xng ra cn.

Cc trung thn mun git bn gian thn nhng vua li che ch chng, thnh th chng yn n
quyn th m bc lt dn lm giu, lp b ng che giu ti c ca nhau, bt mt vua; cng nh
loi chut khot t, o hang trong nn x (ni th thn t ai) m khng ai lm g c v nu
hun khi th s cy ct (thn v) chy, m di nc th s tri mt lp t mu t ngoi cy ct.

ngn cm bn , vua cha phi:


-

ng l s yu thch, gin ght ca mnh. Bc minh ch phi gi b mt, nu l

nim vui ra, th b ti nhn dp vua vui m xin gia n cho ngi khc, nu l ni gin ra th b ti
nhn m th uy vi ngi khc (Bt kinh).

+ Khng cho h bit mu tnh ca mnh, nu l vic quan trng th vua phi ng ring h c nm
m, ni m th cng khng ai bit c.
+ Khng phi (cho?) h mu tnh vic ring, khng h t hnh ng, vic g cng phi hi mnh
trc.
+ Bt h phi theo ng php lut m chnh vua cng phi theo php lut trong vic thng pht h.
+ Xt xem hnh ng ca h c hp vi li ni ca h khng (coi tit sau: thut dng ngi).
+ Khng cho h cng phi tn, cung n xin ring ci g c.
+ Khng cho h ly tin bc trong kho, la trong lm thi n ring cho dn.
+ Khi h khen ai, ch ai, th phi xt xem ngi c h khen thc c ti nng khng, ngi b h
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ch thc c ti li khng. Cc yu sch ca ch hu, hp php th nghe, khng th c tuyt (Bt


gian).

*
C mt cch tm k gian l khi mt vic xy ra, hi cho nc hoc cho mt ngi no th xt
xem ai l k c li.

V d: Trn Nhu l b ti ca vua Ngy; nc Kinh nh Ngy, ng ta v vua Ngy ng ra ho gii,


ri nh th lc ca Kinh m ng ta c lm tng quc Ngy. Vic c li cho Trn Nhu, cho
nn ta bit c ng ta ngm xi Kinh nh Ngy.

Mt v d na: Chiu Hi Hu tm, thy trong nc c sn, hi:


-

Nu ngi coi vic tm gi mt chc th c ai thay chn khng? K t hu p c. Hi Hu

bo: Gi n v ri mng ngi :


-

Ti sao ngi b sn v nc nng?

Hn p:
-

Anh coi vic tm gi m mt chc th thn c thay chn, v vy thn b sn v nc tm.

(Ni tr thuyt h)
*
Mun kim ch hng ngi c a v cao, trch nhim ln ta c ba cch:
-

Nu l ngi hin, c th bt v con, thn thch ca h lm con tin;

Nu l k tham lam th cho h tc lc hu h nh ha vi h an nh h, tc l

mua chuc h h khi lm phn;


-

Nu l k gian t th phi lm cho h khn kh bng cch trng pht (Bt kinh)

*
Dng nhng cch m vn khng ci ho c th phi tr h i. Mun tr h m khng thng
tn danh ting ca vua th nn u c h, hoc dng k th ca h git h, nh vy l tr gian
mt cch kn o (Bt kinh).
iu cn nht l phi dit cho sm, ng h lm by lu, mi ngy mt cht cha, sc h mnh
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ln, c th git mnh c. Hn Phi khuyn vua cha nh li ca T H (mt mn ca Khng t):
Sch Xun Thu chp c chc v b ti git vua, con git cha; tt c nhng v u khng phi ch
trong mt ngy m xy ra, m do cht cha ln ln ri sau mi pht (Ngoi tr thuyt hu thng)

*
M cch tt nht theo li T H l ng dng nhng k khng nn dng khi phi phng
h. Hn Phi trong thin Hu cho ta bit nm hng ngi khng nn dng:
1. Hng ngi khinh tc lc, d dng b chc v m i chn vua khc.
2. Hng ngi lnh i, n, ch bai vua.
3. Hng ngi t li gi di tri php lut.
4. Hng ngi thi n thu phc k di.
5. Hng ngi v t li m giao thip vi ch hu. Ri trong thin Bt thuyt, ng li k thm nm
hng ngi na[1].
6. Hng ngi v ngi quen c m lm vic ring t, h l bn tt nhng l quan li gian.
7. Hng ngi b chc quan m thch giao du.
8. Hng ngi tranh thng vi b trn.
9. Hng ngi un cong php lut v ngi thn (ging hng 6)
10.

Hng ngi em ca cng ra b th. (ging hng 4).

Tuy nhin ng cng nhn rng mt s gian thn chnh l k ti gii, nu vua c thut khng
ch h th h s trung thnh vi mnh m gip mnh c lc nh trng hp Triu Gin Ch dng
Dng H, mt phn thn ca L mu cp quyn cha, tht bi phi trn qua Triu. K t hu can
Gin ch: H gii cp chnh quyn, sao nh vua li dng lm tng quc? Gin ch p: H lo
cp chnh quyn, ta lo gi v ng dng thut, khng ch ni Dng H, Dng H tn tm phng
s, lm cho Triu mnh ln. Rt cuc quan trng hn c vn l phi c thut.
Phng gian, dit gian l kha cnh tiu cc ca thut, tuyn ngi, dng ngi tng cng hiu
hnh chnh mi l kha cnh tch cc.

B DNG NGI.
Qui tc cn bn ca thut dng ngi theo php gia l thuyt hnh danh. Ngi u tin lp thuyt v
danh l Khng t. Thuyt chnh danh ca ng l mt thuyt tr nc: chnh danh l minh
phn, phn s sang hn, cng nhc nh nh cm quyn nh n bn phn ca h: mang danh
l vua, l cha m ca dn th phi gi t cch ng vua, lm trn s mnh ng vua, cng nh ci c
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

- mt bnh ru th phi c kha, c cnh, khng c kha, c cnh th khng c gi l ci c


(Lun ng -Ung d 23 C ct c, c tai, c tai!)
V vy m chng T L, bi 3, khi T L hi ng nu c vua V mi tham chnh th ng s lm
g trc ht, ng p phi chnh danh trc ht, v nu danh khng chnh th li ni khng thun, li
ni khng thun th vic khng thnh; vic khng thnh th l nhc khng hng, l nhc khng hng
th hnh pht khng trng, hnh pht khng trng th dn khng bit ch no m t tay chn (tc
khng bit hnh ng ra sao)
.

(Danh bt chnh tc ngn bt thun, ngn bt thun, tc s bt thnh, s bt thnh tc l nhc bt


hng, l nhc bt hng tc hnh pht bt trng; hnh pht bt trng tc dn v s th th tc).
Mnh t cng theo thuyt nhng gay gt hn, bo vua m tn bo nh Tr th khng phi l vua,
ch l mt tht phu, vy git Tr khng phi l th vua m ch l git mt tn tht phu (tn tc chi
nhn v chi tht phu; vn tru nht phu Tr h, v vn th qun d Lng Hu Vng, h - bi 8).
Ri sau Cng Tn Long p dng nguyn tc chnh danh vo tt c cc lnh vc, ch khng ring
trong lnh vc chnh tr. Chnh danh ca ng l phn bit ng v d (ging v khc nhau).
Mc gia cng chnh danh phn bit ng, d v bc thm vo khu vc tri thc lun, vo ngn
ng hc, chia danh thnh ra ba loi: t danh (danh ph bin, nh: vt), loi danh (danh ch loi,
nh: nga, mo) v t danh (danh ring, nh nhn danh, a danh)[2].
Tun t tp i thnh Khng t, Cng Tn Long v Mc gia. Mc ch chnh danh ca ng l va
minh phn" va phn bit ng v d. ng nu ln php ch danh gm bn qui tc m qui tc
chnh l thc cng th danh phi cng, thc khc th danh phi khc, ngha l danh v thc phi
hp nhau.[3]
Hn Phi l mn ca Tun T chc trc tip chu nh hng ca Tun hn l ca phi Danh gia,
nhng ng c c thc t, khng bn v tri thc lun, ch p dng thuyt ca Tun vo chnh tr: m
trong phm vi chnh tr, ng cng ch thu hp vo vic dng ngi, gt b lun l, o c ra, v vy
ng khng h ni n vic chnh danh, ch ni n hnh danh(), hoc danh thc (). S vt
h c hnh, c thc th c danh. Danh v hnh (hay thc) phi hp nhau, nh vy l tun danh trch
thc () theo ci danh m i, cu ci thc; hnh danh tham ng () hnh v
danh hp vi nhau; thm hp hnh danh () xt xem hnh vi danh c hp nhau khng.
V d mt ng bn ha s ti thm ta, li ha l danh, m vic ng y ti thm l hnh hay
thc; nu ng y gi li ha, ti thm tht th danh v hnh hp nhau; danh v thc hp
nhau; nu khng th ch c danh m khng c hnh, khng c thc.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Ly php lut lm danh th vic l hnh: s vic m hp vi php th danh v thc hp nhau. Ly
quan v lm danh th chc v l hnh: nu hai ci khng hp nhau (chng hn mt ngi a v l
trng ti m khng iu khin ni nhn vin trong ti, cn vic g cng giao cho mt ngi ph t) th
l hnh danh khng hp.
Hn cho qui tc hnh danh hp nhau l quan trng bc nht trong vic tr quan li (tc tr nc), nu
khng theo n th khng sao phn bit c k gii ngi d, k ngay ngi gian, khng sao thng
pht cho ng c, vua s mt quyn, nc s lon.
Thin Dng gic chp:
Ci o (tc thut) nm c ci ct yu[4] l ly danh lm u, danh chnh th vt nh, danh lch
th vt i vua nm ly danh, b ti lm ra hnh. Hnh v danh so snh m ging nhau th trn di
ho iu
, , , (...)
(Dng nht chi o, d danh vi th, danh chnh vt nh, danh vt t qun tho k danh, thn hiu
k hnh, hnh danh tham ng, thng h ho iu).
Thin , hin nhin khng phi ca Hn Phi, v dng th vn cn i bn ch, i khi c vn; li
dng t ng chnh danh m chng ti khng thy trong cc thin khc. Nhng ngha ging cu
ny trong thin Nh bnh:
Bc vua cha mun ngn cm gian t tt phi xt xem hnh v danh c hp nhau khng, danh l li
ni m hnh l s vic.

(Nhn ch tng dc cm gian, tc thm hp hnh danh; hnh danh gi, ngn d s d).
Thin Nn nh, Hn cng vit:
Bc nhn ch tuy sai khin b ti, nhng tt phi c lng (tc php , php lut) lm tiu
chun; vic m hp vi php th lm, khng hp th ngng; cng (tc kt qu) xng vi li ni th
thng, khng xng th pht, dng quy tc hnh danh m thu phc b ti, ly lng lm tiu
chun cho k di.

(Nhn ch tuy s thn, tt d lng chun chi, d hnh danh tham chi; s ng php tc hnh, bt
ng php tc ch, cng ng k ngn tc thng, bt ng tc pht; d hnh danh thu thn, d
lng chun h).
Dng qui tc hnh danh hp nhau m thu phc b ti (d hnh danh thu thn) th khng c nghe
li gii thiu ca ngi khc m phi ch thn xt xem ngi mnh mun dng c xng ng

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

khng, v ngi gii thiu c th v tnh ring, v t li, v tinh thn b ng m c hng bt ti,
v c. M trong i, k c ti cha nht nh ng tin, k c c li cha nht nh l c ti[5],
cho nn vic b nhim ngi, nu khng c thut th s tht bi.
Mun cho khi b gt, khi tht bi th phi rt thn trng, tham bc kin ca nhiu ngi, ch
thn xt ti c ri mi giao vic.
V im , Hn cng ngh nh Mnh t. Mnh t khuyn cc vua cha:
Nh mun dng mt ngi no m hi k t hu, ai cng bo ngi l hin, nh vy cng cha
c; hi cc i phu, cc i phu cng bo ngi hin, nh vy cng cha c, khi ht thy
quc dn u bo ngi l hin, lc mi xt ngi y, xt xong m thy ngi qu l hin
th mi dng (Lng Hu vng - h - 7).
Nhng Mnh t ni vy m khng ch cch xt ngi ra sao, Hn Phi cho ta phng php thnh
ngn, tham nghim v th chi quan chc.
Thnh ngn: phng php nghe.
1- Khi nghe b ti ni th vua phi trm mc, lm l, khng khen khng ch, khng l ngh
cng tnh cm ca mnh:
o nghe ngi ni l lm cho ngi say mm. Mi ch, rng ch ta ng h trc. Rng ch, mi
ch ta cng gi yn, k t h mi, ta s nhn m bit v lng h

(Thnh ngn chi o, dong nhc thm tu. Thn h, x h, ng bt vi thu h! X h, thn h, d
hn hn h! B t li chi, ng nhn d tri chi Dng gic)
Thin Dng gic nh chng ti ni khng phi l ca Hn Phi nhng trong on trn ng l
ca Hn: bc vua cha phi b him, b ti khi d c lng mnh (coi cui chng III phn
ny).
2- Phi bt b ti ni, khng c lm thinh, m ni th phi c u ui, c chng c:
o lm cha l khin cho b ti bit rng h chu trch nhim v iu h ni, li c trch nhim
v ch h khng ni. Li ni khng c u ui, bin lun m khng c chng c, l chu trch
nhim v iu ni: khng ni trn trnh trch nhim, gi a v quan trng ca mnh, l
chu trch nhim v ch khng ni. Bc vua cha bt b ti h ni th phi c u ui, ng vi s
thc; nu h khng ni th phi hi h ly ch no, b ch no trong ngh ri khi thc hnh xt
xem kin h c ng hay khng; nh vy b ti khng dm ni by, cng khng dm lm thinh

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi



(Ch o gi, s nhn thn tri hu ngn chi trch, hu hu bt ngn chi trch. Ngn v oan mt,
bin v s nghim gi, th ngn chi trch d. D bt ngn t trch, tr trng v gi, th bt ngn chi
trch d. Nhn ch s nhn thn ngn gi, tt tri k oan mt, d trch k thc; bt ngn gi tt vn k
th x d vi chi trch, tc nhn thn mc cm vng ngn h, hu bt cm mc nhin h. - Nam din).
3-

Li ni ca b ti khng c trc sau mu thun vi nhau: o lm cha l khin cho li ni

trc ca b ti khng tri vi li ni sau, li ni sau khng tri vi li ni trc, (nu tri th) d
vic thnh cng phi chu ti.

(Ch o gi, s nhn thn tin ngn bt phc hu, hu ngn bt phc tin, s tuy hu cng, tt
phc k ti Nh trn).
4- B ti phi a ra kin r rt, khng c mp m, ba phi trn trnh trch nhim.
B ti a ra nhiu kin l t rng mnh c nhiu tr v khin cho vua phi t la ly mt
kin m mnh trnh c ti. Cho nn ch hng vua d mi b ti a ra nhiu
kin. ng b ti a ra mt kin th nh m kin vi kin th nht xem ra gi tr nh
nhau .

(Chng gin d hiu tr, s qun t th nht d t ti. C chng chi gin d, bi qun chi th d. V
ph ngn thng, d thit tng nhin Bt kinh).
5- Quan trng nht l li ni phi c thit thc, c cng dng, khng phi l h ngn. ny, Hn
din i din li trong nhiu thin: Minh ch nghe li ni th i phi c cng dng.

(Minh ch thnh k ngn tt trch k dng - Lc phn).


Minh ch dng sc (ca b ti) m khng nghe li ni ca h.

(Minh ch dng k lc, bt thnh k ngn Ng ) Ngha l li ni hay m khng c vic th cng
v ch.
Li ni v hnh vi, ly cng dng lm ci ch nhm
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

(Ngn hnh gi, d cng dng vi ch cu gi d).


Bc vua cha khi nghe ngi ni m khng ly cng dng lm mc ch th k bin thuyt s ni
nhiu v nhng thuyt mi gai m v nga trng

(Nhn ch chi thnh ngn d, bt d cng dng vi ch, tc thuyt gi d cc thch, bch m chi
thuyt (Ngoi tr thuyt t thng Kinh 2).
Thuyt bch m phi m (nga trng khng phi l nga) ca Cng Tn Long, chng ta bit ri;
cn thuyt mi gai m th Hn Phi chp li trong phn truyn cng thin k trn:
Mt ngi nc Tng ni vi vua Yn rng c th chm hnh con kh vo u mt mi gai, nhng
vua phi trai gii ba thng ri mi trng thy hnh cc nh . Vua Yn tin, ban lc cho anh ta
anh ta khi cng.
Mt ngi hu cn vua ch cho vua thy s v l ca li ngi nc Tng : mi nhn chm
phi nh hn vt c chm (tc mi gai). M khng c ngi th no c c mi nhn nh vy.
V li vua khng th trai gii mi ngy m khng c mt ba tic, vy th lm sao trai gii lun ba
thng c. Vy li ca ngi ch l li ni lo. Lc vua Yn mi tnh ng, cht vn, ngi
phi th ti.
Tham nghim
Tham nghim l kho st nhiu mt bit lng b ti v xem li ni ca h c gi tr hay
khng.
Thin Bt kinh tit Lp o, Hn Phi bo mun bit li ni ca ngi thnh thc hay khng th phi:
Kho st vic qua bit r li ni (trc kia) c ng khng; t b ti gn mnh xt ni
tnh ca h, a h ra xa xt tnh hnh ngoi ca h; dng nhng iu mnh bit ri tra hi v
nhng iu cha bit; () c thi khim nhng thy k no cng trc, k no a dua; tit l
nhng khc nhau d bit kin ca k di.
Li phi tham kho kin nhiu ngi bit thc tnh; nu ch nghe, tin mt ngi th s b b ti
che lp.

(Quan thnh bt tham, tc thnh bt vn; thnh hu mn h tc thn ng tc - Ni tr thuyt thng).


Phi bt k b ti trnh by kin, nghe ht thy kin tng ngi mt, mi phn bit c ai tr ai
ngu. (Nht thnh tc ngu tr phn Nh trn).
Tuy nhin kin mi ngi nh nhau th phi phng. Hn Phi k trng hp L Ai Cng vic g
cng bn tnh vi qun thn m nc cng lon thm. Ai Cng khng hiu ti sao, hi Khng t,

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Khng T p:
Bc minh ch hi qun thn th c ngi bit, li c mt ngi khng bit, nh vy l minh ch
trn, qun thn bn lun di. Nay qun thn u rm rp ni theo Qu Tn (mt trong ba i phu
chuyn quyn L), thnh th c nc ho l mt, d nh vua c hi khp ngi trong nc, nc
cng khng khi lon c (Nh trn).
Hu t tr li vua Ngy cng nh vy, nhn vic ht thy qun thn tr Hu t u theo Trng
Nghi khuyn vua nh T v Kinh.
(Vic ) cn phi xt k. Nu vic nh T, Kinh qu thc c li (cho Ngy) m c nc u cho
l c li th sao ngi tr ng c n th! Nu vic qu thc l bt li m c nc u cho l
c li th sao ngi ngu li ng n th! S d cn phi bn tnh v cn nghi ng: nu qu thc c
s nghi ng th tt phn na cho l nn, phn na cho l khng nn. Nay c nc cho l nn, tc th
nh vua mt phn na ngi (a kin) ri . Cha b tn hip nn mi mt phn na ngi nh
vy.

( Bt kh bt st d. Ph cng T, Kinh chi s d, thnh li, nht quc tn d vi li, th h tr gi


chi chng d! Cng T, Kinh chi s thnh bt li, nht quc tn d vi li, h ngu gi chi chng d!
Phm mu gi, nghi d; nghi d gi, thnh nghi, d vi kh gi bn, d vi bt kh gi bn. Kim nht
quc tn d vi kh, th vng vong bn d. Kip ch gi, c vong k bn d - Nh trn).
Vy vic cn ng ng, cn phi bn m thy mi ngi u a ra mt kin nh nhau, tt c s
m mu gt vua.
Giao chc
Giai on cui cng l cho h bt tay vo vic ri mi bit chc c hay d.
Nghe li ni, bit ngh, k hoch ca mt ngi ri, li tham nghim d xt lng k c ng
tin khng, ti nng k c khng, ri mi giao chc cho th, nh vy mi khi lm c:
Ch vch mm, coi rng v nhn hnh dng th B Lc (hay Nhc) (ngi gii xem tng nga)
cng khng quyt nh c gi tr con nga nhng nu cho nga ko xe, xem n chy ht con
ng th bn n bc cng bit c nga tt hay khng. Nhn dung mo, y phc, nghe li ni mt
k s th Trng Ni cng khng quyt nh c k tr tu ra sao, nhng nu th b nhim ri xt
thnh tch th ngi thng cng bit r c k ngu hay khng (Hin hc).
Khi giao chc, phi nh ba qui tc di y:
1- Mi u hy giao cho mt vic nh . Hn Phi bo: Quan li ca vua cha, th t tng phi

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

bt u t mt chc chu qun, m tng soi phi bt u t chn lnh trn Cp bc c tun t
m ln th chc cng ln cng c ti cai tr.
(...)
(Minh ch chi li, t tng tt khi chu b, mnh tng tt pht tt, ng Thin quan tp
cp, tc quan chc i nhi d tr - Hin hc).
Thin Vn in chp mt c s gii thch qui tc .
T C hi in Cu sao li bt mt danh tng l Ngha C mi u phi lm chc trng n, ng
Cng Tn n Hi, mt bc hin minh, phi xut thn t mt chc chu qun. in Cu p: v
cn phi th ti h, nu khng th c th lm v nhng li bin thuyt ca h m nc s suy vong
nh trng hp nc S dng Tng C lm tng soi, nc Ngy dng Phng Li lm tng quc.
Cch dng ngi nh vy hin nay c a s cc x nghip ln p dng: mt k s tp s d c
bng cp cao cng phi qua mt cuc trc nghim d xt tnh hnh, kh nng , ri mi c
giao mt cng vic thp trong x nghip, ri t a v cng ngy cng tin ln nhng chc v quan
trng hn. Nh vy cc k s s hiu bit r mi ngnh hot ng, sau mi c t cch v kinh
nghim iu khin.
2- Khng cho kim nhim : Phi phn cng r rng, mi ngi lnh mt chc v, hon ton chu
trch nhim v chc v thi. Khng phi l chc v ca mnh th khng c lm d bit vic
c ch cho nc. Hn Phi rt ngi s vt chc; b ti m vt chc th khng sao kim sot c,
mi lon do m ra. Vt chc l tri vi nguyn tc hnh danh (hnh vt danh).
Thin Nh bnh, Hn chp truyn Hn Chiu hu nm ng, vin quan coi v mo s ng lnh, ly o
p cho ng; khi thc dy ng pht vin quan coi v o v khng lm nhim v, li pht c vin quan
coi v mo v vt chc v. Khng phi l ng khng s lnh, nhng ng cho rng b ti vt chc
v th hi cn hn l mnh b lnh H vt chc v th cht.
( Vit quan tc t)
3- giao trch nhim cho mt ngi no ri th ng dng mt k khc dm ng k .

u thin Nam din, Hn vit:


Ci li ca bc vua cha l giao trch nhim cho mt b ti ri li dng mt b ti khng c
giao trch nhim phng h. S d vy l v cha ngh rng ngi khng c giao trch nhim
coi ngi c giao trch nhim l k th; nhng hu qu ngc li, chnh cha b ngi khng
c giao trch nhim chi phi Cha b php lut m dng b ti phng b ti, th nhng
k thn yu nhau kt b ng m khen ln nhau, nhng k ght nhau cng kt b ng ch ln

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

nhau, hai bn khen ch ln nhau tranh nhau th vua s b m lon.


Vy c tin h, h lm vic, ri ty h lm vic c hay khng m thng pht h ng php lut
ch khng phi cho ngi dm ng h. V li, c l trn di t co ln nhau th cn g phi dng
thm s dm ng na.
Trong vic dng ngi, quy tc l nh vy, nhng ch l cho cc hng vua cha tm thng
theo; cn hng minh ch c php thut th chng cn theo qui tc no c, d l phn thn nh Dng
H cng dng c (coi tit Tr gian, chng VII), m d c hai trng thn cng khng sao nh T
Hon Cng dng Qun Trng ln Bo Thc, Thnh Thang dng c Y Don ln Trng Hu (Nn
tht); tri li, vua hn m, khng c php thut th dng ngi tt h cng s phn mnh, dng hai
trng thn th h s tranh quyn nhau m kt giao vi nc ngoi, ch dng mt trng thn th h s
chuyn quyn m git mnh. Thnh hay bi u do t cch, ti nng ca vua ht. Tuy trng php
thut nhng yu t ngi vn l chnh; vy php tr hay nhn tr u cn c ngi tt c, ch khc
mt bn trng php thut, mt bn trng nhn ngha, l gio.

C - THUT V VI

Trung Hoa c im khc n , Rp v phng Ty l cc trit gia ln ca h u quan tm ti


i sng ca dn, u mun cu i bng chnh tr, m bn v chnh tr th hu ht h u ly s v
vi lm l tng.
Ngi ta quen cho v vi l danh t ca Lo, Trang ch v hai nh y dng n nhiu nht, s thc
th chnh Khng t dng n trc tin, m a s hc gi ngy nay nhn rng Lo c nhiu phn
chc l sinh sau Khng.
Lun ng, chng V Linh cng, bi 4, chp : Khng t bo : Khng lm g m thin h c tr,
l vua Thun chng ? ng c lm g u ? Ch cung knh gi mnh, (ngi trn ngi) quay mt v
hng Nam, th thi.

( T vit : V vi nhi tr gi, k Thun d d ? Ph h vi tai ? Cung k, chnh Nam din nhi d h). Chu

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hi ch gii rng : bc thnh nhn c c cao, cm ho c dn, nn chng cn lm g m thin h


cng bnh tr. S d vua Thun c nh vy, mt phn l do ni nghip vua Nghiu, li c mt s
b ti hin gip sc.
Sau Khng t ti Lo t. Chng XLVIII o c kinh, ng vit :
Theo o th cng ngy cng bt, bt ri li bt n mc v vi V vi th khng ci g khng
tr
(...)
( V o nht tn, tn chi hu tn, d ch v vi V vi tc v bt tr )
Chng LVII, ng cn ni r hn :
Ta v vi m dn t ho, ta a tnh m dn t sa mnh, ta khng mu tnh g m dn t giu, ta
khng ham mun m dn t thnh cht phc

(Ng v vi nhi dn t ho, ng hiu tnh nhi dn t chnh, ng v s nhi dn t ph, ng v dc nhi
dn t phc).
ng cho rng c theo o, tc theo t nhin, th mi s hon ho. C cho dn t lo ly th ai ny
c tho m trn di yn n, nh cm quyn cng can thip th cng gy ri : bt dn ng thu
nng th dn s i, rung t b hoang, hnh pht cng nghim th dn cng phm ti. Phi gim
chnh ph, ng dng nhn ngha, l gio : Mt o ri mi c c, mt c ri mi c nhn, mt
nhn ri mi c ngha, mt ngha ri mi c l. Tr tu cng phi b (kh tr), v c b tr ri mi
tr v t nhin c. Ch cn cho dn khi i, khi rt, ri dn mun lm g th lm. ng mun
tr v ch cng sn nguyn thu : nc nh, dn t, khng dng kh c, xe thuyn, khng c
gm gio, khng c vn t, khng ai i u xa (coi thm chng VII v phn XI - phn VI - i
cng Trit hc Trung Quc, quyn h - Co Thm 1966).
Ch trng v vi ca Lit t i khi cng nh Lo t (coi Lit t v Dng t, phn II L Bi
1972).
Lo t ch gim thiu chnh ph thi, Trang t mi hon ton v vi, cho chnh ph l v dng, khng
c dng php m phi theo tnh ca dn. Con chim bit bay cao trnh ci li v mi tn ;
con chut ng bit o hang su di g th thn trnh ci ho b hun khi, o hang. L no
ngi khng khn bng hai con vt ? (Trang t - ng vng). Dng php , bt dn vo
khun vo php theo ring, thnh kin ca mnh th s tht bi.
Vy phi cho dn hon ton t do (i th kim n, no th v bng i chi), nh vy dn mi
thnh thi t ti, mi tiu dao, vui v hng ht tui tri.
Trong thin ng vng, Trang dng mt ng ngn :

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Thin Cn i ln ni n dng, n sng Liu, gp v danh nhn, ni : Xin hi lm sao tr thin


h. V danh nhn p : Ct i, ngi l k qu ma Ta mun cng to vt m lm ngi ( tc
l ho ng vi vn vt ), chn th ci con chim mang diu ra ngoi lc cc (tri t v bn
phng), ngao du lng V h hu (tc o) ngi sao li ly vic tr thin h lm rn lng ta?
V danh nhn trong ng ngn chnh l Trang. Tng truyn S Uy vng mi ng lm t tng,
ng t chi, ch thch n dt. C th coi ng l mt trit gia theo ch ngha v chnh ph.
Php gia cng ni ti v vi. Trong Hn Phi t c dm ba ch dng ch v vi. Chng hn :
Thin Dng gic :
H tnh v vi l tnh (thc) ca o. Tham kho, i chiu, so snh mi vic l hnh ca cng
vic. Tham kho so snh mi vt, i chiu n hp vi s khng h.
, ; , . , .
(H tnh v vi, o chi tnh d, tham ng t vt, s chi hnh d, tham chi d t vt, ng chi d hp h).
Vt c ch thch nghi, ti c ch dng. Mi ngi u c vic thch nghi th trn di u v vi.
, , ,
(Vt gi hu s nghi, ti d hu s thi ; cc x k nghi, c thng h v vi Nh trn)
Thin Nn nh :
Cc ng gi nc Trnh c cu : Hiu o l th nn ng lm g, ng cho thy
:, .
(Trnh trng gi hu ngn : Th o, v vi, v hin d )
Thin Ngoi tr thuyt hu thng, truyn 2 dn li ca Thn Bt Hi : S sng sut ca b trn
m l ra th ngi di s phng, s khng sng sut ca b trn m l ra th ngi di s
gt b trn, () s khng ham mun ca b trn m l ra th ngi di s rnh b trn ; s ham
mun ca b trn m l ra th ngi di s nh b trn. Cho nn bo : Ta khng da vo u
m bit ngi (tc b ti) c, ch c v vi l c th d xt c h thi.
,
(Ng v tng tri chi, duy v vi, kh d qui chi).
Thin Dng gic ca ngi sau vit, m nhng : Hp vi s khng h, trn di u v vi
trong thin khng hp vi ch trng ca Php gia ; cn cu trong Nn nh, ch l mt cch x
th ca cc ng gi nc Trnh, ch khng phi l mt ng li chnh tr, nhng on dn trn
trong Ngoi tr thuyt hu thng, th tuy l li ca mt Php gia, Thn Bt Hi m cng hp vi
hc thuyt ca Hn Phi. Trong thin Hu , Hn vit :
Lm vua m ch thn xem xt cc quan th khng thi gian m cng khng sc. V li b
trn dng mt th k di t im b ngoi, ngi trn dng tai th k di sa ging ni, ngi trn

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

dng tr c on xt th k di kho ni, ni nhiu

(Ph vi nhn ch nhi thn st bch quan, tc nht bt tc, lc bt cp. Th thng dng mc tc h
sc quan ; thng dng nh tc h sc thanh ; thng dng l, tc h phn t). Tin vng cho ba ci
( mt, tai, tr c) l khng nn khng vo ti nng ca mnh m da vo php , xt k vic
thng pht, tin vng ch gi ci ct yu, nn php gin d, m khng b vi phm ; mt mnh t
ch ng dn trong bn b, khin cho k thng minh khng gian tr c, k ming li khng nnh
b c, k gian t khng bit da vo u c ; d cho k xa ngoi ngn dm cng khng dm
i li, k thn cn nh cc lang trung cng khng dm che du ci tt, t im ci xu ; nh vy t
cc b ti ti triu, t hp bn vua cho n nhng k thp hn xa cng khng dm ln nhau m
u gi chc phn mnh. Cho nn cng vic cai tr t, ngy gi d, c vy l do vua bit dng
quyn th tr nc

( C tr bt tc nhi nht hu d, thng chi nhim th s nhin d).


Thin Ngoi tr thuyt hu h, Hn Phi chp truyn T Trnh t ngi trn cng xe ca ht m qua
c cy cu cao :
T Trnh t nh xe ln mt cy cu cao khng c, bn ngi trn cng xe m ht, (tc th) ngi
i trc ngng li, ngi i sau y xe cho ng v xe ln c dc cu. Nu ng khng c thut
li ko ngi gip ng th d ng c gng sc n cht, chic xe cng khng ln c cu. ng ny
ng khi phi mt thn m xe ln c l nh ng c thut li ko ngi gip ng.
Nhng c tht l khng mt thn khng ? Tuy khng phi lm mt vic g y, nhng phi d xt,
phng mi b ti, lc no cng s h lm phn mnh, phi tm hiu tnh hnh, ti nng h giao
vic, khi giao vic ri phi theo di xem c kt qu khng, kt qu c hp vi li ni ca h khng,
sau cng ch thn nh vic thng pht ; v vy m thin Nn nh, chnh Hn cng nhn rng tr
nc khng phi l vic an nhn :
Sai khin ngi li khng phi l vic an nhn. Bc vua cha tuy (khng lm g) ch sai khin
ngi, (nhng cng ) phi dng s o lng (php ) lm tiu chun, dng thut hnh danh tham
bc.
Vic no hp php th lm, khng hp php th ngng : cng trng xng ng vi li ni th thng,
khng xng th pht. () Nh vy bc vua cha tr dn u c an nhn !.

(...)

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

( S nhn hu phi s dt d d hnh danh tham chi. Nhn ch tuy s nhn, tt d lng chun chi.
S ng php tc hnh, bt ng php tc ch ; cng ng k ngn tc thng, bt ng tc tru
Qun nhn gi yn dt tai ! ).
Vy v vi ca Hn khc v vi ca Lo, ca Khng : Lo v vi c l nh theo t nhin, theo o,
khng can thip vo i sng ca dn ; Khng v vi c l nh c c kho cm ho dn, dng l,
nhc, t dng hnh php ; Hn ch dng hnh php tr dn, dng thut bt dn co gian, can thip
vo i sng ca dn, nht l dng tm thut, phi tnh ton lo lng nhiu, khng tin cy ai c, c khi
khng dm ng chung vi v con na, li phi gi , dng trong mi c ch, li ni, nt mt, chng
hn ci u x con ch ( khuyn khch cc dng s) nh vua Vit, gi k chic kh c ( thng
k c cng lao) nh vua Hn (Ni tr thuyt thng) ; nh vy u phi l v vi, m l cc hu vi,
u c ung dung, nhn tn nh h Khng, h Lo.
Danh t v vi thi Chin Quc cng nh danh t dn ch ngy nay ai mun hiu sao th hiu. Phi
chng v vy m n thnh mt l tng hp dn.

Ch thch:
[1] v [2] Coi thm i cng trit hc Trung Quc - quyn thng thin II, chng II - Co Thm
1965.
[3] Coi thm Tun t ca tc gi - NXB Vn Ho, 1994.
[4] Nguyn vn l dng nht, chng ti hiu theo Trn Khi Thin, c sch ging l iu khin
cng vic mt mnh.
[5] Thin Bt thuyt:
B nhim ngi lm vic l ci then cht ca s tn vong tr lon () Bc vua cha b nhim ai,
nu khng la ngi c ti tr th la ngi c c; b nhim h l cho h c quyn hnh. Nhng k
s c ti tr cha nht nh ng tin; vua thy h c ti tr khng xt rng v tt h ng tin, nu
h dng mu tr, da vo quyn hnh ca chc v m lm vic ring t th vua tt b gt. V k ti tr
cha ng tin, nn vua li b nhim k s c c. B nhim ai l cho ngi quyt on cng vic.
Nhng k s c c cha nht nh l c ti; vua thy h gi mnh cho lim khit m khng bit rng
v tt h c ti. K ngu hn m m giao cho mt chc quan, h quyt nh cng vic, h quyt

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T
nh by m cho l ng th cng vic tt phi ri lon.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
Kt

i quc, u thi mn th, c c thc t, c sinh vo cui thi Chin Quc, c bit tt c cc gii
php cu th ca ngi trc, Hn Phi c cng suy ngh, so snh, ct ch ny, ly ch kia, rt
kinh nghim lp mt hc thuyt gn nh l mt tng kt cc t tng chnh tr thi Tin Tn.
ng Nho mnh nht v Nho l mt hin hc ng thi, cho chnh sch gio ho bng nhn
ngha, ch trng hu tr nhn v tr php, ngi hin cn sng th chnh s cn, ngi hin mt
th chnh s b[1] ca h, l khng hp thi, lm lon nc; nhng s tn qun ca Nho gia th
ng chng nhng vn gi m cn cho l rt quan trng, cn bn na. Ring i vi Tun T, ng
khng trc tip ch, nhng cng khng khen, mc du ng mn thuyt tnh c, ch trng cm
tranh bin, php hu vng ca Tun.
ng rt ght bn hip s lm lon php v bn ngy bin trong phi Mc gia thi ng, nhng theo
thuyt trng cng dng v cng li ca Mc ch, mc d khng cng mt quan nim v li; li
theo ng l li cho quc gia, cn li theo Mc ch l li cho mi ngi, cho khp thin h.
i vi danh gia, ng mn thuyt hnh danh (danh thc ca h) v p dng n trong thut dng
ngi, nhng phn i thi ngy bin ca h.
ng cho thi n dt, li chng c hnh (tch khi qun chng m i mt mnh), c thin k
thn (gi ring t cch, o c ca mnh) ca o gia (v ca Mnh T na) l c hi cho nc;
nhng ng mn ch trng tuyt thnh kh tr (khng dng bc thnh hin, b tr xo) thuyt
minh chnh sch nhim php nhi bt nhim hin, nhim php nhi bt nhim tr (dng php lut
ch khng dng ngi hin, dng php lut ch khng dng tr tu) ca ng, hu qu l ch trng
v vi ca ng ho ra cc hu vi, tri ngc hn vi bn ca Lo, Trang.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Cn m dng gia v Tung honh gia th b ng khinh r.


Rt cuc ch cn c Php gia - c bit l Thn o, Thn Bt Hi v Thng ng l c ng
gn nh hon ton tn ng. ng tp i thnh hc thuyt ca h v ca Tun T, iu chnh, b tc,
khai trin, dng c mt lch s quan tin b, mt x hi quan thin lch nhng c o, nht l
a ra mt chnh sch tr dn lp trn ba chn vc: th, php, thut, lm cho l thuyt v php lut
c hon chnh v phng php dng ngi c hu hiu. l nhng cng hin ng k trong
hc thuyt ca ng thi Chin Quc.
cu vn mt x hi lon lc, chia r, suy nhc, hc thuyt ca Hn c li hin nhin; nhng khi
x hi bnh tr ri, th n khng cn thit na m cn c hi v c nhiu khuyt im; dng uy qu
nhiu, khng hp tnh, coi con ngi nh loi vt; qu trng nng nghip v v b, ghm cng v
thng, m khng mt nc no ch trng cy vo nng nghip, v b m giu c, vn minh c;
nht l b c o c, l nhc, gio dc, ch cho dn hc lut php. Phi trng s thc khch quan v
trong thi lon th php lut phi nghim (ch ny chc sp ch b st); thc tin c th l cc chn l
nhng ch ngh n ci li ngn hn, m qun ci li di hn th cha chc phi l thc tin.
Chng ti khng bit L T v Tn Thu Hong p dng hc thuyt ca Hn Phi ti mc no
trong vic thng nht Trung Quc, cng khng bit Hn Phi chu trch nhim ti mc no trong s
suy sp qu mau ca nh Tn; nhng c Lc Gi ln Gi Ngh u i Hn u cho rng Tn mt
thin h v qu trng hnh php, qu bo ngc vi dn, khng bit rng khng th dng chnh sch
ly thin h tr thin h c. i sau Hn, ng, Tng, Minh, Thanh khn hn, dung
ho nhn tr ca Khng v php tr ca Hn, dng chnh sch chuyn ch, cc tn qun ca Hn m
cng dng T th v Ng kinh dy dn, mt mt bt dn phi tn trung vi vua nhng mt mt
cng nhn rng vua phi c lng dn theo dn, yu dn.
Ngi u tin ch Hn Phi c l l Lu An (Hoi Nam vng). Lu bo Hn khng bit trng ci
gc ca vic tr nc, tc nhn ngha m ch v ci ngn, tc hnh php.
Cc nh Nho thi sau phn nhiu u theo lun iu , nh: gio ho khng m dng hnh
php th d (T Thc); Tn, Hn c yn mt thi m ci hi th lu di (T Trit); nhng
cng c nh cng bnh hn, va khen va ch.
T M Thin bo: Hn T ch trng ti thc t (thit s tnh) phn bit r phi tri, nhng lng
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

qu cng nh (uy nhiu m t n).


ng T Ty cho rng Khng Minh khuyn Hu ch (con Lu B) c Hn Phi l phi v Hu ch
qu khoan hu, thiu quyn lc, mu tr.
Chu Hi ch khen thut du thuyt ca Hn (thin Thu nan) l cc tinh vi.
Phng Hu Lan kn o bo Hn cng l mt k s tch cc cu th (dic tch cc cu th chi s
d). Li gn m hm sc.
Mun tch cc cu th th phi cc oan; thi cng lon th sc phn ng phi cng mnh, phi
dng c tr c, phi m nht nh Hn ni. Cho nn ba nn vn minh ln ca nhn loi: n,
Hoa, u ti mt thi lon no , u sn xut nhng chnh tr gia trng php lut.
n, khong mt th k trc Hn Phi, sau cuc xm lng ca vua Hi Lp, Alexandre di triu
Chandragupta, c Kautilya, tc gi cun Arthasastra; Chu u, cui th k XV, nc b chia r
cng nh Trung Hoa thi Chin Quc, c Machiavel, tc gi cun Le prince.
i khi Kautilya cng coi thng o c, dng nhiu thut nh Hn Phi, i ni th t chc ban
mt v, i ngoi th dng mu m la gt, nhng ng hn Hn ch cn xt c v phong tc, v
cch t chc cc c quan hnh chnh.
Machiavel c nhiu im ging Hn hn na: cng phn c, cho rng tnh dn vn c: tham li, s
nguy, bc bo; tr dn th cn lm cho dn s uy ca mnh, mi vic phi quyt nh ly, phi qu
quyt, bt chp lun l, trng v b, nhng ng ta khc Hn im trng thng mi (nc thi
giu nh thng mi) v bit mua chuc lng dn.
C ba nh u tch ri chnh tr ra khi lun l, nu ra mt s vn cho hu th suy ngh: lm
chnh tr c nn dng thut khng, gio dc c ci ha c con ngi khng hay phi dng hnh
pht nghim khc; nh cm quyn l mt hin trit nh Khng T chng hn c li cho quc gia
bng mt chnh tr gia c c thc t nh Hn Phi khng? Kh p mt cch dt khot l khng hay
c c. Chng ta c th ni rng cho ti nay khng c mt nh no cm quyn c lu m
khng phi trng dn, d ch l trng ngoi ming. V bt k thi no, bt k u, ngi ta tu
theo li khuyn ca nhng chnh tr gia nh Hn Phi nhng vn trng nhng trit gia nh Khng T
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

hn. Hn ch c coi l mt k s nh Phng Hu Lan gi ch khng phi l mt bc hin. iu


cng d hiu: cn lp mt ch hp thi, hu hiu, nhng phi c con ngi tt thc hin m
chnh nhng nh nh Khng T mi c cng o to nhng con ngi y.

Ch thch:
[1] Li Khng t p L Ai Cng: Chnh s vua Vn, vua V chp trong sch, ngi cn sng th
chnh cn, ngi mt th chnh b (Trung Dung, chng 20)

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
PHN IV
VN NGH LUN CA HN
Trong phn II, chng ti ni tc phm Hn Phi T c phn ngy to ca ngi i sau nh thin
S kin Tn kin khng phi ca Hn Phi; nhng thin Gii lo, D lo t tng tri ngc vi
Php gia, khng th do Hn vit; nhng thin Tam th, Tm , Nhn ch. ging vn non nt,
rm r cng rt ng ng; nht l nhng thin c vn nh Ch o, Dng gic th cng khng th
tin c. V vy vit phn ny, chng ti b qua mt bn tt c nhng thin , ch dng nhng
thin m a s hc gi cng nhn l ca Hn. Tm li, chng ti mun xt vn ngh lun ca Hn
Phi, ch khng xt vn ngh lun trong Hn Phi T.

Chng ta hy tm ng xt vn trong o c kinh: n tht c bit, gm nhng chm ngn c


nhng v i nhau, cn xng, c khi c vn na, gn ging th ph cui i Chin Quc v u i
Hn, khin mt s hc gi vn t hi n xut hin vo i no, c thc ca Lo am khng, m Lo
am c sng thc khng. Tm gt tc phm ra ri, chng ta thy trong khong hai th k, t th
k V ti th k III trc T.L., vn ca ch t, tc cc trit gia Trung Hoa tin b gn nh lin
tc. Mi u l b Lun ng ch dng mt th n gin nht l k ngn; mn sinh ca Khng T ghi
nhng li ca thy. Ri ti cc cun Trung Dung, i hc cng vn l k ngn thm nhng on
ngh lun ngn ngn. B Mc t m u cho th ngh lun hay bin lun nhng l lun lm ch

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ngy th v rm. B Mnh T cng l k ngn nh Lun ng, ng ra l ghi nhng i thoi gia
Mnh T v mt s vua ch hu hoc mt s hc gi ng thi. Trang t dng ba li: k ngn, l
lun vn tt v ng ngn. Ti Tun t mi b hn li k ngn m dng th l lun theo ti. Sau
cng l Hn Phi dng ht thy cc th ca ngi trc, cho nn tc gi b Trung Quc vn hc s
ca vin i hc Bc Kinh son, do Nhn dn vn hc x Bc Kinh xut bn nm 1959, khen Hn
l tp i thnh bt php thuyt l ca ch t thi Tin Tn v vn l lun n Hn Phi hon
ton thnh thc (quyn 1 trang 93).
Trc khi phn tch bt php ca Hn, chng ta nn bit quan nim ca ng v vn ngh lun. Thin
Bt thuyt, ng vit: Th c nhi t bin, php tnh nhi dn mnh tng. Th d thnh nhn ch
th tt tr lun, minh ch chi php tt tng s.

Ngha l: sch m gin c th (kh hiu m) hc tr tranh bin v ngha trong sch; php lut m
tnh lc th dn chng hay tranh tng. V vy sch ca thnh nhn ngh lun tt r rng, php lut
ca mnh ch ghi vic tt tng tn.
ng ch trng rng trnh by mt hc thuyt cng nh son mt b lut, phi thc r rng, khin
cho ai c cng hiu r c, m tt c nhng ngi c u hiu nh nhau, khng th c hai ba
cch gii thch khc nhau c, nh vy trnh nhng s tranh lun, kin tng v ch. Gn l mt
c tt, nhng gn qu n ni ho ra mp m th phi trnh. Chng ti nh th k XIX, tiu thuyt
gia Php Stendhal c i c li b dn lut ca Napolon tp li vit ca cc nh tho lut.

Vit l ct trnh by t tng, tnh cm ca mnh, h ngi c hiu l mnh t c mc ch


ri. Li khng cn t chut. V ni dung c tm thng th mi phi t chut, m t chut qu c th
lm cho ngi c qun mt ni dung i.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

u tin Ngoi tr thuyt t thng Hn Phi chp li mt c s l th. Vua S ch li ca Mc T


khng vn nh, t chut, mt mn ca Mc T bnh vc thy, k ra hai vic: con gi Tn Mc
Cng v lm du nc Tn m trang sc, khng p, sang bng cc nng hu, thnh th bn nc
Tn yu bn thiu n hn c du (h cho mt v s t chut m coi thng ni dung); mt
thng nhn nc S bn ht chu cho nc Trnh, qu trang sc ci hp, v ngi nc Trnh ch
mua ci hp v tr li ht chu (h thy ni dung tm thng nn khng dng). Ri mn ca Mc
T kt: Ngy nay ngi ta bn lun u thch dng li kho lo vn hoa, bc vua cha thy ci
vn hoa m qun rng nhng li v dng. Thuyt ca Mc T truyn cho ci o ca tin vng,
lun li ca thnh nhn tuyn co cho mi ngi. Nu dng nhng li vn hoa t chut th s
ngi ta ch nh ci vn hoa m qun ci hu dng ca hc thuyt, nh vy l ly ci vn hoa lm
hi ci hu dng (d vn hi dng), khng khc g vic ngi nc S bn ht chu, vua Tn g con
gi.

D vn hi dng l ci tt ca rt nhiu ngi cm bt trong nhng thi theo ch trng duy m. t


nht l v im Hn Phi khng phn i Khng T. V Khng bo: Li ct din c l
ri ( - T t nhi d h - V Linh cng 40).

Chng ta cn nh thc t l tnh cch ni bt nht ca Php gia. a ra mt l thuyt no, t ra


mt qui ch no, h nhm trc ht s ch li ca quc gia, nu lm cho quc gia ph cng l tt,
ngc li th d cao siu, tt p n u cng phi b. V vy h p dng trit qui tc danh phi
hp vi thc ca Danh gia, nhng li ght bn ngy bin nh bn Cng Tn Long v nhng bin
lun ca bn u l h ngn ht. Hn Phi ch trong c my hng cho ta thy r ng khinh h ra
sao:
Ngh Duyt l ngi nc Tng, gii bin thuyt, a ra thuyt nga trng khng phi l nga
Hn chc l lm, thuyt l thuyt ca Cng Tn Long cc bin s Tc H khng ai bc c,
nhng khi ng ta ci nga trng qua khi i th chu np thu. Vy da vo li h khng, c th
thng c mt nc, m kho v thc t, xt v hnh trng th khng th gt ni mt ngi (Ngoi
tr thuyt t thng).

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn na, ngay nhng thuyt nhn ngha ca Nho v Mc, ng cng ch l khng thc t, khng p
dng c, ni ch chi thi. ng v nhng thuyt nh t, bn tr con lm b dng lm cm
canh trong khi vui a, nhng ti ba vn v nh n cm canh ca cha m (Nh trn).

Vy bin lun th phi thit thc, khng c dng h ngn, cng l mt qui tc na ca Hn
Phi.

Sau cng, khi bin lun c khi phi dn chng, khng phi tham nghim trc , nu c ng th
mi dng lm chng c, nu khng th hoc l ngu, hoc l la gt thin h. Hn Phi din trong
on u thin Hin hc m nhiu sch vn hc s Trung Quc cho l tiu biu cho vn ngh lun
ca ng. Hn vit:

()Khng T v Mc T u xng tng Nghiu Thun m ch trng khc nhau v u t cho l


chn truyn ca Nghiu Thun. Nghiu Thun khng sng li th ly ai l ngi quyt nh c
hc thuyt no mi thc l ca Nghiu Thun ()[1]

Khng tham nghim c m c xc nh l ngu; khng xc nh c m dng lm chng c th l


la gt ngi ta. Vy cn c vo cc tin vng m theo o Nghiu, Thun, nu khng phi l ngu
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

cng l la gt thin h. Ci hc ngu v gt ngi y, hn tp v mu thun y, bc minh ch khng


chp nhn.

(...)

(Khng T, Mc T cu o Nghiu Thun nhi th x bt ng, giai t v chn Nghiu Thun;


Nghiu Thun bt phc sinh, tng thy s nh Nho Mc chi thnh h () V tham nghim nhi tt
chi gi, ngu d; pht nng tt nhi c chi gi, vu d. C minh c tin vng, tt nh Nghiu Thun
gi, phi ngu tc vu. Ngu vu chi hc, tp phn chi hnh, minh ch pht th d).

Phi ngu tc vu v ngu vu chi hc thnh nhng thnh ng chng ta thng gp trn sch bo
Trung Hoa. Li mt st ca Hn Phi xc ng, gn m mnh, nhm vo hu ht cc trit gia thi
ch khng phi ring Nho gia, Mc gia v c o gia, Danh gia cng c tt vin Nghiu Thun
chng hc thuyt ca h. H chp ln Nghiu Thun cc th m, phi no cng a hai
ng y ln lm ng t.[2]

Xt chung th Hn Phi lun lun theo ng c ba qui tc trn: vn ng sng sa, lp lun rnh
mch (thnh thong chng ta gp nhng ch kh hiu l do ngi sau chp sai hoc thiu v do c
nhng ch c ngy nay khng dng na), cho nn c khng mt nh Nam Hoa kinh m cng khng
gy nhng cuc tranh bin bt tn cho ngi sau nh o c kinh; vn ng li bnh d, khng t

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

chut (chng ta c cm tng rng thi ng ngi ta ni sao th ng vit vy); cn tnh cch thit
thc, khng h ngn, khng qui n, ngy bin th cng hin nhin hn na. c gi c bt k
thin no trong phn dch sau, nht l cc thin Hin hc, Ng , Thu nan, C phn s nhn thy
r, chng ti khi phi dn chng y thm rm.

V qui tc cui: phi tham nghim, c thy ng ri mi dng lm chng c, Hn Phi c hai im
ng khen:
- ng hiu bit rng, chu tm ti, thu thp rt nhiu c s dn chng: su thin di Ni tr thuyt
thng v h, Ngoi tr thuyt t thng h, Ngoi tr thuyt hu thngv h vi bn thin Nn,
hai thin Thuyt lm, gm trn 200 c s ri; nu k c nhng c s ri rc trong cc thin khc
th con s chc ti 300. Nh vy Hn Phi T khc hn Tun T, nhiu mu sc hn, c vui hn; n
cng khc hn Lit T v Lit T tuy cng c my trm c s nhng phn l thuyt, bin lun gn
nh thiu hn. Hn Phi dung ho c bt php ca hai nh .
- ng li c tinh thn ph phn, bit tn nghi: gp mt c s no c hai thuyt khc nhau, ng ghi c
hai. Trong su thin Ni tr v Ngoi tr c c chc trng hp tn nghi nh vy, chng ti ch xin
an c mt truyn 2d/ Ni tr thuyt thng v php nh n tr ti k tro [3] ra ng nhng
khng ni dng hnh pht no. T Cng cho vy l nghim khc, hi Khng T, Khng T p nh
vy l bit o tr nc, ri ging ti sao: tro (hoc than) ra ng, n bay ln, ph c ngi ta
[4] , ngi ta tt ni gin, ri u nhau, tn hi nhau na, gy lon nn cn phi tr. Li phi tr
nng th mi c cng hiu; ch cn lm mt vic d (khng tro ra ng) m trnh c mt ti
nng th dn sn sng nghe theo.

Thuyt th nh ni r l nh n cht tay k tro ra ng. T Cng cng cho l nghim khc qu,
nhng Khng T ch p vn tt: Khng tro l vic d, b cht tay l iu dn ght. Lm vic vic
d khi b ci mnh ght, c nhn cho nh vy l d (ngha l dn sn sng lm), nn ban hnh
lut .
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Chng ta thy thuyt sau ng tin hn thuyt trc: ghi r l cht tay, nh vy mi hiu ti sao T
Cng cho l nghim khc qu; Khng T ch ging l do nh n ban hnh lut , ch khng khen l
bit o tr nc. Khng T ch trng trng l hn hnh, trng s gio ho hn s trng pht, tt
khng ni nhng li nh trong thuyt th nht. C l Hn Phi cm thy vy nn tn nghi m ghi
thm thuyt sau. [5]

Tuy nhin chng ta phi nhn rng mt s c s Hn a ra lm chng c khng ng tin v ng


khng lun lun theo ng qui tc cui cng ca ng.

Chng hn, trong phn truyn 2- Ni tr thuyt thng, chuyn Khng T ra lnh cho dn nc L:
sai khng cu la ( chm Tch) th b trng tr nh ti hng gic hoc b chy, chng ti ng rng
cng khng hp vi ch trng ca Khng T. Nht l truyn 1a/ thin Ngoi tr thuyt t h, Hn
Phi chp rng khi Khng T lm tng quc nc V, c ngi ght ng, tu vi vua V, vu oan
cho ng mun lm phn. Truyn sai: Khng T khng h lm tng quc nc V; thi k
lm lon V l Khng Khi, trng h vi Khng T, nn ngi ta lm l Khng T.

V Qun Trng, cng c vi c s chng ti vn cn ng. Truyn 2k/ Ni tr thuyt thng gy cho
ta mt hnh tng ng tm v v tng quc ca T Hon Cng : mun cho dn T b ci tc
chn ct trng hu lm tn vi, tn g ca quc gia, Qun Trng h lnh: Quan quch m dy qu
mc th thy ngi cht s b cht m k ch tang s b ti. Tr ti ngi ch tang l iu c l, cht
thy ngi cht th va v l va tn nhn qu, mt chnh tr gia c Khng T khen l c lng
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

nhn, dn chng c hng n c (Lun ng - Hin vn - 17); c T M Thin ngng m v


dn chng yu ght ci g th cng yu ght ci , mnh lnh no ban xung cng thun lng
dn, nh ngun nc xui dng, dn mun ci g th cp cho ci , khng mun ci g th tr ci
, bit phn bit nng nh, cn thn v vic cn nhc li hi, mt ngi nh vy l no li ra ci
lnh bt nhn kia.

M Qun Trng cng khng th c thi b i nh trong truyn 5b/ thin Ngoi tr thuyt t h;
phn nn vi T Hon Cng rng mnh ngho, Hon Cng cho c i tam qui; c i tam qui ri
li phn nn rng a v thp lm tng quc a v cn thp! Hon Cng cng chiu lng, t
ng ta ln trn hai qu tc Cao v Quc ca T; c a v ri li xin c coi l ngi trong h
nh vua, v vy m Hon Cng mi lp ng lm Trng ph (nh hng cha ch ca vua).

Truyn xin x, vi vnh chc chn khng c; Qun T khng chp, S k ca T M Thin cng
khng; Lun ng ch chp li Khng T ch Qun Trng xa x v ct i tam qui, cn tn gi l
Trng ph v s c tn trng hn hai h Cao v Quc l nhng iu khng th xin c.

Hn Phi gi b hn thuyt i, ch chp thuyt th nh: Qun Trng ra ngoi th dng xe bc mu


, vi ngi hu mc o xanh, v nh th cho nh trng, trc sn by vc, trong nh c i tam
qui th hn, nhng thuyt ny ch t rng Qun Trng xa x v khng bit l nh Khng T ch thi
ch khng chng minh rng Qun Trng p bc vua nh Hn Phi ni trong phn kinh.

Truyn Lun ng (Bt dt -22) chp rnh mch nh sau:


To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Khng T bo: Kh tng ca Qun Trng nh thay! C ngi hi: Qun Trng l ngi tit
kim khng? ng p: Qun Trng c i tam qui, v vic quan th khng kim nhim nh vy
sao gi l tit kim c? (Li hi) Nhng Qun Trng bit l ch? p: Vua ch hu dng ci
tc mn (mt th ca) trc dinh. Qun Trng cng dng ci tc mn. Vua ch hu dng gi p
chn (phn im) khi d yn vi mt vua ch hu khc, Qun Trng cng c ci p chn. H Qun
m bit l th cn ai m khng bit l?

R rng l Hn Phi khng tra cu xem c s ng dng dn chng c ng khng. Nhng chng ta
cng nn hiu cho ng: ng khng c sch tra cu nh chng ta ngy nay. Thi sch cn
bng th tre. Mt b Lun ng khc ln th tre chc cha y mt ci rng ln, v nhng nh ni
ting l c nhiu sch nh Hu Thi i u cng ch theo nm xe sch th s sch cng ch c
khong nm su chc b nh b Lun ng, khng bng mt ngn trong t sch ca chng ta. Rt c
th Hn Phi khng c c Lun ng, Tun T khng c c Mnh T, Trang t khng c
c o c kinh[6] v ngay c Hu Thi cng khng c nhng b m i sau gi l T th v
Ng kinh. Khng c sch c, cho nn gi na s hiu bit ca h v lch s, v cc trit
thuyt, v i sng ca ngi trc phi da vo truyn thuyt, m truyn thuyt th mi phn may
lm ng s thc c vi ba. Khng c sch tra cu, cho nn Hn Phi d c mun tham nghim
xem c ng khng trc khi dng mt c s no lm chng c cng khng c. V ta c th ni
rng h khng hiu nhng trit gia sng cch h mt vi trm nm, ngay c ngi ng thi vi h,
bng chng ta ngy nay hiu nhng ngi . Thin Thin h trong Trang t, thin Phi thp nh t
trong Tun T, tuy c nhng nhn xt ng qu nhng xt chung th thiu st, thin lch, nht l li
T M m (cha T M Thin) ph bnh cc trit gia ln thi Tin Tn th cng nng cn na. Vy
ta cng khng nn trch Hn Phi khng hiu Khng T v Qun Trng; khng ai c th ch nghe
nhng truyn thuyt m hiu mt trit gia, mt chnh tr gia c.

Vn ca Tun T c t chc, li tinh luyn m dng ng phong ph, c ci ging nghim tc, bnh

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

m ca mt bc thy, mt trit gia thun tu tuy bn v chnh tr nhng khng chin u cho ch
trng ca mnh. Vn ca Hn Phi thng thiu nhng c .

Vn ca Mnh T hng hn, li cun, bng bng ci nhit tm ca mt chin s v trn tr ci kh


ho nhin ca mt i trng phu dm mng thng vo mt cc vua cha ng thi, nh khi ng
mt st vua ch hu l hiu chin cho t n tht dn, ti ng cht (Li Lu thng - 14); l lm
liu, hoang vng, ham tic tng, sn bn lm cho dn phi nhn n, phi hu h, khng c ngh
ngi (Lng Hu vng h - 4); hoc khi ng vch ti Lng Hu vng l git dn ri li cho
s mt ma: Vua cho loi ch, heo n ht ca dn m chng bit ngn cm, trn ng y
nhng k cht i m khng xut la pht chn cho dn. Dn cht, vua ni rng: Chng phi ti ta,
ti mt ma y. Nh vy c khc no m cht ngi ta ri li bo: Chng phi ti ta, ti mi dao
y! (Lng Hu vng thng - 3), nht l khi ng buc ti Lng Hu vng l khin cho
loi th n tht dn v trong bp nh vua c tht bo, trong tu c nga mp m dn khng c g n,
trong ng la lit k cht i (Lng Hu vng thng - 4).

Trong b Mnh T c ti non mt chc ch ging gay gt nh vy; Hn Phi khng c kh phch
v ng ch trng tn qun trit ; vua d bt lc, c li, b ti cng khng c ph phn, cho nn
trong tc phm ca ng, ch c mi mt ch ng nng li vi vua, tc on cui thin Nn ngn:
Tuy l hin thnh th cng khng thot cht, khng trnh khi b lng nhc. Ti sao vy? Ti kh
thuyt phc c k ngu (tc bn vua hn m). Li ni phi th tri tai, pht , khng phi l hin
nhn, thnh nhn th khng chp nhn c. Nhng on li b mt s hc gi ng rng khng
phi ca Hn Phi m ca ngi sau ngy to, v n tri hn vi ging cc thin khc.
Km hng hn, km ci kh ho nhin, nhng vn Hn Phi bi t hn. Khi cc k chn nn, Mnh T
ch chua xt th di:
C ngi hi nh hc o (tr quc) ca thnh hin, ln ln, mong thi hnh s hc ca mnh, nhng
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

nh vua (T Tuyn vng) li bo: Khoan, hy qua mt bn s hc ca ngi m lm theo ta


. Nh vy mi lm sao! Nay nh vua c mt ht ngc cha mi, d ng mt vn dt th cng
giao cho th ngc gia mi. n vic tr quc th nh vua li bo: Khoan, hy qua mt bn s
hc ca ngi m lm theo ta Sao hnh ng khc th giao ngc cho th gia mi? (Lng
Hu vng h - 9).

Hn Phi khi no tuyt vng th ngh ti cht, t v mnh vi Ng Khi v Thng ng, mt k b
cht chn tay, mt k b x thy.

Trong thin C phn, sau khi xt ci l khng i tri chung gia bn trng nhn (tc bn qu tc
cm quyn m bo th), v bn s gii php thut nh ng, sau khi nhn rng bn s gii php thut
c nm ci th phi thua bn trng nhn, m khng c mt th no thng ni, Hn Phi kt lun:
Th khng thng c m li khng sng chung c, tt c k mt ngi cn, th k s gii
php thut lm sao khi b nguy? Bn trng nhn nu c th vu ti li cho ai th s dng php cng
m git ngi , khng vu c th sai ngi m st. Tm li l hng s nhit tm cu quc nh
ng, dm ci cch, th nu khng b bn cm quyn dng php cng m git, cng s b chng sai
ngi m hi.

Cui chng Ho th ng k hai trng hp dn chng:

S khng dng Ng Khi m b mt t v lon, Tn thi hnh php ca Thng qun m ph


To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

cng. Li hai ng y u ng m Ng Khi b cht chn tay, Thng qun b x thy l ti sao?
Ti bn i thn on php thut m dn chng ght s cai tr.

Hn ch trng khng t chut li vn, nhng mt s thin ng vit k ng lm mu mc cho thi


sau, nh cc thin Hin hc, Ng , C phn (coi phn dch) nht l thin Thu nan m t T M
Thin n nay ai cng nhn l bt h, b C vn no cng trch dn.

B cc minh bch: c m c kt, m th t ngt, vo thng ngay vn , kt th gn mnh, p vo


c ta, khin ta khng qun c. Phn gia (khai trin) gm c l thuyt: (nhng iu nn trnh v
nhng iu nn theo khi thuyt phc cc vua cha) v chng c (c s v Y Don, Bch L H,
Quan K T, Nhiu Triu, Di T H, v ngi nc Tng b trm).

ng phn tch thut du thuyt thc y , i sau khng ai hn, m tm l su sc, nh khi ng bo:
Bc qu nhn c ngi ta by cho mt mu k m thch, coi l cng (sng kin) ca mnh, k
du thuyt bit r u ui th thn s nguy.
hoc:
Bn qu nhn mun khoe tr th nn k cho h nghe nhiu vic khc ng loi vi vic h nh lm
h tham kho c rng, khin cho h dng kin ngh ca ta m ta c gi nh khng bit,
h khng ng rng mnh m tr cho h.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Cc tm l gia ngy nay cng khuyn ta nh vy.

Ging ca ng lc th thnh khn, nh khi ng ch c ao c lm tn u bp (nh Y Don), hay


k ti mi (nh Bch L H) min l c vua cha nghe li mnh, dng mu mnh cu i; lc
th d dm mt cch hi ngo i, nh hai cu kt:
Rng l mt con vt thun, c th ln ln m ci, nhng di hng n c nhng vy ngc, chu vi
rng c thc, ai m ng ti th n s git. Bn vua cha c nhng vy ngc, k du thuyt m bit
ng ng ti th l tm c ri vy.

(Ph long chi vi trng d nhu, kh hip nhi k d; nhin k hu h hu nghch ln kch xch, nhc
nhn hu anh chi gi, tc tt st nhn. Nhn ch dic hu nghch ln, thu gi nng v anh nhn ch
chi nghch ln, tc c h).

V vua cha vi con rng, va hp va ng vi tc Trung Hoa. c Chin Quc sch chng ta thy
bit bao vua cha b bn bin s nh T Tn, Trng Nghi, Phm Tuy, Thi Trch ln ln m
ci. Hn Phi kho lo, khng v h vi loi no khc m v vi con rng, cng l hiu tm l h

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

na. Tn Thu Hong c ti hai cu chc ch mm ci ch khng trch Hn vo u c,


cha bit chng cn thch Hn v Hn bit s nhng vy ngc ca mnh.

Chng ta thy ngh thut trnh by t tng, hc thuyt ca Hn trong thin Thu nan. Trong cc
thin khc nh Hin hc, Ng , Nn th, nh php v.v ng va trnh by hc thuyt ca ng
va kch t tng ca ngi khc. Ring v vic bc b li nhn(?), ng vit ti bn thin: Nn
nht, nh, tam, t v chnh trong bn thin , l lun ca ng xc ng, sc bn, anh thp nht, hn
Mnh T nhiu. ng phn tch k mt c s hoc li l ca mt ngi, kch c mi mt, khng
cn lt mt s h no khin cho chng ta kh c th ni thm c na.

Th d bi 1 trong Nn nht. C s nh sau:


Tn Vn Cng sp khai chin vi S, qun S ng m qun Tn t, ngi kh thng, nn hi kin
ca hai ngi:
Cu Phm (Tc H Yn) v ng Qu. Cu Phm p: Thn nghe ni ngi qun t trng l th cc
lc gi s trung tn, nhng lc chin tranh th khng ngi tr ngy, nh vua c dng mu m m la
gt.Ung Qu p: t rng sn bn th c nhiu th, nhng sau s khng cn con no. Di tr
vi dn th thu li c mt ln thi, sau khng gt c ln na.

Tn Vn Cng khen li Ung Qu l phi nhng li dng mu ca Cu Phm, nh thng c S ri,


khi thng cng, t Ung Qu trn Cu Phm, ly l rng: Li Cu Phm ch l li quyn bin
dng tm mt thi, cn li Ung Qu l ci li mun i.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Khng t nghe truyn khen Vn Cng l quyn bin li hiu ci li vn i, rt ng lm b ch.

Hn Phi bt b c Ung Qu, Tn Vn Cng ln Khng t.

a/ Trc ht Ung Qu khng hiu cu hi ca Tn Vn Cng, p ra ngoi. Vn Cng hi cch ly t


chng ng, m li p rng Sau khng gt c ln na, nh vy l p khng st.

b/ Vn Cng (v c Ung Qu na) khng bit ci l quyn bin mt thi v ci li mun i. nh


m thng th c nc yn, binh mnh, uy th vng, sau c chin tranh cng khng th ln hn
vy, th th sao li lo khng c ci li mun i? Cn nh nh khng thng th nc mt, thn cht
() u cn rnh i ci li mun i?.

c/ Vn Cng cng khng hiu li ca Cu Phm na. Cu Phm bo khng ngi tr ngy l tr
ngy vi S ch u phi tr ngy vi dn mnh. ch l nc mnh nh, sau d khng la gt
c na th c hi g u?

d/ Ung Qu khng c cng g trong vic thng S c, ch khuyn gi ch tn (ch tn trong trng
hp ny v dng); Cu Phm c cng trong vic thng S li cng khng qun khen ch tn
(Ngi qun t trng l th cc lc gi s trung tn), ngha l tuy khuyn Vn Cng tm dng mu
chin thng nhng ri sau phi nh ch tn, nh vy l chnh Cu Phm mi bit l quyn bin,
va hiu ci li lu di. Vn Cng khen v thng Ung Qu trn Cu Phm l by.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

e/ M Khng t khen Vn Cng cng by na.[7]

*
C khi mt hnh ng ca c nhn c Hn m x v nhiu kha cnh, ty nhiu hon cnh, lc
khen, lc ch. Th d s ph phn hnh ng phn ch ca Dng H.

Dng H (trong Lun ng chp l Dng Ho) l gia thn ca quan i phu h Qu nc L, m
phn ch, mun nh h Qu vi h Mnh, h Thc, vic tht bi, phi trn ra khi L, mi u qua
T, T Cnh Cng ly l tip i. Bo Vn t can:
Khng nn, Dng H c h Qu yu m nh li Qu tn l v ham s giu c ca ng y. Nh
vua giu c hn Qu tn m nc T ln hn nc L, Dng H s cn ht sc gian tr na.
Cnh Cng bn b t Dng H.[8] (Nn t - bi 2).
Hn Phi ch Bo Vn t, bo:
Dng H ch c ti l vng v m tht bi, cn gian tr, th b ti no m chng c lng gian tr,
chng mun cp quyn vua hng li, gia vua v h c tnh rut tht g u m bo h thng
yu vua. M h thnh ra gian tr chnh l li vua nhu nhc, hn m, ch nu vua sng sut,
nghim khc th h u dm khng trung tn. Vy Bo Vn t khuyn vua trng pht Dng H l
by.

Nhng ri Hn xt li, bnh vc Bo Vn t: trng tr Dng H l phi v vy l ngn nga ci


lon c th pht ra (Dng H c th lm lon T nh lm lon L), th oai vi bn b ti c
lng gian t, m li c tnh thn i ca Qu tn, Mnh tn, Thc tn L.

Dng H b nghi T, bn trn qua Triu, c Triu Gin ch phong lm tng quc. Ngoi tr
thuyt t h, truyn 2c/ chp:
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

K t hu hi Gin ch: H gii cp chnh quyn m sao nh vua li dng lm tng quc?
Gin ch p: Dng H lo cp chnh quyn, ta lo gi v ng dng thut khng ch H. H
khng dm lm by, trung thnh phng s, lm cho Gin ch mnh hn ln, gn thnh mt b ch
ch hu.

mi l ch trng ca Hn Phi: vua i vi b ti, ch nn cy vo ci thut khng ch b ti ca


mnh ch khng nn trng cy vo s trung thnh ca b ti v b ti no cng c nhng quyn li
ngc vi quyn li ca vua, cng nui lng phn vua. H c bn lnh nh Triu Gin t m khng
ngi lm mt lng nc L (Triu xa L) th c dng Dng H: nu thiu bn lnh nh T Cnh
cng li st nc L, s mt lng L th ng dng Dng H. Cn bn thn Dng H th chng
c g ti vi T, vi Triu c, khng ng trch. Quan nim l quan nim ca Php gia, m phn
tch, xt ti, xt lui c mi mt nh vy qu l k.

Vandermeersch, trong sch dn trang 237, khen Hn Phi c ti cng bn v mt vn m a


ra c hai li ngh lun tri ngc nhau, nh trong bi 6 thin Nn nh. C s nh sau:

L Khc tr nc Trung Sn. Quan lnh p Kh Hnh trnh bn k ton, s thu qu nhiu. L Khc
bo: Li ni kho lo nghe th thch, nhng khng hp tnh l, nh vy gi l iu ngn (h ngn,
khng thc). Khng c mi li v ni rng, chm hang m s thu c nhiu, nh vy l iu ho
(h vt, khng c thc). Ngi qun t khng nghe iu ngn, khng nhn iu ho; ng nn t
chc i.

Hn Phi bc b li ca L Khc theo hai cch: Cch th nht theo li ngy bin, khc lun ca Danh
gia. ng bo:
L t lp thuyt: Li ni kho lo nghe th thch nhng khng hp tnh l, nh vy gi l iu
ngn.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Kho ni l lm cho ngi nghe thch, ci tu ngi nghe. Ngi ni khng phi l ngi nghe
th s kho ni cng khng phi l s thch[9]. Ci m L t bo l khng hp tnh l khng tu thuc
ngi nghe m tu thuc li ngi nghe c. Ngi nghe nu khng phi l tiu nhn (v hc)
th l qun t. Tiu nhn khng hiu tnh l vy khng th xt li ni xem c hp tnh l hay khng;
qun t bit xt li ni xem c hp tnh l hay khng th tt khng th thch c (v li ni kho
khng hp tnh l). Vy bo Li ni kho lo nghe th thch nhng khng hp tnh l l ni sai.

Tm li y l li ca Vandermeersch iu ngn khng phi l mt c tnh p dng cho mt


li xc nh c, m cng khng th lm cho mt ngi hiu bit thch c. N ch l mt ci
danh L Khc dng y khng hp, thnh th ng ta l lun sai. Cng Tn Long cng cho rng
khng th bo mt con nga no trng c v ci danh trng khng th dng gi mt ci g
khng phi l mu sc, m l mt sinh vt c.

Chng ta thy li l lun, khc mc (cho nn gi l khc lun) ch da trn ci danh m khng da
trn s thc. S thc th ai cng thy nhng li kho ni thng l sai (giu gim hoc phng i)
khng nhiu th t, m d c hc (qun t) hay v hc (tiu nhn) th cng c th thy c ch sai
nhng vn phi nhn l ni kho.

Cch th nh bc b L Khc l da trn s thc, v cch ny, Vandermeersch gi l l lun ca


Php gia. Hn Phi bo: Thu c nhiu m cho l iu ho, li cha phi l lun lun ng. L
Khc khng c thut no bit l khai ng hay gian m sao c thy thu c nhiu vi cho l
khai gian? V t ai tuy xu nhng nu lm ng ma, khng b thin tai, khng b tr ngi trong
cng vic, li tn lc lm rung, tn dng k thut (la la ging, bn phn, c nhng tin li ca xe
thuyn, my mc), bit tit kim th thu c nhiu, nh vy u phi l iu ho. Khng tham

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

nghim, cn c vo s thc m ch trch by, L Khc qu l khng bit thut tr nc (Coi bi 6 Nn nh - phn dch).

Hn Phi dng l lun ca Danh gia bc b hai ch iu ngn, li dng l lun ca Php gia
bc b hai ch iu ho. L Khc nu cn sng cng khng th ci c. L lun thc xc ng,
sc bn, tinh t. Nhng chng ti cng t hi: Hn vn ght thi ngy bin ca Danh gia m sao ln
ny li cao hng dng thut ? K cng ng ng.

Sau cng, im ny quan trng nht: Hn Phi c cng lm cho th vn ngh lun ca Trung Hoa thi
Chin Quc rt mc phong ph, c hnh thc.

ng tp i thnh ca ngi trc, dng.

Hnh thc vn p trong Lun ng, Mnh t, nh trong cc thin nh php, Vn bin. Thin

nh php ng coi l mu mc. ng tng tng mt ngi ngi i thoi vi ng, ngi hi,
ng p, li hi na, li p na, nh vy ba ln. Nh cch , ng xt c mi kha cnh ca vn
, m chng ta c khng thy chn.

Hnh thc c s v ng ngn nh trong su thin Ni, ngoi tr thuyt. Chng ti ch xin gii

thiu hai trong v s truyn l th, mt truyn l c s v Ng Khi, mt vin tng t ti tuyt
nh qui tc c nhn tm:
Ng Khi lm tng quc nc Ngy, nh Trung Sn. Qun s c ngi b nht, ng qu xung t
ht m cho. M anh ta ng bn khc. C ngi hi:
-

Tng qun i vi con b nh vy, sao b li khc?

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

p:
-

Ng Khi ht m vt thng ca cha n, m cha n cht (v cm mi tnh , hi sinh nh

gic cho Ng Khi). Nay n li s cht mt thi, v vy m ti khc.

Mt truyn l ng ngn: Mt ngi nc Trnh mun mua giy, o bn chn mnh ri t ci

ni ch ngi. Anh ta ra ch qun em ci ni theo. Tm c th giy mun mua ri, anh ta (sc nh
li) bo: Ti qun em ci ni theo, ti tr v ly. Ri tr v nh, khi tr li th ch tan, khng
mua giy c. Ngi ta hi: Sao khng ly chn th giy? p: Nn tin ci ni, ch khng
nn tin mnh (Ngoi tr thuyt t thng - truyn 3s).

Hn Phi ma bn chnh khch ng thi ch xng tng tin vng m khng xt hnh ng ca
mnh c thch hp vi vic nc, vi x hi trc mt khng.

Hn li c sng kin:
-

a cc qui tc ln trn, gi l phn kinh, ri mi ch thch di, gi l phn truyn, nh

trong su thin Ni, ngoi tr thuyt. Cch trnh by ging cun i hc.
-

M u loi ph bnh nhn vt lch s cho cc nh vn sau ny (ng, Tng, Minh) nh bi

3 thin Nn nht ch Qun Trng: Li Qun Trng khuyn Hon Cng (tc ui Th iu, Dch
Nha, cng t Khai Phng i) khng phi l li ca mt ngi bit php .

ng ta mun ui Th iu, Dch Nha l cho rng h khng yu thn h tha mun ca vua.
Bn thn m mnh khng yu th lm sao yu vua c?. Nh th l mun vua ui ht cc trung
thn i. V li ly l h khng yu thn h m suy on rng h khng yu vua th cng c th ly l
Qun Trng khng cht v Cng T C suy on rng ng ta s khng cht cho Hon Cng, vy
th ng cng thuc hng b ti phi ui i..

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

o ca bc minh ch khng phi vy. Lp ra ci m dn mun h lm vic cho mnh, v vy


m t ra tc lc khuyn khch h; lp ra ci m dn ght ngn cm s gian t, v vy m t
ra hnh pht ra oai vi h. Khen thng m xc thc, hnh pht m cng quyt th b ti c cng
c ct nhc, m k gian t khng c dng, nh vy d c Th iu, hn cng khng lm g
c vua; m b ti s tn lc th vua, vua ban tc lc bo p b ti. Vua ti i vi nhau
khng c tnh cha con, u l tnh ton vi nhau c; h vua c o (tc thut) th b ti tn lc m
vic, gian t khng pht sinh, vua v o th b ti trn che lp ci sng ca vua, di thc hnh t
dc ca mnh. Qun Trng khng lm cho Hon Cng hiu r php , ch khuyn ui (Th
iu), gi s ui Th iu ri th mt Th iu khc li n, khng phi l cch tn dit s gian
t.[10]

Xin c gi so snh on vi on di y trong bi Qun Trng lun ca T Tun (cha

T ng Pha) i Tng:
Qun Trng au nng, Uy Cng[11] hi ai c th thay lm t tng c. Lc ti tng Trng
nn c nhng bc hin ti trong thin h p Uy Cng, m Trng chng qua ch bo rng Th
iu, Dch Nha, Khai Phng ba ngi khng hp vi nhn tnh,[12] khng th thn cn c,
th thi. Than i! Trng cho rng Uy Cng qu c th dng c ba con ngi ? Trng vi Uy
Cng gn nhau lu nm cng bit Uy Cng l ngi ra sao ch? Uy Cng, sc khng lc no
thiu trc mt, khng c ba con ngi kia th khng th tho mn c dc vng. ng ta mi u
khng cho bn chuyn quyn ch l nh c Qun Trng. Ngy no m khng c Trng th ba
ngi kia c th phi bi trn m[13] m chc mng ln nhau. Trng cho rng li mnh dn d lc
lm chung tri buc chn tay Uy Cng chng?
Nc T khng lo rng c ba ngi m lo khng c Qun Trng. C Trng th ba con ngi
ch l ba tht phu. Khng vy th thin h thiu g hng ngi nh ba tn ? D Uy Cng may ra
m nghe li Trng, git ba ngi i, th cn nhng k khc, Trng c th tr ht c khng?
Than i! C th bo rng Trng khng bit ci cn bn vy. Nhn li hi ca Uy Cng m tin c
bc hin ti trong thin h thay mnh. Trng tuy mt, nhng nc T cng vn cn Trng. Nh
vy ba con ngi kia c ng ngi u, chng cn ni na.[14]

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hai nh sng cch nhau mi ba th k (Hn sinh nm 280, T sanh nm 1009), mt l php
gia, mt l nho gia, cng ph bnh mt nhn vt m sao ging nhau nh th; cng khng trch Hon
Cng m ch kt ti Qun Trng. Hn ch Qun Trng l khng lm cho Hon Cng hiu r php
thut, T bt li Qun l khng tin c ngi hin; cng bt cng thin lch c: Hn khng xt rng
Hon Cng khng phi hng vua t cch, bn lnh t gi c php thut; T qun rng Qun
my ln tin c ngi hin (nh Thp Bng, Ninh Thch, Ninh Vit ) ln Hon Cng, trc khi
cht li tin c Thp Bng thay mnh na, chng may Thp Bng cng cht sm nn T mi mau
lon.
Li vn cng ging nhau. Hn vit: Qun Trng khng lm cho Hon Cng hiu r php (ch
khuyn ui Th iu), gi s ui Th iu ri th mt Th iu khc li n, khng phi l
cch tn dit s gian t

(S kh Th iu, nht Th iu hu ch, phi tuyt gian chi o d).
T vit: D Uy Cng may ra m nghe li Trng, git ba ngi i th cn nhng k khc,
Trng c th tr ht c khng?

(Tuy Uy Cng hnh nhi thnh Trng, tru th tam nhn, nhi k d gi, Trng nng tt s nhi kh
chi da?).
Chng ti ng rng T Tun c Hn Phi t. Vn ca ng t chut hn vn ca Hn, nhng
cng hi qu ku, chng ti a vn ca Hn hn: bnh d m c kh, ng l ging mt t tng
gia v chnh tr, ch khng phi mt nh vn.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Ch thch:
[1] Chng ti ct i nhiu, xin coi ton vn phn dch.
[2] Dn tc Trung Hoa khng thch bn v siu hnh (nh dn tc n ), cho n l bt kh tri, nn
cc trit gia ca h, bt u t Nho gia, phi a vo lch s, ti to mt thi i l tng thi
Nghiu Thun lm cn bn cho t tng chnh trnh, coi Nghiu Thun l nhng bc thnh. Nhng
Thnh ca h khng phi l thnh (Saint) ca phng Tay m i khi ch l nhng chnh tr gia
minh trit.
[3] Theo Trn Khi Thin th l than cha vc.
[4] Theo Trn Khi Thin th l lm bng chn ngi ta.
[5] Vng ng Ln thiu c chnh trc, b thuyt sau i m ch cn c vo thuyt trn m mng
Hn Phi l em php tr dn ca Thng ng gn cho nh n v vu co Khng T khen o tr
nc (Trn Khi Thin dn trong Hn Phi t hiu thch trang 1025).
Nhng Vng c l khi trch Hn khng tra cu k: php tr ti k tro khng phi ca nh n
m ca Thng ng.
[6] im ny tc gi xt trong b Trang T, NXB Vn Ho; nn ngh vy v trong Ni thin (phn
chc chn ca Trang T vit) khng thy dn mt cu no trong o c kinh c (BT).
[7] C thc l Khng t khen Vn cng khng, l vn khc, khng cn xt y.
[8] C l ch ui Dng H ra khi nc thi, hoc nu b t th sau cng th.
[9] mun ni: khng phi c ngi thch m l kho ni, m kho ni cha nht nh c mi
ngi thch.
[10] Chng ti b on sau ch Hon cng cho b ti c th lc mnh qu nn mi cht thm, khng
c chn.
[11] Tc T Hon cng. i Tng k tn hu ca Khm tn, cho nn i Hon ra Uy.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

[12] Tc nh Hn Phi bo Bn thn m h khng yu th lm sao yu vua c? Th iu t thin


tin thn, Dch Nha git con ly tht nu cho Hon Cng n, Khai Phng khng ngh ti cha
m m hoi vi Hon Cng.
[13] Khi Vng Dng c lm th s ch Chu th bn l Cng cng sa m cho ngay, phi bi
cho sch vo mng ri c tin c lm i phu.
[14] Chng ti b on sau. Coi trn bi trong C vn Trung Quc Tao n Si Gn - 1966

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
PHN V
TRCH DCH

Nh ni trong phn II, chng ti ch dch nhng thin chc chn ca Hn Phi vit, khng chia
thnh quyn v khng theo th t trong cc bn c, c thin no quan trng th chng ti a ln
trn.

THIN L
HIN HC
(CC HC THUYT DANH TING[1])
Cc hc thuyt danh ting nht trong i l Nho v Mc. t ti mc cao nht ca Nho l Khng
Khu, ca Mc l Mc ch. Sau khi Khng T mt, c phi Nho ca T Trng, phi Nho ca T
T, cc phi Nho ca h Nhan, h Mnh, h Tt iu, h Trng Lng, h Tn, h Nhc Chnh[2].
Sau khi Mc T mt, c cc phi Mc ca h Tng L, Tng Phu, h ng Lng[3]. Nh vy l
sau Khng T v Mc T, Nho chia lm tm phi, Mc tch lm 3 phi, ch trng tri nhau, khc

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

nhau m u t cho l chn truyn ca Khng, Mc. Khng T v Mc T khng th sng li th


ai l ngi quyt nh c hc phi no l chn chnh cho i?[4] Khng T v Mc T u xng
tng Nghiu, Thun m ch trng khc nhau v u t cho l chn truyn ca Nghiu, Thun.
Nghiu, Thun khng th sng li th ai l ngi quyt nh c hc thuyt no mi thc l ca
Nghiu Thun? i Ngu v i H di trn 700 nm, i n v Chu di trn 2000 nm,[5] m cn
khng quyt nh c Nho hay Mc l chn chnh; nay mun kho st o cch y 3000 nm ca
Nghiu, Thun th c h khng sao xc nh c! Khng tham nghim c m c xc nh th l
ngu; khng xc nh c m lm dng lm chng c th l la gt ngi ta. Vy c cn c vo cc
tin vng m theo o Nghiu, Thun, nu khng phi l ngu, cng l la gt thin h. Ci hc ngu
v gt ngi y, hn tp v mu thun[6] y bc minh ch khng chp thun.
L chn ct ca phi Mc, ma ng th mc y phc ma ng, ma h mc y phc ma h, o quan
lm bng g cy ng, dy ba tc, tang ba thng; cc vua cha i nay khen l tit kim v tn
trng (phi Mc). Phi Nho ph sn vo vic chn ct, khng c tin th i vay ri con tr n,
tang ba nm, thn hnh tiu ty phi chng gy mi i c, cc vua cha i nay khen l nhn hiu,
v tn trng (phi Nho). Nhng nu khen Mc l tit kim th tt phi ch Nho l xa x; khen Khng
T l hiu th phi ch Mc T l c ti. Nho vi Mc, c hiu vi c ti, xa x vi tit kim, (tri
ngc nhau nh vy), m cc bc vua chua li tn trng c hai! H Tt iu ch trng (trc s
nguy him) khng c bin sc, chp mt (ngha l khng t v s st); mnh lm by th d l bn
n t mnh cng phi nhng, mnh chnh trc th d trc cc vua ch hu mnh cng dm ni gin;
cc vua cha i nay cho l cng trc[7] nn tn trng. Tng Vinh T[8] ch trng khng tranh
u, khng tr th, khng cho b t ti l xu h, khng cho b ngi ta khinh l nhc, cc bc vua
cha cho l khoan dung, nn tn trng. Nhng nu khen s cng trc ca Tt iu l phi th phi
ch s khoan th ca Tng Vinh l sai; m nu khen s khoan th ca Tng Vinh l phi th phi ch
s to bo ca Tt iu l tri. Hai ng y (tri nhau nh vy) khoan dung vi cng trc, nhn th
vi to bo, m cc bc vua cha li tn trng c hai! Ci hc ngu v la gt, cc li tranh lun hn
tp v mu thun , cc bc vua cha u tin c, cho nn k s trong thin h, bn lun khng bit
ly g lm tiu chun, hnh ng khng c ch trng nht nh. Nc v than (hng) khng th
ng chung vi nhau lu c, nng v lnh khng th cng ti mt lc; ci hc hn tp, mu thun
khng th lng lp m khng lon. Nay cng nghe theo nhng ci hc hn tp, cng lm theo
nhng li mu thun nhau th lm sao khi lon cho c? Nghe v lm nh vy th trong vic tr
nc, kt qu tt cng phi nh vy.

*
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

a s hc gi i nay ni n vic tr nc u bo: Cp t cho ngi ngho, cho ngi khng c


t sn c n. Nay c ngi cng nh nhng ngi khc, khng trng ma, khng c ngun
li no khc m ring c d n, th nu khng phi nh sing nng, tt l nh tit kim. Li c
nhng ngi nh nhng ngi khc, khng gp nm i km, khng b tt bnh, ti li g m ring
cng khn, th nu khng phi l do xa x, tt l do bing nhc. Xa x v bing nhc th ngho, sing
nng v tit kim th giu. Nay bc vua cha thu thu ca ngi giu b th cho ngi ngho, th
l cp ca ngi sing nng v tit kim pht cho k xa x, bing nhc, nh vy m mun cho
dn gng sc lm lng, tiu pha bt i th khng th c.

*
Nay c ngi ch trng khng v thnh b nguy, khng v qun i, khng chu i mt si lng
chn ly ci li ln l c c thin h[9] m bc vua cha i ny li tn knh, trng ci tr, cao ci
c ca h, khen l k s khinh ngoi vt, trng ng sinh. Bc vua cha sn rung tt, nh to,
t ra quan tc bng lc, l cho dn em ci cht v mnh lnh i ly nhng ci ; nay li tn
knh k s khinh ngoi vt trng ng sinh, m mun dn hi sinh cho vua cha, th khng th c.
Thu cha sch cho nhiu, tp tnh m lun, t hp ng, nghin cu vn hc v bin lun, m
bc vua cha i nay li tn knh, bo: Trng hin s l o ca tin vng. Nhng quan li nh
thu l nh vo nng dn, m vua cha nui l nui k hc s. Nng dn phi np thu nng, m k
hc s th c thng nhiu, nh vy m mun cho dn gng sc lm lng v bt bn lun th
khng th c. Lp tit tho, gy danh ting, gi ngha kh khng cho ai xm phm, li on trch
m ti tai l rt kim ra ui theo, m bc vua cha i nay li tn knh, khen k s bit trng danh
d. Ngi c cng chm u gic (cho nc) th khng thng m k dng cm chin u cho mnh
th c vinh hin, nh vy m mun cho dn hng chin u, c vi ch, khng u tranh ring
cho mnh, th khng th c. Thi bnh th nui nho s v hip khch, ti thi lon nn th dng k
s mang kh gii, th l k c nui khng phi l k cn dng, m k cn dng ti li khng c
nui, lon do m ra. V li bc vua cha nghe cc hc gi, nu cho li h l phi th nn b nhim
h lm quan m dng h, nu cho li l tri th nn ui h i tr mm lon. Nay cho li h l
phi m khng b nhim h, cho li h l tri m khng tr mm lon. Ci phi khng c dng,
ci tri khng b tr, suy vong do m ra.

*
m i T V[10] c dong mo ngi qun t, Trng Ni c h va nn thu nhn, nhng lu
ri mi thy hnh vi ng ta khng ng vi dong mo. T D[11] c li ni vn nh, Trng Ni c h
va nn thu nhn, nhng lu ri mi thy tr nng khng ph hp vi li bin lun. Cho nn
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Khng T bo: Coi dong mo m chn ngi, ta lm v T V; nghe li ni m chn ngi, ta


lm v T D[12]. Sng sut nh Trng Ni m cn than rng xt lm. Bn bin s mi[13]
ngy nay cn lm hn T D na m bc vua cha li m mui hn Trng Ni, nghe h ni m bi tai
l b nhim h lm quan, th lm sao khi lm ln c! V vy, vua Ngy nghe Mnh Mo bin
thuyt m b nhim ng ta, nn b ci ha chn ni Hoa;[14] vua Triu nghe M Phc bin thuyt
m b nhim ng ta, nn b ci ha Trng Bnh.[15] Hai vic u l lm ln v nghe li bin
thuyt m b nhim. Xem c thic ( lm kim) m ch cn c vo mu xanh mu vng ca nh
la th d l u D[16] cng khng quyt nh c kim tt xu ra sao; nhng nu th m con
ngng tri di nc, chm con nga t trn cn, th bn n bc cng bit c kim sc hay
nht. Ch vch mm coi rng, v nhn hnh dng th B Lc[17] cng khng quyt nh c gi tr
con nga, nhng nu cho nga ko xe, xem n chy ht con ng th bn n bc cng bit c
nga tt hay khng; Nhn dong mo, y phc, nghe li ni mt k s th Trng Ni cng khng quyt
nh c k tr tu ra sao, nhng nu th b nhim, ri xt thnh tch, th ngi thng cng bit
r c k ngu hay khn. Cho nn quan li ca vua cha, th t tng phi bt u t mt chc
chu qun, m tng soi phi bt u t chn lnh trn.[18] Ai c cng th tt c thng, nh vy
tc cng cao, lc cng hu, th cng phn khi; cp bc c tun t m ln th chc cng ln, cng
c ti cai tr. Tc cao, lc hu m quan chc gii cai tr, l ci o lp c nghip vng.

*
(Mt nc) c mt ngn dm tng, khng gi l giu c; c mt trm vn hnh nm khng gi
l mnh c. khng phi l khng ln, hnh khng phi l khng ng, nhng khng gi c
l giu mnh v khng sn xut c la, hnh nm khng dng c ch c. Nay bn thng
nhn[19] v cng nhn cng khng cy cy m c n, (khng cy cy tc l) t khng c khai
khn, (khng sn xut c la), nh vy khng khc g hnh nm. Bit rng tng v hnh nm v
dng, m khng bit rng thng nhn, nho s v hip s l th t khng khai khn, th dn khng
dng c, nh vy l khng bit nhng th cng mt loi.

*
Vua cc nc ngang sc vi ta tuy thch chnh sch ca ta, ta cng khng th bt h np cng, lm
b ti ca ta; cc tc hu trong nc (khng c nc ring) tuy ch hnh ng ca ta, nhng ta c
th bt h cm chim[20] m triu cng ta. Nh vy l ta mnh th ngi triu phc ta, ta yu th phi
triu phc ngi, cho nn bc minh qun ch cn sao cho c mnh. Nh nghim th khng c y
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

t ng nghch, cn m hin th con h. Do ti bit rng uy th c th cm c s hung bo, m


c dy khng ngn lon. Bc Thnh nhn tr nc, khng trng mong g dn lm iu
thin,[21] ch ct sao cho dn ng lm by. Trng mong dn lm iu thin th khp nc khng
tm c mi ngi, ct sao cho dn ng lm by th khp nc c th u khng lm by. Ngi
tr nc dng chnh sch no thch hp vi i chng m b chnh sch no ch thch hp vi mt s
t ngi, cho nn khng v c m ch v php lut. Nu c mong c c mt cy tn t n
thng sn ri th c trm i cng khng c c mt cy; nu c mong c c mt khc cy t n
trn sn ri th ngn i cng khng c c mt ci bnh xe. Cy tn t n thng sn, khc cy t
n trn sn, trm i khng c mt; vy m ngi i vn ngi xe, vn bn chim l nh u? Nh
bit cch luc ri un li.[22] D khng phi dng cch m cng c c cy tn t nhin thng,
khc cy t nhin trn th ngi th kho cng khng qu. Ti sao vy? Ti khng phi ch c mt
ngi ngi xe v ngi bn tn khng phi ch bn mt pht. D khng phi dng thng pht m
c c ngi dn t lm iu thin th bc minh qun cng khng qu. Ti sao vy? Ti php nc
khng th mt, m s dn cn tr khng phi ch c mt ngi. Cho nn bc vua cha bit dng thut
khng tu theo ci thin ngu nhin (khai ho bng c) m thi hnh ci o tt nhin (cai tr bng
php).

*
Nay c k bo: Ti c th lm cho ng nht nh s thng minh v sng lu, th ngi i s cho
k y l in. Thng minh l bm sinh m sng lu l s mng. Bm sinh v s mng l ci khng
th hc c. K kia em ci khng th hc c m ha vi ngi, cho nn ngi ta cho l in.
Ha vi ngi iu mnh khng th lm c, nh vy l dua nnh. em nhn ngha ra dy ngi,
cng khng khc g ha lm cho ngi ho thng minh v sng lu, bc vua cha c php khng
chp nhn iu . Khen Mao Tng, Ty Thi l p, c ch g cho mt ca mnh u; dng son,
phn, du, thuc mu en[23] (m t im) th mt mi p gp bi. Khen tin vng l nhn ngha,
c ch g cho vic tr nc u; lm sng php (php tc) thng pht cho ng v nghim,
mi l th sn, phn, du, thuc mu en ca quc gia. Cho nn bc minh ch gp lo vic c kt qu
(tc php , thng pht) m hon ci chuyn ca tng (tin vng) li. V vy m khng ni n
nhn ngha.

*
Bn thy cng, c ng bo mt ngi: Ti s cu cho ng sng ngn nm, vn tui. Nhng ting
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ngn nm vn tui lon c tai ngi m khng c g chng t rng ngi th thm c mt
ngy, v vy m ngi ta khinh bn thy cng, c ng. Ngy nay bn nho s thuyt cc vua cha th
khng ch cch thi nay phi tr nc ra sao m c k ci kt qu tr nc ca thi xa, khng xt
cch tr dn ca quan li[24] cng lng d k gian t, m ch k nhng li khen i thng c truyn
li, cng s nghip ca tin vng. H hunh hoang: C nghe li ti th s lp c nghip b
vng; h chnh l hng thy cng, c ng trong gii du thuyt y; bc vua cha c php
khng dng h. Bc minh ch v ci thit thc, b ci v dng, khng ging thuyt nhn ngha,
khng nghe li ni ca bn hc gi.

*
Bn khng bit tr nc ngy nay nht nh bo: Cn c lng dn. Nu ch c lng dn l
nc c tr, th cn cn dng g n Y Don,[25] Qun Trng na, c nghe li dn l ri.
Nhng ci tr ca dn khng dng c, cng nh ci lng ca tr con vy. Mt a tr au u,
khng co u n th n au thm, khng nn mn nht th mn nht cng ngy cng ty ln. Mun
co u, ct mn nht th mt ngi phi gh n cho m hin ca n lm nhng vic y. Nh vy
m n cn go khc khng ngng v n khng bit phi chu au mt cht ri mi c ci li ln
(l ht bnh). Nay bc vua cha gp v t, cy rung dn c thm ti sn, m dn on l tn
khc, sa hnh pht v trng pht nng, ngn cm bn gian t, m dn on l nghim khc; thu
thu bng tin go cho kho lm c y, hu cu t khi i km, cung cp cho qun i, m dn
on l tham lam ()[26] gom sc li nh cho mnh bt gic m dn on l bo ngc. Bn vic
l tr an m dn khng bit mng. S d vua cha cu bc s thnh tr, thng t l v dn tr
khng cho mnh theo c. Ngy xa ng V khi sng (Dng T), o sng (Hong H) m
dn gom ngi v (tnh nm ng); T Sn v t trng du, m ngi nc Trnh ch bai. ng V
lm li cho thin h, ng T Sn bo tn c nc Trnh m u b hu bng, nh vy dn tr c
th dng c khng, l iu ta thy r ri.[27] Lm chnh tr m mong va lng dn, u l mi
lon, khng th theo chnh sch m tr nc c.
Ch thch:
[1]Trn Khi Thin ging l cc hc thuyt ch yu (dominant schools)
[2]T Trng v T T u l hc tr Khng T - H Nhan y khng chc l Nhan Hi v hc tr
Khng T c 8 ngi h Nhan, m Nhan Hi cht sm khi Khng T cn sng. - H Mnh l Mnh
T; h Tt iu l Tt iu Khai; h Trng Lng l Trng Lng Hoi; h Tn c th l Cng
Tn Su, cng c th l Tn Khanh, tc Tun Khanh (Tun T); h Nhc Chnh l Nhc Chnh T,
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

hc tr Khng T. Chng ta ch cn bit Tt iu Khai, Trng Lng Hoi u l hc tr my i


sau ca Khng T.
[3]Tng L l Tng L Cn; Tng Phu v ng Lng (tn t dng lm tn ngi) khng r l ai.
C ba c l l hc tr Mc T.
[4]Nguyn vn l hu th (i sau); cc nh ch gii u bo: d ch hu (sau).
[5]Nguyn vn ngc li: n, Chu di trn 700 nm, Ngu, H di trn 2000 nm Cc nh hiu
nh sa li nh chng ti dch. Thc ra Ngu v H di khong 500 nm thi, n v Chu di
khong 1400 nm thi. Hn Phi ghi theo truyn thuyt, nn sai.
[6]Hn tp v o Nho c ti 8 phi, o Mc c ti 3 phi; mu thun v ch trng ca Mc tri
vi Nho.
[7]Nguyn vn l lim (nh lim khit), c sch ging l c cnh gc.
[8]Cng c ch gi l Tng Kin, sanh khong 383, mt khong 290, ng thi vi Mnh T.
[9]m ch phi theo Dng T.
[10] v [11] Mn sinh ca Khng T.
[12]Cu ny trong Khng T gia ng.
[13]Bin s mi l bin s thi Chin Quc, cn T D l bin s mi.
[14]Mnh Mo l tng Ngy b Bch Khi tng nc Tn, nh bi ni Hoa, gia hai nc Tn
v Ngy.
[15]M Phc tc Triu Qut, tng nc Triu b Bch Khi nh bi Trng Bnh (mt p nc
Triu) trn ny l trn Bch Khi chn sng 40 vn qun Triu u hng.
[16]Ngi i Xun Thu, gii c gm.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

[17]Ngi i Xun Thu, gii xem tng nga, tc Tn Dng. C ngi c l B Nhc.
[18]Coi ph lc cui thin.
[19]Nguyn vn thng quan, c sch ging l thng nhn v quan li, c sch li ging l
thng nhn mua chc quan; Trn Khi Thin cho rng ch quan chnh l ch c (hai ch hi ging
nhau); thng c tc l con bun.
[20]Xa, mun yt kin ngi trn th phi mang chim hay mt vt qu nh ngc li lm l vt.
[21]Nguyn vn: Vi ng thin, c th hiu l lm iu thin cho ta, cho ta.
[22]Nguyn vn l n qut c hc gi c l n thim, v mi sch ging mt khc: sch th bo
l ko cho ngay v un cho cong, c sch bo l un cho cong v o bt i. n qut l mt
un g cong li cho thng.
[23]Du v thuc mu en tc nh kem v than ( v lng my).
[24]Chng ti theo bn Trn Khi Thin: quan tr. Vng Tin Thn chp l quan php.
[25]Y Don l khai quc cng thn ca Thnh Thang.
[26]Ch ny c 9 ch, khng ai hiu l g, ng thiu st hoc sai lm.
[27]Cho nn c k s m cu k hin s Hn Phi ch trng thng hin ca Nho, Mc.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T
PH LC

Ch trng t tng phi bt u t mt chc chu qun, tng soi phi bt u t chn lnh
trn c ging r trong on u thin XLII Vn in m chng ti trch dch thm di y:
T C hi in Cu[1]:
-

Ti nghe ni k s c tr khng t mt a v thp (tin ln ln ln ri sau mi) c yt kin

vua, bc thnh nhn khng i lp c nhiu cng ri mi c tip xc vi vua[2]. Nay ng


Ngha C Dng Thnh l mt danh tng m mi bt u dng lm trng n; ng Cng Tn
n Hi[3] l mt tng quc hin minh vo bc thnh m xut thn t mt chc chu qun (tc
mt chc quan nh a phng). Ti sao vy?
in Cu p:
-

L do c g khc u. Ch l v vua c php v c thut. ng khng nghe vua S dng Tng

C lm tng soi m quc chnh ho lon, vua Ngy dng Phng Li[4] lm tng quc m suy
vong y ? Hai vua b nhng li rng li cun, b li bin thuyt m hoc m khng th ti h
chc trng n v chc quan chu qun, nn quc chnh mi lon, quc gia mi suy vong. Do
m xt, khng th dng ngi chc trng n, chc quan chu qun (ri mi cho tin ln ln
ln) th u phi l php phng b ca bc minh ch?
Ch thch:
[1], [2], [3], [4] Nhng nhn vt T C, in Cu, Ngha C, n Hi, Tng C, Phng Li trong
on ny, u cha r l ai, khng thy chp trong sch no khc.
[2] T C mun bo nhng bc c ti c th nn dng ngay vo nhng chc v cao nh Qun
Trng chng hn.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XLIX
NG
(NM LOI MT)

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

i thng c nhn dn t m cm th nhiu, nhn dn khng thng c cm th, trng, rn. Sau c
cc thnh nhn ra i, kt cnh lm (trn cy) cc loi khi xm hi, nhn dn mng, tn lm
vua thin h, gi l h Hu So (c ). Nhn dn n tri cy, rau c, trai hn, tanh tao hi hm m
hi rut, bao t, nhiu ngi au m. Sau c thnh nhn ra i, dng ci toi di cy kh ly
la, nng cc thc n cho ht tanh tao, nhn dn mng, tn lm vua thin h, gi l h Toi
Nhn. Thi trung c, thin h b lt ln, ng Cn v ng V[1] khi ngi (cho nc rt). i cn
c, Kit, Tr bo lon, ng Thang (nh Thng), ng V (nh Chu) nh dp h. Nu c ngi i
H dy nhn dn kt cnh lm , hoc dng ci toi ly la, tt b ng Cn, ng V ch ci; c
ngi i n (Thng), Chu khi ngi tt b ng Thang, ng V ch ci. Hin nay nu c ngi
ca tng o c cc ng Nghiu, Thun, V, Thang, V, tt b cc ng thnh i nay ch ci. Vy
th thnh nhn khng nht nh phi theo c, gi l c, m phi xt vic ng thi ri tu nghi tm
bin php. Nc Tng c ngi i cy, trong rung c my gc cy kh, mt con th m b vo,
gy c, cht. Anh ta thy vy b cy m m gc cy kh, hi vng li bt c con th na. Th
khng c thm, m b c nc Tng ch ci. Nay mun dng chnh sch ca tin vng tr
dn th cng khng khc g anh chng m gc cy i th vy.

*
Thi c n ng khng phi cy rung, tri cy v ht c n ri; n b khng phi dt vi, da
cm th che thn ri. H khng phi gng sc m d n mc, nhn dn t m vt dng tha
cho nn khng tranh ginh nhau. V vy khi phi thng hu, pht nng m dn t nhin khng
lon. Ngy nay mt ngi c nm ngi con, khng phi l nhiu, mi ngi con li c nm ngi
con na, thnh th ng cha cht m c hai mi lm a chu, v vy nhn dn ng m ti sn
t, phi lao lc nhiu m thc n mc li t, cho nn h phi tranh ginh nhau, d c thng hu
gp hai, pht nng gp my th cng khng trnh khi lon.

*
ng Nghiu lm vua thin h m nh lp bng c tranh khng xn, ct rui bng g khng o, n
cm go xu vi canh rau l rau hoc, ma ng khng mc o da hu da nai, ma h mc o vi
th, du k canh cng cng khng sng m bc hn. ng V lm vua thin h, t cm ba v xch
st i trc nhn dn, i v ng chn tri ht lng, n k n l cng khng cc kh hn. Do m
xt, cc vua thi thng c nhng ngi thin t th cng ch l t b cuc sng ca ngi gi cng
v i lao kh ca tn n l, c g ng khen u. Mt vin huyn lnh ngy nay khi cht ri, th con
chu my i cn c (ung dung) nga xe, v vy m ngi ta qu chc huyn lnh. Cho nn v ci
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

vic t nhng, thi xa nhng ngi thin t tht d m ngy nay t chc huyn lnh tht kh, ch
do ci li hu hay bc khc nhau xa. Ngi trong ni, li hang mc nc, ti ngy l lu, l
lp[2] em nc tng nhau,[3] cn ngi chm th kh v ng nc, phi thu ngi o rnh
cho nc thot. Ma xun nhng nm i km, d l em rut cn nh, ngi ta cng khng nhng
cho thc n, m ma thu nhng nm c ma, d l khch l ti, cng mi n, u phi s vi tnh
rut tht m thn vi khch qua ng, ch l v thc phm cn nhiu hay t y thi. Cho nn c
nhn khinh ti vt, khng phi l c lng nhn, m v ti vt c nhiu; ngy nay ngi ta tranh ot
ca nhau khng phi l ti tin m v ti vt c t; ngy xa ngi ta coi thng v t b ngi thin t,
khng phi cao thng m v quyn th t; ngy nay ngi ta coi trng v tranh nhau quan chc,
khng phi tin m v quyn th nhiu. V vy thnh nhn xt xem ti vt nhiu hay t, quyn th
nng hay nh m tu theo lp ra chnh sch: pht nh khng phi l nhn t, m chm git khng
phi l tn bo, ch l tu th tc m thi hnh php lut. Tm li vic phi theo thi, m bin php
phi thch ng.

*
Thi xa vua Vn vng t Phong, t Co[4], t vung trm dm, thi hnh nhn ngha, v
v r Ty Nhung m thng nht c thin h. Vua Yn Vng nc T pha ng sng Hn[5]
t vung nm trm dm, thi hnh nhn ngha, m ba mi su nc ch hu ct t triu phc. Vua
Vn vng nc Kinh (S) s (nc T mnh ln) nguy hi cho mnh, bn em qun dit nc
T[6]. Vy ra Vn vng thi hnh nhn ngha m thng nht thin h cn Yn vng thi hnh nhn
ngha m mt nc. Th th nhn ngha dng c thi xa m khng dng c thi nay. Cho
nn bo: i khc th vic cng khc. i vua Thun, r Miu khng qui phc, ng V mun em
qun i nh, vua Thun can: Khng nn. Ngi trn c khng dy m dng v lc l tri o.
Ri vua Thun sa sang vic gio ho trong ba nm, sau t chc l ma khin ma ba, r Miu
coi ri thun phc. Ti khi lm chin vi Cung Cng[7], binh kh bng st[8] ngn qu, khng m
ti ch, o gip khng chc, b ch m phm thn th, vy vic ma khin v ba dng c thi
xa m khng dng c thi nay. Cho nn bo: Vic khc th bin php phi i. i thng c
ngi ta ua nhau trng o c, i trung c ngi ta tranh nhau v mu tr, i nay ngi ta tranh
nhau v sc mnh. Nc T mun nh nc L, vua L sai T Cng (mt mn ca Khng t)
qua T thuyt phc. Ngi nc T bo: Li thy ni khng phi l khng kho. Nhng ci chng
ti mun l t ai kia ch khng phi ci m thy ni. Ri h em qun chim L, cch kinh
L mi dm mi ngng li, ly ch lm ranh gii. Vy Yn vng thi hnh nhn ngha m nc
T mt, T Cng dng tr mu, kho ni m nc L b chim t: theo m xt, nhn ngha, tr
mu, kho ni khng gi c nc. B ci nhn ngha ca Yn vng, ci tr mu ca T Cng i,
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

m dng binh lc nc T, nc L, c vi nc ch vn c xe, th tham vng ca T, Kinh lm


sao thi hnh vi hai nc c.

*
Phong tc xa v nay khc nhau, bin php c v mi phi khc nhau. Mun dng chnh sch
khoan ha tr dn thi lon th khng khc g khng dng dy cng v roi m mun ch ng mt
con nga bt kham. l ci hi ca s bt tr. Nho v Mc u khen tin vng kim i thin h,
coi dn nh con[9]. chng minh iu , h bo: Khi quan t khu (coi vic hnh) hnh hnh th
vua khng tu nhc; khi bo k b t hnh cht th vua ri l. H em iu khen tin
vng, ri bo vua ti coi nhau nh cha con th nc tr. C nh h ni th cha nhn t, con nht
nh khng lon sao? Theo tnh ngi, khng ai yu con bng cha m, nhng nh vy v tt con
khng lon: vy th d vua rt yu dn i na, lm sao gi cho dn khng lon c? Tin vng
yu dn khng hn cha m yu con, m cha m yu con v tt con khng lon, th tin vng lm
sao cho dn tr c? V li theo php lut hnh hnh, m vua ri l, nh vy chng t rng vua c
lng nhn t ch khng phi lm cho nc c tr (v nu nc c tr th sao cn phi hnh
hnh?) Ri l, khng mun hnh hnh, l nhn; nhng vn khng th khng hnh hnh c, l
php lut. Tin vng cho php lut thng lng nhn, khng theo lng thng ca mnh[10] vy
th r rng l nhn i khng dng tr nc c. Li thm, dn chng a s phc tng quyn lc,
o ngha ch cm ho c mt s t thi. Trng Ni l bc thnh trong thin h, ng sa c, lm
sng o, chu du khp thin h, nhng qu lng nhn, khen lng ngha m phc dch ng th ch c
by mi ngi[11], v s ngi qu c nhn i vn t m thi hnh o ngha l vic kh. Cho nn
thin h mnh mng nh vy m k phc dch ng ch c by mi ngi, thi hnh c nhn ngha
th ch c mt ngi (tc Khng t). L Ai Cng l hng vua ti, quay mt v phng nam m tr
dn, th dn trong nc khng ai dm khng thun phc, vy dn vn phc tng quyn th m quyn
th qu l d khin cho ngi ta phi phc. Cho nn Trng Ni mi phi lm b ti, Ai Cng ngc
li, c lm vua. Trng Ni (th Ai Cng) u phi l khen o ngha ca Ai Cng m ch l phc
tng ci th ca ng ta thi. Xt v o ngha th Trng Ni khng phc Ai Cng, m nh ci th, Ai
Cng bt Trng Ni phi lm b ti mnh. Nay bn hc gi i du thuyt cc vua cha khng khuyn
h dng ci th tt thng, m li bo: Trng nhn ngha th lp c nghip vng, nh vy l i
bc vua cha phi (c c) nh Trng Ni ht, m phm nhn trong i u phi nh (by chc) mn
sinh ca ng ht. l iu nht nh khng th c.

*
Nay c a con h, cha m gin, la n, n khng sa tnh, ngi trong lng trch n, n c tr
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T
tr, thy dy n, n cng khng cha.

Lng yu ca cha m, hnh ng ca ngi trong lng v li gio hun sng sut ca thy dy, c
ba ci p m chung qui khng ng n c mt si lng ng chn ca n. Khi quan
li chu b em binh ti thi hnh php nc, lng bt k gian, lc n mi hong s, thay i
tnh kh hnh kim. Vy lng yu ca cha m khng dy con, phi i c nghim hnh ca
chu b mi c, v dn vn c yu th nhn, phi dng uy lc mi chu nghe. Thnh cao mi
nhn (by hay tm chc thc), du Lu Qu[12] cng khng vt qua c v n dng ng; ngn
ni cao ngn nhn th con cu qu cng dt ln chn c v dc thoai thoi[13]. Cho nn bc
minh ch mi t ra hnh php nghim khc. Tm vi di mt tm hay mt thng[14] th ngi
thng (khng tham lam) cng khng chu b, m mt trm dt vng chy (nng bng) th o
Chch cng khng ly i. Bit rng khng hi g c nn khng b mt tm, mt thng vi, bit rng
bng tay nn mt trm dt vng chy cng khng ly. Cho nn bc minh ch cng quyt trng tr.
Thng th khng c g bng trng hu v tn thc cho dn thy l li; pht th khng g bng
nng m cng quyt cho dn s; php lut khng g bng thng nht, c nh cho dn d bit.
Bc vua cha thng th khng i , pht th khng n x, thng ri li khen thm na, pht
ri li ch thm na, nh vy ngi hin v k bt tiu u tn lc lm iu phi.
Ngy nay khng vy: ban tc cho k c (qun) cng nhng li khinh th quan (v); thng k
gng canh tc nhng li coi r ngh nng; k mnh khng thu dng c (tc bn n s) th b ra
ngoi, nhng li cao l bit khinh th tc; k no phm cm th b ti, nhng li khen l dng cm
(tr bn hip s). Khen ch, thng pht tri ngc nhau nh vy cho nn php lut, cm lnh b hu
hoi m dn cng lon. Ngy nay ai nh k xm phm n anh em mnh th c khen l ngi c
gc cnh (c kh tit): ai thy bn b nhc m tr th cho bn th c khen l trung trinh. Ci phm
hnh c gc cnh, trung trinh m thnh th php ca vua b vi phm. Bc vua cha tn trng ci
hnh gc cnh, trung trinh m qun ci ti phm cm, cho nn dn ganh nhau xem ai mnh m quan
li khng kim ch h c. Khng phi lm lng kh nhc m c n c mc th khen l c ti nng;
khng c chin cng m c chc v tn qu th khen l hin c. Ti nng v hin c nh vy m
thnh th binh lc trong nc phi yu m t b b hoang. Bc vua cha a thch ci hnh ti nng
hin c m qun ci ho binh nhc t hoang, nh vy l ci hnh ring c thnh lp m ci
ch cng b tiu dit.

*
Bn nho s dng vn lm lon php lut, bn hip s dng v phm cm, m bc vua cha u tn
trng, do mi sinh lon. H tri php th b ti, nhng cc tin sinh[15] li nh vn hc m
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

c dng; phm cm th b git, nhng cc hip s chuyn m st li c nui. Vy ngi m php


lut cho l tri th vua li dng, k m quan li git th b trn li nui. Php lut, thu dng, trn,
di bn ci tri nhau, khng c g nht nh, nh vy d c mi ng Hong cng khng lm
cho nc tr c. Vy k thi hnh nhn ngha l khng nn khen, khen th hi cho s nghip; k
chuyn v vn hc l khng nn dng, dng th lon php. Nc S c ngi c ting l ngay
thng, cha n trm cu, anh ta i bo quan. Quan lnh don ra lnh: git n i, v anh ta ngay
thng i vi vua m c li vi cha, cho nn tuy bo quan m b git. Do m xt, ngi b ti
chnh trc i vi vua l a con hung bo i vi cha. Nc L c k theo vua ra trn, ba ln nh
ba ln chy. Trng Ni hi nguyn do, ngi p: Ti c cha gi, ti cht th khng ai nui.
Trng Ni khen l hiu, tin c ngi vi vua L. Do m xt, ngi con hiu vi cha l k b
ti phn vua. Cho nn quan lnh don nc S git k t co cha, m khng ai t co k gian vi b
trn na; Trng Ni thng k b chy khi ra trn m dn nc L d thua trn, hng gic; ci li ca
ngi trn k di khc nhau nh vy . Bc vua cha mun va khen hnh tt ca nhn dn va
mu ci phc cho x tc th tt khng th c. i xa, ng Thng Hit t ra ch vit, dng ci
hnh nh ci vng khp, gi l ch t (ngha l ring), tri vi t th gi l cng (chung)[16],
vy ng Thng Hit bit rng cng v t tri vi nhau ri. Ngy nay coi cng v t, li hi nh
nhau, l do ci ho ca s khng bit thm st. Nh vy th i vi ngi dn thng, li hn ht l
lm iu nhn ngha v luyn tp vn hc. Lm iu nhn ngha th c tin cy v s c giao cho
chc v; luyn tp vn hc th thnh ng thy gii v s c vinh hin, l iu tt p i vi
ngi dn thng. Nhng khng c qun cng m c giao cho chc v, khng c tc m c
vinh hin, theo chnh sch , nc tt lon, vua tt nguy. Hai ci khng th dung nhau c,
khng th lng lp c. Thng ngi chm c u qun ch m ng thi li cao hnh vi
nhn t; ban tc lc cho ngi ph c thnh ch m ng thi li tin thuyt kim i; ch to o
gip cho chc v luyn binh cho nghim phng hon nn m ng thi li thch y phc ca nh
Nho; trng cy vo nng dn cho nc giu, trng cy vo qun lnh c ch m ng thi li
trng k s chuyn v vn hc; rung b hng dn bit knh b trn, bit s php lut m nui bn
hip khch m st k th ring, hnh ng nh vy m mong cho nc c tr v mnh l iu
khng th c. Thi bnh nui nho s v hip khch, thi lon li dng binh s nh vy l k c
n hu(?). V vy m k nhim s b b cng vic m k du hc mi ngy mi ng, do m i
ho lon.

*
Ngi i m gi l hin th gi kh tit v c tn ngha; ngi i m gi l tr th li ni tinh vi
t nh. Li ni tinh vi t nh th ngay bc rt thng minh cng kh hiu c. Nay, lm php lut cho
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

qun chng m dng nhng li ngay bc rt thng minh cng kh hiu c th qun chng bit u
m r. Tm cm m cn khng c n cho no th u c ngh ti go thm, tht b; qun o ct m
khng c lnh ln th u c ngh ti gm thu. Chnh sch tr nc, vic gp kia m cha lm
xong th vic hon, tnh ti lm g. Lm chnh tr lo vic trong dn gian, m iu dn thng hiu r
c th li khng dng, i hm m ngn lun ca bn thng tr, nh vy l tri ngc vi vic tr
dn. Cho nn nhng li tinh vi t nh, khng phi l ci cn thit cho dn chng. Nu khen hnh vi
gi kh tit c tn ngha l hin th tt qu k s khng di tr, m qu k s khng di tr th tt cng
khng c ci thut lm cho ngi khng la gt mnh c[17]. Ngi o vi giao du vi nhau,
khng v ham ca ci hoc s uy th ca nhau, cho nn mi cu k s khng di tr. Cn bc vua
cha vo ci th ch ng c ngi, m li giu c lm ch c mt nc, thng hu, pht
nng, nm hai quyn (thng, pht) lm sng t ci m thut ca mnh soi n c (tc
bit r c k gian t), th tuy c b ti nh in Thng, T Hn[18] cng khng dm di mnh,
vy th cn cn g ti k s khng di tr? K s gi kh tit c tn ngha (c nc) khng c ti
mi ngi m s quan li trong ci th c ti trn trm, nu c phi hng s gi kh tit c tn ngha
mi c b dng th kim u cho ngi lm quan? Khng c ngi lm quan th k cai tr t
m k lm lon nhiu. Cho nn ci o ca bc minh ch l c nht thit theo php lut m khng
cn c ngi tr, c nm vng ly thut m khng hm m k trung tn, nh vy php lut khng b
hu hoi m quan li khng sinh ra gian tr.

*
Ngy nay bc vua cha, i vi ngn lun (ca bn du s) ch thch li ni kho m khng xt
xem c thch ng hay khng; i vi hnh vi (ca bn du s) th ch trng h danh ca h ch khng
xem h c cng (cy rung hay nh gic) khng, v vy m dn trong thin h h m lun th ch
v n ni cho kho ch khng ngh n thc dng. Cho nn bn dn chng tin vng, ni chuyn
nhn ngha y c triu nh m quc chnh khng khi lon; k lp thn ch tranh nhau ci ting
thanh cao[19], khng cu ci cng dng thc t, do bn tr s lui v n trong hang ni, t b
tc lc khng nhn m binh lc khng khi suy nhc. Binh lc khng khi suy nhc, quc chnh
khng khi lon, nguyn do u? ch ci m dn chng khen, nh vua trng u l nhng hc
thuyt lm lon nc. Nay nhn dn trong nc u bn v chnh tr, cha ct nhng sch v php
lut ca Thng ng, Qun Trng, m nc cng ngho, l v k bn v nng nghip th ng m
k cm cy li t. Trong nc ai cng bn v vic binh, cha ct nhng sch v binh php ca Tn
T, Ng T[20], m binh lc cng yu l v k ni chuyn nh gic th ng m k bn o gip li
t. Cho nn bc minh ch ch dng thc lc ch khng nghe li ni sung, thng cng lao m nht
nh cm ci v dng, nh vy dn mi tn lc n cht theo b trn. Cy rung l vic rt lao
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

kh m dn lm v bit rng c vy mi giu c, nh gic l vic rt nguy him m dn lm v


bit c vy mi sang c. Nu trau di vn hc, tp tnh ngn lun, khng cy cy kh nhc m
c giu c, khng nguy him nh gic m c tn qu th ai ch mun lm nh vy? Kt qu l
mt trm ngi dng tr ch c mt ngi dng sc, ngi dng tr m ng th php lut bi hoi,
k dng sc m t th nc ngho, do m i ho lon. Cho nn mt nc c minh ch th khng
dng vn hc trong sch[21] ch ly php lut m dy dn, khng dng li ca cc tin sinh[22],
ch dng quan li lm thy (dy php lut), khng c bn hip khch hung hn, cho chm c u
gic mi l dng cm. Nh vy dn trong nc h m lun l cn c vo php lut, h hnh ng l
hng v s lp cng, s dng cm em dng ht vo vic qun, m thi bnh th nc giu, lc c
gic th binh mnh. l ci vn[23] lp vng nghip. Sc tch ci vn , tha lc ch s sut
th s nghip s vt ng , bng tam vng[24]. Theo php nht nh phi thnh cng.

*
Ngy nay khc hn. Bn trong th s dn lm theo mnh, bn ngoi th bn bin s mn quyn gy
th lc, trong ngoi u lm iu gian c i cng ch, nh vy chng nguy ? Cho nn qun
thn bn v i ngoi, nu khng chia ra hai phe hp tung v lin honh th cng nhn c mi th
vi nc khc m mn sc nc mnh tr th[25]. Hp tung l lin hp cc nc yu (tc lc
quc Hn, Triu, Ngy, S, Yn, T) nh mt nc ln (tc nc Tn); lin honh l th mt
nc mnh nh cc nc yu, hai phe u khng duy tr c quc gia. Bn b ti ni
chuyn lin honh u bo: Khng th nc ln th tt b ch xm lc. Th nc ln u phi l
ni sung, tt phi em bn nc mnh v n ca cc quan giao cho nc ln xin h phn pht.
Dng bn th nc b ct xn, giao n th danh phn b h thp; t ai b ct xn th nc yu ,
danh phn b h thp th chnh tr hn lon. Vy l theo ch trng lin honh nh nc ln, li
cha thy m mt t v lon chnh. Bn b ti ni chuyn hp tung u bo: Khng cu nc
nh m nh nc ln th thin h s b thn tnh, m thin h mt th nc mnh nguy, nc nguy
th vua ho thp hn. Cu nc nh u phi l ni sung, phi em binh nh nc ln. Cu nc
nh cha chc bo tn c nc m nh nc ln v tt khng c s s h (?), c s s
h th s b nc mnh ch ng. Xut qun th qun thua, lui v c th th thnh b ph. Vy l theo
ch trng hp tung cu nc nh, li cha thy m mt t, thua qun. K ch trng th
nc mnh ch mong nh th lc nc ngoi c quan chc ln trong nc[26]; k ch trng
cu nc nh ch mong mn th lc ca nc mnh m cu li nc ngoi[27]. Quc gia cha
c li g m h c t phong, lc hu; a v ca vua b h thp m quyn th ca b ti li
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

thm cao, t ai ca quc gia b ct xn m nh ring (ca b ti) th giu thm. Vic thnh th h
nm quyn m c trng dng hoi; vic hng th h cng giu c ri, lui v m hng. Cn bc
vua cha nghe li h, vic cha thnh, tc lc ca h thm cao, vic hng th li khng git h,
thnh th k s du thuyt khng ngi no khng dng nhng li ho huyn cu may, c tc
lc. Ti sao li nghe nhng thuyt ho huyn cho nc tan, vua cht? Ti vua cha khng hiu
r ci li cng v t, khng xt k xem li ni ca bn bin s c thch ng hay khng, m sau khi
tht bi ri, li khng git, tr ti bn h. Nhng k ch trng lin honh v hp tung u ni:
Vic i ngoi (ngha l theo lin honh hay hp tung) thnh cng ln th c th thnh b vng,
nh th nc cng c yn. Lm b vng th c th tn cng ngi, m nc yn th khng b
ngi tn cng. Nhng ci s mnh v tr th khng th trng vo vic ngoi giao, n ty ni chnh
(tt hay khng). Khng thi hnh php lut trong nc m c trng vo mu tr i ngoi, th khng
th tr v mnh c. Tc ng c cu: Tay o di th kho ma, tin ca nhiu th kho bun,
ngha l c nhiu vn th d thnh cng. Nc tr v mnh th d mu s, nc yu v lon th kh
thit k. Cho nn dng nc Tn (nc mnh), mu c thay i mi ln cng t tht bi; dng
nc Yn (nc yu), mu ch mt ln thay i m cng t thnh cng; khng phi v mu dng
Tn u khn c, mu dng Yn u ngu c, ch v ci vn tr hay lon khc nhau y thi.
Cho nn Chu li khai Tn m theo hp tung, mi mt nm b dit, V li khai Ngy m theo lin
honh, mi na nm mt. Chu v hp tung m b dit, V v lin honh m mt nc. Gi Chu v
V khoan tnh ci k hp tung hay lin honh, m gp lo vic tr nc, lm cho php lnh nghim
minh, thng pht xc nh, khai ph ht t ai sc tch cho nhiu khin cho dn xut t lc ra
gi thnh tr, th thin h d c chim t mnh, li cng khng c bao, cng ph c t mnh
th tn tht cng nng, nh vy mt nc vn c xe khng dm ng binh di thnh kin c ca
mnh, m ch ng ch yu km ca mnh (?) l ci thut chc chn gi c nc cho khi mt.
B ci thut chc chn gi c nc cho khi mt m lm ci vic nht nh cho nc ti dit
vong, l li ca k tr nc. Kt qu l mu tr lc ngoi giao b khn ngoi m chnh tr th
lon trong nh vy tt mt nc, khng sao cu c.

*
Nhn dn bao gi cng tm s an ton, li ch m trnh s nguy nan, khn cng. Nay ta bt h ra
trn, tin ln th cht v ch m lui v th b git, ng no cng nguy. B vic nh ca lm n m
tm ci cng lao hn m[28], nh lm cnh kh m b trn khng xt cho th tt phi khn cng. Ch
no khn cng v nguy nan th lm sao dn khng tm cch trnh? Cho nn h th cc t gia c th
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

lc c min qun dch m xa trn mc, xa trn mc th c yn. H dng hi l nh nh cm


quyn c ci h mun, c ci h mun th c li. Ch no yn n v c li th sao dn khng
a ti? Do m dn lo vic cng th t m dn lo vic t th nhiu. Chnh sch tr nc ca bc
minh ch l khin cho bn thng nhn, cng nhn v du th du thc t v b khinh cho dn x
vo cc ngh gc (trng trt, cy cy) m b cc ngh ngn (cng v thng). Nay li xin ca bn
thn cn vi vua cha c chp nhn, th quan tc c th mua c, quan tc c th mua c
th cng nhn v thng nhn khng cn thp hn na. Ca gian v gian c dng ch, th
thng nhn tt nhiu. Tin ca h tch t c nhiu gp bi nh nng, m a v ca h li cao hn
nng gia v chin s, nh vy th chin s[29] tt t, m bn con bun phi nhiu. Cho nn nc lon
c ci thi: bn hc gi th khen o tin vng, t khu l trng nhn ngha, trau chut dung mo v
y phc, li n ting ni lm lon php ng thi, lm m hoc lng vua cha; bn du s th
dng thuyt gian tr mn th lc ca nc ngoi t c t li, lm thit hi cho quc gia, bn
eo gm th tp hp n em, lp tit tho ni danh m phm cm lnh ca nm chc quan[30]
(tc ca triu nh) bn th thn nnh b, tch t ti sn, n hi l, mn ci th ca nh cm quyn
m xin min dch (cho k hi l cho h), cn bn thng gia v cng nhn th sa li[31] nhng
xu x, tch tr nhng vt thng dng[32] i thi (bn t gi m) bc lt ci li ca nng phu.
Nm hng ngi l mt ca nc, bc vua cha khng tr chng, khng nui chin s th trong
thin h c quc gia b tn ph suy vong, c triu i b tiu dit, cng khng c g l!

Ch thch:
[1] ng Cn l cha ca ng V, ngi sng lp nh H. Vua Thun sai ng Cn tr lt khng thnh
cng, b git; sau ng V tr lt, vua Thun truyn ngi cho. ng ln ng V ny vi ng V ca
nh Chu i sau.
[2] Tc nc S, thng hai c l lu, ng ch c l lp t thn.
[3] V ni t nc, nc ho qu.
[4] Phong v Co u Thim Ty, nh Chu mi u ng t Co.
[5] Mt con sng pht nguyn t Thim Ty, chy vo H Bc ri vo sng Dng T.
[6] Tng truyn vua Yn vng v thng dn khng khng c nn S chim c nc T.
[7] Cung Cng l mt b lc thi thng c, trc thi vua V c ln xm phm Trung Nguyn,
thi vua V cng c th gy chin vi Trung Nguyn na, nhng khng thy s chp vic .
[8] Theo cc nh kho c gn y th thi cha c st, cui i Xun Thu mi c.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

[9] Nguyn vn: th dn nh ph mu. Cu ny theo Trn Khi Thin tnh lc my ch ( nh


ph mu) chi ph mu.
[10] Nguyn vn: bt thnh k khp l khng theo s khc lc.
[11] Tc tht thp nh hin.
[12] Mt ngi ni ting chy nhanh thi xa.
[13] Nguyn vn l di, c sch ging l phng, c sch ging l phng ln ln.
[14] Mt tm l tm thc, mt thng l hai tm, thc hi bng khong mt gang tay.
[15] Ch tin sinh mi u tr cc danh s khp ni t tp Lm Tri (T) m c vua T trng
i (coi phn I), y tr hng ngi m ngy nay chng ta gi l hc gi.
[16] Coi ch thch phn III chng IV
[17] Chng ta nn nh Hn Phi ch trng vua phi dng thut ch ng b ti.
[18] in Thng hay in Thnh, in Hng, mt i phu nc T i Xun Thu, git vua T l
Gin Cng lp Bnh Cng. Sau con chu ng ta cp lun ngi vua nc T - T Hn cha r l
ai, c l l mt i phu nc Tng.
[19] m ch bn o gia n.
[20]Tn T tc Tn V, ngi nc T, gii binh php, tc gi mt b binh th ni ting. Ng T
tc Ng Khi, mt danh tng i Chin Quc, gc nc V, lm quan L, Ngy, S, my ln
thng c Tn.
[21] Tc cc Thi, Th, in tch ca Nho gia.
[22] Tc cc hc gi (nh cc Tc h tin sinh). C sch chp l tin vng.
[23] Tc nc giu binh mnh.
[24] Ng l Hong , Chuyn Hc, Cc, Nghiu, Thun.
Tam vng l vua i Tam i: H V, Thng Thang, Chu Vn vng.
[25] Nh trng hp Ng Vin, ngi nc S, cha l Ng Xa b vua S git, ng qua nc Ng,
thuyt phc vua Ng l Hp L nh nc S bo th cho cha.
[26] Khuyn vua th nc mnh m vua nghe th h c nc mnh trng dng, thng quan, phong
t cho.
[27] Khuyn vua cu nc nh m vua nghe th h c nc nh mang n, tng cho tin ca, bo
vt.
[28] Cng lao lp trn lng con nga tot m hi, tc chin cng.
[29] Nguyn vn l cnh gii chi s ngha l k s ngay thng, nhng khng hp vi tin hu
vn, cho nn mt s hc gi ng l chin gii chi s (chin s) hoc canh chin chi s (nng gia v
chin s).
[30] Nm chc l: t , t m, t khng, t s v t khu.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

[31] Tc nh ta ni: nh bng li cho c v mi, trng c.


[32] Nguyn vn: pht m ti, c sch ging l tin ca v dng hoc v hn. Chng ti thy khng
xui nn theo Trn Khi Thin: pht m ti - bt gia ho - tin nghi ho.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XL
NN TH
(VN NN V CI TH[1])

Thn T (tc Thn o) bo:


- Con phi long ci my m bay (ln tri), con ng x (mt loi rn nh rng, khng c chn) ch
ng sng m m ln (trong ). My tan sng tnh ri th hai con cng ch nh con giun, con
kin v mt ch da. Ngi hin m chu khut k bt tiu (ti c km) l v quyn (th) nh, (a)
v thp; k bt tiu m khut phc c ngi hin l v quyn trng, v cao. Nghiu hi cn l dn
thng th khng tr c ba ngi, m Kit khi lm thin t th c th lm lon c thin h. Do
ti bit rng quyn th v a v nh cy c, m bc hin tr khng cho ta hm m. Cy
n yu m bn c mi tn ln cao l nh sc gi a i; k bt tiu m lnh ban ra c thi hnh
l nh sc gip ca qun chng. Nghiu khi cn l k l thuc, i ging dy th dn khng nghe;
n khi ngi quay mt v phng Nam, lm vua thin h, lnh ban ra l ngi ta thi hnh lin, cm
on l ngi ta phi ngng ngay. Do m xt th hin v tr khng cho m ng phc tng,
m quyn th v a v khut phc ngi hin.
C k tr li Thn T:[2]
- Con phi long ci my m bay, con ng x ch ng sng m m ln, ti ng rng hai con
da vo ci th ca my v sng m. Tuy nhin, nu b ngi hin m chuyn da th lc, c
tr nc khng, th ti cha c thy y. C ci th ca my, sng m m ci, ln c,
qu l con rng, con rn c ti cao. C my dy m con giun khng ci c; c sng m c m
con kin khng ln c v ti nng ca chng km. Kit Tr quay mt v phng Nam, lm vua
thin h, dng uy th ca ngi thin t lm my v sng m, m thin h khng khi i lon l v
ti nng ca h km. V li ng (tc Thn T) bo ci th ca vua Nghiu tr c thin h, th
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ci th c khc g ci th Kit lm lon thin h u? Ci th t n khng th khin cho ngi


hin dng n, k bt tiu khng dng n. Ngi hin dng n th thin h tr, k bt tiu dng n th
thin h lon. Tnh tnh con ngi hin th t, bt tiu th nhiu. Ly ci li ca uy th m gip k bt
tiu thi lon th k da th lm lon thin h s rt ng, ngi nh th lm cho thin h tr rt t.
Ci th rt tin li cho vic tr m cng tin li cho s lon. Cho nn Chu Th[3] c cu: ng
chp cnh cho cp, cp s bay vo trong p, bt ngi n tht. Gip cho k bt tiu c th lc tc
l chp cnh cho cp. Kit Tr bt dn xy i cao, o ao su, lm kit sc dn, dng cc hnh bo
lc[4] lm hi mng dn. Kit Tr lm c bn vic [5] nh c ci uy th thin t lm cnh cho
h. Nu h l thng nhn th cha lm c mt (trong bn vic ) b x t ri. Th l ci
nui lng h lang gy nn vic bo lon. l mi hi ln ca thin h. Th c th lm cho nc
tr, cng c th gy lon, ch khng nht nh. Nh vy m chuyn ni rng th tr thin h, th
kin thc thc l nng cn. C nga tt v xe chc m sai y t nh xe th b thin h ci, giao
cho Vng Lng[6] nh xe th ngy i c ngn dm. Cng vn l nga y xe y m ngi th i
c ngn dm, ngi b ch ci, ch do kho vng khc nhau xa vy. Nay coi nc l chic xe, coi
ci th l con nga, coi hiu lnh l dy cng, hnh pht l ngn roi, ng Nghiu, ng Thun
nh xe th thin h tr, Kit, Tr nh xe th thin h lon, ch do hin v bt tiu khc nhau xa
vy. Mun i nhanh v xa th bit dng[7] Vng Lng; m mun tin li tr hi li khng bit
dng ngi hin nng, l ci hi ca s khng bit suy lun v nhng ci ging nhau. Nghiu,
Thun chnh l Vng Lng trong vic tr nc y.

*
Li c k[8] tr li cu tr li trn:
- ng y (Thn T) cho ci th l vua da vo m tr quan li; m ng (tc ngi bt b
Thn T nh trn) li bo: Phi i c hin thn ri mi tr c, nh vy khng ng. Ci th,
danh ch c mt m thc th thay i rt nhiu[9]. Nu ci th t nhin[10] th chng cn phi
bn. Nhng ci ti gi l th l ci th do ngi thit lp ra kia[11]. ng bo: Nghiu, Thun c th
m tr; Kit, Tr c th m lon. Ti khng bo rng di triu Nghiu Thun (vua Kit, Tr),
khng phi nh vy, nhng ci khng phi do ngi thit lp ra. Nghiu, Thun sinh ra m
lm vua th c mi Kit, Tr ( di) cng khng lm cho lon c v l ci th tr; Kit, Tr
sinh ra m d lm vua th c mi Nghiu, Thun ( di) cng khng lm cho tr c, v l ci
th lon. Cho nn bo: Th m tr th khng th lm cho lon c, th m lon th khng th lm
cho tr c. l ci th t nhin, khng phi con ngi thit lp c. Ci ti ni l ci th m
con ngi c th thit lp c kia (tc l quyn th). M ci ny th s hin minh c lin quan g
ti? Lm sao bit c iu y?
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

C ngi k chuyn: Mt ngi bn mu v thun, khoe thun ca mnh chc, khng vt g m


thng c. Mt lt sau li khen mu ca mnh bn, khng vt g l khng m thng. C ngi hi
li anh ta: Th by gi ly cy mu ca ng m m ci thun ca ng th sao Anh ta b. Ci
thun khng g m thng vi ci mu khng g l khng m thng, hai ci khng cng tn ti
mt lc c. S hin minh th khng chu s cng ch (nh ci thun), m ci th dng lm o tr
nc th c tnh cch cng dng cng ch (nh ci mu). Hai ci chung th l mu thun.
Hin v th, khng th dung nhau c, iu hin nhin[12].
V li, Nghiu, Thun, Kit, Tr ngn i mi xut hin mt ln; s rt t[13]. M ci thng
thy trn i th l hng ngi trung bnh[14], cho nn ti ni v th l ni hng trung bnh. Hng
ngi trung bnh th trn khng bng Nghiu, Thun, di khng n ni nh Kit, Tr. Nu c gi
cht php lut, dng quyn th th nc tr, quay lng li php lut, b quyn th th nc lon. Nay
b quyn th, quay lng li php lut m i Nghiu, Thun. Nghiu, Thun ti l nc tr, th ngn
i lon mi c mt i tr. Gi cht php lut, dng quyn th m i Kit, Tr. Kit, Tr ti l
nc lon, th ngn i tr mi c mt i lon. Ngn i tr m mt i lon, vi ngn i lon m
mt i tr, hai ci ngc hn nhau nh hai ngi ci con nga K v con nga Nh[15], m mi
ngi phi nhanh v mt pha vy.
B un g (n qut)[16], b o lng m sai H Trng[17] ng xe th mt ci bnh xe ng
ta ng cng khng xong. Khng c s khuyn khch khen thng, khng c ci uy ca hnh pht,
b quyn th php lut, th Nghiu, Thun d i tng nh thuyt phc, ngi ta cng ci li, m
khng tr ni ba nh. Vy ci th dng c, iu hin nhin. M ng bo: Phi i c
ngi hin, th l sai. V li khng n mt trm ngy, i c tht ngon mi n th tt cht i mt.
i c bc hin nh Nghiu, Thun tr dn i nay th khc g i c tht ngon cu ngi cht
i khng?
ng bo: C nga tt xe chc m sai y t nh xe th b thin h ci; giao cho Vng Lng
nh th ngy i c ngn dm. Ti ngh khng phi vy. Mt ngi Trung Quc (tc Trung
Nguyn, nh min L, T, Tn, Chu) cht i m i ngi nc Vit li[18] gii ti cu, th
ngi Vit li gii n u cu cng khng c. i ng Vng Lng thi c nh c xe ngy
nay th cng khng khc g i ngi nc Vit cu ngi cht ui vy. i lm sao c, l l
hin nhin. C nga tt, xe chc c nm chc dm t mt trm ( tip sc), ri sai ngi trung
bnh nh xe th c th chy nhanh, i xa, mt ngy i c ngn dm, cn g phi i c ng Vng
Lng thi c! V li ni ti vic nh xe, khng a ra trng hp dng Vng Lng th a ra
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

nhng trng hp dng k ti t khng bit nh xe, ni v vic tr nc, khng a ra trng hp
Nghiu, Thun th a ra trng hp Kit, Tr, lm lon nc; nh vy tc nh ni v khu v, nu
khng a ra ng mt, th a ra rau ng, rau ay, ngh lun nh vy l ni cho nhiu m khng
hp l hp php v a ra hai trng hp cc oan, lm sao c th bt b nhng li hp o l c?
Li ng bn khng bng thuyt v th trn kia ca Thn T.

Ch thch:
[1]Vn nn l t cu hi bt b.
[2] Hn Phi thay li Nho gia m bc thuyt v th ca Thn o.
[3] Phn trong kinh Th chp v nh Chu.
[4] Tng truyn do vua Tr t ra nhng khng chc ng; Tr sai bi m ln mt ci tr bng
ng, di than hng, bt ti nhn i ln ci tr (t nm ngang), hn trt chn t xung than
hng, cho t K thy m ci. C thuyt na cho rng ti nhn b ct vo mt ci ng ng rng,
ri ngi ta than hng vo cho n ln lm chy da tht ti nhn.
[5] Trn ch mi k ba vic: xy i cao, o ao su, dng cc hnh bo lc, cho nn c ngi bo
bo v lc l 2 cc hnh (khng ng tin), c ngi bo trn chp thiu mt vic (ng tin hn).
[6] Ngi nc Tn gii nh xe, thi Xun Thu.
[7] C bn thm ch bt: Mun i xa v nhanh m khng bit dng Vng Lng Chng ti cho
l sai v nh vy khng hp vi kt lun cui cu: ci hi ca s khng bit suy lun v nhng ci
ging nhau.
[8] y l kin ca Hn Phi.
[9] C sch ging l ngha rt nhiu. Nguyn vn: bin v s.
[10] C hc gi hiu l thin mnh, c hc gi li hiu l s truyn ngi.
[11] C hc gi hiu l s vn dng ch quyn (quyn th).
[12] C on ny nguyn vn rt kh hiu.
[13] Nguyn vn l: th t kin, tu chng nhi sinh, dch tng ch l: l snh vai ni gt m sinh, mi
sch ging mt khc, c sch ng l sai hay thiu ch. Chng ti theo Trn Khi Thin on m
dch.
[14] Nguyn vn l: th ch tr gi, bt tuyt trung; mi sch cng hiu mt khc, chng ti cng
on m dch.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T
[15] Nhng loi nga tt, ngy i ngn dm.
[16] Coi ch thch thin Hin hc.
[17] B ti vua H V, coi v xe c
[18] C bn thm ch hi: li b gii.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XLIII
NH PHP
(LP PHP[1])

C ngi hi:
- Thuyt ca hai ng Thn Bt Hi v Cng Tn ng, thuyt no khn thit cho quc gia hn?
p: - Khng th quyt c. Ngi ta khng n mi ngy th cht, m tri lnh gt, khng c o
mc cng cht. Hi n mc ci no khn thit cho ngi hn th khng th quyt c v c hai u
dng sinh, khng th thiu mt. Thn Bt Hi ni v thut, m Cng Tn ng ni v php.
Thut l nhn ti nng m giao cho chc quan, theo ci danh m trch c ci thc (ni sao th phi
lm ng nh vy hoc gi chc v no th phi lm ng nhim v), nm quyn sinh st, xt kh
nng ca qun thn. l ci bc vua cha phi nm trong tay. Php l hin lnh cng b cc cng
s, thng hay pht[2] u c dn tin chc l thi hnh[3], thng ngi cn thn gi php lut,
pht k phm php, nh vy b ti s theo php[4]. trn vua khng c thut th b b ti che lp;
di b ti khng c php lut th lon. Vy khng th thiu mt trong hai ci , c hai u l cng
c ca bc vng.

*
Ngi li hi: Ch theo thut m khng c php lut hoc ch c php lut m khng theo lut,
u khng c, l ti sao? p: Thn Bt Hi lm ph t cho Hn Chiu hu, Hn (lc ) l mt
phn ca nc Tn (mi) tch ra[5]. V vy php lut c ca Tn cha b m php lut mi ca Hn
t ra: lnh ca vua trc cha thu v m lnh ca vua mi ban hnh. Nu Thn Bt Hi khng
chnh n li php lut, thng nht li hin lnh th s c nhiu k gian v php lut v lnh c c li
cho h th h theo, php lut v lnh mi c li cho h th h theo. C v mi tri ngc nhau, trc
v sau nghch nhau, th d Thn Bt Hi c bo Chiu hu c chc ln phi dng thut, bn gian thn
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

vn cn c ch di tr trong li ni c. V vy, Thn Bt Hi da vo sc mnh ca nc Hn c


vn c xe m mi by nm[6] khng lp c nghip b vng cho Hn. l ci hi b trn tuy
dng thut m cc quan khng chnh n, thng nht php lut.
Cng Tn ng tr nc Tn, t ra lnh phi co gian, nu t co sai th b ti, nm v mi nh
phi cng chu trch nhim; thng hu m xc thc, pht nng m cng quyt; nh vy m dn tn
lc lm lng khng ngh, nh ui ch, d nguy cng khng li bc, lm cho nc giu binh
mnh. Nhng khng dng thut bit k gian, cho nn s giu mnh ch li cho bn i thn m
thi. Ti khi Hiu Cng v Thng qun (Thng ng) cht, Hu Vng ln ni ngi, php lut
ca Tn cha hu hoi, m Trng Nghi em Tn hi sinh cho Hn, Ngy[7]. Ri Hu Vng cht,
V Vng ln ni ngi, Cam Mu (T tha tng ca Tn) em Tn hi sinh cho nc Chu. V
Vng cht, Chiu Tng Vng ln ni ngi, Nhng Hu (tc Ngy Nhim) vt nc Hn,
nc Ngy m nh T pha ng, nm nm Tn khng thm c mt thc t, m Nhng
Hu th c phong p o, ng Hu (tc Phm Tuy) nh Hn tm nm, m c phong t Nh
Nam. T tr i, nhng k c trng dng Tn u thuc hng ng Hu, Nhng Hu ht.
Vy, nh gic m thng th i thn c tn qu, quc gia c thm t th i thn c thm
t ring, ch v nh vua khng c thut bit k gian. Thng qun d mi ln sa sang php
lut, gian thn cng ngc li li dng php lut lm li cho h[8]. Cho nn nhn sc mnh ca Tn
m my chc nm khng lp c s nghip vng. l ci hi ca php lut c cc quan p
dng ng, nhng vua trn li khng c thut.

*
Li ni:
- Vua cha dng thut ca Thn t, quan li dng php ca Thng qun, nh vy l c ri ch
(hay cha ?)[9]
p:
- Thn t cha t n ch hon ton ca thut, Thng qun cha t n ch hon ton ca php.
Thn t bo: Quan li khng c vt chc (khng thuc quyn chc ca mnh th) d bit cng
khng c ni. Quan li khng c vt chc, nh vy l gi chc phn ca mnh, ci c;
nhng bit m khng ni th l khng t ci li[10] (ca ngi khc vi vua), ci sai. Bc vua
cha ly mt ca c nc m xem cho nn khng ai nhn sng bng, ly tai ca c nc m nghe cho
nn khng ai nghe t bng. Nay b ti bit m khng ni th vua cha cn nh vo u m nhn thy,
nghe thy c na? Php lut ca Thng qun bo: Chm c mt u gic th thng tc mt
cp, nu mun lm quan th c mt chc quan m lng l 50 thch (mi thch l mi u);
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

chm c hai u gic th thng tc hai cp, nu mun lm quan th c mt chc quan lng
100 thch. Vic thng quan tc xng vi cng chm u gic. Nay nu c mt php lnh bo: Ai
chm c u gic th c lm thy thuc hay th mc th nh ct khng xong m bnh tr khng
ht. Lm th cn kho tay, lm thy thuc cn gii dng thuc. C chm c u gic l c lm
nhng ngh th khng hp vi kh nng ca h. Lm quan tr dn th cn c tr nng, cn chm
u gic th cn sc mnh. Dng ngi ch c sc mnh m cho lm quan tr dn cn c tr nng, th
cng nh cho ngi c cng chm u gic lm thy thuc hay th mc. Cho nn ti bo: Hai ng
y Thn t v Thng qun cha t c n ch hon ton ca thut, php.
Ch thch:
[1] Theo Trn Khi Thin, cng c th hiu l gii thch php lut. Nhng chng ti ngh ngha
hp qu. Nhan ny khng tm c ton thin.
[2] C bn chp l hnh pht, nhng c hng di s thy thng pht ng hn.
[3] Ngha l php lut ban th phi thi hnh ng, dn mi tin.
[4] Nguyn vn: nhn thn chi s s, c bn ging l: b ti s coi l thy.
[5] Nm 376 trc Ty Lch, nc Tn chia ba thnh Ngy, Triu v Hn.
[6] S thc ch c 15 nm thi, m Hn khng phi l nc ln c vn c xe.
[7] Trng Nghi lm tng quc cho Tn Hu vng, ch trng lin honh, thuyt lc quc hp
nhau li phc v Tn. Vy th sao li bo em Tn hi sinh cho Hn, Ngy.
[8] Chnh ngha l nh cy vo
[9] Nguyn vn: kh h? Nhiu sch dch st l "c khng"? Chng ti ngh dch nh vy th li
p ca Hn Phi di ho ra khng nhm, cho nn chng ti ly m dch nh trn.
[10] Nguyn vn: th bt yt () qu d. C sch khng dch ch yt , c sch dch l khng ni
ci g khng thuc chc v ca mnh. Nhng thin Bt kinh vit: yt qu thng, th r rng yt c
ngha l t co. T co ti li ca ngi khc nn c thng.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN VII
NH BNH
(HAI QUYN CA VUA[1])
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Bc minh ch s d ch ng c b ti l ch nh c hai ci quyn m thi. Hai ci quyn l


hnh v c. Th no l hnh v c? Git pht gi l hnh, khen thng gi l c[2]. B ti
no cng s b git pht v ham c khen thng, cho nn vua cha bit t s dng hai ci quyn
hnh v c th qun thn u s uy ca vua m mong c vua khen thng. Bn gian thn trn i
th khng vy. Chng ght ai th lm m hoc vua c vua giao cho quyn tr ti ngi ;
chng yu ai th lm m hoc vua cha c vua giao cho quyn thng ngi . Bc vua cha
khng gi cho ci uy cng ci li, pht v thng xut pht t chnh mnh, m nghe li b ti,
thng pht theo h th dn chng trong nc u s bn b ti m coi thng vua, qui phc h
m xa vua, l ci hi bc vua cha nh mt hai ci quyn hnh v c. Cp lm cho ch phi
khip phc l nh nanh vi vut: nu cp b nanh vut i, cho ch dng th ngc li n phi
khip phc ch. Bc vua cha dng hnh v c ch ng b ti, nu b hai quyn , cho b ti
dng th ngc li b b ti ch ng. Cho nn in Thng trn xin tc lc ban cho qun thn,
di lm ci u ci hc ln hn mu mc thi n cho trm h; th l Gin Cng mt ci quyn thi
n, cho in Thng ly m dng, rt cuc Gin Cng b git.[3] T Hn tu vi vua Tng[4]:
Dn thch c khen thng, vy vic xin i vng t lm ly; dn ght b hnh pht, vic ny
thn xin m nhn. Th l vua Tng mt ci quyn hnh pht cho T Hn ly m dng, rt cuc
vua Tng b hip bc. in Thng ch dng ci c m Gin Cng b git; T Hn ch dng ci
hnh m vua Tng b hip. Vy m ngy nay bn b ti dng c hai ci hnh v c, th vua cha tt
nguy hn Gin Cng v vua Tng nhiu. Cho nn cc vua cha b hip, b git, b che lp, la di l
v b c hai ci quyn hnh v c cho b ti dng. Nh vy m khng b nguy vong l iu
khng th c c.

*
Bc vua cha mun ngn cm gian t, tt phi xt xem hnh v danh c hp nhau khng; danh l li
ni m hnh l s vic. B ti trnh by mt kin ngh, vua theo kin ngh m giao vic cho, ri
ty vic m xt kt qu. Kt qu ph hp vi vic, vic ph hp vi li ni th thng; tri li, kt
qu khng ph hp vi vic, vic khng ph hp vi li ni th pht. Li ni ca b ti hunh hoang,
m kt qu nh th pht, khng phi pht v kt qu nh m v kt qu khng ph hp vi li ni. Li
ni ca b ti nhn qu m kt qu ln th cng pht, khng phi khng mng v kt qu ln, nhng
kt qu khng ph hp vi li ni th cng khng b hi, v vy nn pht. Xa Hn Chiu hu say
ri ng. Vin in quan (th thn coi v mo) s vua lnh, ly o p ln cho vua. Chiu Hu thc
dy, thy vy, vui lng, hi k t hu: Ai p o cho ta ?. K t hu p: Vin quan coi v
mo". Chiu Hu bn pht c vin in y v khng lm nhim v; pht vin in quan v vt chc
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

v. Khng phi l ng khng s lnh, m v ng cho rng b ti vt chc v th ci hi cn hn


l mnh b lnh. Cho nn bc minh ch i vi b ti, khng cho b ti vt chc m lp cng,
khng cho li ni khng ph hp vi vic lm. Vt chc th cht, li ni khng ph hp vi vic
lm th b ti. B ti c gi chc v ca mnh, li ni ph hp vi vic, nh vy qun thn khng th
kt b ng lm iu gian t c.

*
Bc vua cha c hai mi lo: dng ngi hin,[5] b ti nhn s hin ti ca h m ln vua; m dng
ngi ba bi th vic tt tht bi. Vua thch ngi hin th b ti trau di b ngoi lm va lng
vua, nh vy chn tnh ca h khng xut hin, m chn tnh ca h khng xut hin th vua khng
phn bit c u l chn, u l ngy. Cho nn vua Vit hiu dng m a s nhn dn coi thng
s cht; S Linh vng thch nhng lng eo m trong nc nhiu ngi (nhn n ti) cht i; T
Hon cng hay ghen m hiu sc, nn Th iu t hon c lm thi gim; ng li thch n
ngon nn Dch Nha luc a con u lng ca mnh[6] dng; vua nc Yn l T Khoi thch
ngi hin[7] cho nn T Chi lm b t ra rng mnh (thanh cao) khng nhn ngi vua[8]. Vua l
lng ght ca mnh th b ti lm ra b ti nng hp vi s thch ca vua; vua l lng mun th
b ti sa i tnh tnh thi thch ng vi lng vua m cu li. Cho nn T Chi lm b hin
nhn m ot c ngi vua; Th iu, Dch Nha li dng s thch ca vua m ln vua; (kt qu l)
T Khoi cht v ni lon, Hon Cng cht ti khi di b ra ngoi ca phng[9] m cha c chn.
Nguyn do ti u? Ti vua l tnh dc ca mnh, b ti li dng (m mu li cho h). B ti
v tt yu vua, h ch tnh ci li cho h thi. Bc vua cha khng che giu tnh dc, t ca
mnh m cho b ti c c hi ln p mnh th b ti hc ci thi ca T Chi, in Thng u c
kh. Cho nn bo: Vua b yu, b ght i th chn tng ca b ti s hin, m vua s khng b che
lp.
Ch thch:
[1]Bnh ngha gc l ci cn, l cm. y bnh l quyn bnh, ngha l quyn th nm trong tay nh
cm ci cn ca vt.
[2]Ch c y c ngha khc ngha ngi ta thng dng.
[3] v [4] in Thng v Gin cng; T Hn v vua Tng: coi ch trang 10 thin Ng .

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

[5]Ch hin ny tr hng ngi a ti a thut, khng phi hng hin nhn qun t theo quan nim
Nho gia.
[6]Th iu v Dch Nha u l bn gian tr c T Hon cng tin dng. Nguyn vn bn Trn
Khi Thin: th t. C bn chp l t th (luc) u a con (ca mnh).
[7]Ch hin ny hiu theo quan nim Nho gia.
[8]Vic ny chp trong Chin Quc sch Yn sch -9 (L Bi - 1973) Yn vng l Khoi em
nc nhng cho T Chi c ting l hin nh vua Nghiu (ngi nhng ngi cho Ha
Do), nhng T Chi khng c ngi nc Yn phc, nc Yn ha lon, sau b T nh. S khng
chp T Chi mi u c lm b cao thng nh Ha Do m t chi hay khng.
[9]Nguyn vn bn ca Trn Khi Thin: trng lu xut h. C bn chp l trng lu xut thi (gii
t thy b ra). Hai ch h v thi ch khc nhau mt nt chm.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN VI
HU
(C PHP )

Khng nc no lun lun mnh, khng nc no lun lun yu. Ngi thi hnh php lut m
cng cng (ngha l ch cng v t) th nc mnh; ngi thi hnh php lut m nhu nhc th
nc yu. Vua Kinh (S) Trang vng thn tnh hai mi su nc, m t ba ngn dm m khi mt
ri[1] th nc Kinh suy vong. Vua T Hon Cng thn tnh ba mi nc, m t ba ngn dm m
khi mt ri th nc T suy vong. Vua Yn Chiu vng[2] ly sng Hong H lm bin gii, ly t
K lm m bnh phong l t Trc v t Phng Thnh[3], tn ph nc T, bnh nh nc
Trung Sn, khin cho nc lng ging no l bn ca vua Yn th c coi trng, nu khng th b
khinh, vy m khi Chiu vng mt ri th nc Yn suy vong. Vua Ngy l An Li vng nh
nc Yn, cu nc Triu, chim t H ng, cng ph ht t o v t V, ri em binh nh
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

T, chim Bnh Lc; li nh nc Hn, chim t Qun, i thng qun Hn di sng K; trong
trn Th Dng, lm cho qun Kinh b nh n qu lu phi b chy; ph tan qun Kinh Thi v
Triu Lng; binh Ngy bn ln gin ra trong thin h, uy th lan khp cc nc (vn minh) i mo
mang ai, (tc khp Trung Quc), vy m An Li vng cht ri th nc Ngy suy vong. Vy c
Trang Vng, Hon Cng th nc Kinh, nc T lm b ch; c Chiu vng, An Li vng th
nc Yn v nc Ngy mnh ln. Nay cc nc y u b suy nhc c v qun thn, quan li ca
h u theo con ng lon vong ch khng theo ci thut tr cng. Nc lon suy ri, h li
cn b php nc m lo quyn li ring, nh vy khng khc g vc ci cu la, cng lon, suy
hn na.

*
Cho nn vo thi ny, nh cm quyn no bit b t li t tm m theo php cng th dn s
yn, nc s li, bit b hnh ng ring t m m lm theo php cng th binh s mnh m ch s
yu. Cho nn vua (theo php m) xt s thnh bi ca vic[4], dng ngi bit gi php m
t ln trn cc qun thn th khng k no gian tr gt vua c; (theo php m) xt s thnh bi
ca vic, dng ngi bit cn nhc m giao cho cc vic xa th khng k no la gt v vic quan
trng hay khng quan trng trong thin h c. Nu nh vo danh ting m c ct nhc th b ti
xa b trn (vua) m kt b phi di; nu nh c phe ng m c lm quan th dn s ch lo kt
giao vi nhau m khng cn gi php lut. Quan li m khng c dng ng kh nng th nc
lon. Nu thng pht ai ch do li khen ch ca ngi khc th k thch c thng, ght b pht s
b php cng m ch theo thut ring, kt b ng lm li cho nhau, qun vua mnh m giao thip
vi nc ngoi, a phe mnh ln, m b ti s t phc v cho vua. B ti kt giao vi nhau nhiu,
trong ngoi u c b ng th d c ti ln, cng che lp ht, vua khng sao bit c. Do m b
ti trung chng c ti cng b git, cn bn gian thn chng c cng g li c yn n hng li. B
ti trung khng c ti m b git th hng lng thn (b ti tt) phi n mnh; bn gian thn khng
c cng m c yn n hng li th bn gian thn tin ln. l ngun gc s suy vong. Nh vy
th b ti b php lut m lo vic ring t, coi thng php cng; thng lui ti nh ring ca bn
cm quyn m khng ti triu nh ca vua; trm ln lo ci li cho t gia m khng mt ln mu tnh
vic cho vua. Thuc h tuy ng m khng phi tn qun, bch quan tuy m khng phi lo
vic nc. Nh vy, vua cha ch c ci danh l vua cha m thc t th phi nh cy vo nh ca b
ti. Cho nn thn (tc Hn Phi) bo: Triu nh ca nc suy vong khng c ngi. Triu nh
khng c ngi, khng phi l triu nh trng khng, m l b ti ch ngh n ci li ca t
gia, khng lo lm li cho nc, cc quan ln lo tn ln nhau m khng tn qun, cn cc quan nh
dng bng lc kt giao ch khng lm vic nc. S d nh vy l v vua cha trn khng quyt
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

on theo php lut m tin li khen ch ca k gian, thng pht theo h. Bc minh ch (tri li)
chn ngi theo php lut, khng theo ring m ct nhc h, xt cng lao ca b ti theo php lut,
khng theo ring m c lng, (nh vy) k lm c vic khng b ghm, k lm hng vic
khng th ni hay cho mnh c; k c khen (by) khng c tin c (hay thng chc), k b
ch (oan) khng b cch chc (hay ging chc); m gia vua ti, thin c phn minh, nc d tr.
(Tm li) vua theo ng php lut th thnh cng.

*
Ngi hin lm b ti th quay mt v hng Bc dng l vt[5] (th) khng c hai lng, triu
nh khng dm t chi a v thp hn, trong qun i, khng dm t chi vic gian nan; mt mc
thun tng vic lm, php ca vua, h tm[6] i mnh lnh, khng dm d ngh phi tri, cho
nn c ming m khng ni ring, c mt khng nhn ring, hon ton do vua kim ch. Phn b
ti, cng nh cnh tay, trn che u, di che thn, thn th nng hay lnh th phi cu, d li kim
Mc Da k thn cng khng dm khng bt. B ti hin trit k s ti bng lm vic ring t (m
phi lo vic cng). Cho nn dn khng dm ra khi lng m giao du, khng c thn thch ngoi trm
dm. Sang hn khng ln nhau, tr ngu u c ch ng. Nh vy l cc tr.
Hng ngi khinh tc lc, d dng b chc v m i chn vua khc, thn khng gi l lim.
Hng ngi t li gi di, tri php lut, khng theo vua, mt mc can gin, thn khng gi l
trung. Hng ngi thi hnh n hu, phn pht li lc, thu phc k di c ting tt, thn khng
gi l nhn. Hng ngi lnh i, n, ch bai vua, thn khng gi l ngha. Hng ngi ra ngoi
giao thip vi ch hu ( lm li cho mnh), trong lm hao tn cho nc, rnh lc nc nh gp
cn nguy him da vua, bo: Vic ngoi giao khng c ti th khng kt thn vi nc ngoi
c; nc khc th on mnh, khng c ti th khng gii cho c, m vua tin, giao vic nc
cho, nhn h lm cho uy danh ca vua b h thp cho uy danh ca h rc r, hy hoi thc lc
ca quc gia lm li cho nh h, hng thn khng gi l tr. My hng (lim, trung, nhn, ngha,
tr) , thi lon ngi ta qu trng, nhng php ca tin vng th gt b h ra. Php ca tin vng
bo: B ti khng c ra oai, khng c gian c m phi theo ng li ca vua. i xa, khi
quc gia bnh tr th dn theo php cng, b thut ring, thng nht ngh v vic lm i vua
giao cho nhim v.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Lm vua m ch thn xem xt bch quan th khng thi gi m cng khng sc. V li
ngi trn dng mt th k di t im b ngoi; ngi trn dng tai th k di sa ging ni;
ngi trn dng tr c on xt th k di kho ni, ni nhiu. Tin vng cho ba ci (mt,
tai, tr c) l khng nn khng vo ti nng ca mnh m theo php , xt k vic thng pht.
Tin vng ch gi ci ct yu, nn php gin d m khng b vi phm; mt mnh t ch ng dn
trong bn b, khin cho k thng minh khng gian tr c, k ming li khng nnh b c, k
gian t khng bit da vo u c, d k xa ngoi ngn dm cng khng dm i li, k thn
cn nh cc lang trung cng khng dm che du ci tt, t im ci xu; nh vy t cc b ti ti
triu t tp bn vua cho ti nhng k thp hn xa cng khng dm ln nhau m u gi chc
phn mnh[7]. Cho nn vic cai tr t, ngy gi d, c vy l do vua bit dng quyn th tr
nc.

*
B ti ln vua cng nh hnh th t ai, mi ngy thm mt cht, ln ln lm cho vua mt u
mi (tc php ), i hng t ng sang ty m khng hay. Tin vng t ra kim ch nam (tc
quc php) l bit phng hng mt tri mc v mt tri ln (tc bit u l chnh, u l t).
Nh vy m bc minh ch khin cho qun thn khng dm ngh lng bng vt ra ngoi php lut,
khng dm thi hnh n hu qu s qui nh ca php lut, m nht c nht ng u hp php. Php
lut nghim l ngn cm ti li, tr b ring t; hnh pht gt l lnh c thi hnh khp v
trng tr k di. Uy th khng th y thc cho k khc, quyn ch ti khng th cho ngi khc gi
chung. Hai ci m vua ti gi chung th v s s gian t xut hin. Php lut m khng xc nh
th hnh ng v li ni ca vua tri ngc nhau[8], hnh pht khng kin quyt th khng tr c
k gian. Cho nn bo: Ngi th khng kho th mt nhn v on khng sai vi dy mc, nhng
cng phi dng ci qui ci c o trc : hng thng tr tuy x s nhanh chng, thch ng,
nhng cng phi dng php ca tin vng lm tiu chun. Nh dy mc thng m o c
cy cong lm cho thnh ngay; nh ci thu chun bng mt m san phng c ch li lm; nh ci
cn cn v qu cn treo ln m bt c bn nng b vo bn nh; nh c ci u, ci thch[9] m
gim c ch nhiu thm vo ch t. Dng php lut tr nc ch l khen ng ngi phi,
trch ng k quy m thi. Php lut khng th a dua ngi sang cng nh dy mc khng th un
theo g cong. p dng php lut th k tr phi treo m k dng khng dm ci. Tr ti th khng
cha cc quan ln, thng cng th khng b st dn thng. Kiu chnh li ca ngi trn, trch s
gian t ca k di, tr lon, sa ti, gim ci hu d, b ci bt tc[10] khin cho ton dn noi theo
mt ng, th khng g bng php lut. Khng ch quan li, ra oai vi nhn dn, tr s by b,
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

bing nhc, ngn s gian tr, th khng g bng hnh pht. Hnh pht nng th ngi sang khng dm
khinh k hn; php lut phn mnh th ngi trn c tn trng, khng b ln. Ngi trn c tn
trng, khng b ln, th vua mnh, nm c cc mi quan trng. V vy m tin vng qu php
lut m truyn li i sau. Bc vua cha b php lut m theo ring th trn di khng phn bit
(nc s lon)

Ch thch:
[1]Nguyn vn l ch manh (ngha l dn), mi nh bn mt khc; c nh ng l ch mn
(ngha l tiu dit). Chng ti ly m dch.
[2]C sch chp l Tng vng, sai.
[3]C sch cho rng Phng Thnh trong t Trc.
[4] mun ni trc khi dng ai, vua phi xt xem ngi c vic hay khng .
[5]V vua quay mt v phng Nam (phng c nhiu nh sng). Thi xa, khi mi yt kin, ngi
di dng l vt cho ngi trn, nh quan khanh dng con d con, quan i phu dng con nhn ln
vua.
[6]Khng c sn ring.
[7]Nguyn vn: triu nh trc tu, an vi bt cm tng du vit. Cu ti ngha. Trn Khi Thin
hiu l: cc b ti t hp bn vua m khng t ho ln p nhau (ch an vi hiu l t ho ch
khng phi l k thp hn xa); li c nh hiu: bt cm tng du vit l khng dm vt php .
[8]Ch nguy y, cc nh chua gii bo phi c l qu , nh trong ch qu bin m ta thng
c l ngy bin.
[9]Thch l mt o lng bng 10 u.
[10]Nguyn vn: chut tin t phi , c sch ging l khen ng ngi phi, trch ng k

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T
by. Chng ti theo Trn Khi Thin.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XLVIII
BT KINH (TRCH)
(TM THUT PHI THEO)

Tm thut trong thin ny l: 1. Theo tnh ngi m lp ra thng pht; 2. Dng mt ngi khng
bng dng c nc; 3. Mun phng gian th phi bit rng ci li ca vua v ca b ti khc nhau;
4. Dng ci thut tham ng xt gian; 5. Phi b mt khng b ti bit mnh vui hay gin; 6.
Nghe b ti ngh th phi xt xem c dng c khng; 7. B ti phi lm ci g c li chung th
mi thng, phi phc v b trn th mi c danh; 8. B ti khng c lm nhng chuyn ring
t m c hi cho ci uy ca vua.
T tng rt hp vi Hn Phi, nhng li vn nhiu ch ti, kh hiu; c th khng phi ca Hn
vit, hoc nu l ca Hn th nhiu ch mt mt, sai lm, ngi sau thm vo, t sa cha.
Chng ti ch trch dch nhng tit c th b tc cho cc thin khc.
1. Theo tnh ngi[1] Tr thin h th phi theo tnh ngi, m tnh ngi l c a c ght, v vy m
s thng pht c th dng c; thng pht c th dng c th c th ban cm lnh (ci g
khng c lm, ci g phi lm); o tr thin h nh vy l . Vua nm quyn gi ci th, cho
nn ban lnh th phi thi hnh m h cm l phi ngng. Quyn l quyt nh s sng, cht; th l
thng qun chng.

*
Trut ging hay ct nhc ngi di m khng theo php ch th quyn ln; thng pht m k di
cng c d vo th uy ca vua b chia x. Bi vy bc minh ch khng v thng yu m nghe
ngi, khng v vui thch m tnh vic. Nghe li ngi m khng tham kho xem c ng khng th
quyn s b chia cho k gian; khng dng tr thut[2] th b khn v b ti. Cho nn bc minh ch thi

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

hnh php ch th (khng thin v) nh tri[3], dng ngi th (kn nhm) nh qu. Nh tri th
khng b ch (ch?), nh qu th khng b ngi ta d bit m li dng.[4] Quyn th gi c th s
gio ha nghim m dn khng dm tri; s khen ch theo ng mt nguyn tc th khng ai d ngh
()
2. o lm cha[5]: Sc mt ngi khng ch ni m ng, tr mt ngi khng bit c mi
vt; dng mt ngi khng bng dng c nc. Cho nn dng tr, lc mt ngi (tc vua) m ch
vi mi ngi, mi vt th tt thua; d on m ng th mt thn, khng ng th phi chu (hu qu
ca) li lm. Bc vua thp km dng ht kh nng ca mnh, bc vua cha trung bnh dng ht kh
nng ca mnh, bc vua cha trung bnh dng ht sc ca ngi, bc vua cha cao hn c dng ht
tr ca ngi. Bi vy, khi c vic, vua tp hp cc ngi tr, nghe kin tng ngi ri hp cc
kin li m quyt on. Khng nghe kin ca tng ngi, (m ch mu tnh vi mt ngi thi) th
li sau s ngc li vi li trc(?), li sau ngc li vi li trc th khng phn bit c k ngu
ngi tr. Khng tp hp c cc kin li th s do d, khng quyt on c: Khng quyt on
c th cng vic ngng tr[6]. Nghe kin ca tng ngi th khng b ngi ta nh by (lp k
hi mnh). Bo mi ngi bo co, bo co xong ri th vua ry mng (k gian)[7]. Cho nn ngy
trnh by kin tt phi ghi chp (trong bin bn). Kt hp cc ngi tr ri, khi vic pht ra th trc
nghim li ni ca h; kt hp cc ti nng ri, khi vic thnh, s lun cng m thng. Thnh
hay bi u c bng chng, thng hay pht u ty theo . Nh vy vic m thnh, th cng v
vua, vic m bi th ti v b ti.
Bc lm vua, ngay n vic ph tit c hp khng cng khng t mnh xem xt hung h l t mnh
ra sc; Vic ti ri cng khng t minh lo ly, hung h l vic cha ti. Cho nn vua dng ngi
th khng cho lp phe ng m cng kin vi nhau, nu cng mt vi nhau th phi ry h. Khin
cho ngi no cng dng ht ti tr ca mnh th vua nh thn, vua nh thn th k di tn lc, k
di tn lc th b ti khng li dng vua c; o lm vua nh vy l hon tt.
3. Lon do u m dy: K bit rng b ti v vua c ci li khc nhau th l bc vng, k cho rng
hai bn li ging nhau th b hip; k cho b ti cng d vo vic thng pht vi mnh th b git.
Cho nn bc minh ch phn bit r cng vi t, li v hi u m k gian khng c ch len vo
c.
Lon s d sinh l do su hng ngi ny: 1. m vua, 2. hu phi, 3. con chu, 4. anh em, 5. i thn,
6. ngi ni danh l hin. C theo php lut m b nhim quan li, giao trch nhim cho b ti th
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

m vua khng th phng tng. Nghi l v th bc khc nhau th hong hu v phi tn phn bit hn,
(khng c s tranh ginh). Th khng chia hai cho ch t v th t (ngha l ch ch t mi c
quyn th) th dng ch v dng th khng tranh nhau. Quyn th khng mt, (ngha l tp trung c
vo vua) th anh em vua khng ln vua. K di khng theo v mt ca i thn th i thn khng
che lp vua c. Lnh cm v thng m nht nh thi hnh th ngi ni danh l hin khng lm
lon c ()
i vi ngi a v cao, trch nhim ln th c 3 cch kim ch: con tin, an nh, nm chc.
Thn thch, v con h l con tin; tc lc hu h ng nh li ha l an nh h; dng nhiu
cch kho st kin v nh gian hay ngay ca b ti[8], xt trch nhim v trng pht, l nm
chc h. i vi ngi hin th tm cch chn h bng cch gi con tin, i vi k tham lam th cm
ha bng cch an nh, i vi k gian t th lm cho h khn cng bng cch nm chc (). C k
cho sng th vic nc m git i th tn thng danh ting ca vua, nn dng thc n ung m
tr h, hoc giao cho k th ca h (git h) nh vy l tr gian mt cch kn o (.) Cha anh
ngi hin lng m lu vong nc ngoi l ci ha tri ni, mi ha l h mn sc nc
ngoi ( chng mnh) v nc ngoi dng h ( xm lc mnh); Cho nhng k b mnh lm nhc
c hu cn mnh[9], l ci ha "gic bn cnh", mi ha ch h sinh lng on hn v b nghi
hay b nhc; vua m khng l ra, ght m khng trng tr ngay[10], l lm tng thm lon, mi
ha ch bn cu may vng ng ni ln ( dng k mnh ght cp ngi ca mnh); c hai i
quyn uy ngang nhau, khng bn no hn bn no, gi l nui ha, mi ha ch cc gia tc ln
tranh cp, git chc m sinh lon; khng cn thn, khng gi ci th uy nghim nh thn ca mnh,
gi l mt oai, mi lo ch lon c th ni, mnh b u c. Nm mi ha , bc vua cha m
khng bit th s b hip hay b git ()

*
4. Lp o: () Kho st vic qua bit r (li trc kia) c ng khng; t b ti gn mnh
xt ci tnh ca h, a h ra xa xt tnh hnh ngoi ca h[11], dng nhng iu mnh bit
ri tra hi v nhng iu cha bit; gi v sai khin h lm by chm dt thi khinh ln ca
h, o ln li ni ca mnh th k sinh nghi; dng l lun tng phn tm ra k gian ngm; t
k gin ip by k lm by; dng s b nhim v cch chc xt hnh ng ca k gian; ra ch
th rnh rt ngi di khi lm by v hiu lm; c thi khim nhng d thy k no
cng trc, k no a dua; nghe nhiu ngi bit v nhng iu mnh cha bit; xi cho k di
tranh u nhau ph cc b ng; nghin cu cho su mt vn lm cho ngi ta s ti mnh;
tit l nhng khc nhau d bit kin ca k di.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

*
5. Gi b mt: Bc minh ch phi gi b mt, nu l nim vui ra th b ti nhn dp vua vui m xin
gia n cho ngi khc, nu l ni gin ra th b ti nhn m th uy vi ngi khc[12]. V vy,
li ni ca minh ch phi c ngn cch, ng cho thng ra ngoi, phi gi kn ng cho ngi
ta bit. Dng tr ca mt ngi bit ci gian ca mi ngi, l ci o thp; dng tr ca mi
ngi bit ci gian ca mt ngi l ci o cao[13].
Bc minh ch dng c o thp v o cao, cho nn khng k gian no thot c. Trong mt huyn,
nh no cng gn nhau, hp nhau thnh tng ng (5 nh), tng lin (250 nh), h ai t co li ca
ngi khc th c thng, khng t co th b trng tr. B trn i vi ngi di, ngi di i
vi b trn u nh vy c; nh vy th trn di, sang hn, u em php lut ra rn nhau, em iu
li ra dy nhau. Bm tnh ca ngi dn l mun c ci thc ca s sng, ln ci danh ca s
sng[14]. Ci danh ca bc vua cha l hin, tr; ci thc ca h l quyn thng pht. Danh thc c
l c phc, tt.

*
6. Tham nghim li ni: Nu khng nghe li ni ca nhiu ngi v tham nghim vi thc t xem c
cng hiu khng th (khng phn on c), khng trch k di c; nu khng ly s cng
dng lm tiu chun th nhng t thut s lm m hoc b trn.
H nhiu ngi cng ni nh nhau v mt vic th d tin. Chng hn mt vic khng c thc, mi
ngi ni th cn kh nghi, mt trm ngi ni th ng tin, mt nghn ngi ni th tin chc
ri khng ci b c lng tin na[15]. Ni m p ng vng v th b ngi ta nghi, ni m lu lot
kho lo th ngi ta tin. Gian thn che lp b trn th da vo ngi khc m mu t li, dng nhiu
k kho ni (bo h khen mnh) m c b trn tin, ly nhng trng hp ging nhau t im
nhng hnh ng ring t[16]. Bc vua cha khng nn s bt mn m i tham nghim (li ni vi
vic lm ca b ti ri mi thi hnh) th lm cho gian thn c ci th th li c. Bc vua cha no
c thut th khi nghe b ti, buc h c kin phi thit thc ri thi hnh phi thnh cng; c thnh
cng mi thng, khng th pht. Nh vy nhng li v dng khng c em bn triu nh, k
no lnh nhim v m thy khng kh nng th ui v, thu n tn li. Li no khoa trng th b
trn xt k t u n cui xem c gian tnh khng, nu c th s ni gin m trng pht. Li no
khng c chng c m khi thi hnh khng c kt qu nh ni th l li vu khot, b ti m vu
khot th phi tr ti. Li ni phi thit thc, l thuyt phi c ch dng, nh vy nhng li ni thin
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

v ca b ng khng dm tu ln vua (). B ti a ra nhiu kin l t rng mnh c tr v


khin vua phi t la ly mt kin, m mnh trnh c (trch nhim v) ti. Cho nn ch hng vua
d mi b ti a ra nhiu kin. ng cho b ti a ra mt kin th nh, m kin vi
kin th nht gi tr nh nhau[17], bt b ti li ni phi ph hp vi hnh ng sau ny, bit h
ni thc hay ni lo. o (thut) ca bc minh ch l khng cho b ti a ra hai kin bt h
phi chu trch nhim v mt kin thi; khng cho h t hnh ng, phi tham nghim li ca
h, xem c ng, c hp vi vic, c hiu qu khng; nh vy bn gian thn khng c ng tin
ln c. (b tit 7 v 8)

Ch thch:

[1]Ngi: Trong nguyn bn c nhng tiu ny (y cng l mt im c bit ca thin) nhng


t cui mi on, chng ti theo li trnh by ngy nay, a ln u.
[2] C bn chp l tr lc (tr v sc mnh).
[3] C sch ging l kh lng nh tri. Thi hnh php ch tc l thng pht. V vy chng ti
hiu l khng thin v. Nguyn vn: ch chi hnh ch d thin.
[4] Nguyn vn l nhn (), c bn chp l khn ().
[5] C bn chp l kt tr: kt hp cc ngi tr.
[6] Nguyn vn: s lu t th. Hai ch t th chng ti khng hiu ngha, khng sch no ging
thng c.
[7] Nguyn vn: phng nh nhi n. C sch ging l: kin nu ri th da vo m bt ngi a
kin phi lm theo cho ng. Chng ti chm chc kin ca Trn Khi Thin.
[8] Nguyn vn tham ng: ba, nm, ngha bng l kho st nhiu cch, nhiu mt. Chng ti hiu
theo Trn Khi Thin v T Hi. C sch cho ng l chnh sch dng nm nh d xt ln nhau.
[9] Nguyn vn: lc nhc chi nhn cn tp, c sch ging l hon quan hu cn.
[10] Nguyn vn: tng n, tr ti nh bt pht, c sch hiu l b ti giu ci gin, che ti m khng
pht gic ra.
[11] C on ny rt ti ngha, mi sch gii thch mt khc. Chng ti khng dm tin rng ch
ng.
[12] C sch ging l nu vua l nim vui ra th b ln, l ni gin ra th uy b phn chia. Nn

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

: on trn Hn mi bo gin m khng l ra th c th nguy.


[13] o y nn hiu l thut tr nc. C hc gi ng rng hai ch cao v thp trong cu ny
dng ln vi nhau.
[14] Thc l quyn, li; danh l ting tm.
[15] Nguyn vn: thin nhn bt kh gii d. Trn Khi Thin ging l: mc du mt nghn ngi
khng ging c ti sao li c iu .
[16] Ci ny cng rt ti ngha, mi ngi hiu mt khc.
[17] Nguyn vn: v ph ngn thng d thit tng nhin. Th d: vua hi b ti: ch i ta ct
t cho chng, nn ct hay khng? B ti p: Ct t th mnh yu i, s nguy; m khng ct th
ch s tn cng mnh, mnh khng chng ni, cng s nguy. Nh vy khng dt khot m l lng,
vua khng bit quyt nh ra sao.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XVIII
NAM DIN
(THUT LM VUA)

Ci li ca bc vua cha l giao trch nhim cho mt b ti ri li dng mt b ti khng c


giao trch nhim phng (tc dm ng) h. S d vy l v cha ngh rng ngi khng c
giao trch nhim coi ngi c giao trch nhim l k th; nhng hu qu ngc li, chnh cha b
ngi khng c giao trch nhim chi phi. Ngi m cha by gi phng li chnh l ngi
m trc kia cha dng phng ngi khc[1]. Bc vua cha khng bit lm sng t php lut
ch ng ci oan (oai?) ca cc quan ln th khng c cch no lm cho cc quan nh tin c.
Cha b php lut m dng b ti phng b ti, th nhng k thn yu nhau kt b ng m
khen ln nhau, nhng k ght nhau cng kt b ng m ch nhau, hai bn khen ch nhau tranh
phn th vua s b m lon. B ti nu khng c danh ting, khng yt kin vua thng th khng lm
sao tin thn c, khng lm tri php m t chuyn th khng c oai c, khng gi b trung tn
th khng vt cm lnh c. Ba ci lm cho vua ho hn m m php lut b hu hoi. Vua
phi khin cho k b ti d c ti tr cng khng tri php m t chuyn, d c hin c cng khng
vt cng m c thng trc[2], d trung tn cng dm b php lut m vt cm lnh. Nh vy
l lm sng t php lut. Bc vua cha c khi b gt v cng vic, c khi b che lp v li ni, phi xt
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

hai trng hp .
B ti ngh mt cng vic, cho l d dng, gim ph tn, d cha, cha b gt m khng xt k,
li khen b ti l hin ti, th l b ti ngc li, ly cng vic chi phi cha. Nh vy gi l b
gt v cng vic, b gt v cng vic th phi khn v lo lng. Khi ngh bo l ph tn t, ri sau ph
tn nhiu, nh vy d c cng, (tc vic thnh) li ngh vn l khng ng. Khng ng l c ti,
cho nn vic d thnh cng cng khng thng, nh vy b ti s khng dm t im li ni m
hoc cha. o lm cha l khin cho li ni trc ca b ti khng tri vi li ni sau, li ni sau
khng tri vi li ni trc, (nu tri th) d vic thnh cng phi chu ti. Nh vy l php dng k
di.
B ti lp k cho cha, s k khc ch k hoch ca mnh, nn ro n trc: K no ch bai k
hoch l k y ghen ght (mun ph) vic". Cha bng li m khng nghe li can gin ca
qun thn, qun thn s li , khng dm bn ci na. V hai ci th (mt l cha c tuyt li
can gin, hai l qun thn phi lm thinh), b ti trung khng c nghe, cn b ti (xo quyt) c
h danh th li ring c trng dng. Nh vy gi l b che lp v li ni: b che lp v li ni th b
b ti ch ng. o lm cha l khin cho b ti bit rng mnh chu trch nhim v iu mnh
ni, li cng c trch nhim v ch mnh khng ni. Li ni khng c u ui, bin lun m khng
c chng c, l chu trch nhim v iu mnh ni: khng ni trn trnh trch nhim, gi
a v quan trng ca mnh, l chu trch nhim v ch khng ni. Bc vua cha bt b ti h ni
th phi c u c ui, phi ng vi s thc; nu h khng ni th phi hi h ly ch no, b ch
no trong ngh ri khi thi hnh xt xem kin ca h c ng khng; nh vy b ti khng ai
dm ni by m cng khng lm thinh; ni hay lm thinh u chu trch nhim c. Bc vua cha
mun lm mt vic g, khng hiu u ui m by t mun ca mnh, ri c lm th vic lm
khng c li, tri li c hi. Ngi hiu l [3] th p dng cch ny: tnh ton thy v nhiu, ra t
(li nhiu, ph tn t) th l vic nn lm. V cha b m hoc th khng vy, tnh s v m khng tnh
s ra, ra gp bi v m khng thy hi, th l c ting m mt ming, cng t m hi nhiu. Phi
v nhiu, ra t mi ng gi l c cng. Nay xi ph nhiu m v ti, kt qu t m li l c cng, th
tt nhin b ti c xi ph cho nhiu c kt qu nh; tuy c kt qu nh m vua vn c hi.

*
Ngi khng bit cch tr nc tt bo: "Khng bin c, khng i tp tc. Thnh nhn khng nht
nh phi bin i hay khng bin i, min vic tr nc c thch nghi m thi. Thay i php tc
c hay khng l ch php tc c v tp tc cn thch hp hay khng. Y Don khng bin i nh
n, Thi Cng[4] khng bin i nh Chu th vua Thang, vua V u lp c nghip vng. Qun
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

Trng khng bin i nc T, Quch Yn[5] khng bin i nc Tn, th T Hon cng v Tn
Vn cng u lp c nghip b. Ngi ta s d khng bin c l v ngi lm cho i ca dn xo
ng[6]. Nhng nu khng bin c, c theo du vt thi lon lm va lng dn th l th lng cho
cc hnh vi gian t. Dn ngu khng bit l lon m b trn nhu nhc khng dm sa i th sao cn
l tr nc na. Bc vua cha phi sng sut bit cch tr nc, v nghim khc nht nh thi
hnh cho c, cho nn d tri dn cng c lp li s bnh tr. Chng c l Thng Qun i ra i
v[7] lc no cng dng ci "th" (mt binh kh di c mi nhn), ci thun nng phng (k
m st mnh); khi Quch Yn bt u tr nc Tn th Tn Vn Cng phi dng v s; khi Qun
Trng bt u tr nc T, T Hon Cng phi dng xe c v trang phng dn chng ()[8]

Ch thch:
[1] V d giao trch nhim cho A, dng B dm ng phng A; nhng lm sao tin B c; li
phi dng C dm ng phng B. Vy l B ngi ngy nay b C dm ng chnh l ngi m
trc kia vua dng dm ng A.
[2] Ngha l cng cha ng thng m c thng trc, y khng phi l trc ngi, m
ch c ngha l sm qu, trc khi ng thng.
[3] y c bn thm 4 ch: nhim l, kh dc = theo l b t dc. Trn Khi Thin cho l do ngi
i Tng thm vo.
[4] Y Don l khai quc cng thn ca Thnh Thang, ng vua sng lp nh Thng. Thi Cng, tc
L Vng, l cng thn bc nht ca Vn vng v V vng nh Chu.
[5] Quch Yn: mt i phu c ti ca nc Tn.
[6] Nguyn vn: n dch dn chi an d. C hc gi bo khng hiu hai ch dch () dn ngha
l g, ng l ng dn m c nhn chp lm. Chng ti hiu l s lm bin i s an tnh ca dn nn
dch nh vy.
[7] Nguyn vn: thuyt tiThng Qun chi ni ngoi. C sch dch l: thuyt ny thin Ni ngoi
ca sch Thng Qun. Chng ti theo Trn Khi Thin m dch nh trn.
[8] Chng ti b cu cui gm 48 ch v cc nh ch gii u ng rng chp lm hoc st, khng sao
hiu ni.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T
Hn Phi T
THIN XLV
NGY S

(TR NC BY[1])

Thut[2] tr nc ca thnh nhn gm c ba : 1, dng li (tc bng lc, thng); 2, dng uy; 3, dng
danh (tc quan tc, khen ch). Li mua chuc dn, uy thi hnh lnh, danh trn di cng
theo (cng trng)[3]. Ngoi ba thut ra, tuy cn nhng thut khc, nhng khng gp bng. Nay li
tuy c m dn khng cm ho theo vua, uy tuy cn m dn khng nghe, quan chc tuy c lut nh
m thc (chc) khng hp vi danh (tc)[4]. Ba ci u cn y m i th c tr ri lon, lon
ri tr l ti sao? Ti ci m vua qu thng tri vi ci lm cho nc tr.

*
t ra danh hiu tn trng, th m nay c k coi thng ci danh, khinh r ci thc (ca quan
tc), th i li cho cao thng; t ra tc v lm tiu chun cho s sang hn, th m k xa lnh
b trn, khng cu c yt kin th i li cho l hin nhn; dng uy v li l dn thi hnh mnh
lnh, th m k khng ham li, coi thng ci uy th i cho l ng trng; ban b php lnh tr
nc, th m k khng tun php lnh, lm nhng iu h ring cho l thin[5] th i li cho l
trung; t ra quan tc khuyn khch dn, th m k thch danh ngha, khng chu lm quan th
i li cho l lit s; t ra hnh pht nm ci uy, th m k khinh php lut, khng trnh hnh
pht, ti cht th i gi l dng. Dn cu danh[6] hn cu li nh vy th k s ngho i tng thiu
lm sao khng v ni , chu kh thn tranh danh vi thin h cho c? Cho nn i s d khng
tr, khng phi do ti ca k di m do b trn b mt ci thut, thng qu ci lm cho nc lon,
khinh ci lm cho nc tr, m ci k di mun thng tri ngc vi ci b trn (phi) dng mi
tr nc c. Nay ci cn gp cho b trn l ngi di nghe theo mnh, th m k n hu, cung
knh, thun lng, thnh tn, ht lng d, d dt li ni th cho l bn tin, qu ma; k gi cht php
lut, tun lnh rm rp th cho l ngu; k knh b trn, s ti th cho l khip nhc, k ni ng lc
v vn tt, lm hp vi o trung th cho l bt tiu (d); k khng hai lng, khng theo ci hc t[7]
m nghe li quan li, theo s gio ho ca nh nc, th b gi l h lu; k khng vi th khng ti,
gi l chnh; k thng cng khng nhn th gi l lim; k kh ngn cm th gi l ng hong; k

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

c lnh m khng nghe th c gi l dng; k khng cu ngi trn thng, gi l t lng dc;
k rng ri ban n hu, gi l nhn t; k trnh trng t tn, gi l trng gi[8]; k hp nhau theo
ci hc t, gi l thy tr; k nhn nh yn gi l suy t su sc; k hi ngi trc li gi l lanh
li; k gian him tri tr li gi l tr; k trc v ngi, sau mi v mnh, coi mi ngi u l ng
loi[9], a ra thuyt phim i (yu khp mi ngi), gi l thnh; k m li ni th khng hp l,
khng th dng c, hnh vi th tri vi th tc, gi l i nhn; k khinh tc lc, khng phc tng
b trn, gi l ho kit. B di m theo nhau lm nh vy th trong i t lm lon dn, ra lm quan
b trn s khng sai khin c. B trn nn cm mun, dit "du vt" ca h, (nh vy) h cn
khng chu ngng thay; (hung h) cn theo h, tn trng h[10] th tc l dy k di lm lon b
trn, m li cho l tr nc!
Hnh pht l ci b trn dng tr dn, m nay k t thi hnh vic ngha (n hu) ngoi php lut
li c tn trng.[11] Nh yn tnh m x tc ng c, th m k gian him, gim pha, a dua li
c b nhim. Trong nc, dn s d nghe theo b trn l v tin trn v c c, th m k gian di
phn phc li c lm quan li. Lnh s d c thi hnh, uy s d lp c l v dn cung knh
nghe b trn, th m k trong ni, mt st i li c vinh hin. Kho lm y l nh ngh gc, tc
canh nng; th m k lm nhng ngh ngn nh dt gm vc, chm v li giu. Danh s d thnh
c, t s d m rng c l nh chin s, m nay con ci ca t s cht i xin n ngoi ng,
cn bn h, kp ht, ru ch li ngi xe mc la. Thng lc l cho dn tn lc, k di dm
liu cht, m nay k s chin thng chim c thnh ch, cng lao kh nhc m khng c
thng, cn bn bi ton, coi ch tay, dng li m hoc nnh ht vua th ngy no cng c ban
n. B trn cm php chuyn nm quyn sinh st trong tay, m nay k s gi trung can
gin[12] vua th khng c yt kin, cn k kho ni bm mp, dng mu gian, may mn m thnh
cng th li thng c vua vi. Cn c vo php lut m ni thng, danh vi thc[13] hp
nhau,theo ng ln dy mc[14], git k gian b trn tr nc, th cng ngy cng b b trn xa
cch; cn k xim nnh, thun theo , chiu lng dc ca b trn khin cho nc nguy th li c
gn gi b trn. Thu ht thu, dng ht sc dn l phng tai nn (tc gic), lm cho kho lm c
y; th m nhng s tt b bn phn, trn lnh, da vo cc nh c uy quyn trnh xu, thu, b
trn khng bt c, nhiu c ti s mun. By nhng rung tt, nh p ra l khuyn khch
chin s, th m k b cht u banh bng, phi xng ni ng hoang, khi tng chinh khng c nh
, cht ri rung b chim ot[15], cn k cho con gi, em gi p v bn i thn, t hu khng
c cng lao g th c chn nh m lnh, chn rung m hng. Vic thng li ch do b trn ban
ra l ch ng ngi di, th m chin s khng c ban chc cn k khng th c tn hin.
B trn gio ho dn nh vy th danh lm sao khng b h thp, a v lm sao khng b lung lay.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Danh b h thp, a v b lung lay th k di s khng tin php lnh, sinh ra hai lng, theo ci hc
ring t phn nghch li x hi, nh vy m khng cm hnh ng ca h, ph tan b ng ca h,
li cn theo h m tn trng h, cm quyn nh vy l lm ln! B trn t ra s lim s l khch
l k di, m nay k s v i phu khng xu h v nh nhp, thi tha nhc nh th c lm quan,
k nh bn con v em gi p th c nhy bc. Ban thng l cho c qu trng, th m cc
chin s c cng th ngho hn cn bn sng i, kp ht th c vt bc. Danh hiu m thnh tn
(h c quan tc th c thc quyn) l by t ci uy, th m vua b che lp, k thn cn v cc
sng phi u t chuyn, nm quyn ban pht tc lc, i ch thng ging cc quan li, cm quyn
nh vy l lm ln. i thn khi b nhim ai lm quan th mu tnh trc vi k , lp phe ng
khng theo php lut, nh vy l uy v li nm trong tay k di (i thn), vua b h thp m h
thn c tn qu.
t ra php lnh l b ci ring t, h php lnh c thi hnh th ci o ring b ph. Ring t l
ci lm lon php. K s c hai lng, theo ci hc ring, trong ni, trong hang, mn c tm
nhng su xa, ln th mt st i, nh th m hoc k di m b trn khng cm li m cn theo,
tng h danh hiu tn qu cng ti sn, nh vy k khng c cng th c vinh hin, k khng lm
lng kh nhhc th c giu c. Nh vy k s c hai lng, theo ci hc ring lm sao m khi c
tm ra nhng m h cho l su xa, gng dng li xo tr ph bng php lnh, t to ra ci th
chng li vi i? Nhng k lm lon b trn, chng li vi i thng l nhng k s c hai lng
theo ci hc ring. Cho nn sch c cu[16]: "Lm cho tr l php lut, lm cho lon l ci ring t;
php lut t ra ri th khng ai cn lm iu ring t c na V vy m "theo ci ring t th
lon, theo php lut th tr". B trn khng theo ng o (thut), th k tr c nhng li ni ring t,
k hin c nhng ngh ring t, b trn ban nhng n hu ring t, k di c nhng ham mun
ring t. Nhng k c ting l thnh, tr lp thnh m ng, lp thuyt ging hc, ch bai php
lut trc mt b trn khng cm ch li cn theo m tn trng, nh vy l dy k di khng
nghe li b trn, khng tun php lut, thnh th ngi hin ni danh m khng lm quan, k gian
nh c thng m giu c, cho nn b trn khng ch ng c k di.

Ch thch:
[1] Ch ngy, chnh ra phi c l qu, c ngha l tri, lm. S l sai khin, y tr vic tr nc.
Trn Khi Thin ging ngy s l tri vi o tr nc.
[2] Nguyn vn l o, tc cch tr nc, thut tr nc.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

[3] Rt cuc cng ch l hai thut: thng (bng li, danh) v pht (dng uy).
[4] C th hiu l ci m vua qu (danh) khng hp vi ci m s tr nc cho l quan trng (thc).
[5] Chng hn lng nhn t ca o Nho, lng ngha hip ca o Mc, Nho, Mc cho l "thin"(tt)
nhng chnh quyn theo Php gia, cho l xu.
[6] Cu danh u l cu cho c i gi l trung, l lit s, dng ch khng phi cu c chc
tc, c chnh quyn khen.
[7] Php gia ch trng dn phi hc php lut do quan li dy, ci hc l hc cng, cn ngoi ra
(nh Nho hc, Mc hc, Lo hc ) u l hc t ht.
[8] Trng gi thi c ngha knh trng nh trng thng.
[9] Nguyn vn: loi danh hiu ngn, chng ti hiu theo Trn Khi Thin, c ngi dch l: t ra
cc danh hiu.
[10] C ngi chm cu khc v ging l: li khng ngn chn h m cn theo h.
[11] Theo Php gia th bn ng trng tr.
[12] Nguyn vn l anh, tc l xc phm. on ny Hn Phi ch trng vua phi c c, b ti trung
phi can gin vua, t tng mu thun vi cc thin khc, nn ngi ta ng rng vit t lc u, khi
Hn Phi mi thi hc Tun T v tr v nc Hn, sau t tng ng thay i khng c g l.
Nhng chng ta cng c th hiu rng cc thin khc ng ch bn trung thn can gin vua theo quan
nim Nho gia, nh T Can, Ng T T v theo ng h mun uy hip vua; cn y ng trch vua
khng nghe li ni thng ca k s c php thut nh ng.
[13] Nguyn vn l danh vi hnh.
[14] Ngha l khng vt ra ngoi php tc.
[15] Thi khng pht tin lng cho qun s nhng cp cho h lc in gia nh h cy cy
m n.
[16] Nguyn vn l bn ngn. Theo Trn Khi Thin, Hn Phi m ch mt cun sch ca php gia
kh lu truyn thi Chin Quc, sau tht truyn.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XLVI
LC PHN
(SU CI NGC I)

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

S cht, trn trnh hon nn, hng dn tt thnh gic hoc b chy, vy m ngi i tn l "k s
qu trng s sng"; hc o lp nn hc thuyt, hng dn tt lm tri php lut, vy m ngi i
tn l "k s vn hc; i ni ny ni khc, khng c hu i[1], hng dn n bm, vy m
ngi i tn l c ti nng; ni quanh co, by b[2], l hng dn tr ngy, vy m ngi i li
tn l "k s bin tr"[3]; cm v kh m chm ngi, l hng dn hung bo, vy m ngi i li
tn l "k s dng cm"; cu sng gic, giu gim k gian, l hng dn ng ti cht, vy m
ngi i li tn l "k s ho hip". l su hng dn c ngi i khen.
Sn vo ch nguy him, trung thnh ti hi sinh, l hng dn tun tit, m ngi i li ch l "k
khng bit mu tnh"; tr thc km nhng (rm rp) theo lnh, l hng dn bo ton php lut, th
m ngi i li ch l "cht phc, h lu"; lm lng kh nhc kim n, l hng sinh li, th
m ngi i li ch l khng c ti nng; trung hu trong sch, l hng dn ngay thng, tt, th
m ngi i li ch l ngu di, trng mnh lnh, lo lng v cng vic, l hng dn trng b
trn, th m ngi i li ch l khip nhc; nh bi gic, ngn k gian t (co gian), l hng
dn lm sng php lnh, m ngi i li ch l sm bng (vch li ca ngi). l su hng
dn b ngi i ch.
Su hng dn gian ngy, v ch m i khen nh th kia, su hng dn i cy nh gic m i ch
nh th ny, ti gi l su ci ngc i. Bn o vi theo li ring m khen su hng ngi trn
ri bc vua cha nghe ci ting ho m knh trng h, h c knh trng th tt c hng li;
bch tnh theo ci li ring m ch su hng ngi di, ri bn vua cha b th tc ch lp m khinh
h, h b khinh th tt b hi. Thnh th hng dn mu t li, lm by, ng ti th c khen
thng; cn hng dn mu li chung (li cho quc gia), lm iu tt ng c thng th b ch, b
hi. Nh vy m mun cho nc giu mnh th khng th c.
i xa c cu tc ng ny: lm chnh tr cng nh gi u, tuy tc rng y nhng vn phi
gi. S tc rng, ung, m qun ci li tc s di ra, tc l khng bit quyn nghi (khng thng
t). M nht th au, ung thuc th ng, nhng khng m, khng ung th thn khng th sng,
bnh khng th bit. Ngay trong s giao tip gia vua ti, khng c ci n nh cha i vi con m
mong ly vic lm theo ngha cm b ti th s giao tip tt sinh him khch. V cha m i vi
con, sanh con trai th mng, sanh con gi th git; trai gi u t trong lng cha m m ra, m con trai
th mng, con gi th git, l do ngh n sau ny, a con no c li cho mnh hn. Vy cha m i
vi con m cn mang lng tnh ton li hi hung h l nhng ngi khng c tnh cha con vi
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

nhau. Cc hc gi ngy nay thuyt bc vua cha u bo phi b ci lng cu li i, a ra ci o


tng i, nh vy l i vua cha i vi dn phi thn hn cha m i vi con na, l suy ngh
cha chn v n tnh, lm ln gt ngi, bc minh qun khng chp nhn c. Thnh nhn tr nc
th xt k php lut, cm lnh, hai ci m minh bch th quan li c k lut; qui nh thng pht
cng quyt v gi ng, thng pht m khng thay i v t tm th dn s d sai khin. Dn sai
khin c, quan c k lut th nc giu, nc giu th binh mnh m nghip b vng s thnh.
Lm b vng l ci li ln ca bc vua cha; bc vua cha nhm ci li ln m tr nc, cho nn b
nhim quan chc th phi xng vi ti nng, thng pht th ch cng v t, khin cho s dn u
thy r iu m (tin rng) h tn lc liu cht lp cng c, th c ban tc lc, do ha
giu sang. Giu sang l ci li ln ca b ti, b ti nhm ci li ln m lm vic, nn mo him
ti cht, kit sc m khng on. Nh vy l vua khng t vi dn, b ti khng trung vi vua (c
theo php lut thi) th c th lp c nghip b vng.

*
Gian m nht nh s b pht gic th k gian s t rn mnh, nu nht nh s b git th h phi
ngng (khng dm lm na): v khng b pht gic nn h mi phng tng, khng b git nn mi
lm. By mt th hng r tin ch u n th d Tng Sm, S Ng[4] cng b nghi l ly trm; treo
trm lng vng[5] ch th d mt tn cp ln cng khng dm ly. Khng ai bit, nn Tng
Sm, S Ng c th b nghi ch u n; ai cng bit, nn k cp khng dm ly vng treo ch.
Cho nn bc minh ch dng nhiu ngi gi (php lut)[6] m tr ti nng, khin cho dn v s
hnh php ch khng v tnh lim khit m khng by. M yu con gp bi cha yu con, m cha ra
lnh th con tun lnh gp mi m ra lnh. Quan li khng yu g dn m lnh c dn tun gp
vn lnh ca cha. M tch ly lng yu con m khng c con theo; quan li dng oai nghim m
dn tun lnh. Vy dng oai nghim hay dng lng yu, cch no nn theo, l iu d quyt nh
c ri. V li cha m mong mi hnh ng ca con ci l chng c yn vui, c li, ng mc
phi ti li. Vua i vi dn (tri li), khi c nn th mun dn hi sinh tnh mng, khi bnh an th
mun dn tn lc vi mnh. Cha m rt yu con, mun cho n c yn vui v c li, m n khng
nghe; vua khng yu, khng mun dn c li, i dn phi hi sinh tnh mng, tn lc v mnh, m
dn li tun lnh. Bc minh ch bit l , nn khng nui lng nhn i m ch tng ci th oai
nghim. M rt yu con, m con phn nhiu li h hng, ch v m dng lng yu; cha t yu con,
dy bng roi, m sau phn nhiu li tt, ch v cha dng s oai nghim.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

*
Mt gia nh lm n, nu cng nhn i chu rt, cng gng sc lao kh th (trong min) tuy gp
binh ao, hay mt ma, ring gia nh vn c n no mc m. Cn gia nh no v thng nhau,
v nhn t m cho nhau n mc sung sng, khng vui chi, th gp nn i km, gia nh tt
phi bn v con. Cho nn, dng php lut th trc chu kh, sau c li bn lu; cn theo o
nhn t th mi u tm c vui m sau s khn cng. Bc thnh nhn cn nhc, la ci li ln cho
nn dng php lut m bt nhau chu cc, v b s nhn i i vi nhau. Cc hc gi u bo: phi
gim nh hnh pht i, l thut lm cho lon vong. Thng pht m xc nh l khuyn thin
v cm c. Thng hu th mau c ci mnh mun; pht nng th mau cm c ci mnh ght.
Ngi no mun ci li th tt ght ci hi, v li v hi tng phn nhau. Tri vi ci mnh mun th
lm sao mnh khng ght cho c? Ngi no mun c tr th tt ght lon, v tr v lon tng
phn nhau. Cho nn rt ham bnh tr th phi thng cho hu, rt ght ri lon th phi pht cho nng.
Nay ch trng gim nh hnh pht, tc l khng my ght ri lon m cng khng my ham bnh
tr. Nh vy chng nhng khng c thut (tr nc) m cn khng bit hnh ng na. Bi vy
phng php quyt nh c ti nng hay khng, ngu hay tr ch thng pht nng hay nh. V li
hnh pht nng khng phi tr ti nhn, n cn lm sng php ca vua. (Chng hn) git
gic, khng phi ch tr k mnh git, v nu tr k mnh git th tc l tr k cht; (hoc nh) pht
k cp, khng phi ch tr k mnh pht, v nu tr k mnh pht th tc l tr k b y[7]. Cho
nn bo: pht nng ti mt k m ngn cm c mi s gian t trong nc. l ci o tr nc.
K b pht nng l k cp m k s hi l lng dn. Vy mun tr nc cn tr nghi g na m
khng dng trng hnh? Cn vic thng hu, khng phi ch thng cng, cn khuyn khch
ton dn trong nc na. Ngi c thng vui, v c li, m ngi cha c thng s ham
c thng. l bo p cng lao ca mt ngi m khuyn khch c ton dn trong ci. Vy
mun tr nc, cn tr nghi g na m khng hu thng? Nay nhng k khng bit cch tr nc u
bo : hnh pht nng lm thng tn dn; hnh pht nh c th cm c gian ri, cn g phi dng
hnh pht nng? l khng xt k v s tr nc. Mt ti c c th ngn cm c bng hnh pht
nng th cha chc cm c bng hnh pht nh; cn mt ti c ngn cm c bng hnh pht
nh th li cng d ngn cm bng hnh pht nng. Cho nn, b trn t ra hnh phat nng th mi s
gian t s chm dt; mi s gian t chm dt th thng tn cho dn ch no? Khi k gian ch c
mt ci li nh th b trn bt chu mt ci ti ln, nh vy gi l hnh pht nng; dn khng mun v
ci li nh m b mt ci hi ln, cho nn mi s gian t u chm dt. V vy tin hin c cu :
khng vp ni m vp ng kin n[8]. Ni ln nn ngi ta phi cn thn, ng kin n nh
nn ngi ta coi thng. Dng hnh pht nh th tt ngi dn coi thng. Khng trng pht k
phm ti tc l phng kh ton dn; trng pht nh k phm ti tc l lm by cho dn sa vo[9].Cho
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

nn hnh pht nh tc l ci ng kin n cho dn vp phi, m ci o dng hnh pht nh nu


khng lm cho nc lon th cng lm cho dn sa vo by. Ci mi lm thng tn dn chng
y.

*
Cc hc gi ngy nay u ging nhng li hay trong sch m khng xt s thc ng thi. H
bo : b trn khng thng dn, thu m thng nng, dn khng tiu dng nn on b trn, do
m thin h i lon. Nh vy l h cho rng cho dn c tiu dng ri li yu dn na,
d dng hnh pht nh, nc cng tr c. Li sai. a s k b hnh pht nng l sau khi h c
tiu dng ri. H tiu dng ri m b trn cn thng h, gim nh hnh pht th vn cn lon.
(Chng c l : con cng ca nh giu, ti sn c tiu dng; ti sn tiu dng th tiu xi khng
tic, tiu xi khng tic th ha ra xa x; cha m thng yu con th khng n ry mng n, khng n
ry mng th n ha kiu cng, phng tng. Xa x th nh s ngho, kiu cng phng tng th lm
by, l ci hi c ti sn dng m thng yu nhiu, v trng tr nh. Con ngi bm sinh h
c ti sn dng th ha ra li bing, khng chu gng sc, b trn khng nghim tr th k di
phng tng lm by. Ti sn dng ri m vn gng sc lm lng th ch c Thn Nng thi ; b
trn khng nghim tr m k di vn c c hnh th ch c Tng Sm v S Ng. Hng dn thng
khng bng c Thn Nng, Tng Sm v S Ng, l iu hin nhin ri. Lo am ni : Bit
th khng nhc, bit ngng th khng nguy[10]. V s b nhc v nguy, nn h c ri th thi,
khng cu g hn na, ch c Lo am c nh vy. Nay bo rng cho dn c ri th nc c
th bnh tr, tc l coi dn ai cng nh Lo am c. Nh Kit kia, sang ti mc lm thin t m vn
cha cho l tn qu ; giu ti mc c c thin h, m vn cha cho l c chu bu. Bc vua
cha d (ht sc) cho dn c , cng khng th lm cho h ti ci mc nh thin t, m Kit kia
vn cha cho lm thin t l , th lm cho dn c , chc g lm cho nc bnh tr c? Cho
nn bc minh ch tr nc phi thch nghi vi thi m sn xut nhiu ti vt, nh thu m sao cho
giu ngho bnh qun (cng bng), ban nhiu tc lc dng ht ti nng trong dn, dng hnh pht
nng ngn cm gian t, khin cho dn h gng sc lm lng th s giu, h c cng nghip th s
sang, lm by th b ti, c cng th c thng ch khng mong c b trn nhn t ban n hu
cho. l chnh tr ca bc vng.

*
Mi ngi u ng c th khng bit ai ui, mi ngi u lm thinh th khng bit ai cm. nh
thc h dy bo h nhn, hi h, bt h p, th nhng ngi ui v cm v phng giu c[11].
Khng nghe mt ngi trnh by th khng bit c rng h khng c thut (tr nc), khng giao
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

cng vic cho h th khng th bit c rng h c ti cn. Nghe h trnh by ri xem xt li h c
thch ng khng, giao cng vic cho h ri xem xt c kt qu khng, th k khng c thut, khng
c ti cn s v phng giu c. Mun la mt lc s m ch cn c vo li h t khoe th khng
sao phn bit c ngi tm thng vi Hoch[12], a cho h mt ci vc[13] bo h nhc ln
th ai yu ai mnh thy r lin. Quan chc tc l ci vc" th k s c ti nng y; giao chc v
cho h th ai ngu, ai tr, phn bit c ngay. Cho nn thy li ni ca ai v dng th bit c k
khng c thut; thy ai khng lm c nhim v th bit c k khng c ti cn. C k li
khng c ai dng m t trau chut, cho mnh l hng bin; khng c giao cho trch nhim m
t khoe rng mnh cao thng. Cc vua cha i nay b m hoc v li ni ca h, b gt v s cao
ngo ca h m tn qu h, nh vy l khng i h c nhn thy khng m tin chc mt h sng,
khng i h p c khng m tin chc h c khu ti, tc nh khng bit r c ai ui ai
cm vy. Bc minh ch nghe ai ni th xt xem li ni ca h c dng c khng, thy ai lm th
xt xem c kt qu khng, nh vy th cc hc thuyt trng rng i xa khng cn c em ra
bn, m cc hnh vi kiu cng, gt ngi khng cn c t im na.

Ch thch:
[1] Hn Phi m ch cc trit gia, hc gi - nh thy tr Mnh T - ti nc no nh T, Lng
chng hn cng c vua trng i.
[2] Nguyn vn mu tri, bn nm hc gi, mi nh ging mt khc, m khng nh no ging xui c;
chng ti tm theo Trn Khi Thin mu cng ngha vi mu l lm, by.
[3] m ch bn "danh gia".
[4] Tng Sm, mn sinh ca khng t, ni ting l hin. S Ng, mt i phu nc V, c Khng
t khen l ngay thng. Tng truyn ng can vua, vua khng nghe, khi cht bo v con em xc b
ngoi ng vua ng lng m tnh ng.
[5] ch Kim c th tr mt lng vng, mt ng tin vng, li c th tr mt cn, mt lng, mt
ng tin bng ng.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

[6] tc dng nhiu k co gian.


[7] Hn Phi mun ni: dng hnh pht khng ct s trng tr k gian m ct ngn nga s gian,
ngi khc thy m s, khng dm lm iu gian.
[8] Ta nh cu ca ta: i sng i bin khng cht m cht l chn tru.
[9] Hn Phi mun ni: khng ngn cm gian t (bng hnh pht nng), dn phm ti ri mi
trng pht, tc l nh by dn.
[10]o c Kinh - Chng 44: Tri tc bt nhc, tri ch bt i.
[11] Nguyn vn l cng ngha l cng ng.
[12] Mt dng s nc Tn.
[13] Thi xa, mun th dng s, ngi ta bo h cm chn mt ci vc nhc ln ri i (c nh).

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XVII
B NI
( PHNG BN TRONG)

Ci ha ca bc vua cha l tin ngi, tin ngi th b ngi ch ng. B ti i vi vua khng c
tnh ct nhc, b ci th b buc khng th khng th vua, cho nn, lun lun d xt lng vua, khng
mt pht no ngng; m vua li ngi trn ngo mn, bing nhc, v vy mi c nhng ng vua b p
bc v b git.
Lm vua m qu tin con th gian thn s da vo con vua thc hin t dc ca h. V vy m L
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

oi gip vua Triu, b Ch Ph cht i[1]. Lm vua m qu tin v th gian thn s da vo v vua
thc hin t dc ca h. V vy m u Thi gip Li C git Thn Sinh, lp H T[2]. Thn cn
nh v con m cn khng th tin th ngi khc lm sao c th tin c? V li cha c vn c xe,
vua c ngn c xe th hong hu, th phi, phu nhn, ch t lm k t, th no cng c ngi mun
cho vua cht sm.
Lm sao bit c nh vy? L v v khng c tnh ct nhc vi chng, h yu th thn, khng yu
th s. Tc ng c cu: M c yu th con c chiu. Ngc li, h m b ght th con b b.
n ng nm chc tui vn cn hiu sc, n b ba chc tui sc tn. V sc tn m th chng
hiu sc th tt ngi b ht hi, con tt ng s khng c ni ngi. l l ti sao hong hu, th
phi, phu nhn mong cho vua cht sm. Ch khi no m lm thi hu, con lm vua th lnh mi c
mi ngi thi hnh, iu cm mi c mi ngi tun; ci vui trai gi khng gim so vi khi tin
vng cn m li chc nm c quyn mt ng vua vn c xe. Do m c nhng v u c bng
ru m tht c ln. V vy sch o Ngt Xun Thu[3] bo: Bc vua cha cht v bnh cha c
phn na[4]. Lm vua m khng hiu iu th lon s sinh ra nhiu. Cho nn c cu: s ngi
c li thy vua cht m nhiu th tnh mng vua s nguy."
Vng Lng yu nga, Vit Vng Cu Tin[5] yu dng s v thch ci nga, nh gic. Thy
lang kho mt vt thng, ngm mu bnh nhn u phi v tnh ct nhc m ch v li. Th ng xe
mong cho nhiu ngi giu sang, cn th ng quan ti mong nhiu ngi cht yu, khng phi l
th ng xe c lng nhn m th quan ti tn nhn, ch v ngi ta khng giu sang th khng mua
xe, ngi ta khng cht th quan ti khng bn c. Th ng quan ti khng phi l ght ngi,
nhng c ngi cht th ch ta mi c li. Cho nn b ng ca hong hu, th phi, phu nhn, thi t
m thnh th h mong cho vua cht, vua khng cht th quyn th ca h khng mnh; h khng phi
l ght g vua, nhng vua c cht th h mi c li. Bi vy bc vua cha phi ht sc lu ti
nhng k c li nh thy mnh cht. Mt tri mt trng m c qung bn ngoi l ti chnh bn trong
ca n. Ngi ta thng phng nhng k mnh ght nhng ha li xy ra do nhng k mnh yu.
Cho nn bc minh ch khng lm nhng vic mnh cha tham kho k, khng n nhng mn khc
thng; m phi nghe nhng tin tc xa, xem tnh hnh gn bit trong ngoi c ci g s sut
khng; xt nhng li ging nhau v khc nhau phn bit cc b ng, kho nghim li ngi ta
ni bt buc ngi ta phi trung thc, khng c h tr; h dng li mt ngi no ri th xem
kt qu v sau c ph hp vi li ni trc khng; c theo php lut m tr dn; xem xt tt c cc
u mi ca s vic; k s khng c cng th khng thng, m cng nh th khng thng nhiu; k
no ng git th mi git, c ti th khng tha. Nh vy th k gian t khng th lm chuyn ring t
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

c.

*
Su dch nhiu th dn kh, dn kh th quyn th ca b ti dy ln (ngha l b ti nhn m nm
ly quyn th); quyn th ca b ti dy ln th s min dch xy ra nhiu, min dch nhiu th ngi
sang cng giu (v dn phi hi l cho h c min dch). Hu qu l lm kh dn cho ngi
sang c giu lm dy ln (tng) ci quyn th ca b ti b ti dng[6]; khng phi ci li
lu di ca dn chng. Cho nn c cu Su dch t th dn c yn n, dn yn n th b ti khng
c quyn ln, b ti khng c quyn ln th quyn th b dit, quyn th dit th c tc vic n
thng thuc v vua." Nc thng (lm tt) c la, iu y hin nhin. Nhng nu ng nc
trong ni ngn cch nc vi la, ri un, th nc bc hi trn cho ti cn, m la di vn
bng bng chy; nc mt ci th thng la. Php lut l cm gian t (php lut thng c
gian t), iu cn hin nhin hn na. Nhng b ti thi hnh php lut m hnh ng nh ci ni
(ngn cch php lut vi gian t, ngha l khng thi hnh php lut vi bn gian t) th php lut ch
cn sng r trong lng (vua) m mt ci th cm gian t ri. Cn c vo cc truyn thuyt thi c v
cc iu ghi chp trong sch Xun Thu th nhng k phm php lm phn, thnh i gian c u t
trong gii b ti tn qu m ra. Cn nhng ngi b php lnh phng, b hnh pht trng tr, a s
l trong bn dn thp hn. Do m dn chng tuyt vng, khng bit t co u. i thn kt b
ng nht t che lp vua, ngm thn nhau m b ngoi lm ra v ght nhau, t ra rng mnh khng
c t tnh; h cng dng tai mt rnh k h ca vua. Vua b che lp, khng c cch no bit c
chn tnh na, thnh th ch c ci danh l vua m mt ci thc; b ti chuyn thi hnh php lut
(theo h). Cc vua nh Chu nh vy . Giao quyn th cho b ti th v tr ca vua ti s o ln.
Vy khng nn giao quyn th cho b ti.

Ch thch:
[1] L oi (c ch gi l L Khc), quan thi ph nc Triu, theo phe Hu Vng, bao vy cung
ca Triu Ch Ph Ch Ph cht i.

[2] u Chnh Ngha l ngi kp ht. u Thi l kp ht tn Thi, tnh nhn ca Li C mt m nhn
v sau ca Tn Hin Cng, xui Hin Cng git th t Thn Sinh lp con L C l H T.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

[3] Mt b s nc S. C sch chp l o T Xun Thu.

[4] Cn gi na b m hi, bt c k t.

[5] Vng Lng, ngi nc Tn thi Xun Thu, gii nh xe. Cu Tin vua nc Vit, mun c
binh mnh dit Ph Sai, vua nc Ng bo th. Sau ng lm b ch c vng sng Dng T v
sng Hoi.

[6] Nguyn vn: kh dn d ph qu nhn, khi th d t nhn thn. Cu ny ti ngha. Dip Ngc
Ln dch l: lm kh dn v bn ngi ph qu c khi th (quyn th c ni ln, c tng ln)
mn b ti gip sc (?). Nghe khng thng cht no c. C dch gi dch ch khi trong cu l
b (vua b ci th ca mnh) cho b ti mn dng. Dch nh vy thng, ch ngt mt iu: ch khi
cu trn dch l dy ln (rt ng) sau y l b i ? Cch dch ca chng ti cng gng lm.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN IX
BT GIAN
(TM THUT THNH GIAN THN)

B ti thnh gian thn l do tm thut.


Thut th nht l "(do k) chung ging". Th no l chung ging? p: Phu nhn (v vua cha
ch hu) c qu, cung nhn c yu,[1] sng thn p trai[2], l nhng ngi d lm m hoc
vua cha. H nhn lc cha nhn c vui v, hoc lc cha no say m xin iu h mun, cha tt
nghe. B ti bn trong dng vng ngc hi l h h lm m hoc cha, nh vy l [dng thut do
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

k] chung ging.
Thut th nh l (do k) bn. Th no l k bn? p: Bn h, kp ht, bn ln lm cho cha
ci, bn t hu thn cn, cha cha ra lnh h d d, cha sai bo h vng vng, on c
cha m lm trc, d nt mt, sc din m bit trc c lng cha, h cng tin cng thoi, cng
ng cng i, ni nng hnh ng nh nhau lm thay i lng cha. B ti bn trong th vng
ngc, chu bu hi l h, bn ngoi th v h lm iu tri php h ln ln thay i tnh ca cha,
nh vy l [dng thut do k] bn.
Thut th ba l (do bc) cha anh. Th no l cha anh? p: Cc ngi trong tn tht vo hng cha
anh ca cha[3] l ngi c cha thng yu, quan ln nh triu nh, l nhng ngi cng
mu tnh vic nc vi vua. Nu h tn lc thuyt phc (ni rit) th cha tt nghe. B ti dng m
nhc n sc cung phng cho cc ngi trong tn tht, dng li kho lo thu phc cc quan ln quan
nh, c vi h v mt vic (tu vi cha), nu vic thnh th thng tc, tng lc khuyn khch
h, nh vy l (dng thut do bc) cha anh.
Thut th t l nui tai ng. Th no l nui tai ng? p: Cha thch c cung tht, i v ao p,
thch gi p, thch c ch nga tt gii bun, l nhng tai ng ca h. B ti dng ht sc
dn xy ct, sa sang cung tht, i, ao cho p, nh thu nng c gi p, ch nga tt lm
cho cha vui m tm tr ho m lon; lm tha lng mun ca cha nhn mu li ring cho
mnh, nh vy l thut nui tai ng.
Thut th nm l do nhn dn. Th no l do nhn dn? p: b ti lm hao tn ca cng c
lng nhn dn, thi hnh nhng n hu nh thu phc trm h, khin cho triu nh, thnh th ai
cng khen mnh, cha b che mt, m c vng ca mnh t c, nh vy l dng thut do nhn
dn.
Thut th su l n ni lu lot. Th no l n ni lu lot? p: Cha vn thm cung, b b tc v
ngn m, t c nghe ngh lun, nn d b thuyt phc. B ti tm hng bin s trong cc nc ch
hu, nui nhng k ni gii trong nc, dng h thuyt v nhng vic ring ca mnh, bng
nhng li vn v kho lo, lu lot, khi th vch cho cha thy ci li th, khi th em tai ha ra da
cha, by t ra ph hoi cha, nh vy l dng thut n ni lu lot.
Thut th by l dng uy quyn v sc mnh. Th no l dng uy quyn v sc mnh? p: Uy
quyn v sc mnh ca vua cha l do qun thn v trm h. Ci g qun thn v trm h cho l tt
th vua cho l tt, ci g qun thn v trm h cho l khng tt th vua cho l khng tt. B ti t tp
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

k eo gm (tc bn hip khch), nui hng cm t t ci uy ca mnh, khin cho bn ny thy


theo h th tt c li, khng theo h th tt cht; do h lm cho qun thn v trm h phi s h
m t c mc ch ring, nhg vy l dng quyn uy v sc mnh.
Thut th tm l do bn phng. Th no l do bn phng? p: Lm vua mt nc, h nc nh
th phi th nc ln, binh lc yu th phi s binh lc mnh. Nc ln yu sch iu g, nc nh
tt phi nghe; binh mnh tn cng th binh yu tt phi hng phc. B ti nh thu nng, dc ht
kho lm lm cho nc rng khng em th nc ln, ri mn uy nc ln d d vua mnh; nng
th xin nc ln em binh mnh t hp bin gii uy hip vua nc mnh, nh th xin nc ln
sai ngi i s lm chn ng vua mnh, khin vua s hi, nh vy l thut do bn phng.
Do tm thut m b ti thnh gian, vua cha b che mt, hip p, mt quyn th, cho nn bc vua
cha phi lu ti.

*
Bc minh qun:
- i vi cc phi tn cung n, vui hng sc p ca h m khng lm theo li h xin, khng cho h
xin ring ci g c;
- i vi k t hu th khi sai khin h, phi xt cch hnh ng ca h c hp vi li ni ca h
khng, khng cho h nhiu li, ngoi nhim v ca h m cng ni;
- i vi bc cha anh, i thn, dng li h nhng sau thy li khng thch ng (vic khng thnh)
th pht, khng h t lm by;
- v cc cung i, chu bu, tt phi bit u ra, khng cho b ti t dng hay ly i, m do
h on c s thch ca mnh;
- v vic thi n c th ly tin bc trong kho[4], pht la trong lm lm li cho dn tt phi c
lnh ca vua, b ti khng c thi n ring;
- v cc li thuyt ngh, nu c ai c khen l tt, b ch l xu th phi xt xem ngi thc c
ti nng, ti li khng, ch khng cho qun thn tng bc, ch bai ln nhau;
- i vi dng s, nu c qun cng th khng qun thng cho xng ng, cn k cy sc m gy
ln trong lng th khng tha ti, khng cho qun thn mu tnh chuyn ring;
- v cc yu sch ca ch hu, nu hp php th nghe khng th c tuyt. ng vua mt nc khng
phi l ng vua khng cn quc gia, tuy cn y, nhng khng nm c n na (th cng l mt).
Cho b ti da vo nc ngoi, p ch nc mnh, nh vy vua tt suy vong. Nu nghe li nc ln
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

cu vn nc mnh th cn mau suy vong hn l khng nghe h, cho nn khng nn nghe. B ti


bit vua khng nghe li nc ln th s khng kt np ch hu ngoi; ch hu bit vua khng nghe
li mnh[5] th s khng kt np bn b ti vu co vua.

*
Bc minh ch, lp ra quan chc, tc lc tin dng ngi hin ti, khuyn khch k c cng. Cho
nn bo: "h hin ti th c c bng lc di do, lm chc ln; c cng th c tc cao, c
trng thng. H c lng ti nng ca ngi gii ri mi b nhim, ban lc cho xng vi cng,
v vy m ngi gii khng mo nhn nhng ti nng mnh khng c th vua, ngi c cng vui
v lp cng thm na, do m mi vic thnh cng. Nay th khng vy. Vua cha khng phn bit
ngi gii ngi d, chng k b ti c cng lao hay khng, dng nhng k da vo uy th ca ch
hu, nghe li tha bm ca k t hu. Cc bc cha anh v i thn xin vua tc lc bn cho k
di m thu tin ca ri lp b ng ring. V vy, k c nhiu tin th mua quan chc c sang,
k kt giao vi bn t hu ca vua th xin x gy quyn th. Vua khng bit ti cc b ti c cng
lao, trong vic thng quan ging chc li lm ln, bt cng; kt qu l quan li coi nh chc v
m giao thip vi nc ngoi, b b cng vic m lo lm tin; ngi gii sinh ra bing nhc, khng
gng sc, k c cng chn ngn m lm quy qu cho xong. Ci thi ca nc suy vong nh vy.

Ch thch:
[1] Nguyn vn l nh t. C ba ngha : con cn nh, v b, thiu n p. y, tr nhng cung
nhn p.
[2] Nh Di T H c vua V yu v p trai. Coi thin Thu nan.
[3] Nguyn vn: trc tht cng t, c sch ging l con v nh.
[4] Nguyn vn l cm ti: tin ca cm, tc tin bc ca vua, ca quc gia. Ci g ring ca vua th
thng gi l cm, nh cm thnh, cm uyn.
[5] Nguyn vn ghi chp l bt thnh, c sch ging l khng nghe li b ti.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XIV
GIAN KIP TH THN (Trch)
B TI DNG MU GIAN HIP V GIT VUA

ngha trong thin ny l phi dng php lut, nghim hnh tr gian thn, ch nu dng ci "ngu
hc" ca Nho gia th s mt nc. Ni dung cng ging cc thin Ng , Hin hc, Bt gian. C
mt on gia k ci nguy ca bn s dng php thut m b ght v gim pha, khng lin lc g
n cc on trn v di; nn cc hc gi ng rng thin XIII Ha th sp ln vo y.
Chng ti ch trch mt on 3 Hn Phi Nho hc v na on 5 mt st chnh sch dng nhn
ngha tr dn.

*
Cc hc gi ngu trn i u ko hiu tnh hnh tr lon, c lm nhm tng hoi cc sch c, lm lon
s cai tr hin thi; tr lc ca h khng trnh ci h by m li ch by cc thut s (k s dng
php thut), nghe li h th nguy, dng k h th lon, ngu ti vy l cng cc m li hi cng tt
bc. H vi cc thut s u mang ci danh l bin s, nhng thc th cch khc nhau c ngn vn
(dm). Danh l mt m thc th khc. Hng ngi theo ci hc ngu trn i so vi cc thut s
cng nh t kin n so vi g cao vy, khc nhau xa lc. Bc thnh nhn xem s thc ca s phi
quy, xt tnh hnh ca s tr lon, cho nn tr nc th minh nh php lut, t ra hnh pht nghim
khc cu lon cho qun chng, tr ha cho thin h, khin cho k mnh khng ln k yu, m
ng khng hip p s t, ngi gi c c hng ht tui tri, bn tr con c nui ln, bin
gii khng b xm phm, vua ti thn nhau, cha con bo v nhau, khng lo b git, b gic bt hay
cm t; cng l ci cng cc ln vy m k ngu khng bit, cho l tn bo.
K ngu cng mun cho c tr y nhng li ght ci lm cho tr; chng ght ci nguy y, nhng
cng thch ci lm cho nguy. Lm sao bit c vy? Hnh pht nghim v nng l ci dn ght,
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

nhng nh m nc tr; thng xt trm h, lm nh hnh pht l ci dn thch nhng v m


nc nguy. Thnh nhn t php lut cho nc th tt nghch vi i m thun vi o c. Hiu
bit l th c theo iu ngha[1] khng ngi khc th tc. Trong thin h s ngi hiu l m t
th iu ngha b ch {m th tc thng}.

*
Bn hc gi i nay thuyt phc cc vua cha, khng bo : Nn dng ci th uy nghim lm
khn bn b ti gian t", m u bo: Ch nn dng nhn ngha, hu i m thi". Bc vua cha i
nay qu ci danh l nhn ngha m khng xt ci "thc", cho nn (tai ha) ln th nc mt, thn
cht, nh th t b cp, vua b coi hn. Lm sao bit r iu y? Thi n cho k cng khn, nh vy
i gi l nhn ngha; thng xt trm h, khng n trng pht, nh vy i gi l hu i. Nhng thi
n cho k cng khn th k khng c cng c thng, khng n trng pht th k bo lon khng
ngng lm by. Nc c k khng c cng lao m c thng th dn, bn ngoi khng lo vic c
ch, chm u gic, bn trong khng gp ra sc canh tc, m u mun dng tin ca, ha vt th
k giu sang, lm vic thin ring, gy danh d c chc cao, lc hu. V vy m bn b ti gian
lo vic ring cng ng m bn bo lon cng mnh. Cn i g na m nc khng mt? Hnh
nghim l ci dn s, pht nng l ci dn ght, cho nn thnh nhn by ci dn s ra cm k t;
lp ra ci dn ght phng k gian, nh vy m nc yn, bo lon khng ni dy. Ti xt vy m
bit r rng nhn ngha, hu i khng dng c m nghim hnh trng pht c th tr nc c.
Khng c ci uy ca cy roi, ci li ch ca hm thic th d l Tho Ph[2] cng khng tr c
nga; khng c ci qui ci c v, dy mc vch, th d l Vng Nh[3] cng khng lm c
hnh trn hnh vung; khng c ci th uy nghim, ci php thng pht th d l Nghiu, Thun
cng khng lm cho nc bnh tr c. Bc vua cha ngy nay u khinh b trng pht, nghim
hnh, lm cho hu i, m mun lp s nghip b vng th cng khng th c. Cho nn kho tr
nc th lm sng vic thng, t ra ci li khuyn khch dn, khin cho dn lp cng c
thng ch khng mong c vua v lng nhn ngha m ban n; t ra nghim hnh, trng pht
cm dn, khin cho dn h c ti th b trng pht ch khng mong c vua v lng n hu m tha
cho. Nh vy k khng c cng lao th khng mong c thng m k c ti th khng mong c
tha. Ngi xe c nga tt th ng b vt c nhng him tr trn dc ni; ci thuyn vng nm
cy cho tt th ng thy qua c thc ghnh trn sng; nm c php thut; thi hnh trng pht
nghim minh th lp c s nghip b vng. Tr nc m dng php thut, thng pht th nh
trn b c xe chc nga tt, trn thy c thuyn nh, cho tt, tt phi thnh cng.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

Ch thch:
[1] Tc iu nn lm, theo quan im Php gia, khc vi iu ngha theo quan im Nho gia.
[2] Mt ngi nh xe gii thi xa.
[3] Mt ngi th gii thi xa.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XIX
SC T (Trch)
(T IM S GIAN T)

Trong phn I chng ti ni thin ny c nhiu im ng ng rng ngi i sau ngy tc; tuy
nhin nhng chnh u hp vi ch trng ca Php gia. Chng ti ch trch dch on u: ng
tin s bi ton v ng trng cy vo ch hu; b ba on sau ni v php lut, thng pht m
trong cc thin khc Hn Phi bn qu nhiu ri.

*
Nc Triu bi mai ra, c thi, c qu i ct (rt tt) bn tn cng nc Yn (nm - 242). Yn
bi mai ra c thi, c qu i ct bn tn cng Triu. Kch Tn th Yn, khng c cng m
nc Yn nguy [1] ; Tru Din th Yn, khng c cng m o nc khng cn. [2] Triu trc
thng Yn, sau li thng T, tuy lon m kh tit vn cn cao, t cho mnh ngang hng vi Tn.
Khng phi l v mai ra ca Triu linh m mai ra ca Yn khng linh [3] .
(V li) Triu cng c ln bi mai ra c thi v vic em qun ln pha Bc tnh cp nc Yn
c Tn (nm 236) c qu i ct. Nhng Triu mi bt u nh i Lng th Tn nh
Thng ng [4] ; khi binh Triu n t L ( Yn) th Triu mt su thnh v Tn; khi h n
Dng Thnh th Tn chim t Nghip [5] ; Bng Vin [6] vi ko binh tr v Nam th cc thnh
bo v ( t Nghip) mt v Tn ht ri. V vy m thn (tc Hn Phi) [7] bo mai ra
Triu nu khng bit c rng nh Yn khng thng th cng phi bit rng c Tn l c hi ch.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Tn c qu i ct m thc s m rng c t ai, li thm ci danh l cu c Yn. Triu


cng c qu i ct m t b cp, binh b nhc, vua [8] bun ru m cht. Li cng khng phi
mai ra ca Tn linh m ca Triu khng linh.
Mi u, nc Ngy trong my nm quay v pha ng, chim ht t o v nc V; ri sau
trong my nm quay v hng Ty m mt t v Tn. Nh vy khng phi l v cc sao (tt) Phong
long, Ng hnh (Kim, Mc, Thu, Ho, Th), Thi t, Vng tng, Nhip , Lc thn, Ng qut,
Thin h, n thng, Tu tinh trong my nm v phng Ty c [9] cng khng phi cc sao (xu)
Thin khuyt, H nghch, Hinh inh, Hunh hoc, Khu, Thai, trong my nm u phng ng
c [10] .
V vy thn bo: Mai ra c thi, qu thn khng cho ta lun c s thng hay khng; cc sao
bn phi, bn tri, sau lng, trc mt [11] khng cho ta quyt nh nn ra qun hay khng. Nu
vo th khng g ngu bng.
Xa cc ng tin vng ht sc thn dn v lm sng t php lut. Php lut sng t th trung thn
hng hi, hnh pht cng quyt th gian thn ngng li. Trung thn hng hi, gian thn ngng li,
m t m rng, vua c tn, l trng hp nc Tn. Qun thn kt b ng che giu chnh
o, lm vic cong queo ring t, t b cp, vua b khinh, l trng hp lc quc (Yn, Triu,
Hn, Ngy, T, S) pha ng ni Hoa. Yu, lon th mt, th thng con ngi l vy; mnh, tr
th lp c nghip vng, o t thi xa l vy. Vit vng Cu Tin tin con ra i bng (ra
thing ca t Vit), nh nhau vi nc Ng, khng thng, phi em thn lm b ti, hu h vua
Ng; sau c tr v nc th b ra, lm sng t php lut, thn dn mu tnh vic tr th nc
Ng, kt qu l bt c Ng vng Ph Sai. Vy vo qu thn th b b php lut.
M vo ch hu th nc s nguy. Nc To [12] vo nc T m khng nghe nc Tng, khi
T nh nc Kinh (S) th Tng dit To; nc Hnh [13] vo nc Ng m khng nghe nc T,
khi Vit nh Ng th T dit Hnh; nc Ha vo nc Kinh m khng nghe nc Ngy, khi
Kinh nh Tng th Ngy dit Ha; nc Trnh vo nc Ngy m khng nghe nc Hn, khi
Ngy nh Kinh th Hn dit Trnh.
Nay nc Hn nh m vo nc ln, nh vua b b (php lut) m nghe Tn, Ngy, vo T,
Kinh th cng mau mt na [14] . vo ngi, khng m rng t ai, Hn khng thy vy.
Kinh nhn nh Ngy m tn cng lun c Ha, Yn (ng minh ca Ngy). T nh Nhim v H
m cp t ca Ngy, nhng iu khng cu Trnh, [15] Hn khng bit vy. Cc nc
[16] ng (ng?) khng lm sng t php lut, cm lnh tr nc, c vo nc ngoi m khin
cho x tc b dit. (B t y)

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T
Ch thch:
[1] Kch Tn l tng Yn, thua Triu, b Triu bt.

[2] Tru Din l trit gia sng lp phi m dng, ngi nc T, lm qun s cho Yn Chiu
vng; o nc khng cn, nguyn vn l: quc o tuyt, c ngi ging l quc o l
o tr nc theo php gia; c ngi li bo l ng i trong nc, (ng i vng ngi - tuyt
v Yn thua Triu).
[3] V c qu i ct m sao Yn li thua Triu.
[4] i Lng l kinh Ngy, khng phi Yn, Triu mun cp Yn mi u nh i Lng
c l Yn khng ng; Thng ng vn l t ca Hn, lc thuc v Triu; Tn thy Thng
ng b trng th Triu khng phng, nn em qun nh.
[5] Dng Thnh ca Yn; t Nghip ca Triu.
[6] Mt danh tng ca Triu, c sch gi l Bng Quyn.
[7] Mt s hc gi cho rng thin ny l mt bi biu Hn Phi dng vua Hn, nhng thuyt
khng ng tin.
[8] Tc iu Tng vng.
[9] Cc sao tt phng Ty, cho nn Ngy phng Ty mi chim c o, V phng
ng.
[10] Cc sao xu phng ng, cho nn Ngy phng ng (i vi Tn) mi b Tn ( phng
Ty) chim ht t.
[11] Theo sch Hoi Nam t th mn thin vn thi cho rng nu sao Hnh pha tri hay pha
trc, sao c pha phi hay sau lng, m ra qun th tt thng.
[12] Mt nc nh Sn ng ngy nay.
[13] Mt nc nh Trc L ngy nay.
[14] Cu ny c sch chm cu sau ch Tn m dch l: m nghe Tn. Cc nc nh vo
Ngy, T, Kinh m mau mt nc. Chng ti theo Trn Khi Thin.
[15] Cu ny na cng rt kh hiu, ng rng thiu st hoc sai lm.
[16] C l l cc nc Ha, Yn, Trnh ni trong cu trn.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XLVII

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

BT THUYT (Trch)
(TM IU)

Nhan Bt thuyt (tm iu, tc tm hng ngi khng nn dng) ch ng vi on u; ba on


sau (lp php phi tu thi, khng th tr nc bng nhn i c, ng giao quyn cho b ti)
khng lin lc g vi on u m cng khng lin lc g vi nhau; vy thin ny ch l mt thin tp
lun. Chng ti s trch trn on u; vi cu trong on 2 v thuyt tam th, v phn u on
4: php lut phi r rng, vua phi phn on ly, quyt nh ly mi vic.

*
V ngi quen c m lm vic ring th gi l ngi khng b bn; em ca cng ra b th th gi l
ngi nhn; khinh bng lc, trng thn mnh th gi l qun t; un cong php lut v ngi thn th
gi l ngi c tnh ngha[1]; b chc quan m thch giao du th gi l ngi ho hip; lnh i trn
vua th gi l ngi cao ngo; tranh thng vi ngi trn, lm tri lnh trn, th gi l ngi cng
ci; thi n ly lng mi ngi th gi l ngi c lng dn.
Nhng c ngi khng b bn th c quan li gian; c ngi nhn th hao tn ca cng; c qun t
th dn kh sai khin; c ngi tnh ngha th php ch b hu b; c ngi ho hip th quan chc b
trng; c ngi cao ngo th dn khng lm nhim v; c ngi cng ci th lnh khng thi hnh; c
ngi c lng dn th vua c c. Tm hng ngi c th tc khen l ci hi ln ca vua
cha, m tm hng ngi ngc li, b th tc ch, l ci li chung ca vua cha. Bc vua cha
khng xt ci li hi ca x tc, dng hng ngi c th tc khen m mun cho nc khng nguy
lon l iu khng th c.
B nhim ngi lm vic l ci then cht ca s tn vong, tr lon. Khng c thut b nhim th
s lun lun tht bi. Bc vua cha khi b nhim ai, nu khng la ngi c ti tr th la ngi c
c; b nhim h tc l cho h c quyn hnh. Nhng k s c ti tr cha nht nh ng tin; vua
thy h c ti tr m khng bit rng h v tt ng tin, nu h dng mu tr, da vo quyn hnh
ca chc v, m lm vic ring t th vua tt b gt. V k c ti tr cha ng tin, nn vua li b
nhim k s c c. B nhim ai l cho ngi quyt on cng vic[2]. Nhng k s c c cha
nht nh l c ti tr, vua thy h gi mnh cho lim khit m khng bit rng h v tt c ti tr.
K ngu hn m m giao cho mt chc quan, h quyt nh cng vic, h quyt nh by m cho l
ng[3] th cng vic tt phi ri lon. Do , khng c thut, m b nhim ngi ti tr th vua b
gt, b nhim ngi c c th vic ri lon, ci hi khng c thut nh vy.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Ci o minh qun l ngi hn c quyn t co vic gian ca ngi sang, thng cp c ti,
thuc h khng t co th b lin ly; vua mun bit r s thc th phi tham bc kin nhiu ngi,
khng nn chuyn nghe li mt ngi; nh vy k s ti tr mi khng gt vua c. Xt cng ri
mi thng, lng ti nng ri mi giao vic, xt k u ui, xem s thnh bi, k c li th tr ti,
k c ti nng th dng; nh vy k ngu s khng c b nhim. K c ti tr khng dm gt vua, k
ngu khng c quyt on th cng vic khng hng.
Ci g m k s c c tinh t[4] mi bit c th khng nn ban lm lnh, v khng phi ngi dn
no cng c c tinh t c. Ci g m bc hin[5] mi lm c th khng nn dng php tc, v khng
phi ngi dn no cng hin c. Dng Chu, Mc ch l nhng ngi c coi l c c tinh t
trong thin h, nhng h gp[6] thi lon m rt cuc khng lm cho ht lon c, cho nn tuy h
c c tinh t cng khng th dng lm chc trng quan c[7]. Bo Tiu v Hoa Gic[8] l nhng
ngi c coi l bc hin nhng Bo Tiu th cht nh cy kh, Hoa Gic th nhy xung sng, cho
nn tuy h l bc hin m khng th dng h cy rung, nh gic c. V vy bc vua cha ch
xem trng[9] k s no tr ht ti hng bin ca h, ch tn k s no c ti nng lm ht cng vic
ca h. Ngy nay bc vua cha xem trng li bin thuyt v dng, tn nhng hnh ng khng c
cng dng; nh vy m mun cho nc giu mnh th khng th c.
Hc rng m hng bin, sng sut (bin tr) th nh Khng, Mc, nhng Khng, Mc khng cy ba
th nh h c g u? Luyn c hiu, t ham mun th nh Tng Sm, S Ng, nhng Tng Sm,
S Ng khng ra trn th c li g cho nc u? Ngi dn thng c ci li ring, bc vua cha c
ci li chung. Khng lm lng m n, khng lm quan m hin danh, l li ring. Chm dt
vn hc m lm sng php , ngn chn t li, nht thit tc lc u do c cng mi c, l
ci li chung. Ban b php lut dn dt m li cn qu vn hc th dn cn nghi ng khi tun theo
php lut; thng cng khuyn khch dn m li cn trng s sa c th dn s bing nhc trong
vic sn xut. Qu vn hc cho dn nghi php lnh, trng c hnh, khin cho vic lp cng
khng do mt ng (l lm rung nh gic) na, m mun cho nc giu mnh th khng th
c.

*
Ngi i (thng) c gp lo v c hnh, ngi i trung c[10] ganh nhau v tr, ngi i nay
tranh nhau v sc mnh. Thi thng c t vic m s thit b n gin, cht phc th lu m khng
tnh (tinh?) cho nn mi v trai ln giy c, dng xe bnh khng c tay hoa[11]. Thi thng c
ngi t m thn nhau, ti vt nhiu, nn ngi ta khinh ci li m d nhng nhau, do mi c
vic vi nhau m nhng thin h[12]. Nhng thi hnh chnh sch vi nhng, cao lng t hu v
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ging o nhn hu u l th chnh tr cht phc[13] c. Sng thi nhiu vic m dng nhng kh
c ca thi t vic, khng phi l cch x s ca ngi c tr (tr?). Gia ci i tranh nhau gay gt
m theo li vi nhng, khng phi l php tr nc ca thnh nhn. Cho nn ngi c tr khng
ngi c xe bnh khng c tay hoa, thnh nhn khng thi hnh chnh sch cht phc. Sch m gin
c th (kh hiu m) hc tr tranh bin (v ngha trong sch); php lut m tnh lc th dn
chng hay tranh tng. V vy sch ca thnh nhn ngh lun tt r rng, php lut ca mnh ch ghi
vic tt tng tn. Ht sc suy ngh, tnh trc s c tht, th ngi tr (cng) cho l kh; khng
cn suy ngh (tnh trc), c nm ly li ni lc u m xt xem cng vic lm v sau c hp vi li
ni khng ( bit ngi ni c ti nng hay khng), th k ngu cng thy l d. Bc minh ch
lm theo cch k ngu cho l d m khng dng cch ngi tr cho l kh, v vy khng dng tr l
m nc tr. Khng dng li phn on cc v chua ngt mn nht m cho ngi u bp
quyt nh th ngi bp s coi thng vua m trng u bp; khng dng tai phn on cc thanh
bng trm trong c m cho nhc trng quyt nh th nhc cng[14] s coi thng vua m trng
nhc trng. Khng dng thut phn on vic tr nc phi hay quy m cho k c sng i
quyt nh th b ti s coi thng vua m trng k c sng i. Bc vua cha khng ch thn xem
v nghe m ngi di quyt on mi vic th ch l k n nh trong nc (B t y)

Ch thch:
[1]Nguyn vn l hnh: chng ti theo ch thch ca Trn Khi Thin.
[2]Hai cu ny c nh chm cu khc v dch l: Vy k s c ti tr khng th tin c. B nhim k
s c c l khin h quyt on cng vic.
[3]Cu ny c ngi hiu l m lm theo h. Nguyn vn nhi vi k s nhin. Ngha cng vy.
[4]Nguyn vn l st s. St l xt. Trn Khi Thin bo st s cng nh tr s, k s sng
sut. C nh bo l k s bit xa. Chng ti theo Gi Ngh tn th. C c tinh t ngha l thy nhng
iu t vi m thin h khng thy.
[5]Hin y khng phi l bc hin ti, m l ngi theo o, n.
[6]Nguyn vn l can, c sch ging l lm bt (ci lon).
[7]Nguyn vn l: quan chc chi lnh. Ch lnh ny nh ch huyn lnh, ch mt huyn. C sch
dch l: khng dng lm lnh cho quan chc theo c.
[8]Bo Tiu: n s i Chu khng chu thn phc nh Chu, m gc cy m cht Hoa Gic: cha
bit l ai.
[9]Nguyn vn l st, nhng nn theo ngha thng l xt, ch khng phi ngha trong st s
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T
trn.

[10]Thi thng c y tr i Nghiu, Thun, Thang, V, Vn vng, V vng; thi trung c tr


i Xun Thu.
[11]Nguyn vn l truy xa. Truy ngha l chm chp; c th hiu l cht phc. Trn Khi Thin
ging l th xe m bnh l mt khi khng c tay hoa, thi Nghiu, Thun ngi Trung Hoa cha
bit dng bnh xe c tay hoa. Nhng c sch bo l thi xa ngha l xe y, ch cha c nga
ko; e lm.
[12]m ch vic Nghiu, Thun nhng ngi.
[13]Nguyn vn: truy chnh. C sch bo l thi chnh; e sai.
[14]Nguyn vn l c cng l nhc cng m. Thi ngi ta thng dng nhng nhc cng m.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XV
VNG TRNG
(IM MT NC)

1.

H nc ca vua nh m thi p ca i phu ln, quyn vua nh m th ca b ti nng th c

th mt nc.
2.

B php lut, cm lnh m chuyn dng mu tr, tr ni vic ni chnh m trng vo ngoi

vin th c th mt nc.
3.

Qun thn chm ging hc, con em cc i phu thch din thuyt, con bun lo tch tr ngoi,

dn ngho khn n trong th c th mt nc.


4.

Vua thch cung tht, i t,[1] i ao, ham xe nga, y phc, ngoi vt,[2] khin trm h lao

kh, ti sn chy ri (kh kit) th c th mt nc.


5.

Coi ngy gi (tt xu), th qu thn, tin bi ton, thch cng t th c th mt nc.

6.

Nghe li k c chc tc, khng tham kho li ni ca nhiu ngi, lnh ban xung v li tu

ln u phi qua mt ngi th c th mt nc.


7.

Quan chc c th nh ngi c th lc m c, tc lc c th nh hi l m c th c th

mt nc.
8.

Tr hon khin vic khng thnh, nhu nhc m khng quyt on, lc yu lc ght, lp

trng khng nht nh th c th mt nc.


To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T
9.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Tham lam khng bit chn, ch ham li m mun c th c th mt nc.

10. Ham lm dng hnh pht m khng theo php lut, thch bin thuyt m khng cu thc dng,
say m h vn, khng xt xem c cng hiu hay khng th c th mt nc.
11. Nng ni, ngi ta thy lng d mnh, tit l iu b mt m khng giu c, em li ni
ca qun thn k li cho ngi khc nghe th c th mt nc.
12. Hung hn, khng ho nh, ng ngnh khng nghe li can gin m hiu thng, khng ngh ti
quc gia, khinh sut t tn th c th mt nc.
13. vo s kt giao, vin tr (ca nc xa) m khinh thng cc nc lng ging gn, trng vo
s cu gip ca nc ln m khiu khch nc st nch vi mnh th c th mt nc.
14. bn c s kiu c nc mnh nhn nhiu tin hi l ca nc ngoi, trn th bn mu k vi
vua, di th tip xc vi dn, nh vy c th mt nc.
15. Dn khng tn nhim tng quc, k di khng yu qu b trn, m vua vn tin yu khng ph
b ng ta th c th mt nc.
16. Khng dng ho kit trong nc m tm v phong k s nc ngoi, khng trc nghim bng
cng lao m thch cn c vo danh vng c dng hay trut b, bn du s kiu c t nhin c
tn qu, ln cc b ti c cu, nh vy c th mt nc.
17. Khinh ch t (con trng, tc thi t), coi ngang hng vi con th, (hoc) ngi thi t cha
nh m vua qua i th c th mt nc.
18. Khng thn trng[3] m khng bit hi hn, nc lon m t cho mnh l hin ti, khng lng
thc lc trong nc m khinh th k ch bn cnh, th c th mt nc.
19. Nc nh m khng x nhn, sc yu m khng king nc mnh, v l m khinh ln nc
lng ging mnh, tham lam, ng ngnh, vng giao thip, th c th mt nc.
20. lp thi t ri m cn ci v t nc ch mnh, lp lm hong hu th thi t nguy, qun
thn sinh ra nghi ng, suy ngh, th c th mt nc.
21. Khip nhc, cam phn, tuy sm thy mi ho m v nhu nhc, khng ngn cm c, tuy
bit rng vic c th lm c m khng dm lm, th c th mt nc.
22. Vua cn lu vong ti nc ngoi, trong nc lp vua khc; thi t lm con tin nc ngoi
cha v m vua lp thi t khc th trong nc chia r, nh vy c th mt nc.
23. Lm nhc i thn, sau li thn cn vi h, trng pht nng dn nh, tn ngc vi h[4], h b
nhc, b ngc i, s nui lng on hn m li c gn vua th tt m mu m hi vua, nh vy c
th mt nc.
24. C hai i thn quyn cao ngang nhau, bc cha anh c nhiu ngi mnh th trong h s kt
b ng, ngoi s cu ngoi vin tranh vic, ginh th lc, nh vy c th mt nc.
25. Nghe li t thip, dng mu tr ca bn sng thn, khin trong ngoi u bun hn, m li
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

thng lm nhng iu tri php lut, th c th mt nc.


26. Khinh r, lm nhc i thn, v l vi bc cha anh, lm cho dn chng lao kh, git hi k v
ti, th c th mt nc.
27. Thch dng tr thng minh ca mnh sa i php lut, li hay xen ln vic ring vo vic
cng, thay i php lut hoi, lnh bt nht th c th mt nc.
28. Khng c a th him yu, thnh quch li khng kin c, khng tch tr, ti vt t khng
chun b vic phng v m li khinh sut tn cng nc khc, th c th mt nc.
29. Dng ging (nh vua) khng th, vua thng cht yu, tr con ln ni ngi, i thn chuyn
ch, nui ngoi kiu gy ng, thng ct t kt giao cu vin, th c th mt nc.
30. Thi t c tn hin, c b h nhiu v mnh, hay kt giao vi nc ln, sm c uy th, th
c th mt nc.
31. Lng d hp hi, nng ny, nng ni d xc ng, lc gin d th khng ngh trc ngh sau,
nh vy c th mt nc.
32. Vua hay ni gin m thch dng binh, l l ngh gc (ngh nng) v vic luyn binh m khinh
sut tn cng th c th mt nc.
33. Cc qu nhn (bc cha anh nh vua) ganh ght nhau, bn i thn c th lc ln, bn ngoi da
vo nc ch, bn trong lm khn kh trm h, k th ring, m vua khng trng pht, th c
th mt nc.
34. Vua bt tiu m em thuc dng trc tht (v l ca cha) li hin, thi t b khinh m th t bnh
ng vi thi t, quan li nhu nhc m nhn dn kh ch ng th nc hn lon c th mt nc.
35. Giu ni gin khng cho pht ra, treo ti khng pht ngay, khin cho b ti va thm on
va thm s, (hi hp) lu m khng bit thn phn s ra sao, nh vy c th mt nc.
36. Tng cm qun c quyn ln qu, quan gi bin cng c tn qu, h chuyn ch, t
hnh ng, khng xin lnh ca vua, th c th mt nc.
37. Hong hu dm lon, thi hu u (khng trinh tit), ngi ngoi hn lon ra vo cung cm,
trai gi khng phn bit, nh vy gi l c hai vua, c th mt nc.
38. Hong hu b khinh m t thip c qu, thi t b bim, m th t c tn, tng quc b
khinh m quan in yt[5] c trng, nh vy th trong ngoi khc nhau, c th mt nc.
39. i thn quyn th ln qu, b ng ng v mnh, ngn cn quyt on ca vua m chuyn
quyn tr nc, th c th mt nc.
40. Dng t nhn ca i thn lm quan, trut b con chu cc chin s, ct nhc ngi c lng
xm khen m ph b cc quan chc c cng lao vi nc, trng t c m coi nh cng vi nc,
th c th mt nc.
41. Nh cng trng rng m nh i thn y (ca ci), dn trong nc ngho kh m kiu dn giu
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

c, k lm rung v nh gic khn cng cn k lm ngh ngn (cng v thng) th c li, nh vy


c th mt nc.
42. Thy li ln m khng sn ti, bit c mm ho m khng phng, tr ni vic tranh th, m
dng nhn ngha t trau di th c th mt nc.
43. Khng theo ci hiu ca bc vua cha m hm m ci hiu ca dn thng,[6] khng ngh ti
ci li ca quc gia m tun theo mnh lnh ca mu hu, cho n b nm chnh quyn, bn hon
quan iu khin vic nc, nh vy c th mt nc.
44. Li ni th hay m khng theo php , lng c tr mu m khng c thut, vua a ti m khng
dng php lm vic th c th mt nc.
45. B ti mi th c tin dng, b ti c phi lui v, k bt tiu c dng, ngi hin lng phi
n, k khng c cng lao c qu hin m k lao kh chu cnh thp hn, nh vy th k di s
on hn, m c th mt nc.
46. Cc bc cha anh v i thn, lc v trt ln hn cng lao, y phc vt ng cp ca h, cung
tht v s cung dng qu xa x m vua khng cm, nh vy b ti tt tham lam khng bit u l
cng, m c th mt nc.
47. R v chu ca vua cng xm vi dn m tn bo, ngo mn vi hng xm th c th mt
nc.

*
im mt nc khng c ngha l nht nh s mt nc m c ngha l c th mt nc. Hai ng
Nghiu khng th lm cho nhau cng dng c nghip vng, hai ng Kit khng th lm cho
nhau cng mt nc. Ci c mt nc v dng nghip vng tt phi do (cng mt lc c) mt nc
tr mt nc lon, mt nc mnh mt nc yu, khc nhau xa. Cy m gy l do su mt, tng m
l do k nt. Nhng cy tuy b su mt m khng c gi mnh th cng khng gy; tng tuy c
k nt m khng c ma to th cng khng . ng vua mt nc vn c xe m bit thi hnh php
thut, lm gi ma i vi cc ng vua c im mt nc th vic thn tnh thin h khng c g l
kh.

Ch thch:
[1] Nn cao gi l i, trn nn dng mt ngi nh gi l t.
[2] chi qu, p.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

[3] Nguyn vn: i tm, tri vi tiu tm. Tiu tm l cn thn.


[4] Nguyn vn: nghch k s, c sch cho rng ch nghch chnh l ch cn (gn) v dch l: cho
gi chc bn mnh. Chng ti theo Trn Khi Thin, cho ch nghch l ngc.
[5] Coi v vic cc tn khch xin yt kin vua.
[6] Hiu kinh c cu: phn bit ci hiu ca ch hu (bo tn c x tc, hoi vi nhn dn) vi ci
hiu ca dn thng (gi gn thn mnh, tit kim nui c cha m). V vy c ngi ng rng
thin ny hoc t nht iu 43 ny khng phi ca Hn Phi vit.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XXX
NI TR THUYT THNG THT THUT (Trch)
(NHNG THUT DNH M DNG THIN NI, THNG BY THUT)

y l thin u trong mt lot su thin mang chung mt nhan : tr thuyt; ngha l nhng
thuyt, nhng quy tc, nhng thut dnh (tr) m dng trong vic tr nc.
C hai thin ni: thng (XXX) v h (XXXI) vi bn thin ngoi: t thng (XXXII) v t h
(XXXIII), hu thng (XXXIV), hu h (XXXV). Nhng ch thng, h, t, hu ch nh s th
t. Cn hai ch ni v ngoi th c sch ging rng: ni l nhng thut lin quan ti vic bn trong,
tc vic ch ng b ti; ngoi l nhng thut lin quan ti vic bn ngoi, tc vic quan st li ni
v hnh vi ca b ti dng h, thng hay pht h. Chng ti ngh cch ging gng p v
thng pht cng l mt cch ch ng b ti. Cho nn chng ti theo thuyt ca Dc Xu: ni v
ngoicng ch nh s (nh trong Trang T c Ni thin v Ngoi thin) ch khng c ngha
g c.
C su thin u chc chn l ca Hn Phi, u chp nhng thut tr nc (chp mt cch ln
xn, tr hai thin Ni l hi c th t) v u c mt li trnh by c bit, khng ging cc thin
khc: mi u Hn Phi a ra cc quy tc, cc thut, dn chng vn tt nn kh hiu, phn gi
l kinh; khi a ra ht cc quy tc, tc ht phn kinh ri, mi ti phn truyn, tc phn gii thch r
rng cc ch dn chng trong phn kinh.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Su thin rt di v rm, nhiu ch ging nhau, dch ht th phi trn mt trm trang, nn
chng ti dch trn thin XXX, cn nhng thin khc th ch dch ht cc thut trong phn kinh, v
la mt s c s trong phn truyn thi. C s no gii thch kinh no th chng ti ngay sau
kinh , ch khng theo cch trnh by trong nguyn tc: gom ht cc kinh ln trn v tch ht cc
truyn (c s) ra, t xung di. phn bit ti cho in phn kinh bng ch ng.

Trong thin XXX ny, Hn Phi a ra by thut (by kinh):


Kinh 1. Tham kho kin. Khng tham kho nhiu kin th khng bit c thc tnh. Nu ch
nghe, tin mt ngi thi (cng nh v nh ch do mt ca) th b ti s che lp vua. Thut ny rt t:
a/ Truyn ngi (h) ln mng thy bp;
b/ Li ca Ai cng: Khng mu tnh vi nhiu ngi th s m hoc;
c/ Truyn ngi nc T thy H B;
d/ Li Hu t bo: mt phn na s ngi.
Ci hi s nh:
/ Thc Tn b Th Ngu b i;
e/ Li Giang t ni v tc nc Kinh;
g/ V T cng mun tr nc m khng bit cch khin cho th lc ca i thn v sng phi ngang
nhau.
Bi vy bc minh ch phi:
h/ Bit cha st ( phng mi tn bn vo nh);
i/ Xt mi lo ch c cp.

*
Truyn 1. a/ Thi V Linh cng, Di T H c vua yu nn chuyn quyn V. Mt ngi (h)
ln yt kin Linh cng, tu:
- Gic mng ca thn ng nghim.
Cng hi:
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

- Mng thy g?
(ch ny sp ch thiu, i khi ngi h ln ni mng thy bp).
Cng gin, bo:
- Ta nghe ni sp gp vua th mng thy mt tri. Sao ngi trc khi yt kin qu nhn li mng
thy bp?
- Mt tri chiu khp mt nc, khng ngi no lm khut c; v vy m khi sp gp vua mi
mng thy mt tri. Cn bp, mt ngi ng nu (pha trc) th ngi pha sau khng thy la
na. Hoc gi c mt ngi no [1] che khut nh vua chng? Nu vy th thn mng thy bp,
cng l phi y ch?
b/ L Ai Cng hi Khng T:
- Khng cng nhiu ngi mu tnh th s m hoc. Nay qu nhn lm vic g cng bn tnh vi
qun thn m nc cng lon thm l ti lm sao?
Khng t p:
- Bc minh ch hi qun thn th c mt ngi bit li c mt ngi khng bit, nh vy l minh ch
trn, qun thn thng thn bn lun di. Nay qun thn u rm rp ni theo Qu Tn[2] thnh
th c nc ha l mt, d nh vua c hi khp ngi trong nc, nc cng khng khi lon c.

*
Mt thuyt khc bo:[3]
Khi n T[4] qua thm nc L, Ai Cng cng hi:
- Ngn ng c cu: Khng c ba ngi cng mu tnh th s m hoc. Nay qu nhn cng vi mi
ngi trong nc mu tnh m nc L khng khi lon l sao?
n T p:
- Ngi xa bo: khng c ba ngi cng mu tnh th s m hoc l v c mt ngi sai th c hai
ngi tnh ng, ba ngi thnh s ng ri. Cho nn mi bo: khng c ba ngi cng mu
tnh th s m hoc. Nay b ti nc L c hng trm, hng ngn m u ni theo ring ca h
Qu, nh vy s ngi tuy ng nhng cng ch l c mt ngi ni, u c ti ba?
c/ C ngi nc T tu vi vua T: H B[5] l mt v thn ln, sao i vng khng th gp
ngi? Thn c th lm cho i vng gp c. Ri lp n trn sng ln, cng vi vua T ng
trn n. Mt lt sau, mt con c ln quy ln, anh ta bo: H B y.
d/ Trng Nghi mun mn th ca Tn, Hn, v Ngy nh T, Kinh (S), m Hu Thi mun
T, Kinh gip ngng chin. Hai ngi tranh lun vi nhau. Cc qun thn v t hu u theo ch
trng ca Trng Nghi, cho vic nh T, Kinh l c li, m khng nghe li ca Hu T. Vua nghe
li Trng Nghi, cho li Hu t l khng thi hnh c. Vic nh T v Kinh quyt nh, Hu t
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

v yt kin vua. Vua bo:


- Tin sinh ng nn ni th hn. Vic nh T v Kinh qu l c li, c nc u ngh nh vy.
Hu t nhn mi tu:
- Cn phi xt k. Nu vic nh T, Kinh qu thc c li m c nc u cho l c li th sao ngi
tr ng c n th! S d phi bn tnh l v cn nghi ng; nu qu thc c s nghi ng th tt
phn na cho l nn, phn na cho l khng nn. Nay c nc cho l nn, tc th l nh vua mt
phn na ngi (a kin) ri . Cha b ln hip nn mi mt phn na ngi nh vy.
/ Thc Tn lm tng quc nc L, chc cao v chuyn quyn. Mt ngi c ng ta yu tn l
Th Ngu cng t chuyn, lm dng mnh lnh ca ng. Con trai Thc Tn tn l Nhm b Th
Ngu ght, mun git. Mt hm Th Ngu cng vi Nhm v chi trong cung vua L, vua L ban
cho Nhm mt chic vng ngc. Nhm vi nhn m khng dm eo, nh Th Ngu xin php cha
eo. Th Ngu ni gt cu ta: Ti xin php cho cu ri, ngi bo cu eo i. Nhm bn eo.
Th Ngu nhn bo Thc Tn: Sao ngi khng dt cu Nhm yt kin vua?. Thc Tn p:
N cn con nt, khng ng cho yt kin. Th Ngu ni: Cu Nhm my ln yt kin vua, vua
ban cho vng ngc, cu eo. Thc tn gi Nhm v, thy Nhm eo vng ngc tht, ng ni gin
git Nhm.
Anh ca Nhm l Bnh, cng b Th Ngu ght, mun git, Thc Tn c cho Bnh mt ci chung,
c xong Bnh khng dm nh, nh Th Ngu xin php cho nh. Th ngu khng xin gim, li
ni gt cu ta l: Ti xin php cho cu ri y, ngi bo c nh i. Thc Tn nghe ting
chung bo: "Thng Bnh khng xin php tao m t nh chung", ri ni gin ui i. Bnh chy
qua T; c mt nm. Th Ngu xin li Thc Tn cho Bnh. Thc Tn sai Th Ngu triu Bnh v.
Hn khng triu m bo vi Thc Tn: Ti triu v m cu y gin lm, khng chu v. Thc Tn
ni da, sai ngi git Bnh.
Th l hai ngi con cht c. V vy, khi Thc Tn au, Th Ngu mt mnh sn sc ng ta, ui
ht k t hu, khng cho ai vo, bo: ng Thc Tn khng chu c ting ngi. Ri khng cho
ng ta n, ng ta cht i. Thc tn cht ri. Th ngu khng pht tang, ly ht bu vt trong kho
trn qua T. Nghe li ngi mnh tin cy n ni cha ln con b ngi git, ci ha khng tham kho
kin nhiu ngi nh vy .
e/ Giang t v vua Ngy i s nc Kinh, bo vua Kinh:
- Thn v bin cnh nh vua, nghe ni qu quc c tc ny: Ngi qun t khng che ci tt ca
ngi, khng vch ci xu ca ngi, c thc vy chng?
Vua p: C
- Vy th lm lon nh Bch Cng tt thnh cng m nc Kinh phi nguy ch? Nu qu thc vy
th b ti min ti cht ( mun ni: c iu xu m khng b t co th c ti g u)[6]
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

g/ V T cng (con V Bnh hu) trng Nh Nh v yu nng Th C, s hai ngi c trng


c yu m che lp mnh, bn cho Bc Nghi mt chc cao ch vi Nh Nh v tn nng Ngy
C ngang vi Th c. ng bo: Nh vy h bn bc vi nhau[7]. ng mun khi b che lp
nhng cha nm c ci thut khi b che lp. Khng cho ngi hn cng bn bc vi ngi
sang, k di t co ngi trn m c phi i c nhng k quyn th ngang nhau ri mi c bn
bc vi nhau th tc l lm cho c thm nhiu b ti che lp mnh[8]. T cng b che lp l bt u t
.
h/ Nu tn bn ti c hng nht nh th phi cha st phng b pha ; nu khng c hng
nht nh th phi ct nh bng st phng b mi pha; phng b nh vy th mnh khng b
thng. Vua m phng b ht cc b ti th b ti khng cn ai l gian na.
i/ Bng Cung (mu thn nc Ngy) sp a thi t qua lm con tin Hm an (kinh nc
Triu, nay H Bc), tu vi vua Ngy:
- C ngi ni rng ch c cp, i vng tin khng?
Vua p:
- Khng.
- Hai ngi ni th i vng tin khng?
- khng.
- Ba ngi ni th i vng tin khng?
- Qu nhn tin.
Bng Cung bn tha:
- Ch th khng c cp c, iu hin nhin. Vy m ba ngi ni th ch ha ra c cp. Nay t
Hm an cch nc Ngy xa hn l (t triu nh ti) ch, m bn b ti bn ra ni vo ng hn
ba ngi, xin i vng xt cho iu .
Bng Cung i Hm an v, khng c v yt kin vua na[9].

*
Kinh 2. Cng quyt trng pht. Nhn i thi qu th php khng thi hnh c, uy nghim
khng th k di ln ngi trn. Hnh pht khng cng quyt th cm lnh khng c tun.
Thut ny rt ra t:
a/ Truyn ng T i thm Thch p.
b/ Truyn T Sn dy Du Ct.
c/ Li Trng Ni ni v sng ri.
d/ Php nh n pht vic tro ra dng.
/ Truyn ngi iu khin on xe xin b vic.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

e/ Truyn Cng Tn ng pht nng nhng ti nh.


g/ Vic vng sng L khng gi c m la m Tch khng cu c.
h/ Li Thnh Hoan cho rng vua T qu nhn t m nc T suy yu.
i/ Li Bc B cho rng vua Ngy qu nhn t m lm cho nc Ngy suy vong.
k/ Vic Qun Trng bit thut trng pht nn cht thy ngi cht.
l/ Vic V T cng bit thut trng pht nn mua ngi b ti .
Truyn 2. a/ ng An Vu lm thi th t Thng a cho Triu, i tun trong ni min Thch p,
thy mt ci khe su c trm nhn, b dng ng nh bc tng, bn hi nhng ngi chung quanh
ch :
- c ai vo trong khe khng?
H p:
- Khng.
- C tr con, ngi ui, ngi ic, ngi in, ngi khng no vo trong khe khng?
- Khng.
- C b, nga, ch, heo no vo trong khe khng?
- Khng.
ng An Vu th di, bo:
- Ta c php tr dn ri. Lm cho php lut ca ta khng tha ai, h tri php th phi cht nh vo
trong khe ny vy. Khng ai dm phm php th lm sao khng bnh tr?
b/ T Sn lm tng quc nc Trnh, khi au nng gn cht, dn d Du Ct[10]:
- Ti cht ri, ng s cm quyn nc Trnh, ng phi nghim khc tr dn. La c v d dn, nn t
ngi b cht thiu; nc c v nhu nhc, nn nhiu ngi b cht ui. ng nn dng hnh pht
nghim khc, ng cho dn cht ui v s nhu nhc ca ng.
T Sn cht ri, Du Ct khng nhn tm dng nghim hnh. Thiu nin nc Trnh theo nhau lm
gic cp, t tp chm c hon[11] sp lm lon. Du Ct thng sut chin xa v k binh chin u
mt ngy mt m mi gn khc phc chng c. ng th di, than:
-Gi ta sm theo li dy ca thy (tc T Sn) th khng phi hi hn nh vy.
c/ L Ai cng hi Trng Ni:
- Sch Xun Thu chp: Ma ng, thng chp, sng ri, c khng cht kh, l mun ni g vy?
Trng Ni p:
- Li c ngha rng c th dit ( cho cht kh) m khng dit. Nn dit m khng dit th o,
mn (ng l c tri vo ma h, li) c tri vo ma ng. Tri mt o tri (tri thi tit) th cy c
cng phm vo, hung h l vua cha (nu mt o th tt b b ti ln).
d/ Theo php nh n th k no tro ra ngoi ng th b tr ti, T Cng cho vy l nghim khc
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

qu, hi Trng Ni. Trng Ni p: (Khng), nh vy l bit o tr nc. tro ra ngoi ng th


n bay ln, ph c ngi ta,[12] ngi ta tt ni gin, ni gin th u nhau, m ba h[13] mi bn
tn hi nhau. Lm tn hi ba h nh vy th tr ti l phi. V li khng c ai mun b tr ti nng, m
khng tro ra ngoi l vic d, khin cho dn lm mt iu d khi b ci ti m h ght, o tr
nc l vy.
Mt thut khc bo: Php nh n, ai tro ra ng th b cht tay, T Cng bo:
- tro ra ng l ti nh, cht tay l hnh pht nng, c nhn sao m tn khc vy?
p:
- Khng tro l vic d, b cht tay l iu dn ght. Lm vic d khi b ci mnh ght, c nhn
cho nh vy l vic d nn ban hnh lut .
/ Tng quc nc Trung Sn l Nhc Tr dng mt trm c xe i s nc Triu, la mt ngi ti
tr trong m khch[14] iu khin on xe, gia ng on xe hn lon. Nhc Tr bo:
- Ti cho ng l ti tr nn dng ng iu khin on xe, gia ng on xe li hn lon l sao?
Ngi khch xin thi vic, p:
- Ngi khng bit cch tr ngi. Phi c uy ngi ta phc, phi c li khuyn khch ngi ta
th mi tr ngi ta c. Nay ti ch l mt ngi khch nh ca ngi. Ngi nh m sa sai ngi
ln, ngi hn m tr ngi sang, li khng c quyn ban pht li hi ch phc h, v vy m sinh
ra hn lon. Gi s khi sai khin b ti, ai tt ti c th cho lm khanh tng, ai xu ti c th cht
u, th lm g m khng tr h c.
e/ Php ca Cng Tn ng l trng pht nng nhng ti nh. Ti nng ngi ta kh phm vo, m
li nh th ngi ta d b. Khin cho ngi ta b ci d b m ng phm vo ci kh phm, l
php tr nc. Li nh khng sinh ra, ti nng khng n, th dn khng c ti m lon khng pht.
Mt thuyt khc bo: Cng Tn ng ni: Php thi hnh hnh pht l pht nng ti nh th li nh
khng sinh m ti nng khng n, nh vy gi l dng hnh pht tr b hnh pht.
g/ Sng L[15] pha Nam nc Kinh c vng, nhiu ngi ln i vng. C lut cm i vng, ai b
bt th b phn thy gia ch. Thy ngi b ti nhiu ti c th lp sng, vy m ngi ta vn i
ln, khng ngng[16]. Ti khng g nng bng phn thy gia ch, vy m vn khng ngn c l
v k phm ti khng nht nh b bt. Th d nay c ngi bo: ti cho anh c thin h, nhng ri
git cht anh th tt ngi bnh thng khng ai chu. C c thin h l ci li ln m khng nhn v
bit rng s phi cht; cn nh khng nht nh b bt th d s b ti phn thy, cng vn trm vng.
Bit rng th no cng cht th cho c thin h, cng khng nhn.
Ngi nc L thiu chm Tch. Tri ni gi bc, chy lan v pha Nam, s ln ti khp nc. Ai
Cng lo lng, t iu khin vic cu la. Nhng chung quanh khng c ai, mi ngi u mc sn
th, nn la khng cu c. ng bo vi Trng Ni n hi. Trng Ni tha:
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

- Vic sn th vui m khng b pht, vic cu la kh s khng c thng. V vy m khng cu


c la.
Ai Cng bo: Phi. Trng Ni ni thm:
- Vic gp ri, khng kp treo gii thng; v li nu ai cu la cng c thng ht th (ti sn) c
nc cng khng thng, vy xin ch dng hnh pht thi.
Ai Cng khen l phi. Trng Ni bn ra lnh: "Ai khng cu la th b trng tr nh ti hng gic hoc
b chy, ai sn th th b trng tr nh ti phm cm.[17] Lnh cha truyn i khp m la dit
c.
h/ Thnh Hoan tu vi vua T:
- i vng qu nhn t, qu bt nhn.[18]
Vua T hi:
- Qu nhn t, qu bt nhn, nh vy l khng tt sao?
p:
- l ci tt ca k b ti, bc vua cha khng nn theo. B ti phi c lng nhn t ri mi c th
cng mu tnh vic c, phi c lng bt nhn ri mi c th gn gi c; khng c lng nhn th
khng th cng mu tnh c; khng c lng bt nhn th khng th gn gi c.
Vua T hi:
- Vy th qu nhn qu nhn t, qu bt nhn ch no?
- i vng qu nhn t vi Tit cng, qu bt nhn vi nhng ngi h in[19]. Qu nhn t vi
Tit cng th quyn ca i thn khng g ln bng[20] m qu bt nhn vi nhng ngi h in th
bc cha anh s phm php. Quyn i thn khng th g ln bng th binh lc s yu so vi nc
ngoi, cha anh phm php th chnh tr lon trong. Binh lc yu ngoi, chnh tr lon trong,
l gc ca s mt nc.
i/ Ngy Hu vng hi (mt v i thn l) Bc B:
- ng nghe thin h bn v qu nhn ra sao?
- Thn nghe ngi ta n rng i vng t hu (nhn t, hay gia n).
Hu Vng hoan h:
- Nh vy th s nghip ca qu nhn ti u?
- S ti mt nc.
- T hu l lm iu thin; lm vic thin sao li mt nc?
- T th bt nhn, m hu th gia n. Bt nhn th khng trng tr k c ti, hay gia n th thng c
k khng c cng. K c ti m khng b trng tr, k khng c cng m c thng, nh vy mt
nc cng l ng ch.
k/ Nc T thch chn ct trng hu, vi la dng ht vo vic tm lim, cy g dng ht vo vic
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ng quan quch. Vua Hon Cng lo, hi Qun Trng:


- Vi la ht th khng c g lm mn che (chin xa v nga cho ch khi thy),[21] cy g ht th
khng c g phng b, m dn chng vn c chn ct trng hu, lm sao cm c by gi?
Qun Trng p:
- Ngi ta hnh ng, nu khng phi v danh th v li.
Ri ng h lnh:
Quan quch dy qu mc th thy ngi cht s b cht m k ch tang s b ti. Thy b cht th
khng c danh, ch tang b ti th khng c li. Nh vy cn c l do g chn ct trng hu
na[22].
l/ Thi V T cng, c ngi b ti (?) trn qua nc Ngy v tr bnh cho hong hu ca Ngy
Tng vng. T Cng hay tin, sai ngi em nm chc (lng hay dt?) vng mua ngi c ti
, s gi i i v v nm ln m vua Ngy khng chu giao; T cng bn ly p T Th i. B
ti t hu can:
- em mt p mua mt k ti , phng c nn chng?
T cng p:
- Cc ng lm sao hiu c. Mun tr nc th ng coi thng nhng vic nh, lon khng phi
ton l do vic ln m pht u[23]. Php lut khng vng, hnh pht khng cng quyt th d c
mi p T Th cng v ch, ngc li php lut m vng, hnh pht m cng quyt th d mt
mi p T Th cng khng hi.
Vua Ngy hay tin , bo: Vua mt nc mun tr k phm ti m mnh khng nghe theo th l
iu bt tng. Ri sai ch ti nhn tr cho V, khng ly vng hoc p.

*
Kinh 3 Khen thng.
Khen thng bc (tri vi hu) m li gi di th khng dng c k di, khen thng hu m
xc thc th di coi thng s cht. Thut ny rt t:
a/ Li Vn t so snh b ti vi loi nai;
b/ Truyn Vit vng t cung tht;
c/ Truyn Ng Khi thng ai di c cng xe i;
d/ Truyn L Khi x kin bng cch cho bn tn;
/ Truyn ngi Sng Mn nc Tng hu hoi thn th n cht;
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

e/ Truyn Cu Tin bit thut khen nn knh cho con ch ni gin;


g/ Truyn Chiu hu bit thut thng nn gi ci kh c;
h/ Bit thng hu th khin ngi ta bin thnh Mnh Bn, Chuyn Ch; ngi n b nht tm,
ngi nh c bt ln chng minh iu .
Truyn 3.
a/ Vua T hi (quan i phu) Vn T (Trn Tu V):
- Tr nc phi lm sao? Cch no?
p:
- Vic thng pht l mt li kh, i vng phi nm cht ly n, ng cho ngi khc thy. B
ti chy theo s thng nh by nai thy c tt l chy ti.
b/ Vua Vit hi quan i phu Vn Chng:
- Ta mun nh ly nc Ng c khng?
- c, ta ch cn thng hu m xc thc (khng gi di), pht nng m cng quyt. i vng c
th t cung tht th bit (s hiu nghim ca s thng pht).
Vua Vit bn cho t cung tht, khng ai ti cu la c. Ri ng ra lnh: K no cu la m cht
th c thng nh cht v ch, cu la m khng cht th c thng nh thng ch, khng cu
la th b ti nh hng ch hoc b chy.
Dn chng bn ly bn trt vo ngi, bn o t nhy vo la, bn tri 3000 ngi, bn phi
3000 ngi. Do vua Vit bit th tt thng ca mnh.
c/ Ng Khi lm quan th t Ty H (gi bin cng) cho Ngy V hu. Tn c mt ci nh[24]
nh bin gii, Ng Khi mun trit h n v n c hi cho vic lm rung, nhng li khng mun
trng binh (v n qu nh). ng bn chng mt ci cng xe pha ngoi ca Bc v ra lnh: Ai di
c ci cng xe ra pha ngoi ca Nam th c thng rung, v nh thng hng. Mi u,
chng ai di c (v khng tin). Sau c mt ngi di i v c ban thng nh lnh ha. Mt lt
sau, ng li t mt thch (mi u) u pha ngoi ca ng v ra lnh: "Ai di c thch
u ra pha ngoi ca Ty th cng thng nh ln trc. Ngi ta tranh nhau di i. Ri ng h
lnh: Ngy mai s nh chim ci nh, ngi u tin ln chim c s c phong chc i
phu, ban cho rung v nh thng hng. Ngi ta tranh nhau ti tn cng, ch mt bui sng l
chim c.
d/ L Khi lm quan th t Thng a cho Ngy Vn hu. ng mun cho ngi ni bn gii,
nn h lnh: Trong vic tranh tng m cn h nghi th cho hai bn bn vo ch, ai bn trng s
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

thng kin, bn trt th thua. Lnh ban xung, dn chng vi vng tp bn, ngy m khng ngh.
Ti khi chin u vi qun Tn, ng i thng nh dn ca ng u bn gii.
/ Trong ng Sng Mn nc Tng c mt ngi v tang m t hu thn n ni m nhom. Vua
Tng cho anh ta c lng thng yu cha m, phong anh lm chc quan s (mt chc trung s hay h
s i xa). T c mi nm c trn mi ngi t hu thn n cht v vic tang. Con tang
cha m v tnh yu thng, vy m cn c th ban thng khuyn khch c, hung h l vua
i vi dn.
e/ Vua Vit tnh vic nh Ng, mun cho ai cng coi thng ci cht. Mt hm i ng, gp mt
con ch ni gin, ng vn cy ngang trc xe, ng dy knh cho n. K theo hu hi: Sao nh vua
knh n ti vy?. p: V n c dng kh.
T c mi nm c trn mi ngi xin c dng u cho nh vua. Do m xt th li khen
cng khuyn khch ngi ta hi sinh. Mt thuyt khc ni: ()[25]
g/ Hn Chiu hu sai ngi gi k chic kh c. Ngi hu bo:
- i vng bt nhn qu[26] Chic kh c khng cho k t hu m cn em ct.
Chiu hu p:
- Nh ngi khng bit c u. Ta nghe ni bc minh ch tic c mt nt cau my, mt n ci
(ch khng dng by), cau my phi c l do, ci cng phi c l do. Chic kh ny cng vy, h
ch c nt cau my v n ci mi ng tic. Tuy chic kh vi nt cau my v n ci khc nhau xa
y, nhng ta cng i ai c cng lao ri mi ban, cho nn gi k, cha cho vi.
h/ Con ln ging con rn, con tm ging con su. Ngi ta thy con rn th kinh hong, thy con
su th dng tc gy. Vy m n b vn lm tm, ngi nh c vn bt ln. H c li th ngi
ta qun ci ght m ho ra dng cm nh Mnh Bn, Chuyn Ch c (hai dng s thi trc, Mnh
Tn, Chuyn Ng).

*
Kinh 4: Nghe ht thy tng ngi mt.
Nghe ht thy kin tng ngi mt th phn bit c b ti ai tr, ai ngu; bt b ti trnh by
kin th b ti s cng nhau tham ngh[27]
Thuyt ny rt t cc truyn:
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

a/ Vua Ngy i st nhp nc Trnh.


b/ T Tuyn vng sai ngi thi ng vu[28]
c/ Thn t dng Triu Thiu, Hn o xt vua.
d/ Cng t T ch trng ct t H ng.
/ V ng hu mun gim binh lc Thng ng.
Truyn 4:
a/ Vua nc Ngy ni vi vua nc Trnh[29]
- Trnh v Lng[30] vn l mt nc, sau mi tch ra, nay xin Trnh li hp vo Lng.
Vua Trnh lo, triu qun thn li bn mu i ph vi Ngy. Cng t nc Trnh tha vi vua Trnh:
-Vic ny rt d i ph. Xin nh vua c p vua Ngy nh vy: Ly l rng nc Trnh vn l mt
phn ca Ngy m bo nn sp nhp Trnh vo Ngy, th t p[31] cng xin cho Lng sp nhp vo
Trnh.
Vua Ngy bn b vic .
b/ T Tuyn Vng mi khi sai thi ng vu th bt ba trm ngi cng thi mt lt. Nhiu x s
Nam Quch (thnh ngoi pha nam kinh ) xin thi. Tuyn Vng mng, v cp lng thc cho
my trm ngi nh vy. Tuyn Vng mt, Mn Vng ln ni ngi, thch nghe tng ngi thi
mt, cc x s b trn ht.
Mt thuyt khc ni:
Hn Chiu hu bo: Nhiu ngi cng thi ng vu, ta khng bit ai thi hay. in Nghim tha:
Nn nghe tng ngi thi mt.
c/ Nc Triu sai ngi nh Thn t (Thn Bt Hi) xi Hn gip binh nh nc Ngy. Thn
T mun ni vi vua Hn (Chiu Hu) v vic , nhng li s Chiu Hu nghi mnh nhn hi l
ca nc ngoi (Triu); m khng ni th s Triu ght. ng ta bn sai Triu Thiu v Hn p d
xt thi ca Chiu hu ra sao ri mi ni. Nh vy bn trong ng bit c Chiu Hu, bn
ngoi lp c cng vi Triu.
d/ Binh ba nc (Hn, Triu, Ngy) n i Hm Cc (mt i him yu ca Tn, nay H Nam). Vua
Tn bo Lu Hon:
- Binh ba nc v su ri,[32] qu nhn mun ct t pha ng sng ln[33] ging ho, ng ngh
sao?
p:
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

- Ct pha ng sng ln, th tn tht nng m trnh c tai nn cho nc l c cng ln. l
nhim v ca bc cha anh nh vua, sao nh vua khng vi Cng t T[34] hi kin. Vua Tn
triu Cng t T li hi. Cng t T p:
- Ging ho th s hi hn, khng ging ho cng s hi hn. Nay nh vua ct t pha ng sng
ln ging ho, qun ba nc rt v ri, nh vua tt bo: Qun ba nc vn mun rt v ri m ta
cn ct ba thnh tin h, (ung qu). Cn nh khng ging ho, qun ba nc tt vo i Hm Cc,
c nc s nguy to, nh vua s n hn ln, bo: Ch ti khng dng ba thnh cho h. V vy m
thn mi ni: Nh vua ging ho th s hi hn, khng ging ho cng s hi hn.
Vua Tn bo: B no cng hi hn, th mt ba thnh m hi hn, cn hn l nc b nguy ln
m hi hn. Qu nhn quyt nh ging ho.
/ ng hu ni vi vua Tn:
- Nh vua c cc t Uyn, Dip, Lam in v Dng H, chim t H Ni, p bc Trnh v
Lng, m cha lm ch c thin h l v nc Triu cha phc. Nay nh vua rt binh chim
Thng ng ( Hn) i m em qua ng Dng ( Triu) th Hm an (kinh ca Triu) s
nguy nh con rn nm trong ming vy (s chim lc no cng c), lc (Triu s thn phc),
nh vua c th khoanh tay m thin h s v chu nh vua, k no ti sau, nh vua s em qun nh.
Nhng Thng ng ang yn vui m x li mnh, kh tr, e rng thn xin rt qun i m
nh vua khng chu nghe, bit lm cch no by gi[35]
Vua Tn p: Ta s rt qun m di i.

*
Kinh 5: Lm b nh ra lnh v ra lnh gi.
Cho m ngi yt kin nhiu ln, bt ch i lu m khng b nhim th nhng ngi khc cho rng
ngi c b mt giao cho nhim v ri, nn khng dm lm iu gian m s phn tn nh
by nai. Sai mt ngi d xt mt vic mnh bit mt vic khc th k di khng dm bn ci li
ring (mu t li).
Do thut m
a/ Bng Knh gi v cng i phu tr li.
b/ i Hoan sai ngi d xem c xe bt kn khng.
c/ Cha nc Chu sai tm ci trm ngc.
d/ Quan thi t nc Thng ni v phn b.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Truyn 5:
a/ Bng Knh lm huyn lnh, sai cc vin li i tun ch, ri gi git vin cng i phu (vin ch
huy bn ) tr li; bt ng gn mnh mt lc, khng ra lnh g c, sau cng li sai i. Cc vin li
kia cho rng quan huyn ni ring g vi vin cng i phu, v vy m h khng tin vin cng i
phu v khng dm lm gian.
b/ i Hoan lm thi t (nh tng quc) nc Tng, ban m gi b h v bo: Ta nghe my m
nay c ngi ngi xe bt kn n ca nh L S, cc ngi v ta d xt k xem. Bn h d xt ri tr
v bo: Khng thy xe bt kn no c, ch thy c ngi bng ci gi (ng qun o hay thc n) ti
ni chuyn vi L S, mt lt sau L S nhn gi[36].
c/ Cha nc Chu mt ci trm ngc, sai nha li tm, ba ngy khng thy. Ri ng sai mt ngi
khc i tm trong nh mt gia nhn[37] v tm c. ng bo: Ta bit bn nha li khng lo lm ht
phn s, tm ci trm ba ngy m khng c. Ta sai ngi khc i tm, khng y mt ngy m tm
c. Do bn nha li u run s, cho l vua thn minh. d/ Quan thi t nc Thng sai mt
vin thiu th t (mt chc quan nh) ra ch, khi ngi v, ng hi:
- Thy g ch?
p:
- Khng thy g l c.
- Th cng phi thy ci g ch.
- Tha, bn ngoi ca Nam ch, c rt nhiu xe b, kh len li qua c.
Quan thi t bn dn ngi :
- Khng c ni vi ai rng ta ni vi ngi nh vy, nghen
Ri ng cho gi vin li coi ch v ry:
- Sao ngoi ca ch c nhiu phn b th?
Vin li coi ch ngc nhin sao quan thi t bit mau nh vy, t au u lo s rn ht h sc lm
vic.[38]

*
Kinh 6. Giu iu mnh bit ri.
Giu iu mnh bit ri m hi th bit thm c nhng iu mnh khng bit. Bit r mt s tht
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

th bao nhiu iu b n s bin mt.


Thut ny rt t cc truyn:
a/ Chiu hu nm mt mng tay;
b/ Bit r v ca Nam m bit thm c ba hng khc;
c/ Cha nc Chu tm cy gy cong m qun thn u s;
d/ Bc B dng vin th t (chc quan nh);
/ Ty Mn Bo gi b nh mt ci cht trc xe.
Truyn 6:
a/ Hn Chiu hu (ct mng tay) ri nm tay li, ni di rng mnh mt mt mng, bo phi tm gp.
K t hu bn ct mng tay ca h dng ln. Nh vy m ng bit c s thiu thnh thc ca h.
b/ Hn Chiu hu sai k s i th st cc huyn. Khi s gi v bo co, ng hi: Thy nhng g?
p: Khng c g l. ng li hi: Th cng phi thy g ch? p: Ngoi ca Nam, c by b
con vng gm m bn t ng i. ng dn ngi : Khng c tit lu vi ai iu ta mi hi
ngi. Ri ng h lnh: Ma m ang mc, cm b nga v rung. Lnh ban ri m bn li
khng lm ht phn s, rt nhiu b nga vo rung ngi ta; vy phi gp iu tra s b nga
vo rung ri trnh ln, khng iu tra c th s b ti nng. Do ba hng (ng, ty, bc) iu
tra ri trnh ln. ng bo: Cha ht. H i iu tra li, thy by b con vng ngoi ca Nam. Bn
li cho rng ng bit r mi vic, u s ht sc lm vic, khng dm lm by.[39]
c/ Cha nc Chu ra lnh tm mt cy gy cong (m ng ni di rng nh mt), bn nha li tm thy
my ngy khng thy, ng sai ring mt ngi i tm, khng y mt ngy tm c. ng bn ry
bn nha li kia: Ta vn bit bn bay khng lm trn phn s. Cy gy cong rt d tm m bay tm
khng ra, ta sai ngi khc tm, khng y mt ngy m c. Nh vy c th gi l trung c
khng?.
Do bn nha li u s, ht sc lm vic v cho vua l thn minh.
d/ Bc B lm huyn lnh, vin li coi v tng ngc[40] ca ng tham nhng bn thu, v c mt
ngi thip yu. ng cho mt vin th t (mt chc quan nh) gi v yu ngi thip d xt
n tnh ca vin li.
/ Ty Mn Bo[41] lm quan lnh t Nghip, gi v nh mt ci cht trc xe, sai mt nha li
tm, khng c, sai mt ngi khc tm th c trong nh mt gia nhn.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

*
Kinh 7: Ni ngc li.
Ni ngc li, lm tri li iu mnh mun ni, vic mnh mun lm d xt ngi mnh nghi ng
th bit c gian tnh.
Do thut m:
a/ Sn Dng qun c nhc m Cu Th;
b/ No X sai ngi gi trang lm s thn nc Tn;
c/ T Chi ni di rng thy con nga trng.
d/ T Sn tch nhng ngi kin nhau ra;
e/ T cng sai ngi lm khch qua ca i;
Truyn 7.
a/ Sn Dng qun[42] lm tng quc nc V, nghe ni b vua nghi bn nhc m Cu Th,
Cu Th tc m ni toc ra cho ng bit v vic vua nghi mnh.
b/ No X[43] nghe ni vua T ght mnh, sai ngi gi lm s thn nc Tn, ch bai No X trc
mt vua T, d bit lng vua T.
c/ Mt ngi nc T mun lm lon, s vua bit c bn gi v ui cc ngi yu, khin cho
vua bit vic m khng nghi mnh.
d/ T Chi[44] lm tng quc nc Yn, ng ngi vi nhiu ngi, lm b ni lo: C con nga
trng no chy ngoi ca ?. K t hu u bo khng thy. Mt ngi ui theo, v bo rng:
C con nga trng. T Chi do m bit trong s k t hu, ai l ngi khng thnh thc.
/ C hai ngi kin nhau. T Sn[45] tch h ra, khng cho h i cht nhau (nh vy ngi ny
khng bit ngi kia ni v mnh ra sao), ri ng ni ngc li ca ngi ny t co ngi kia,
m bit c s thc.
e/ V T qun sai ngi lm khch qua ca i. Vin quan coi i lm kh (gi li khng cho qua),
ngi dng vng hi l, c th cho qua. T cng bo vin quan coi i: Gi c ngi khch
qua ca i ca ngi, cho ngi vng nn ngi cho qua. Vin kinh hong, cho rng T cng
sng sut.

Ch thch:
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

[1] m ch Di T H. V Di T H coi thin Thu nn. Cng nn coi li Hn Phi ph bnh truyn
ny trong thin Nn t, tit 4.
[2] Mt trong ba i phu chuyn quyn L.
[3] Xt ging vn trong thuyt ny th khng phi l ca Hn Phi, v rm, non, nh cu (4) y
qu l tha. V vy c ngi ni rng Hn Phi c thy u ri chp li nguyn vn, ch khng
vit li; c ngi li bo do ngi i sau thm vo.
[4] n t tn l Anh, t l Bnh Trng, lm tng quc nc T, c ti c c. B n t xun thu do
ngi i sau vit, ch khng phi ng.
[5] H B l thn sng Hong H.
[6] Bch Cng tn l Thng, l chu ni S (Kinh) Bnh Vng. Cha l thi t Kin b Bnh vng
t b, phi chy qua nc Trnh, b ngi Trnh git, Thng phi chy qua nc Ng. Khi S Hu
vng ln ngi, Thng v nc c phong l Bch Cng. ng mun nh Trnh bo th cho
cha, qun thn S khng chu, ng m mu lm lon cp chnh quyn, tht bi, phi t t.
[7] Nguyn vn: tng tham. C sch ging l: so snh vi nhau.
[8] V nhng k quyn ngang nhau s lp ring mt ng mu t li m che lp vua.
[9] Truyn ny chp trong Chin Quc sch Ngy II 17. Chin Quc sch gi l Bng Thng.
[10] Lc lm quan khanh, sau ni chc T Sn.
[11] C bn chp: chm tn l Qun, chng ti theo bn Trn Khi Thin.
[12] Theo Trn Khi Thin th hi l ha hi (than cha vc, cn la) v ym l: lm bng ngi
ta
[13] Nguyn vn: tam lc. C thuyt ging l h cha, h m, h v, c thuyt bo : cha, con, chu;
c thuyt li bo : cha m, anh em, v con.
[14] Thi nhng ngi c quyn th nh Mnh Thng qun, Bnh Nguyn qun, Xun Thn
qun.... nui rt nhiu khch trong nh c ting l trng k s, v i khi hi kin h, sai bo
h.
[15] Nay Vn Nam.
[16] Nguyn vn: Thm chng ung li k thy. Ch k c sch bo nn c l l (sng L) v ging
nh chng ti dch; c sch li bo l ch li (hng ro tre) v ging l: chnh quyn ro hai b
sng....
[17] Chng ti ng rng truyn ny do Php gia t ra ch Khng T khng ch trng nh vy, hai
ch phm cm c sch ging l vo ch cung cm ca vua.
[18] Bt nhn l khng nhn tm, khng n lng thy ngi khc au kh.
[19] Tit cng l cha t Tit, thuc T. t vua T cho in Anh (Tnh Quch qun) hoc in
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Vn (Mnh Thng qun) lm thc p


[20] ) Nguyn vn: i thn v trng. Trn Khi Thin cho rng ch v , cng ging ch v trong
v ch, v ging nh chng ti dch. C sch ging: v trng l c v trng h (lm sao m
khng ln cho c?). Php hnh vn c nhn thng dng.
[21] Nguyn vn: d vi t; c sch bo ch t phi sa li l t (la, tin bc).
[22] Chng ti ngh Qun Trng khng tn nhn ti mc . Truyn ny c l cng do Php gia t
ra.
[23] Nguyn vn: tr v tiu nhi v i. C sch ging l: khng tr ci ti nh th lon ln s pht,
hoc: php tr nc khng coi thng vic nh th s khng c lon ln.
[24] nh l mt ci nh trng ct trn mt nn cao. C sch ging nh y l phong ho i, mt
n canh trn ch cao, lnh t la ln khi c gic cp bo co cho cc n xa.
[25] Khng khc g thuyt trn m rm hn, nn chng ti b.
[26] ni: keo c.
[27] Thut ny tc l thut 2 trong thin XLVIII Bt Kinh.
[28] Mt loi so ta nh ci snh (qu bu khot l).
[29] Lc ny Trnh b Hn dit, sp nhp vo Hn, vy vua Trnh y chnh l vua Hn.
[30] Ngy lp i Lng, cho nn cng gi Ngy l Lng.
[31] Li ni nhn: ci p nh ca ti.
[32] Nguyn vn l thm. C sch ging l nguy ln, c l ngh rng Hm Cc bin gii Tn, nn
cha gi l v su c.
[33] Sng ln y l sng Hong H. C sch bo: H ng l tn t, mi u thuc Ngy, sau
thuc Tn (nay Sn Ty) v ba thnh y l ba huyn ca t H ng.
[34] Truyn ny c trong Chin Quc sch. Tn sch IV3 (L Bi), v chp l cng t Tr; cng c
ch gi l cng t Tha. Ba ch (t) (tr) (tha) hi ging nhau.
[35] Truyn ny, nguyn vn kh hiu, mi nh hiu nh, gii thch mt khc. Chng ti theo Trn
Khi Thin.
[36] m ch rng L S n hi l.
[37] Chc cha nc Chu giu cy trm nh gia nhn ri lm b nh mt. C vy th mi l
dng thut.
[38] Truyn u a/ l lm b nh ra lnh m khng ra lnh; cn ba truyn sau b/ c/ d/ l ra mt lnh
gi. V vy nhan kinh 5 ny ch c hai ch ngy s m chng ti phi dch l lm b nh ra
lnh v ra lnh gi cho ngha.
[39] Truyn 6b/ ny ging truyn 5d/ trn, v truyn 6c/ ny ging truyn 5c/ vy m 5d v 5c sp
vo kinh 5, cn 6b v 6c, 6d/ sp kinh 6. S sp t, phn loi khng hp l.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

[40] Nguyn vn l ng s ( ), c sch cho l ng li ( ): ngi li nh xe.


[41] Ty Mn Bo l mt vin quan nc Ngy, ni ting caitr.
[42] Ngha l cha t Sn Dng, mt p nc Ngy.
[43] Ngi nc S gi qua gip T Mn vng.
[44] Tc Cng tn Tho, lm ra b hin nhn qun t, c vua Yn l Khoi nhng ngi cho,
ngi Yn khng phc, ni lon. Coi Chin Quc sch Yn sch 9 (L Bi) - Thut trong truyn
ny cng nh thut trong truyn 6a/
[45] Tc Cng tn Kiu, tng quc nc Trnh coi phn I.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XXXI
NI TR THUYT H - LC VI (Trch)
(NHNG THUT DNH M DNG THIN NI, H - SU IU PHI XT K)

Trong thin ny, Hn Phi a ra 6 mi n vi cn phi xt k.


Kinh 1:Quyn giao cho k khc.
Quyn th khng th giao cho k khc; quyn vua mt i mt th quyn b ti tng ln gp trm. V
vy b ti mn c quyn ca vua th th lc thm nhiu, th lc thm nhiu th trong (bch quan)
v ngoi (ch hu) u b h s dng, trong ngoi b h s dng th vua b che lp ()[1]
Truyn 1 (.)[2]
c/ Thi Tn L cng, su quan khanh c tn qu. T ng v Trng Ng Kiu can: i thn
qu tn qu th i ch vi cha v tranh gii quyt vic nc, t thng vi nc ngoi, lp b ng,
di lm lon php nc, trn p bc cha, nh vy m nc khng nguy l iu cha tng thy
L cng bo: Phi", ri git ba quan khanh. T ng v Trng Ng Kiu li khuyn:
- H cng mt ti nh nhau m thin v khng git ht, th k cn sng s on hn, rnh c hi m
hi mnh.
L cng bo:

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

- Mt bui sng m ta dit ba quan khanh, ta khng n lng no dit ht.


Trng Ng Kiu p:
- Cha cng khng n dit h, nhng h s nhn tm hi cha cng.
L cng khng nghe. c ba thng, ba quan khanh can li gy lon, git L cng, chia t ca ng.
d/ Mt ngi nc Yn khng m lon m b (v bt) tm bng nc phn ch[3] (Nguyn do nh
vy): v anh ta t thng vi mt chng trai tr. Ngi chng sng sm t ngoi v nh, gp chng
trai tr i ra bn hi:
- Khch no ?
V p:
- C khch no u.
Hi k t hu, h u bo khng c, mi ming nh mt. Ngi v bo: ng b m lon ri, bn
em anh ta tm bng nc phn ch.
(Cn mt thuyt na, ngha cng nh thuyt trn, nn chng ti b).

*
Kinh 2: Li mi bn khc nhau.
Ci li ca vua (cng li) v ca b ti (t li) khc nhau cho nn b ti chng ai trung vi vua c,
h b ti c li th vua mt li. V vy m gian thn triu qun ch tr k chng i trong nc,
em s tnh nc ngoi huyn hoc vua; ch ngh thc hin c t loi, khng oi hoi g ti
tai ha ca nc ()[4]
Truyn 2 ()[4]
a/ V mt ngi nc V cu o: Xin cho chng ti khi khng[5]c mi b vi. Ngi
chng hi: Sao xin t vy? p: Xin nhiu hn anh mua nng hu ?
b/ Vua nc Kinh mun cho cc cng t qua lm quan cc nc lng ging. i Yt khuyn khng
nn. Vua Kinh bo:
- Cho cc cng t lm quan cc nc lng ging th cc nc s trng h.
i Yt p:
- Cc cng t qua cc nc s c trng vng, c trng vng th v ha vi cc nc , nh
vy l nh vua dy cho con cu kt vi nc ngoi, bt li cho nc mnh.
k/ Tng Thch l tng nc Ngy, V Qun l tng nc Kinh. Hai nc gy chin vi nhau, m
Tng Thch v V Qun u cm qun. Tng Thch vit th cho V Qun, bo: Qun hai bn gp
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

nhau, c hai bn i nhau, nhng ng giao chin vi nhau nh, v giao chin th tt mt cn mt
mt. y l vic ring ca hai v cha, ti vi ng khng c t th g vi nhau, tt hn l nn trnh
n nhau
g/ i Thnh Ng lm quan nc Triu, qua ni vi Thn Bt Hi Hn:
Nu ngi dng th nc Hn m lm cho ti c trng hn Triu th ti cng xin ly th nc
Triu gip ngi c trng hn Hn, nh vy cng nh ngi c hai nc Hn, ti c hai nc
Triu ( ni: th ca mi ngi tng ln gp i).

***
Kinh 3. Ging nhau.
Nhng vic gi di ging nh vic thc lm cho vua (m hoc) trng pht sai, m i thn nhn
s c li ring ()
Truyn 3
d/ Vua nc Kinh c mt i thip l Trnh T. Khi ng mi np mt m n, Trnh T dy c y:
- Nh vua rt thch ngi ta ly tay che ming, khi gn nh vua, em nh che ming y nh.
M n (nghe li) vo yt kin, khi li gn vua th ly tay che ming. Vua hi (Trnh T) ti sao li
vy? Trnh T p: C y bo khng chu c mi hi ca i vng. Gp lc nh vua, Trnh T
v m nhn cng ngi, Trnh T dn trc ngi nh xe cho vua rng: Nu vua ra lnh g th
phi thi hnh ngay tc khc. M n tin li tht gn nh vua, my ln che ming. Nh vua bng ni
gin bo: Ct mi n i. Ngi nh xe lin rt dao ra ct ngay mi m n.
Mt thuyt khc bo ()[6]
d/ Ph V Cc[7] l ngi thn ca mt quan lnh don nc Kinh. Khch Uyn mi gip vic quan
lnh don, c quan lnh don rt yu. V Cc (ghen ght) bo quan lnh don:
- Ngi rt yu Uyn, sao khng bo by tic ru mt ln nh ng ta?
Quan lnh don khen phi v bo Uyn by tic mt ln nh. V Cc khuyn Uyn:
- Quan lnh don rt ngo mn v thch binh kh. ng nn t v knh cn v by binh kh sn v
ca.
Uyn lm theo. Quan lnh don ti, thy vy, kinh hong hi:
Th ngha l lm sao? V Cc bo: Ngi ch c cch l v ngay
i. S vic cha bit s ra sao". Quan lnh don ni gin, em binh nh Khch Uyn v git ng ta.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

e/ T Th[8] v Trng Th th on nhau. Trn Nhu mi (t S) v (Ngy), khng a T Th bn


sai ngi m st Trng Th. Vua Ngy cho rng T Th lm vic , trch ng ta.

***
Kinh 4. Vic c b tri: Mt s tnh pht sinh, nu c li th nh vua lm ch n, nu c hi th nn
xt ngc li xem ai c li trong . Cho nn bc minh ch lun vic: nu c hi cho nc th xem
xt ai l k c li trong vic ()
Truyn 4 ()
a/ Trn Nhu l k b ti ca vua Ngy, thn thin vi vua Kinh, xi Kinh nh Ngy. Trn Nhu nhn
xin v vua Ngy m ng ra hc gii ri nh th lc ca Kinh c lm tng quc Ngy.
b/ Thi Chiu Hy hu, ngi u bp dng thc n trong mn canh c ming gan cn sng. Chiu
Hy hu ku ngi ph bp v mng: Ti sao ngi b ming gan sng vo ni canh ca qu nhn?
Hn khu u chu ti cht, p: Thn mun ngm hi anh u bp.
Mt thuyt khc bo:
Hy Hu tm thy trong nc c sn. ng hi:
- Nu ngi coi vic tm gi mt chc th c ai thay chn khng?
K t hu p c. Hy hu bo: Gi n vo. Ri mng ngi :
- Ti sao ngi b sn vo nc nng?
Hn p:
- Anh coi vic tm gi m mt chc th thn c thay chn, v vy thn b sn v nc nng.

***
Kinh 5: Quyn th ngang nhau. Quyn th ngang nhau th mm lon pht sinh, v vy m bc minh
ch phi thn trng ()
Truyn 5 ()
d/ S Thnh vng lp Thng Thn lm thi t ri li mun lp cng t Chc[9] na. Thng
Thn lm lon, nh v git Thnh vng.
Mt thuyt khc bo:
S Thnh vng lp Thng Thn lm thi t ri li mun lp cng t Chc na. Thng Thn
hay c m cha tin, hi quan s ph (thy hc) l Phan Sng: Lm cch no m cho bit chc
c! Phan Sng p: Mi Giang Mi[10] li d tic m t v khng knh trng b y. Thi t lm
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

theo li. Giang Mi mng (Thng Thn):


- H qun ti tin, qun vng mun ph mi lp thng Chc l ng lm.
Thng Thn ni (vi Phan Sng): Tin n ng. Phan Sng hi:
- C th th Chc c khng?
- Khng!
- C th qua nc ch hu c khng?
- Khng.
- C th lm ln c khng?
- c.
Thng Thn bn dng binh tc v gi dinh nh Thnh vng. Thnh vng xin n mn chn
gu[11] khng c bn t st.
k/ Vua Trnh hi Trnh Chiu: Thi t ra sao? p: Thi t cha sinh. Vua hi: Thi t lp
ri m bo cha sinh l ngha lm sao? p: Thi t tuy lp ri nhng tt hiu sc ca vua cha
dt, nu b phi no c nh vua yu mn m c con trai th nh vua tt yu ngi con , yu ai th
mun cho ngi k nghip, v vy m thn bo thi t cha sinh.

***
Kinh 6. Sa thi v b dng. iu m ch mu tnh l lm lon s phn on ca ta ta lm by,
nu bc vua cha khng xt k trong vic sa thi, b dng qun thn, c th mc mu ch ()
Truyn 6 ()
c/ Trng Ni cm quyn L, ngoi ng khng c k lm ca ri, T Cnh cng m lo, L Th
(mu thn ca T) tu vi Cnh cng:
- Lm cho Trng Ni mt chc l vic d nh thi si lng. Nh vua sao khng dng lc hu chc cao
m mi ng ta, ri tng L Ai cng[12] mt on n nhc vua L ha kiu m m lon? Ai cng
ham ci vui mi, tt b b vic chnh tr. Trng Ni s can gin, can gin (khng c) s b coi
thng L[13].
Cnh cng khen l phi, sai L Th a hai on n nhc, mi on tm ngi, qua tng Ai cng. Ai
cng ham vui, qu nhin b b vic triu chnh. Trng Ni can gin khng c, b qua nc S[14].
g/ Thc Hng[15] mun gim Trnh Hong,[16] vit mt bc th gi l ca Trnh Hong gi cho
mnh, bo: Xin ngi v ti ni vi vua Tn rng iu nh vua vi ti hn nhau, lc ny lm c ri,
sao khng gp gi binh ti?
Ri Thc Hng gi v nh ri bc th sn chu vua nh Chu v vi vng i v. Vua Chu cho
rng Trng Hong phn nh Chu, em ng ta ra git.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

h/ Trnh Hon cng mun nh nc Khoi, trc ht hi tn h tt c nhng ho kit, lng thn
cng k s mu tr, gii n ni, dng cm, ri la nhng rung t tt ca nc Khoi (lm b) hi l
cho h, v bin trong s nhng chc tc dnh cho h, sau cng lp n trng ngoi ca quch[17]
chn s , li bi mu heo vo s nh mt tp th c. Vua Khoi (pht gic) cho rng trong nc
c k mun lm lon, bn git ht cc lng thn. Trnh Hon cng lc mi em qun nh,
chim c nc Khoi.
i/ Ngi h ln nc Tn giao ho vi vua Kinh, li ngm kt giao vi k t hu vua Kinh, m
trong nc, anh ta c Hu Vn qun[18] trng. Thnh th h nc Kinh mu tnh iu g, anh ta
thng bit trc m bo cho Hu Vn qun hay.

Ch thch:
[1] B my hng dn chng.
[2] Hn Phi chp 5 truyn a, b, c, d, e gii thch nhng iu dn chng trn. Chng ti ch dch
hai: c v d.
[3] Nguyn vn: Yn nhn v hoc, c dc cu th. C hc gi sa li l: Yn nhn hoc d ngha
l ngi nc Yn d b m lon (nn phi tm bng nc phn ch). Ngi Trung Hoa thi cho
rng chng b qu m, nn tr nh vy.
[4] Coi ch thch (1) v ch thch (2) Kinh 1 trn. Sau cng vy.
[5] Khng tn cng, ca g c.
[6] Thuyt ny gn ging y ht truyn S IV 2 trong Chin Quc sch, nn chng ti khng dch li.
Chin Quc sch chp l Trnh Du.
[7] C ch gi l Ph V K, mt gian thn ca Kinh Bnh vng.
[8] T Th l mt chc quan v ca Ngy nh tng soi. Theo Chin Quc sch, T Th tc Cng
tn Din, ng thi vi Trng Nghi.
[9] Chc l em khc m ca Thng Thn
[10] Giang Mi l em gi Thnh vng. Theo S k ca T M Thin th l mt i phi ca Thnh
vng. C sch chp l Giang Thin, hoc Giang Vu v cho Giang Vu l mt cn thn ca Thnh
vng.
[11] Mn n thi cho l rt qu. Mn nu lu chn, Thnh vng xin n mn l c ko di
ch cu vin.
[12] Hn Phi lm: chnh l L nh cng.
[13] Nguyn vn: Khinh tuyt l. C sch dch l: tt b nc L.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T
[14] C sch sa li l qua T.

[15] Tc Dng Thit Cht, hc rng, lm quan nc Tn, vit th phn khng T Sn lm hnh th
Coi phn I
[16] Trnh Hong l mt i phu ca Chu Knh vng
[17] Quch l bc tng ngoi ca mt th trn thi .
[18] Vua Tn, ngi git Thng ng

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XXXII
NGOI TR THUYT T THNG
(Trch)
(NHNG THUT DNH M DNG; THIN NGOI, T, THNG)

Kinh 1. o ca bc minh ch cng nh li Hu Nhc p Mt t. Cc v cha thi nay [1] khi


nghe ni th khen s vn nh, t chut. Khi xem vic lm th trng s xa vi, vin vng, v vy qun
thn, s dn ni nhng li vu khot m hnh ng xa s tnh ().
Truyn. a/ Mt T Tin[2] cai tr t an Ph. Hu Nhc gp ng ta, hi: Sao ng gy nh vy?
Mt T p: Vua khng bit rng Bt T ny v dng, sai cai tr t an Ph. Vic quan bn rn,
lng rt lo u, nn gy. Hu Nhc bo:
Xa vua Thun gy cy n nm dy, ca bi th Nam phong (trong Kinh Thi) m thin h tr. Nay
t an Ph nh nh vy m cai tr phi lo u, nu tr c thin h mi lm sao? Bit thut tr dn
th thn ngi trn miu ng, sc din (ti) nh gi ng trinh, cng chng hi g cho vic cai tr;
khng bit thut cai tr th thn tuy gy m tiu ty, cng chng c ch g.
b/ Vua S hi in Cu (mt mn ca Mc t):
- Mc t l mt hc gi ni danh, sut i tn lc lm vic, ng khen, nhng li ni rm m
khng nh, t chut, ti sao vy?
p:
- Xa Tn b (Tn Mc cng) g con gi cho cng t nc Tn (Trng Nh), trang sc cho c du,
a theo by chc thiu n bn o gm lm nng hu. Ti Tn, ngi Tn yu nhng ngi thip
m coi thng con gi Tn B. Nh vy c th bo l kho g cc nng thip m khng kho g con
gi. Nc S c ngi bn ht chu qua nc Trnh, lm ci hp bng g mc lan, xng bng qu,
tiu cho thm, im xuyt bng chu ngc, trang sc bng ngc mai khi[3] lt bng lng chim tr.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Ngi nc Trnh mua ci hp m tr li chu. Nh vy c th bo l kho bn ci hp m khng


kho bn ht chu. Ngy nay ngi ta tho lun u thch dng li kho lo, vn hoa, bc vua cha
thy ci vn hoa m qun rng nhng li v dng. Thuyt ca Mc T truyn ci o ca tin
vng, lun li ca thnh nhn tuyn co cho mi ngi. Nu dng nhng li vn nh t chut s
ngi ta ch nh ti ci vn hoa m qun ci hu dng ca hc thuyt, nh vy tc l ly vn hoa
lm hi ci hu dng, khng khc vic ngi nc S bn ht chu, Tn b g con gi. V vy m li
ca Mc T rm m khng vn nh t chut.
c/ Mc t lm con diu bng g 3 nm mi xong, bay c mt ngy th hng. Mt mn sinh bo:
- Thy kho tay tht, lm cho diu g bay c.
Mc t p:
- Ta u kho bng ngi lm ci n ngang xe. H ch dng mt khc cy di, khng y 1 bui
sng m ko c ba chc thch[4] ho vt, i c rt xa m dng c my nm. Cn ta lm diu
g, 3 nm mi xong m bay ch c 1 ngy.
Hu t nghe chuyn bo:
- Mc t rt kho (v) cho vic lm n ngang l kho, lm diu g l vng.
Kinh 2: bc vua cha khi nghe ngi ni m khng ly cng dng lm mc ch th k bin thuyt s
ni nhiu v nhng thuyt mi gai m v nga trng; (khi coi bn) khng ly s trng ch
lm quan trng th ngi bn tn no cng gii nh Hu Ngh c (v bn by th th no cng trng
mt ci g )().
Truyn 2. a/ Mt ngi nc Tng v vua nc Yn chm mt con kh ci vo u mt mi gai,
nhng nh vua phi trai gii 3 thng ri mi thy (hnh cc nh ) c. Vua Yn ly lc ba c
xe[5] nui anh ta. Vin hu ng (nh xe hay hu?) l mt th st tu:
- Thn nghe ni vua khng th trai gii mi ngy m khng c mt ba tic trong thi gian .
Ngi nc Tng bit i vng khng th trai gii lu c coi mt vt v dng nn mi a
ra k hn ba thng. H chm tr th mi nhn chm phi nh hn vt c chm. Thn l th c,
khng th c cho anh ta dng c anh ta chm hnh . Vy vic khng c thc, (anh ta ni
lo). Xin i vng xt li.
Vua Yn do b t anh ta, cht vn, qu nhin l ni lo, bn em git. Ngi th c li tu thm:
Tnh k m khng c tiu chun th k s m lun a s a ra nhng thuyt nh mi gai .
(Cn mt thuyt na i khi cng nh thuyt trn, nhng kt cc l anh chng la bp - ngi
nc V - khi bit l ty, trn mt).
b/ Ngh Duyt l ngi nc Tng, gii bin thuyt, a ra thuyt nga trng khng phi l
nga[6] cc bin s Tc H[7] khng ai bc c nhng khi ng ta ci nga trng qua ca i th
chu np thu. Vy da vo h khng, c th thng c mt nc, m kho v thc t, xt v hnh
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

trng th khng gt ni mt ngi.


d/ C ngi khch (bo c th) dy cho vua Yn ci php khng cht. Vua Yn sai ngi ti hc,
ngi ny cha hc xong th ngi khch cht. Vua Yn ni gin, em ra git. Nh vua bit rng
ngi khch n gt mnh, li nh git ngi sai i hc v ti chm tr. Tin mt vic khng th c
c m git b ti v ti, l ci hi khng bit suy xt ().
g/ C ngi v cho vua nc T. Vua T hi:
- V ci g kh nht?
- V ch nga kh nht.
- Ci g d nht?
- Ma qu d nht.
Ch vi nga ai cng bit, cng thy trc mt t sng ti chiu khng th v by, khng ging
c, cho nn kh v. Cn ma qu khng c hnh trng, khng thy trc mt nn d v.
h/ Tr con chi vi nhau, ly t st lm cm, bn lm canh, dm bo lm tht, nhng chiu th v
nh n cm, v cm bng t, canh bng bn, chi th c ch n khng c. Khen nhng iu
thi thng c truyn tng li, nghe th hay th (m?) thc t v dng; ging thuyt nhn ngha ca
tin vng m khng bit chnh l quc gia, cng l nhng vic chi ch khng th em tr
nc c. Trng nhn ngha, m nc yu lon, l 3 nc Tn (Hn, Triu, Ngy t Tn tch
ra); khng trng nhn ngha m tr mnh l nc Tn. Nhng Tn tuy mnh m cha lm (thng
nht thin h) c l v vic tr nc cha hon tt.
*
Kinh 3. Cho ti y chng ta thy mi kinh ch a ra mt qui tc, mt thut, kinh ny a ra ti hai
thut.
Thut th nht: H nui ci lng ngi khc phi v mnh (ngha l ngh ti ci li ca mnh hn
ci li ca h) th hai bn s trch on nhau; (ngc li) nu nui ci lng ai cng v bn thn ca
ngi thi (ngha l ai cng ngh ti ci li ca chnh mnh hn ci li ca ngi khc), th s
nn vic[8].
V vy m c khi cha con on trch nhau, m mn ngi lm cng th cho h n ngon ().
Thut th nh: Nu theo cc hc gi (tr Nho gia) m thi hnh ci o mang mang xa vi (khng
thc t) ca cc tin vng, th c l khng hp thi nay chng? () Hnh ng khng thch hp vi
vic nc m c xng tng tin vng th cng nh v nh ly ci ni o chn vy.
Truyn 3 (Trong phn truyn ny Hn Phi dn chng ti 17 c s, nhng c nhiu c s khng lin
quan g ti hai thut nu phn kinh. C h nh Hn Phi vit vi, cha kp sa li. Chng ti ch la
1 truyn a/ gii thch thut th nht v 3 truyn p/ r/ s/ gii thch thut th nh.)
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

a/ Cha m khng sn sc con k khi n cn nh th ln ln n on mnh. Con c nui thnh ngi


ri, m cung dng cha m khng c hu th cha m gin, on trch n. Cha con l tnh ch thn
m c khi cn trch nhau, on nhau l do ai ny u mun cho ngi khc phi v mnh (cha mun
cho con phi v cha, con mun cho cha phi v con), ch khng mun cho mi ngi ch v bn thn
ca ngi thi.
Mn ngi gieo m, cy rung cho mnh th ngi ch khng ngi ph tn m cho h n ngon, li
cn la tin, vi tt[9] m tr cng cho h, nh vy khng phi v yu h u m v ngh: C vy h
cy mi su, co c mi k cho mnh. Ngi lm cng , ht sc cy v co c, sa sang b rung,
khng phi v yu ch, m v ngh: C nh vy ch mi cho n ngon, m tin, vi mi tt. Nh
vy mt bn cung dng hu h, mt bn gng sc lm vic, c ci n trch gia cha con, hai bn
u ht ngha v (v) u mu ci li cho chnh mnh c. Bi vy con ngi lm vic vi nhau, cho,
tng nhau, nu thy c li cho mnh th d l ngi nc Vit[10] cng d ho, nu lng thy c hi
th d l cha con cng xa nhau, on nhau.
p/ (Chu) th c cu: Tht n, buc n. Mt ngi nc Tng c ti , ly hai ci dy lng t
tht, buc bng. Ngi ta hi: Lm g vy? p: V sch dy nh vy[11]
r/ Ngi t Dnh (kinh nc S thi Xun Thu, nay l H Bc) vit th cho v tng quc nc
Yn. Vit ban m, la khng sng, bn bo ngi cm uc: a cy uc ln. (Ming ni
vy) tay vit ln trong th: a cy uc ln. My ch khng phi l trong th. Tng quc
nc Yn c ti , mng lm, bo: a cy uc ln l trng s sng, trng s sng tc l tin
c, b dng ngi hin. Ri ng ta tu vi vua, vua hoan h (theo li) v nh vy nc Yn thnh
tr. Tuy thnh tr y, nhng u phi l trong th. a s cc hc gi ngy nay ging nh vy.
a/ Mt ngi nc Trnh mun mua giy, o bn chn mnh ri t ci ni ch ngi. Anh ta ra ch
m qun em ci ni theo. Tm c th giy mun mua ri, anh ta sc nh li, bo: Ti qun em
ci ni theo, ti tr v ly. Ri quay v nh, khi tr li ch th ch tan, khng mua giy c.
Ngi ta hi: Sao khng ly chn th giy. p: Nn tin ci ni, ch khng nn tin mnh.
Kinh 4. u c li th dn theo v, danh c hin th k s chu cht. V vy, tuy k di c cng
nhng khng hp php m cng c thng th ngi trn khng c li g k di c; tuy c
thanh danh nhng khng hp php m cng c khen th k s lo cu ci danh cho h m khng bi
p cho danh ca vua[12]()
Truyn 4.
a/ Vng ng lm quan lnh Trung Mu, trnh ln Tng ch[13] rng: Trung Mu c hai k s
tn l Trung Chng v T K, c rt trau gii, hc li uyn bc, sao nh vua khng dng h?.
Tng ch p: ng tm gp h i, ta s c h lm trung i phu. Quan tng quc can: Trung
i phu l chc quan trng ca Tn, h khng c cng m c chc , khng hp vi quan ch
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ca Tn. Phi chng nh vua mi nghe ni v h ch cha thy h? Tng ch p: Khi ta thu
dng (Vng) ng th nghe ni ri sau mi gp; nay ng chn ngi th cng li nghe ni th sau
mi gp; nh vy khng ngt dng ngi khc lm tai mt cho mnh. Th l Vng ng mt ngy
tin dng hai trung i phu, h c cp nh v t. Ngi Trung Mu (thy vy) b vic rung
nng, bn nh t theo hc ngh vn ng n phn na s dn trong p. [14]
d/ Triu Ch ph[15] sai L T xem nc Trung sn c th nh c khng. L T tr v p: nh
c. Nu nh vua khng nh gp th T, Yn s nh trc. Ch Ph hi: nh c l ti
sao? p: Vua nc thch thn cn vi bn s n trong hang ni, t nghing lng, ngi chung
xe[16] vi hn chc k s ni hang cng ng hm, dng l bnh ng i vi trn trm k s o
vi. Nh vua bo: Theo li ng ni th ng y l mt ng vua c hin c, sao li nn nh?. p:
Khng phi vy. Thch k n s ni danh m dng h trong triu th chin s s bing nhc ngoi
mt trn. trn tn trng bn hc gi, di k s c dng ti triu th nng phu bing nhc
ngoi rung. Chin s bing nhc mt trn th binh yu, nng phu bing nhc ngoi rung th
nc ngho; ngoi binh yu hn ch, trong th nc ngho, nh vy khng mt nc l iu
cha tng thy; nh Trung Sn cng l phi ch? Ch ph khen phi, ri em qun nh Trung
Sn, dit c.
Kinh 5. Kinh Thi c cu: Khng ch thn lm ly th dn khng tin () Nhng nu khng nh
r chc phn cao thp, khng bt b ti lm cho c vic, m t mnh lm vic ca k a v di
th cng nh xung xe chy b, ng khi c sch ().
Truyn 5.
a/ T Hon Cng thch mc o mu ta, (do ) c nc u mc ta, m la ta ho ra t gp 5
ln la trng. Hon Cng lo, hi Qun Trng: Qu nhn thch mc mu ta, mu ta t qu m trm
h vn c thch mu ta, lm sao by gi. Qun Trng p: Nh vua mun cm ch sao khng th
thi khng mc mu ta! Hon Cng bo: Phi ri ni vi k t hu: Ta rt ght mi hi ca mu
ta. T lc y k t hu c ai bn mu ta li gn ng, ng u bo: Dang ra, ta ght mi hi ca
mu ta. Hm , trong cung khng ai mc mu ta na, hm sau ti kinh khng ai mc mu ta
na, qua ngy th ba trong ci khng cn ai mc mu ta ht.
(Cn mt thuyt khc i ht nh thuyt trn, nn chng ti b)
c/ Tng Tng cng giao chin vi S Trc cc (mt ci hang bn b sng Trc). Qun Tng
by th trn ri m qun S cha qua sng. Quan hu t m l Cu Cng chy ti dng k:
- Qun S ng m qun Tng t, nn tha lc h mi qua c na s, cha by xong th trn m
nh th h tt thua.
Tng Cng p:
- Qu nhn nghe ngi qun t bo: ng tn hi ngi b thng, ng bt ngi c hai th tc,
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ng y ngi ta vo ch him, ng nh trng thc qun tn cng khi ngi ta cha by xong th
trn. Nay qun S cha qua ht m nh h, l tri vi iu ngha; hy i h qua sng ht, ri s
nh trng thc qun tin ln.
Quan hu t m bo:
- Nh vua khng thng dn nc Tng, cho k tm phc khng c trn vn (tc l cht), ch
l gi (nhn) ngha[17]
Tng cng bo:
- ng khng tr v hng ng, ta s thi hnh qun php. Quan hu t m tr v hng. Qun S sp
thnh th trn, Tng cng mi nh trng thc qun. Qun Tng i bi, ng b thng bp v,
ba ngy sau cht. l ci ho hm m nhn ngha.
d/ T Cnh Cng i chi Thiu hi (tc Bt hi ngoi khi tnh Sn ng). Mt ngi trm phi
nga t kinh ti tu: Tng quc n Anh au nng sp cht, e cng v khng kp. Cng vt
ng dy. Mt ngi trm khc li phi nga ti. Cng sai thng gp con nga Phin Tng[18] vo c
xe v sai Hn Khu[19] nh xe. Mi chy c vi trm bc, cho rng Hn Khu nh xe chm qu,
cng ging ly dy cng, nh xe ly. Li c vi trm bc na, cho rng nga chy chm r r,
cng b xe chy b. Phin Tng l con nga tt, Hn Khu l ngi nh xe gii m cn cho rng
khng bng xung xe chy b!
d/ Ngy Chiu vng mun d vo cng vic ca cc quan, bo Mnh Thng qun: Qu nhn
mun d vo cng vic ca cc quan. Mnh Thng qun ni: Nh vua mun d vo cng vic
ca cc quan th sao khng th tp c lut php? Chiu vng mi c c trn mi ci th[20]
ng gc. ng bo: Qu nhn c khng ni th lut php ny.
Khng ch thn nm quyn bnh m mun lm cng vic cho b ti lm, th tt nhin l (mt
mi) phi ng gc!
*
Kinh 6. Vic nh m tin ri th vic ln mi tin c. Cho nn bc minh ch phi th tn t vic nh
ti vic ln[21] Thng pht m khng th tn th cm lnh khng c thi hnh. ()
Truyn 6. a/ Tn Vn cng nh t Nguyn, em theo mi ngy lng thc, hn vi cc quan i
phu mi ngy s v. Ti Nguyn mi ngy ri m khng h c, ng nh thanh la[22] rt qun
v. C ngi lnh t trong thnh Nguyn ra tha: nh Nguyn ba ngy na th tt h c. Qun
thn t hu u can ng: Nguyn, lng thc ht, sc kit, xin nh vua chu kh i. ng
p: Ta nh k hn l mi ngy vi s tt, nu by gi khng lui binh th tht tn mt. c t
Nguyn m phi tht tn, ta khng lm. Ri ng bi binh, rt v. Ngi t Nguyn nghe thy vy,
bo: C ng vua th tn nh vy, c nn khng qui phc chng?, ri ko nhau ra hng. Ngi nc
V nghe thy vy bo: C ng vua th tn nh vy, c nn khng i theo chng? ri hng ng.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Khng t nghe ni ri ghi li: nh t Nguyn m c nc V l nh ch tn.


d/ Ngy Vn hu hn i sn vi ngi nc Ngu. ng ngy hn[23] th tri ni cn ging. K t
hu khuyn ng i, ng khng nghe, bo: Khng nn. Ly l tri ni cn ging gi m tht tn, ta
khng lm vy c. Ri t ly xe xng pha cn ging, ti ch hn, nhng ngi nc Ngu cha
ti, bn bi cuc i sn[24].
/ V Tng t (Tng Sm, mn sinh ca Khng t) i ch, a con chy theo khc. B d n: Con
v i, m i ch v s lm tht heo cho con n. Lc b i ch v, Tng t mun bt heo git, b
v ngn: Ti ni a vi n vy thi m. Tng t bo: "Mnh cho l ni a, ch tr khng cho l
ni a[25]. Tr khng phi t nhin bit, ton l hc ca cha m, nghe li cha m bo. Nay mnh
ni lo vi n tc l dy n ni lo. M ni lo vi con, con m khng tin cha m c, khng
phi l cch dy con". Ri ng lm tht con heo, em luc.

[1] Cc bn xa chp l minh ch, ngha khng thng. Nn cc hc gi sa li l m (hn m)


hoc l thi. Chng ti ngh ch thi () c th lm vi ch minh () c, ch ch m th
khc xa qu.
[2] Hc tr Khng T, ngi nc L, tn l Bt T.
[3] Mt loi ngc mu .
[4] Mi thch l 120 cn thi .
[5] Coi ch thch truyn 1 Thin sau.
[6] Thuyt ny cc sch khc cho l ca Cng Tn Long Cng Tn Long phn bit con nga v
mu trng. Nga l mt nim khi qut, nga trng l mt con nga tht, hai ci khc nhau, do
nga trng khng phi l nga. Cng Tn Long ngy bin.
[7] Lm Tri, kinh T, T Tuyn vng lp mt cng qun cho cc k s mi ni li ging
lun, coi phn I.
[8] Nguyn vn: Hip ph tng v tc trch vng, t v tc s hnh. Chng ti phin m v hiu
theo Trn Khi Thin. C nh phin m l: tng vi , t vi v dch: Khi hai ngi lm chung

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

nhau (tng vi) th h trch nhau, cn t mnh lm ring r (t vi) th vic chy. E sai.
[9] Nguyn vn l d. C sch ging l d ly. Thi vi c th dng lm tin tr cng, trao i
hng ho.
[10] Thi ngi Trung Hoa min Trung v min Bc coi ngi Vit ng Nam l ngoi
nhn.
[11] Sch ni v vic tu thn, phi gi gn, ng phng tng, ngi hiu lm.
[12] Nguyn vn: bt sc qun. C sch dch l: khng ch vua.
[13] Tc Triu V Tut, mt trong ba ngi dit Tr B, dn ng cho vic chia ba nc Tn.
[14] Php gia cho ngh vn l v dng.
[15] Vua Triu, tc V Linh vng, ng t xng l Ch ph (nh Thi thng hong) sau khi lp
con l H lm vua.
[16] Khi gp k s trn ng, ng ta nghing lng (t v knh trng) ri mi h ln ngi chung xe.
[17] Nguyn vn: c v ngha nh. Ch v , chng ti theo Trn Khi Thin, c l ngy.
[18] Tn mt con nga qu.
[19] Mt ngi nh xe gii.
[20] Thi lut php vit hay khc trn th tre, v cha c giy.
[21] Nguyn vn: tch tn: tch lu nim tin.
[22] Thi , tin qun th nh trng, lui qun th nh thanh la.
[23] Nguyn vn: minh nht (hm sau). Chin Quc sch - Ngy 4 chp l th nht (hm y), c
phn ng hn.
[24] Nguyn vn: bi Ngu nhn. Chng ti theo Trn Khi Thin m dch nh vy. C th dch l:
(xng pha cn dng) bo ngi nc Ngu bi cuc i sn.
[25] Nguyn vn: Anh nhi phi d h d. C th dch l: khng th ni lo vi tr c.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XXXIII
NGOI TR THUYT T H (Trch)
(NHNG THUT DNH M DNG THIN NGOI, T, H)

Kinh 1. C ti m b trng pht th khng on b trn nh ngi gi ca ct chn cu T Cao: c


cng m c thng th khng cho l mt n hu (...) nh Chiu Mo coi nm c xe khng hn

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

x cp v dp c.
Truyn I a/ Khng t lm tng quc nc V[1], hc tr l T Cao lm chc coi ngc, cht chn
mt ngi phm ti, ngi ny sau lm chn gi ca. C ngi ght Khng t, ni vi vua nc V:
Trng Ni mun lm lon. Vua nc V bt Khng t, Khng t chy kp, cc mn sinh u trn
thot, (ch c) T Cao khng ra c v ca (thnh) ng[2], ngi ct chn dn ng ta np trong
ci phng chn ca, vin li tm ng khng c. Na m, T Cao hi ngi ct chn: Ti
khng th khng thi hnh php lnh ca vua, nn ch thn cht chn ca ng. Nay l lc ng bo
th, m sao ng li gip ti trn ( y)? Sao ti li c ng cu nh vy? Ngi ct chn p:
Ti b cht chn, v ti ti ng vy, lm sao khc c? Nhng khi ngi nh ti ti, ngi xt mi
kha cnh ca php lnh, tm cch gip ti[3], mun cho ti khi ti, ti bit vy. n khi n
quyt, ti nh, ngi lun bun b khng vui, hin r trn mt, ti thy v bit vy. Khng phi
ngi ring thng ti, bm tnh ngi nhn t nh vy. Ti vui v mang n ngi l v th (...).
c/ Tn v Hn nh Ngy, Chiu Mo (b ti nc Ngy) qua pha Ty (Tn pha Ty) du thuyt
m Tn v Hn bi binh. T v Kinh nh Ngy, Mo qua pha ng (T pha ng) du thuyt m
T v Kinh bi binh. Ngy Tng vng thng ng lc nm c xe[4], Mo ni: B Di c chn
ct theo cp tng qun chn ni Th Dng, v thin h u bo: Hin (c kh tit) v c ting
nhn ngha nh B Di m chn ct theo cp tng qun th (cng nh) chn cn h tay chn[5].
Ngay thn bi binh c bn nc m nh vua cho thn lc nm c xe th khc chi cho thn x cp
v dp c[6]".

*
Kinh 2: nn cy vo th lc m khng nn cy vo tn nhim[7], cho nn ng Quch Nha chng li
vic Qun Trng lm tng quc; nn cy vo thut m khng nn cy vo tn nhim, cho nn Hn
Hin ch trch Vn Cng. Bc vua cha c thut tr nc th thng mt cch xc ng b ti
pht trin ht ti nng, trng pht mt cch cng quyt ngn cn gian t, nh vy b ti d c
hnh ng ln xn, mnh cng li dng c (...)
Truyn 2 a/ T Hon cng sp lp Qun Trng lm trng ph[8], ra lnh cho qun thn: "Qu nhn
sp lp Qun Trng lm Trng Ph, ai tn thnh th vo ca ri ng qua bn tri, ai khng tn thnh
th vo ca ri ng qua bn phi, ng Quch Nha ng gia. Hon cng hi : Qu nhn lp
Qun Trng lm trng ph, ra lnh ai tn thnh th ng bn tri, khng tn thnh th ng bn phi,
sao ng li ng gia ca? Nha p: Thng minh nh Qun Trng c th mu tnh ly thin h
c khng? Cng p: c.
- Quyt on nh Qun Trng c dm lm i s khng? Cng p: Dm. Nha ni: Thng
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

minh c th ly thin h, quyt on dm lm i s, m nh vua giao quyn bnh cho ng ta th ng


ta tt da vo th lc ca nh vua tr nc T, c th khng nguy c khng. Cng khen phi,
ri cho Thp Bng coi v ni chnh, Qun Trng coi v ngoi giao, hai ngi dm ng nhau[9].
b/ Tn Vn cng lu vong ra nc ngoi. C Trnh bng bnh thc n theo hu, lc ng, mt du
Vn cng, khc trn ng, nhn i ri ng, ch khng dm n. Khi Vn cng v nc, em qun
nh t Nguyn, chim c. ng bo: Ngi chu nhn i gi thc n trong bnh cho ta, chc
khng v t Nguyn m phn ta, ri phong cho C Trnh lm huyn lnh t Nguyn. Quan i
phu Hn Hin nghe vy, ch rng: V ci l khng ng vo thc n trong bnh m tin rng s
khng v t Nguyn m phn mnh, chng phi l khng c thut tr nc ? Bc minh ch khng
cy vo ci l b ti khng phn mnh m vo ci l h khng phn c mnh, khng vo ci l
h khng gt mnh m vo ci l h khng gt c mnh.
c/ Dng H bn rng: Cha m hin minh th mnh ht lng phng s, nu bt ti thi mnh lm
iu gian th cha. ng ta b ui nc L, b nghi nc T[10], phi trn qua Triu, c
Triu Gin Ch tip, phong lm tng quc; k t hu hi: H gii cp chnh quyn, sao nh vua
li dng lm tng quc?. Gin Ch p: Dng H lo cp chnh quyn, ta lo gi, v ng dng
thut khng ch H, H khng dm lm by, trung thnh phng s, lm cho Gin ch mnh hn
ln, gn thnh mt b ch ch hu.

*
Kinh 3: Vn Vng b ci l vua ti m buc ly dy v, c li m cn khoe; Qu Tn khng phn
bit lc triu, lc v nh, lc no cng trang trng, rt cuc b hi.
Truyn 3. a/(Chu) Vn vng em qun nh nc Sng, n g Phng Hong th dy v tut, ng
t buc li. Thi Cng Vng hi: Sao nh vua li t buc ly? Vn Vng p: Nhng ngi m
vua dng, bc trn u l thy ca vua, bc gia u l bn, bc di u l ngi sai khin[11].
y u l b ti ca tin vng, nn khng c ai sai khin.
Mt thuyt khc bo:
Tn Vn Cng giao chin vi S, ti g Phng Hong, dy dp tut ra, ng t buc li. K t hu
hi Nh vua khng sai ngi buc li cho c ?. ng p Ta nghe ni vua bc trn gn ai th
u n h; vua bc trung gn ai th u yu h; vua bc di gn ai th u khinh h. Qu nhn
tuy bt tiu nhng ngi ca tin vng cn , cho nn kh sai ai c.
b/ Qu Tn thch nui k s, sut i trang trng, cch c x v n mc nh lc no cng nh
triu nh. Nhng c ln ng lm bing nn s tht, khng trang trng c hoi. Cc khch (k s
ng nui) cho rng ng chn v khinh h nn on ng, git ng. V vy bc qun t nn b ci g
thi qu.[12]
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

*
Kinh 4: Khin cho phm iu mnh cm c li, h lm li cho mnh li b cm, nh vy vua d l
thn thnh cng khng tr nc c. Khen k c ti, ch k ng thng th d l vua Nghiu cng
khng tr nc c. Lm ca m khng cho ngi ta vo, by ci li ra m khng cho ngi ta tin
li ( hng), mi lon sinh ra t (...)
Truyn 4 b/ Ty Mn Bo lm quan lnh t Nghip, nghim khc lim khit, khng my may t li,
coi thng k t hu ca vua nn bn h kt b nhau hy bng ng. c mt nm ng dng bo
co ln, nh vua thu n ca ng li. ng dng biu xin vua: Trc thn khng bit cch cai tr t
Nghip, nay thn bit ri, xin c giao n li cai tr t Nghip ln na, khng c xin vic th
xin chu ti chm." (Vua l) Vn Hu thng tnh cho phc chc. T Bo nh thu nng bch
tnh, hi l k t hu ca vua. c mt nm ng dng bo co ln. Vn Hu nghinh tip v bi t
ng, ng tha: Nm trc thn v nh vua m tr t Nghip th nh vua thu n ca thn; nm nay
thn v cc t hu ca nh vua m tr t Nghip th vua bi t thn. Thn khng th tr t Nghip
c na. Ri tr n m i. Vn Hu khng nhn, bo: Trc kia qu nhn khng bit ng, nay
bit ri, xin ng v qu nhn m rn tr t Nghip cho. V tr li n.
d/ T Xc ni khng c th ng thi tay tri v hnh vung v tay phi v hnh trn c.
/ Dng tht ui kin th kin cng ng, dng c ui rui th rui cng bu li.[13]
*
Kinh 5: b ti no qu t ti v tit kim th tc lc khng khuyn khch; n sng v vinh
quang m ban pht khng tit th b ti p bc vua cha (...)
B ng ph ha cho nhau, b ti tha mn c t dc th vua b c lp; qun thn ly cng tm
m c ngi, k di khng ph ha nhau (lm iu gian) th l vua sng sut (...)
Truyn 5. a/ Vu Hin B lm tng quc nc Tn[14] m rau l rau hoc mc y di sn, gai
gc sum su ngoi ca, ba n khng hai mn, ch ngi khng c hai lp chiu, v khng mc
la, nh khng cho nga n la, ra ngoi khng c xe theo hu. Thc Hng hay iu , li ni
vi Miu Bn Hong, Bn Hong ch : Nh vy l ly tc lc ca vua lm vui lng k di.
(Cn mt thuyt khc, i cng vy chng ti b).
b/ Qun Trng lm tng quc nc T, tu vi vua:
Thn sang nhng ngho. Hon Cng bo: Cho ng c nh tam qui[15]. (C nh tam qui ri)
Qun Trng li tu: Thn giu ri, nhng a v thn cn thp. Hon Cng t ng ta ln trn h
Cao, v h Quc (hai qu tc ln nht ca nc T). ng ta li xin: a v ca thn cao ri, nhng
thn cn s vi nh vua (khng c trong cng tc). Hon Cng bn lp ng lm trng ph (nh
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

hng cha ch ca vua) Khng t nghe chuyn , ch Qun Trng l xa x qu ng, bc hip
vua.[16]
Cn 1 thuyt khc: Qun Trng ra ngoi th dng xe bc mu vi ngi hu mc o xanh, v nh
th cho nh trng, trc sn by vc, trong nh c i tam qui. Khng T ni: ng ta l mt quan
i phu gii, nhng qu ng, v bc cp trn.
(on di chp v Tn Thc Ngao, tng quc S, chng ti b).
d/ t Trung Mu khng c quan lnh, Tn Bnh Cng hi Triu V:
- Trung Mu l tay chn ca Tn, vai lng ca Hm an, qu nhn mun c mt quan lnh tt ,
dng ai c by gi?
V tha:
- C th dng Hnh B T.
Cng hi:
- Ngi khng phi l k th ca ng ?
- Th ring khng vo ca cng (ngha l vic cng vic nc th khng k n th ring).
Cng li hi:
- Cn chc lnh Trung ph th dng ai?
- Dng con ca thn c.
Cho nn bo: Triu V tin c ngi ngoi h mnh th khng cha k th, tin c ngi trong
thn thuc ca mnh[17] th khng cha con. ng tin c 46 ngi, n khi ng mt, h u n
iu vi t cch l khch (ch khng thn mt nh ngi nh). c v t ca ng nh vy (...)
e/ Gii H tin c k th ca mnh lm tng quc cho Gin ch. Ngi th cho rng mnh may
mn c tha th ri nn li bi t. H ging cung mun bn ng ta, bo: Tin c ngi l vic
cng, v cho rng ngi lnh c nhim v; cn th ngi th l ci on ring, ta khng v on ring
m chn ng ca ngi, khng tin c ngi ln vi vua. V vy c n on ring th khng vo
ca cng[18].

*
Kinh 6. Vua[19] hn km th k li ni thng, n ngha ring t m chim phn u thng th cng
nghip ca vua s t.
Truyn 6. (Bn truyn trong phn ny khng thc l nhng dn chng m ch hi c lin quan ti
phn kinh). Truyn u l li V t khuyn con ng ni thng m nguy n thn; truyn th 2 th l
li T Quc khuyn con l T Sn (tng quc nc Trnh) ng nn trung vi vua v b qun thn
ght m nguy n thn; truyn th 3; Lng Xa c cng tm qu ti mc cht chn ch khi ch phm
ti nh, vua chng khen m cn ch l bt t, cch chc huyn lnh ca ng ta; truyn cui cng,
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Qun Trng b bt, t nc L gii v T, dc ng i kht, c mt ngi gi bin gii tng


thc n. Ngi ny hi sau ny c trng dng th Qun Trng s n n anh ta ra sao. Qun Trng
khng ngh n n ring , p s dng ngi hin gip nc, v b anh ta on.

[1] Khng t khng lm tng quc nc V. Thi Khng Khi lm lon: ngu nhin cng h
vi Khng t, nn ngi ta lm l Khng T.
[2] Nguyn vn: T Cao hu mn. C sch dch l T Cao i ra ng sau, c sch dch l: ra ca sau
cng. Chng ti theo Trn Khi Thin.
[3] Nguyn vn: tin hu thn di ngn. Trn Khi Thin ging: tin hu l t hu, ngha l gip.
[4] Thi d thin t c vn c xe, vua ch hu c 1000 c, quan i phu c 100 c. Mi c xe tng
ng cho lc ca 6 dm vung t.
[5] B Di con vua C Trc c o c, khng ham ngi vua, li ch Chu V vng git Vua Tr
trong lc cn tang cha, nn khng phc tng V Vng, b vo ni Th Dng, cht i .
[6] ni: thng khng hu. My hng cui ny nguyn vn kh hiu, mi sch ging mt khc.
Chng ti theo bn ca Trn Khi Thin.
[7] Tc khng nn qu tin b ti.
[8] Trng ph l ting tn xng (coi Qun Trng nh hng cha ch mnh) ch khng phi l chc
tc.
[9] Truyn ny e khng c thc. Theo s th Qun Trng nm trn quyn hnh.
[10] Theo thin XXXIX Nn T 2 th Dng H b T Cnh Cng b t. Lun ng chp l Dng
(Dng?) Ha (Ha l tn t).
[11] Cu ny nguyn vn c bn chp khc v ngha cng khc:.... vua vo bc trn (hin c nht)
coi cc b ti u l thy c, bc gia th coi b ti u l bn, bc thp nht coi b ti u l ngi
sai khin.
[12] Nm truyn sau t c/ n g/, khng c ni ti trong phn Kinh m cng chng lin quan g
n Kinh.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

[13] Ba truyn sau khng lin quan n phn Kinh, ring truyn cui h/ khng c ni ti trong
phn Kinh.
[14] C sch chp l Mnh Hin B v nc L, sai.
[15] V danh t tam qui ny c ti 5 6 thuyt: 1 mt ln ci 3 v, 2 php nh thu, 3
dng i tam qui; ng rng 3 hng ngi qui phc mnh: dn qui phc, ch hu qui phc, cc r
qui phc, ch bc thin t mi ng dng i , 4 thu ch np vo kho nh nc, 5 ch cha
tin ca. Trn Khi Thin nghin cu k v cho rng thuyt sau y ca Dc(?) c l hn; tam qui l
tam bch thng (300 c xe). Quan i Phu c 100 c xe, lc mi c xe bng thu mt x 30 nc nh,
6 dm vung. Qun Trng c lc tam qui, tc lc ba trm c xe, bng ba lc i phu, cho nn mi
gi l giu.
[16] Trong Lun ng - Bt dt -22, Khng T ch Qun Trng l kh tng nh nhen, khng tit
kim, khng bit l.
[17] Nguyn vn : ngoi c v ni c, c sch ging l c ngi bn ngoi, bn trong.
[18] Truyn g/ khng c ni ti trong phn kinh.
[19] Nguyn vn: cng tht.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XXXIV
NGOI TR THUYT HU THNG
(Trch)
(NHNG THUT DNH M DNG THIN NGOI, HU, THNG)

Kinh 1, b ti no m vua dng quyn th ci ha khng c th tr i (...)


Truyn 1. a/ Thng v khen khng khuyn khch c, pht v ch cng khng s, dng c
bn cch m khng bin i c th tr i.
d/ Ngi i sn nh s vng chc ca xe, dng chn ca su con nga, sai Vng Lng (mt
ngi gii nh xe nga) cm cng th thn khng mt m ui kp nhng con th chy nhanh. Nay
b ci tin li ca xe, khng dng su con nga, khng dng ti nh xe ca Vng Lng m
xung xe chy b ui theo con th th d c chn ca Lu Qu (mt ngi chy rt nhanh) cng
khng sao ui kp th. Dng nga tt xe bn th d k ti t (khng quen i sn) cng d sc sn
c th. Nc l xe ca vua, quyn (th) l nga ca vua, khng dng ci th cm v git bn b
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ti chuyn mua lng dn (bng cch ban n hu ring cho dn), m c mun phi c c cng
tranh dn vi b ti th cng nh khng dng xe ca vua, sc ca nga m b xe xung chy b vy.
/ T H, mn ca Khng T, ni: Sch Xun Thu chp c chc v b ti git vua, con git
cha, tt c nhng v u khng phi ch trong mt ngy m xy ra, tri li do cht cha dn dn
ri sau mi pht. K gian lm by vi dn, mi ngy mt cht cha, cht cha ri th sc mnh ln,
c th git vua, v vy m bc minh ch nn sm dit h. Nay in Thng[1] lm lon, ln
ln thy ri, m vua (T Gin Cng) khng git i, n T khng khuyn vua git bn b ti xm
lng m khuyn ban n hu cho dn, v vy m sau Gin Cng b ha. Cho nn T H bo: Ngi
no gii nm ci th th dit ngay gian khi n mi manh nha.
g/ Thi Cng Vng c phong nc T, ti pha ng. Trn b bin ng nc T c hai
anh em rut u l c s: Cung Dut v Hoa S. H bn vi nhau: "Chng ta khng lm b ti thin
t, khng lm bn ch hu, cy rung m n, o ging m ung, khng cu g ngi khc, khng
nhn danh hiu (chc tc), bng lc ca vua, khng lm quan, m lao ng sng"! Thi cng
Vng khi n Doanh Khu (kinh T lc ) sai bt git hai ngi y, l t git u tin.
Chu cng n nc L hay tin, phi ngi gp ti hi: "Hai ngi l bc hin, nay ng mi ti
nhn nc, git ngay ngi hin, ti sao vy?" Thi cng Vng p: Hai anh em nh bn vi
nhau: Chng ta khng lm b ti thin t khng lm bn ch hu, cy rung m n, o ging m
ung, khng cu g ngi khc, khng nhn danh hiu, bng lc ca vua, khng lm quan m lao
ng sng. H khng chu lm b ti ca thin t th Vng ny khng coi h l b ti c; h
cy rung m n, o ging m ung, khng cu g ngi khc, th ti khng th thng pht,
khuyn cm h c. V li h khng nhn danh hiu vua ban th d h c ti tr cng khng cho
Vng ti dng ; h khng cu bng lc ca vua th d h c hin c cng khng lp cng vi Vng
c. H khng chu lm quan th khng tr h c, h khng lnh nhim v th h khng trung vi
mnh. Tin vng s d sai khin thn dn c l nh tc lc hoc hnh pht. Nay, dng c bn ci
khng sai khin h th Vng ti cai tr ai ni by gi? Khng eo binh php m c v
vang, khng t cy ba m ni danh, cng khng phi l iu em ra dy dn c (.). H t
cho l hin s trong i m khng cho cha dng, hnh ca h cc hin nhng v dng cho vua,
u phi l b ti ca bc minh ch, c khc chi con nga k (chy rt nhanh) m khng li qua t
qua hu c, v vy m ti phi git.

*
Kinh 2. Bc vua cha l ci ch li v hi (ai nhm trng, tc on ng ca vua, th c
li, ngc li th c hi. Ngi nhm ch rt ng, cho nn bc vua cha d b chia uy quyn vi b
ti[2]. V vy nu iu yu ght ca vua bc l ra th b ti li dng m lm cho vua b m hoc; vua
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

tit l li ca b ti cho ngi khc bit th b ti kh ni (t co) m vua khng cn l thn thnh
na ()
Truyn 2. a/ Thn t (Thn Bt Hi) ni: S sng sut ca b trn m l ra th ngi di
s phng; s khng sng sut ca b trn m l ra th ngi di s gt b trn; s hiu bit
ca b trn m l ra th ngi di s di s tht; s khng ham mun m l ra th b di s
rnh b trn; s ham mun ca b trn m l ra th ngi di s nh b trn. Cho nn bo: "Ta
khng da vo u m bit ngi (tc b ti) c, ch c v vi (khng lm g c) l c th d xt
c h thi[3]
d/ Tnh Quch qun (in Anh) lm tng quc nc T. V vua cht, cha bit ai s c
lp lm hong hu, ng dng vua hoa tai bng ngc bit. (Truyn ny ging Truyn T III 2 trong
Chin Quc sch).
e/ (Tn Hu vng ui Cng tn Din i, v nghe li gim pha ca Cam Mu m ng Cng tn
Dim bp xp tit l vic ng cho Din lm tng quc thay Cam Mu. (Truyn ny chp trong
Chin Quc sch Tn II 13, nn chng ti khng dch li).
g/ ng Kh cng ni vi (Hn) Chiu hu : Nay c mt ci chn ngc ng gi ngn vng
m khng c y, c th ng ru c khng ?. Chiu hu p: "Khng c".
- C ci v bng t nung m khng rn, c th ng ru c khng ? c Ci v
bng t, cc xu x r tin, m khng rn th ng c ru, cn ci chn ngc ng gi ngn
vng, cc qu m khng c y th ng nc cng khng c, th cn ai rt nc ung vo na
? Lm vua m tit l li ni ca b ti th khng khc g chn ngc khng y, d l bc thnh tr
cng khng dng ht thut c v khng kn ting. Chiu hu p: "Phi". ng nghe li khuyn
ca ng Kh cng, t v sau, h mun thi hnh mt vic ln trong thin h th lun lun ng
mt mnh s ng m, ni m m ngi khc bit mu tnh ca mnh.
(Cn mt thuyt na, gn y ht thuyt trn; b).

*
Kinh 3. Thut s d khng thi hnh c l c l do; (ngi bn ru) khng git con ch
(d) th ru ha chua, m bn b ti cm quyn l by ch d ca nc; cn bn t hu ca vua l
by chut lm hi nn x tc (v dm ng tnh ca vua). () (Mun dit bn th phi cng
quyt nh) Trang vng tr li thi t (bt thi t gi php nc nh mi ngi) () ( v phi nn
au kh tr b b ti mnh yu nht nu h phm php nh) Vn cng chm in Hit[4]).
Truyn 3.

a/ Nc Tng c ngi bn ru, ong ru rt ngay thng, tip khch rt n

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

cn, bi ru treo tht cao, nhng vn , ru ( lu) ha chua, ly lm l, hi mt ng gi trong


xm tn l Dng Thin. Thin p: Ti ch ca ch d qu! Hi : Ch d th ti sao ru li
? p: "C ngi sai tr mang tin, cm bnh hoc v ti mua, ch ca ch xng ra cn, v vy
ru ti chua, khng ngi mua". Nc cng vy, c loi ch d. Nhng k s bit o em thut
(tr nc) ti mun soi sng cho bc cha mun c xe th bn i thn lm ch d, xng ra cn, v
vy m cha b che lp, ln p, k s c o khng c dng.
Do l m (xa kia khi T) Hon cng hi Qun Trng : Tr nc th ci g ng lo nht?,
Qun Trng p: "ng lo nht l by chut nn x". Hi: Sao li lo chut nn x ? p: Nh vua
thy ngi ta lp nn x (ni th thn t ai) ri ch? Ngi ta trng mt cy (tng trng cho
th thn), ri t t mu ln. Chut khot t, o hang trong nn x; hun khi th s cy chy m
di nc th s tri mt mu, v vy m khng sao bt c chut nn x. Nay bn t hu ca nh
vua khi ra th vo quyn th m bc lt dn chng, khi vo th lp b ng che giu ti c khng
cho vua thy, bn trong d xt tnh ca vua cho bn ngoi bit, trong v ngoi, quyn th
u ln, n hi l ca cc quan li m ha giu. Ngi chp chnh khng git h th php nc s
lon m git th vua khng chu, che ch m gi h[5], h cng l loi chut nn x trong nc y.
Hng b ti cm quyn m t ra cm lnh, khin cho thin h thy r rng ai v h th tt c
li, khng v h th tt b hi, hng cng l ch d y. i thn lm ch d, cn k s c o; k
t hu lm chut nn x d xt tnh ca cha, cha khng gic ng th lm sao khi b che lp m
nc khi b suy vong![6]
(Cn mt thuyt khc na, ni dung khng khc, nn b)
c/ Kinh Trang vng c php mao mn (cng gi l tr mn)[7] bo: Qun thn, i phu
v cc cng t vo triu, nu mng nga p ln ch di mng xi th vin nh l (coi sn chu)
s cht n xe v git k nh xe. Mt hm thi t v triu, mng nga p ln ch mng xi,
vin nh l bn cht n xe v git ngi nh xe. Thi t ni gin, v khc lc vi vua: Xin vua v
con m git tn nh l i. Trang vng p: t ra php lut l knh trng tn miu, x tc; cho
nn ai lp php, theo lnh tn knh x tc th u l b ti ca x tc, sao li git c ? Cn k phm
php, b lnh, khng tn knh x tc l ln quyn th ca vua, phm thng. B ti ln quyn th ca
vua th vua mt uy: k di phm thng th a v ca b trn nguy. Uy mt, a v nguy, x tc
khng gi c, ta ly g m li cho con chu? Thi t lin tr v, khng vo nh m ngoi ba
ngy, hng v pha bc ly my ln, xin tha ti cht.
(Mt thuyt khc na cng ging thuyt trn, nn b)
g/ ( Truyn ny di, chng ti ct trn, ct di, ch dch on gia) () Tn Vn cng hi
H Yn[8]:
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T
-

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hnh pht thi hnh n u l cng cc ?

H Yn p:
-

Khng trnh ngi thn v i thn, thi hnh c vi ngi mnh yu.

Cng khen: Phi.


Hm sau, Cng ra lnh i sn Ph Lc, ra hn gia tra phi ti ch, ai ti tr th b tr ti nh
qun php. Mt sng thn ca Cng l in Hit ti tr. Vin li (thi hnh mnh lnh) xin tr ti
in Hit. Vn cng ri l, lo lng, do d. Vin li ni: "Xin thi hnh php lut", chm in Hit
ngang lng cho dn chng thy r rng php lut ban th thi hnh ng. T dn chng u
s, bo: "Vua qu trng in Hit nh vy m cn thi hnh php lut, hung h l i vi chng ta"
().

[1] in Thnh (hoc in Thng, coi ch thch thin Ng ) ban n hu ring cho dn dn
theo mnh m xa vua, nh vy l c chim ngi ca T gin cng. Gin Cng bit l nguy cho
mnh, hi n T cch i ph ra sao. n T khuyn Gin Cng ban n hu cho dn hn in Thnh
th dn s b in Thnh m theo mnh.
[2] Nguyn vn : c nhn ch cng h tht kh hiu, chng ti theo bn ca Trn Khi Thin. C
ngi dch l: cho nn bc vua cha c nhiu k bao vy.
[3] V khng lm g th khng l ca mnh ra, c np vo s h tnh th b ti th khng on
c mnh m mnh d c h.
[4] on ny nu dch st th rt kh hiu nn chng ti bt c d phi ct bt v ging gii.
[5] Nguyn vn: qun bt an, c nhi hu chi. C bn chp l: c qun s an, c nhi hu chi? v dch
l: vua cn c vo u m bt ti h (v h lp b ng che giu cho nhau ri).
[6] Su hng cui ny, Trn Khi Thin cho l li ca Qun Trng. Chng ti cho l ging ca Hn
Phi.
[7] Cung in vua ch hu c 3 ca: ngoi, gia, trong. Mao mn l ca gia.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

[8] Cu ca Vn cng, tng vong vi cng, sau gip cng lp c nghip b. Thng gi l cu
Phm.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XXXV
NGOI TR THUYT HU H (Trch)
(NHNG THUT DNH M DNG THIN H NGOI, HU, H)

Kinh 1. - Vic thng pht giao cho b ti th cm lnh khng c thi hnh ().
Truyn 1.
b/ Quan t thnh (mt chc ln) T Hn tu vi vua Tng: "Khen thng v ban n l lm cho dn
thch, vic xin vua m nhim ly; chm git, trng pht l lm cho dn ght, vic ny thn xin
m ng". Vua Tng bo: "c". T h c vic ban lnh ra oai, trng tr i thn th ng bo:
"Hy hi T Hn". Do i thn s T Hn, dn chng theo ng ta. c mt nm, T Hn git
vua Tng cp ngi. Vy l T Hn dng cch th con heo ni (lm cho nga s)[1] cp nc
ca vua.
Kinh 2. Nc tr v mnh l nh php lut ; nc lon v yu l do b ti lp b ng mu t
li[2].Vua cha hiu r l th dng hnh pht cho ng m b lng nhn i vi k di. C cng
lao th mi c tc lc, c ti th b hnh pht. B ti bit r nh vy th tn lc ti cht m b
lng trung vi vua[3]. Vua hiu ci l bt nhn (khng ban n ring), b ti hiu r ci l bt trung
th c th lp c nghip vng (...).
Truyn 2. a/ Tn Chiu vng au, dn chng mi l (hai mi lm nh l mt l) chung nhau mua
b v nh no cng cu cho vua ht bnh. Cng tn Thut ra ngoi thy vy, bn vo mng vua:
"Trm h u chung nhau mi l mua b cu nguyn cho nh vua ht bnh". Chiu vng sai
ngi i d hi, qu c nh vy, ra lnh: "Pht mi l phi np hai o gip (bng da t ngu). Khng
ra lnh m t cu nguyn l thng qu nhn. H thng qu nhn th qu nhn cng phi i
php lut m lm va lng h, nh vy php lut khng ng c, php lut khng ng c s
a ti nc lon v mt nc. Khng bng pht mi l hai o gip m cho nc lon c tr tr
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

li".
(Cn mt thuyt na cng i nh vy, b)
b/ Nc Tn rt i km. ng hu[4] xin vi vua :Rau c ht qu trong nm vn ca nh vua
cu i cho dn, xin nh vua pht cho h. Chiu Tng vng bo :Theo php lut nc Tn ta
th dn c cng mi c thng, c ti mi b pht. Nay pht cho dn rau qu trong nm vn, tc
l dn c cng hay khng u c thng c. Khin cho dn c cng hay khng u c thng
l gy lon cho nc. Pht rau qu trong nm vn m nc lon sao bng ng pht m nc c
tr.
d/ Cng Nghi Hu lm tng quc nc L thch n c. C nc tranh nhau mua c tng ng, ng
khng nhn. Em trai ng hi: "Anh thch n c m sao ngi ta tng li khng nhn!". p: "Ch v
thch n c m khng nhn y, v nhn phi chu n ca ngi, chu n ca ngi th phi un cong
php lut, un cong php lut th mt chc tng quc, mt chc tng quc th ngi trong nc
khng tng ta c na m ta cng khng t cung cp c c (v ht bng lc). Cn nh khng nhn
c th vn cn lm tng quc, c thch n c th t cung cp c hoi c. Truyn cho ta thy r
rng trng cy ngi khng bng trng cy mnh, nh ngi ta lm cho mnh khng bng t
mnh lm ly.
Kinh 3. Bc vua cha[5] ly vic nc ngoi lm gng, th vic bn ngoi khng th khng thnh,
bi vy m T i ch vua T. Bc vua cha ly vic thi c lm gng th bn x s (khng ra lm
quan) m t tng khng hp vi nh cm quyn s khng c vinh hin, bi vy m Phan Th ni
v tnh ca vua (H) V, (). Phng Ng khng ngi cng xe vi k mc o nh mnh, khng
cng nh vi ngi trong h, hung h l cho ngi khc mn quyn mnh, Ng Chng ni
chuyn th khng v thng ght, hung h l thng ght tht ().
Truyn 3.
a/ T Chi lm tng quc nc Yn, chc cao m chuyn quyn. T i c vua T sai i s qua
Yn. Vua Yn hi : "Vua T l ng vua ra sao?" p : "Khng th lm b ch c" Sao vy?
Xa T Hon cng lm b ch, ni chnh giao cho Bo Thc, ngoi giao giao cho Qun Trng. ng
b xa tc m vui vi n b, sut ngy do ph phng. Cn vua T ngy nay th khng tin i
thn. Nghe li T i, vua Yn cng tin T Chi hn. T Chi bit chuyn , sai ngi tng T i
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

trm dt vng (mi dt khong 20 30 lng) ng ta tiu.


(Cn mt thuyt na, b).
b/ Phan Th ni vi vua Yn :Nh vua nn em nc nhng cho T Chi. Ngi ta s d khen vua
Nghiu hin c l v ng nhng thin h cho Ha Do, Ha Do tt khng nhn, nh vy vua
Nghiu c ting l nhng thin h cho Ha Do m thc ra vn khng mt thin h. Nay nh vua
nhng nc cho T Chi, T Chi tt khng nhn ; nh vua s c ting l nhng nc cho T Chi
m c hnh s ngang vi vua Nghiu. Vua Yn bn em vic nc giao ht cho T Chi, quyn ca
T Chi cc ln.
(Cn hai thuyt na, v ch hai thuyt ny mi nhc n vua H V trong phn kinh ni, nhng
chng ti cng b v ngha khng khc. xin ghi thm : Chin Quc Sch Yn 9 cng chp
truyn gn ging ht thuyt th nht chng ti dch).
c/ Phng Ng T (khng r l ai) bo :Ta nghe ni theo l (li?) c, vua i ng khng ngi
cng xe vi ngi y phc p nh mnh, ti nh th khng chung vi ngi trong h mnh (
ngi ngoi khi lm nhng ngi trong h l vua); hung h l cho b ti mn quyn ca mnh
m lm mt ci (uy) th ca mnh i.
d/ Ng Chng (b ti nc Hn) ni vi Hn Tuyn vng : Bc vua cha khng nn gi v
thng ngi v nh vy mt ngy kia khng th li ght h tr li c; khng nn gi v ght
ngi v nh vy mt ngy kia khng th li thng h tr li c. S gi v thng hay ght m
l ra mt cht th k nnh b nhn m khen ch (ngi mnh gi v thng hay gi v ght),
(lc ) d l bc minh ch cng khng b c thi v thng, v ght ca mnh, hung h li
thnh thc thng hay ght (th lm sao cn c th b thng b ght c na).
Mt thuyt khc bo : Ng Chng ni: Bc vua cha khng nn gi thng gi ght b ti; gi
thng ri th khng tr li ght c na, gi ght ri th khng th tr li thng c na.
Kinh 4. - Bc vua cha l ngi gi php lut, xt b ti c th lm c vic hay khng nh
cng. Nghe ni quan li d lon th vn c hng dn ring gi c c hnh, tit tho (c thin k
thn) ; ch khng nghe ni dn lon m c quan li ring tt (ngha l dn lon lun lun do quan
li xu), cho nn bc minh ch tr quan li ch khng (trc tip) tr dn (h quan li tt th dn
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

khng lon) ()
Truyn 4. Mun lay cy th khng ko tng ci l mt, nh vy tn cng m khng xu ; nm thn
n m lc qua phi qua tri th l u rung rinh ht () Ngi kho ba li th ko dy li; ch
nu ko tng mt li mt cho ti ht c vn ci mt th mt v kh. Ko dy li ln l bt c c
ri. Quan li l dy li ca dn, cho nn thnh nhn tr quan li ch khng (trc tip) tr dn.
c/ Tho Ph (mt ngi gii nh xe thi c) ng co c, thy hai cha con nh n i ngang. Con
nga s, chn li, khng chu i na. Ngi con xung xe li n, ngi cha xung y xe, v nh
Tho Ph tip tay y gim. Tho Ph xp co c, buc li, t trn xe, gip (cha) con nh
nh xe, mi bt u so cng cm roi, cha ko cng, qut roi m nga lng ln. Nu Tho
Ph khng bit nh xe th d ht sc cc nhc y xe, nga cng khng i. ng ny ng khe ru,
c ngi xe m ngi li mang n, ch nh ng c thut nh xe. Nc l xe ca vua, (quyn th)
l nga ca vua. Khng c thut iu khin (vic nc) th mt sc m khng trnh khi lon;
c thut iu khin th an lc m li lp c nghip vng.
Kinh 5. Ty theo ci l (ti sao, th no), ca vic m hnh ng th khng mt m thnh cng.
V vy m T Trnh ngi trn cng xe m ht qua cy cu cao ().
Truyn 5. a/ T Trnh t nh xe ln mt cy cu cao m khng c, bn ngi trn cng xe m ht,
(tc th) ngi i trc ng ngng li, ngi i sau y xe cho ng v ng ln c dc cu. Nu
ng khng c thut li ko ngi ( gip ng) th d ng c gng sc n cht, xe cng khng ln
cu c. ng ny ng khi phi mt thn m xe ln c, l nh ng c thut li ko ngi
gip ng.
d/ Din Lng Trc t ngi trn xe thng con nga ln mu xanh c vn nh lng chim tr, pha trc
c dy cng mang mc, pha sau c cy roi u nhn, v vy m nga mun tin th b ci mc cn,
mun lui th b u roi m, n nh phi quay ngang. Tho Ph i ngang qua, (thy vy) ri l, bo:
"i xa tr dn cng vy. Thng l khuyn khch, vy m thng ri m cn ch trch; pht l
ngn cm, vy m pht ri li cn khen thm. Dn ng gia m khng bit theo ng no,
thnh nhn khc cho h l v vy".

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

[1] Theo ch thch ca bn i Tng. ni dng hnh pht cho qun thn v dn chng s mnh.
[2] Nguyn vn l: , c sch ging l : quanh co, khng theo ng php lut
[3] Ngha l c c thng th mi ht lng, ch khng v tnh ring m trung vi vua.
[4] Tc Phm Tuy (cng c sch l Phm Th), c ti bin bc, c Tn trng dng, phong chc l
ng hu.
[5] C bn chp l minh ch.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XXXVI
NN NHT (Trch)
(BIN NN - I)

Nn l nhng iu kh khn hoc kh hiu. Trong thin ny v ba thin sau, Hn Phi bc b (bin)
nhng hnh ng ca c nhn ng cho l khng hp l (nn), ch cng l lm sng t thm mt
s thut tr nc ca ng.
Thin gm chn tit. Mi tit gm hai phn: bt u t hai ch hoc vit (c k bo) l li bc b
ca Hn Phi. Chng ti nh s mi tit, li t mt tiu (tm tt i ) cho mi tit.
*
1- Trong chin tranh phi la gt qun ch.
Tn Vn cng sp khai chin vi S, vi cu Phm (1) li hi:
- Ta sp khai chin vi S, h ng, ta t, lm sao by gi?
Cu Phm p:
- Thn nghe ni ngi qun t trng l th cc lc gi s trung tn; (nhng) trong lc chin tranh
khng ngi tr ngy, nh vua c dng mu m m la gt.
Vn cng t bit Cu Phm ri, vi Ung Qu v m hi:
- Ta sp khai chin vi S, h ng, ta t, lm sao by gi?

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Ung Qu p:
- t rng sn bn th bt c nhiu th, nhng sau s khng cn con no na. Di tr vi dn
th thu li c mt ln thi, sau khng gt c ln na.
Vn cng khen phi. T bit Ung Qu ri, ng dng mu ca Cu Phm nh thng c S. Lc
khi hon, ng ban tc thng ngi c cng, t Ung Qu trn Cu Phm. Qun thn hi:
Trn nh Thnh Bc l nh mu ca Cu Phm, dng li ca cu y m thng cng li t cu
y sau, nh vy c nn chng? Vn cng p:
- L y cc ng khng bit c. Li Cu Phm ch l li quyn bin dng tm mt thi, cn li ca
Ung Qu l ci li mun i.
Trng Ni nghe chuyn bo: Vn Cng lm b ch chng cng ng ? bit l quyn bin mt
thi, li hiu ci li vn i.
*
C ngi bo: Ung Qu khng tr li ng cu hi ca Vn cng. Tr li mt cu hi th phi ty
vn ln hay nh, hon hay gp m p. Vn cao ln m mnh p nh th n nh v hp th
bc minh ch khng nghe. Vn cng hi v cch ly t chng ng, m p rng: Sau khng gt
c ln na, nh vy l p khng ng.
Li thm Vn cng khng bit ci l quyn bin mt thi, cng khng bit ci li mun i. nh
m thng th nc v thn mnh u c yn; binh mnh v uy th vng, sau c chin tranh na
cng khng th ln hn vy, th th sao li lo khng c ci li mun i? Cn nh nh m khng
thng th nc mt, binh yu, thn cht, danh mt, lo trnh c ci cht trc mt cn khng kp,
u cn rnh i ci li mun i? Ci li mun i trong ci thng li ngy nay, m ci thng
li ngy nay ch gt k ch. Cho nn bo Ung Qu khng p ng cu hi ca Vn cng.
V li, Vn cng khng hiu li ca Cu Phm. Cu Phm bo Khng ngi tr ngy khng phi l
bo la gt dn ca mnh m bo l la gt ch. ch l nc mnh nh, sau d khng la gt c
ln na th c hi g u? Vn cng s d t Ung Qu ln trn Cu Phm, l v ng y c cng
chng? Nhng thng c qun S l do mu ca Cu Phm, vy li ca Cu mi ng? Ung Qu
ch ni sau khng gt c ln na, li khng c g l hay c. M Cu Phm th c c cng
ln li ni hay. Cu bo: Ngi qun t trng l th cc lc gi s trung tn; trung l yu k
di, tn l khng gt dn, cn li no hay hn li na? Nhng Cu li ni tr ngy phi l
mu k hnh qun. Vy Cu Phm trc ni c li hay, sau lai c cng chin thng, th l c
hai cng m li b ra sau, cn Ung Qu khng c cng no li c thng trc. Vn cng lm
b ch, chng cng ng ? Trng Ni ni vy l khng bit thng ng.
2 - Tr dn khng phi l em thn mnh ra lm gng cm ho dn m l dng ci th trng
tr dn, sa i h.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Nng phu Lch sn ln rung nhau, ng Thun li cy rung c mt nm th b rung u


chnh t c. Dn chi b sng (Hong H) tranh nhau cc bi trn sng, ng Thun n nh c,
c mt nm th ngi tr nhng nhng bi cho ngi ln tui. gm th ng Di lm u
xu d v, ng Thun li lm l gm, c mt nm, cc gm u tt, chc chn. Trng Ni
khen: Lm rung, nh c, lm gm khng phi l chc v ca ng Thun, m ng ch thn ti
lm ti ch, l mun sa khuyt im cho dn. ng qu thc l bc nhn c. ng chu kh nhc m
dn chu theo ng, cho nn bo: Thnh nhn dng c m cm ha ngi.
*
C ngi bo ()
ng Thun sa khuyt im (cho dn), mt nm mi sa c mt tt, ba nm c ba tt. Tui th
ca ng c hn m tt ca dn th v cng: ly ci hu hn tr ci v cng, th tr c bao nhiu
u. Nu dng s thng pht bt dn thi hnh, m ra lnh rng: H lm ng php th c
thng, tri php th b pht th sng ban lnh, chiu s tnh thay i ri, chiu ban lnh, sng
hm sau thay i, ch trong mi ngy l khp nc thay i c, u phi i ti mt nm? ng
Thun khng bit khuyn vua Nghiu bt dn theo lnh ca ng, m li ch thn chu lao kh,
chng phi l khng bit thut tr dn ? V li nu phi ch thn chu lao kh ri mi cm ho
c dn, th ngay Nghiu, Thun cng kh lm c, cn dng (quyn) th m un nn k di th
v cha tm thng no cng cho l d. Mun tr thin h m li b ci cch mt v cha tm thng
cng d dng lm c, theo ci cch m Nghiu, Thun cng cho l kh lm, th k cha c
th cho lm chnh tr c.
3 - Thut dng b ti: khng cho mt ngi kim nhim nhiu chc, khng cho bn t hu ngn
cch vua vi qun thn.
Qun Trng khng bit ging iu cho Hon cng.
Qun Trng au. T Hon cng li thm, hi: Trng ph au, nu bt hnh m tn s th c khuyn
qu nhn iu g khng? Qun Trng p:
- Nh vua khng hi th thn cng tnh tu vi vua. Thn xin nh vua ui Th iu, tr Dch
Nha v xa cng t Khai Phng nc V. Dch Nha lo vic n ung cho nh vua, bit ch c tht
ngi l nh vua cha c nm, bn luc u con mnh dng ln. Tnh ngi l khng ai khng
yu con, nay con mnh m khng yu th lm sao yu vua c? Nh vua hay ghen m thch cc
cung tn, Th iu bn t thin c cai qun cc cung tn. Nhn tnh khng ai khng yu bn
thn, nay bn thn m mnh khng yu th lm sao yu vua c? Khai Phng th nh vua mi
lm nm, T cch V ch vi ngy ng, m Khai Phng b m i lm quan lu nh vy khng v
thm, m m cn khng yu th lm sao yu vua c? Thn nghe ni c gi di (gi o c) th
khng c lu, che s h ngu th khng c bn. Xin nh vua ui ba ngi i.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Qun Trng cht ri, Hon cng khng lm theo li khuyn , n khi cht, gii trong thy b ra
ti ca (2) m cha chn.
*
C ngi bo:
Li Qun Trng khuyn Hon cng khng phi l li ca mt ngi bit php . ng ta mun
ui Th iu, Dch Nha l cho rng h khng yu thn h lm tho mun ca vua. Bn thn
m mnh khng yu th lm sao yu vua c? Nu vy th c b ti no tn lc ti cht th vua,
Qun Trng tt s khng dng, m bo: H khng yu ci sc ca h m lm cho ti cht th lm
sao yu vua c? Nh th l mun vua ui ht cc trung thn i. V li, nu ly l h khng yu
thn h m suy on rng h khng yu vua, th cng c th ly l Qun Trng khng cht v cng
t C suy on rng ng s khng cht cho Hon cng, vy th ng cng thuc hng b ti phi
ui i.
o ca bc minh ch khng phi vy. Lp ra ci m dn mun h lm vic cho mnh, v vy m
t ra tc lc khuyn khch h; lp ra ci m dn ght ngn cm s gian t, v vy m t ra
hnh pht ra oai vi h. Khen thng m xc thc, hnh pht m cng quyt th b ti c cng
c ct nhc m k gian t khng c dng, nh vy d c Th iu, hn cng khng lm g c
vua; m b ti s tn lc th vua, vua ban tc lc bo p b ti. Vua ti i vi nhau khng c
ci tnh cha con, u l tnh ton vi nhau c; h vua c o (tc thut) th b ti tn lc m vic gian
t khng pht sinh, vua v o th b ti trn che lp ci sng ca vua, di thc hnh t dc ca
mnh. Qun Trng khng lm cho Hon cng hiu r php (ch khuyn ui Th iu), gi s
ui Th iu ri th mt Th iu khc li n, khng phi l cch tn dit c s gian t.
Hon cng s d cht, gii b ra ti ca m khng c chn, l v b ti th lc mnh qu, th lc
mnh qu th nm ht quyn ca vua; b ti nm ht quyn ca vua th lnh ca vua khng t ti
cp di m tnh thc ca b ti khng thng ln vua c. Sc ca mt ngi c th ngn cch
c vua ti vi nhau, khin vua khng bit c thin v c, khng thy c ho v phc, do
m c ci ho cht khng c chn. Ci o ca bc minh ch l mt b ti khng c kim nhiu
chc, mt chc khng kim nhiu vic; k hn thp khng phi nh k tn qu mi c tin dng,
i thn khng phi nh k t hu ca vua mi c yt kin vua; bch quan u c trnh kin
ln vua, qun thn cng nhau lo vic cng; vua c thy cng b ti ri mi thng, bit ti b ti ri
mi pht; s thy, bit phi ng, m s thng pht khng lm, nh vy th lm sao c ci ho
cht khng c chn? Qun Trng khng ging r l cho Hon cng hiu, ch xin ui ba ngi.
V vy m ti bo Qun Trng khng c php .
4- Khng c cng th khng thng, khng c ti th khng pht (lc b)
5- Vua phi gi o vua, b ti phi gi l b ti.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Tm tt: Tn Bnh cng gia m b ti, bo khng g sng bng lm vua v ni ra, khng ai dm
ci. S Khong, mt nhc s ui c t cch, ngi bn, lm b khng bit rng chnh vua ni cu
, cm cy n p, Bnh cng c, hi S Khong, S Khong tha: C k tiu nhn no ni
nn thn nh n. Bnh cng nhn chnh mnh ni. S Khong khng t ti, ch p: Bc vua
cha khng nn ni nh vy Bnh cng khng trng tr m cn khen.
Hn Phi ch Bnh cng khng gi o vua, S Khong khng gi l b ti.

*
6- B ti m khinh vua th l lon.
Tm tt: Hn Phi ch thi T Hon cng trng mt n s l Tiu Thn Tc ti ni h mnh nm
ln n tm Tiu Thn Tc ri mi c gp, v bo: Nu Thn Tc c ti m giu ti (khng chu
th vua) th ng b ti; nu khng c ti m kiu cng vi vua nh vy th ng git.
7 Khng tha k c ti. (lc b)
8 - B ti phi trng vua, lm sng t php lut, khng c i vua tng tc lc cho mnh.
(Truyn 5b thin Ngoi tr thuyt t h, Hn Phi chp li vic Qun Trng xin Hon cng ban
cho mnh nh Tam qui, cho mnh trn h Cao, h Quc, li c vo hng cng tc, khuyn cc
vua cha nn tit trong vic ban tc lc, nu khng s b i thn p bc.
y ng nhc li truyn bc kin ca mt s ngi bnh Qun Trng. Chng ti b
on u chp nhng yu sch ca Qun Trng).
() Tiu Lc (khng r l ai) bo:
- Qun Trng cho rng hn th khng tr c ngi sang nn xin c trn h Cao, h Quc;
ngho th khng tr c ngi giu, nn xin c c nh Tam Qui; s th khng tr c ngi
thn, nn xin c gi l Trng ph. Xin nh vy khng phi v tham m cho tin vic tr nc.
*
C ngi bo: Sai mt k ti t em mnh lnh ca vua n cc quan khanh tng th khng ai dm
khng nghe, khng phi v khanh tng l hn m ti t l sang m v lnh vua ban xung, khng ai
dm khng theo. Nu Qun Trng tr nc m khng c lnh ca Hon Cng th l nc khng c
vua; nc khng c vua th khng th tr c. Cn nh da vo uy ca Hon Cng ban pht lnh
ca Hon Cng th d k l ti t, mi ngi cng phi tin (m thi hnh) ch khng phi i c
trn h Cao, h Quc, c vua tn l Trng ph, ri lnh mi c thi hnh! Cc vin hnh s,
tha (quan chc rt nh) ngy nay khi phng mnh vua i trng thu u c n trnh cc bc tn
qu m ch ti cc k ngho hn? Cho nn hnh s m hp php th d (ti tin nh) hon quan cng
c khanh, tng phc, hnh s m phi php th d l quan ln cng phi thua mt tn dn thng.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Qun Trng khng lo tn vua, lm sng t php , m ch ngh n vic c vua thm sng i,
thm chc tc, th nu khng ham giu sang cng l m m, khng bit thut. Cho nn ti bo rng
Qun Trng l by m Tiu Lc ca tng ng ta thi qu.
*
9 C thut th dng hai cn thn cng khng sao; khng c thut m dng h th h s tranh quyn
nhau m kt giao vi nc ngoi, nu ch dng mt th ngi s chuyn quyn git mnh.
Hn Tuyn vng hi C (3) Lu:
- Ta mun dng c hai ng Cng Trng v Cng Thc, nn chng?
C Lu p:
- Xa nc Ngy dng c hai ng Lu v ch (4) m mt t Ty H. S dng c hai ng Chiu v
Cnh m mt t Yn v t Dnh, nay nh vua dng c Cng Trng v Cng Thc th h tranh
quyn nhau, m kt giao vi nc ngoi, s l mi lo cho nc.
*
C ngi bo: Xa T Hon cng dng c hai ng Qun Trng v Bo Thc; Thnh Thang dng c
hai ng Y Don v Trng Hu. Nu dng c hai ngi m l mi lo ca nc th Hon Cng
khng lm nn nghip b, Thnh Thang khng lm nn nghip vng, (T) Mn vng ch dng mt
mnh No X m b (No X) git miu ng, (Triu) Ch ph ch dng mt mnh L oi m b
(L oi) b i ti cht. Vy nu vua qu c thut th dng hai ngi khng phi l mi lo; khng
c thut m dng hai ngi th h tranh quyn nhau, m kt giao vi nc ngoi, dng mt ngi th
h s chuyn quyn m git mnh. C Lu khng c php thut lm qui tc cho vua, khuyn vua
ng dng hai ngi m dng mt thi, nh vy nu trnh c ci lo mt Ty H, Yn, Dnh th tt
mc ci nn b git hoc b b i ti cht () (5).

(1) Tc H Yn, cu ca Tn Vn Cng, c cng gip Vn cng dng nghip b.


To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

(2) C bn chp l gii t thy () b ra. Sa l t ca () b ra th ng hn v Hon Cng cht


my tun ri cha c chn.
(3) Ta quen c l c, chnh ra phi c l cu hoc cu.
(4) C sch bo l Lu Hon v ch Hong; c sch bo l Lu T v ch Cng.
(5) B cu cui: Thi C Lu vi hu thin d tri ngn d, m bn Trn Khi Thin ging l: th l C
Lu cha lm iu thin (hu = v) m bit ni (d: nh). Tht lng tng, kh hiu.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XXXVII
NN NH (Trch)
(BIN NN - II)

1 Hnh pht cn phi thch ng, nhiu t khng thnh vn .


(T) Cnh cng qua nh n t (n Anh), bo:
- Nh ng nh m li gn ch, xin ng di qua vn D Chng.
n t vi hai ln, t t:
- Anh ti ngho, sng chiu u phi i ch, nn khng tin di i xa.
Cnh cng ci, hi:
- Nh ng thng i ch, vy c bit hng ho mc hay r khng?
Hi Cnh cng dng nhiu hnh pht qu, nn n Anh p:
- (Mi vt gi u) nhy vt ln[1], duy c giy l r.
- Sao vy?
- V hnh pht (cht chn) nhiu qu.
Cnh cng kinh ngc, bin sc, bo: Qu nhn tn bo lm ? ri bt b i nm hnh pht.

*
C ngi bo: n t bo gi nhy vt ln, khng phi l ni thc, ch mun mn li khuyn vua
ng dng nhiu hnh pht na. l ci hi khng bit thut tr nc. Hnh pht m thch ng, th
nhiu cng v hi, nu khng thch ng th tuy t cng l hi. n t khng ging cho vua l thch

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ng ca hnh pht, m ch ch l nhiu qu, l ci hi v thut. Pht qun thua trn th n s


ngn s trm vn cha ngn c s bi tu; vy th dng hnh pht dp lon, ch s khng xu
m k gian hy cn. n t khng xt l thch ng hay khng m ch cho l nhiu qu chng l by
? Tic c tranh th lm cho hi la m, nhn t vi o tc l lm hi cho lng dn. Nay lm nh
hnh pht m khoan dung tc l lm li cho k gian, hi cho ngi.
2- Khng c cng th khng thng m c ti th phi pht:
Hn Phi ch T Hon cng pht ca kho, tha ti nh cho dn khi ng ta n hn v mc mt li nh
(ung ru say nh rt mo).

3 - Mun trnh ho th ng lm, ng cho thy:


Xa, Vn Vng xm ln nc Vu, nh nc C, chim nc Phong, ba ln dng binh nh vy
nn b vua Tr ght. Vn Vng s, dng t Lc Ty, mt min t nh (ph nhiu)[2] rng mt
ngn dm vung xin b hnh bo lc,[3] thin h u mng. Trng Ni nghe chuyn bo: "Vn
Vng tht l nhn t coi nh mt nc ngn dm m xin b hnh bo lc! Vn Vng tht l minh
tr, b t ngn dm c lng thin h!"
*
C ngi bo:
Trng Ni khen Vn Vng l minh tr, chng l lm ? Bc minh tr bit ch tai ha m trnh,
cho nn thn (khng?) b hi. Nu Vn Vng b vua Tr ght v ng khng c lng dn, m ng
tm cch c lng dn vua Tr khng ght na, nh vy l phi. Nay vua Tr ght ng v ng
rt c lng dn, m ng li coi r t ai thu phc lng dn th cng thm b vua Tr nghi, nn
mi b xing xch trong ngc Du L y. Cc ng gi nc Trnh c cu: Hiu o l th nn ng
lm g, ng cho thy. Li tht thch hp vi Vn Vng cho ngi khc khi nghi ng,
Trng Ni khen Vn Vng minh tr l cha hiu li ni ![4]
4- Ng B (T Hon cng, Tng Tng cng, Tn Vn cng, Tn Mc cng, S Trang cng) s d
thnh cng l nh sc ca cc vua ln b ti, ch khng phi ca ring b ti, hoc ca ring vua.
Hn Phi a ra chng c: Xa Cung Chi K nc Ngu, Hi Ph K nc To, u l nhng b
ti minh tr, on trng vic, lm nn cng, m hai nc u b dit vong l v c b ti tt m
khng c vua hin. Li nh Kin Thc gip nc Ngu m Ngu b dit vong, gip nc Tn th Tn
thnh b ch, nh vy u phi l nc Ngu th ti tm, Tn th sng sut, ch do gp c vua
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

gii hay khng. (.)


5-Tr nc khng phi l vic d, nhn, v d la c b ti gii ri, cng phi c thut sai khin
h, xt h, i ph vi h.
6- Cn xt k l do ri mi kt lun c.
L Khc[5] tr nc Trung Sn. Quan lnh p Kh Hnh trnh bn k ton, s thu qu nhiu, L Khc
bo: Li ni kho lo, nghe th thch, nhng khng hp tnh l, nh vy gi l "iu ngn" (li
khng thc, h ngn). Khng c mi li v ni, rng, chm hang m s thu c nhiu, nh vy gi
l iu ha (ha vt khng c thc, h vt). Ngi qun t khng nghe iu ngn, khng nhn
iu ha; ng nn t chc i.

*
C ngi bo:
L t lp thuyt: Li ni kho lo, nghe th thch nhng khng hp tnh l, nh vy gi l iu
ngn. Kho ni l lm cho ngi nghe thch, ci ty ngi nghe. Ngi ni khng phi l
ngi nghe th s kho ni cng khng phi l s thch[6]. Ci m L t bo khng hp tnh l khng
ty thuc ngi nghe m ty thuc li ngi nghe c. Ngi nghe nu khng phi l tiu nhn
(v hc) th l qun t. Tiu nhn khng hiu tnh l, vy khng th xt li ni xem c hp tnh l hay
khng; qun t bit xt li ni xem c hp tnh l hay khng th tt khng th thch c (v li ni
kho khng hp tnh l). Vy bo Li ni kho nghe th thch nhng khng hp tnh l l ni sai.
- Thu c nhiu m cho l iu ha, li cha phi l lun lun ng[7]. L t khng sm cm
iu gian, cho vin lnh lm k ton nh vy, l c li ri. ng khng c thut no bit l gian,
m c thy ghi thu c nhiu l ni lo, th mi lm sao y khi s thu bt thng[8]? Thu c
nhiu (c th) l nh c ma. Lm lng m ch trng n s ha hp ca m dng, trng trt m
hp vi bn ma, khng mt mt v mun qu, sm qu, khng b cc ha lnh qu hay nng qu th
thu hoch c nhiu. Tm hiu k thut nui sc vt, nghin cu t xem ph hp vi loi cy no
th lc sc sinh sn nhiu, ng cc ti tt m thu c nhiu. Hiu r vic cn, lng, k ton, xt
r a hnh, bit dng ci tin li ca xe thuyn, my mc, th dng sc t, kt qu ln m thu c
nhiu. Lm cho s i li cc ch, ba, ca i v cu c tin li em hng ha t ch d ti ch
thiu, khch mua bn qui li, ngoi ha t li, ri tit kim trong vic tiu xi, n ung, xy ct cung
tht, ch to kh gii, c vt thng dng m khng phung ph vo nhng vui chi xa x, th thu
c nhiu. Nhng s thu c nhiu u do sc ngi; nu li thm ma thun gi ha, nng
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

lnh thch hp th d t khng tng, gp nm c ma, s thu cng nhiu. Sc ngi v thi tit,
hai ci u lm cho thu vo nhiu, khng phi l mi li ca rng ni, chm hang. Vy gi l
iu ha ch v khng c mi li rng ni, chm hang m thu c nhiu, l li ni ca k khng
bit thut tr nc.

*
7- Vua khng cn xng pha tn n m cn bit cch thng pht.
Tm tt: Triu Gin t vy mt thnh ca V, ng pha sau nh trng thc qun m qun khng
tin. Nghe li khuyn ca Chc Qu ng xng ti trc, ng ch tn n m thc qun, lc qun
mi theo ng xng ln, m i thng. Hn Phi ch l khng cn nh vy, c thng cng cho xng,
pht ti cho nghim th qun s s t chin v mnh.

[1] Nguyn vn, dng qu c sch ging (tc l) t mt dng chn ct (v nhiu ngi cht
chm m t gi). C sch li ging dng l giy cho ngi ct chn (v ti m b cht chn)
hoc chn gi cho ngi ct chn dng.
[2] Nguyn vn l xch nhng, c sch cho l tn t, tn nc.
[3] Coi ch thch Thin XL Nn th.
[4] T tng trong on ny ging o gia, nn c hc gi cn ng.
[5] L Khc, hoc L oi, L Khi - coi phn I.
[6] Nguyn vn: Ngn phi thch gi d, tc bin phi duyt gi d. Cu ny c sch khng chp, i
l: Khng phi c ngi thch m l kho ni.
[7] Nguyn vn: v kh vin hnh gi Trn Khi Thin cho vin = cu (lu). Chng ti on m
dch nh trn.
[8] Nguyn vn l (bi) (ch ting Trung ny trong sch vit sai thnh ch (v : v tr) bn Trn

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

Khi Thin bo ch bi (ngha l gp i) xa dng nh ch (bi = tri o ngc l)

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XXXVIII
NN TAM (TRCH)
(BIN NN-III)

1-Phi trng dng k co gian (t co k gian)


L Mc cng hi T T (chu ni ca Khng T):
- Ta nghe ni con ca h Bng Gin[1] bt hiu. Hnh kim n ra sao?
T T p:
- Ngi qun t tn hin, trng c, nu iu tt ra khuyn ngi, cn nhng hnh kim lm ln
l cho tiu nhn nh, thn khng bit ti.
T T lui ra, T Phc L B (mt i phu nc L) v, Mc cng hi v con h Bng Gin. T
Phc L B p:
- N c ba ci li m nh vua cha c nghe.
T , Mc Cng qu T T m coi thng L B.

*
C ngi bo:
Cng Tht[2] nc L ba i b h Qu ln p, cng l ng! Bc minh qun tm ngi tt
thng, k gian pht, hai vic u chung mt ngha. Cho nn k bo co ngi tt l cng
vi vua m mng, k bo co a gian l cng vi vua m ght, v c hai ngi bo co u
ng khen thng. Khng bo co vi vua l khng ng lng vi vua m k di s ng v phe
gian, thi ng ch pht. T T khng bo co li (ca con h Bng Gin) m Mc Cng qu,
L B bo co m Mc Cng coi r. Nhn tnh ai cng thch c qu m ght b coi r, v vy h
Qu lm lon m khng bit, v vua L mi b ln p. l ci thi ca cc ng vua mt nc, dn
nc Tru v nc L[3] cho thi l p, v ring Mc Cng li qu, chng l tri l ?

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

*
2- Khng nn nghe li t im (gi di, t bin h) ca b ti.
(Hn Phi ght hng b ti khi vua mnh b ch git, vi u hng ch v ha s th vua ch nh
th vua c ca mnh).
3- Khng cho k di ln ngi trn, a v trn di phi phn minh:
C ngi T Hon cng: Ci kh th nht, ci kh th nh, ci kh th ba l ci g? Hon Cng
khng gii p c, hi Qun Trng, Qun Trng p: Ci kh[4] th nht l gn bn kp ht m
xa k s, ci kh th nh l ri quc thng ra bin chi, ci kh th ba l vua gi m chm
lp thi t. Hon Cng khen phi ri khng i la ngy m lm l lp thi t thi miu.

*
C ngi bo:
Qun Trng gii cu khng ng. Vic dng k s khng ch xa hay gn (xa h vn c th
dng c); cn bn kp ht v h ln gii mun cho vua lc nhn, cho nn vua gn bn h m xa
k s, nc vn tr c, khng phi l iu kh. C c (quyn) th m khng bit dng, ch c gi
ly quc , khng ri n, tc l ly sc mt ngi (tc vua) m cm c mt nc (chim quc );
ly sc mt ngi m cm c mt nc, t ai thnh cng c. Sng sut th c th soi thu c
vic gian xa, thy c ch kn o nh nht, h ra lnh tt c thi hnh, th d c i chi xa
bin, trong nc cng khng c bin lon, vy c b quc , ra chi bin m khng b cp ngi,
b git, khng phi l iu kh (.) Khng chia hai a v v quyn th, cho con th a v thp
(khng ln c thi t), khng cho i thip mn quyn th ca mnh, th d gi m chm lp thi
t cng khng sao; vy th lp thi t tr m con th khng lm lon, cng khng phi l iu kh.
Nhng ci ny mi kh: cho ngi ta lp c th mnh ri m gi cho ngi ta khng ln hi
mnh, c th gi l ci kh th nht; qu i thip m gi sao cho khi c hai hong hu (i thip
quyn ngang vi hong hu), l ci kh th nh; yu con th m gi sao cho con ch (con dng
ln, tc thi t) khi b nguy; chuyn nghe mt b ti m gi sao cho h khng i ch vi mnh,
c th gi l ci kh th ba.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

4- Lm cho dn vui, chn ngi hin v tit kim, ba vic khng cn bng bit r b ti.
Nhip[5] cng (mt i phu nc S) t l T Cao hi Trng Ni v chnh tr, Trng Ni p: Vic
chnh tr ct lm cho k gn vui m k xa tm n.
L Ai Cng hi v chnh tr, Trng Ni p: Chnh tr ct ch la ngi hin.
T Cnh cng hi v chnh tr, Trng Ni p: Vic chnh tr ct vic tit kim ti sn.
Ba ng ra, T Cng (mt t ca Trng Ni) hi: Ba ng cng hi mt cu v chnh tr m
thy p mi ng mt khc l ti sao? Trng Ni p: Nc Nhip kinh ln m t ai nh, dn
c lng phn bi, cho nn vic cai tr ct lm cho k gn vui m k xa tm n. L Ai Cng c ba
v i thn, h ngoi th ngn cn k s cc nc ch hu bn bn, trong th kt b ng gt vua;
khin cho tn miu khng c qut dn, nn x tc (ni th Thn t v Thn Nng) khng c
cng t, tt l ti ba i thn c, v vy m thy bo vic chnh tr ct ch la ngi hin. T
Cnh Cng xy ca Ung (ca thnh) v i L Tm, (nhn vui m) trong mt bui sng cho ba i
phu mt thi p ba trm c xe[6] bi vy thy bo vic chnh tr ct ch tit kim ti sn.

*
C ngi bo:
Cu tr li ca Trng Ni l li ni lm cho mt nc. Dn nc Nhip c lng phn bi m cn
khuyn Nhip Cng lm cho ngi gn vui, ngi xa tm n, nh vy l dy cho dn ch mong
n hu. Dng chnh sch gia n th k khng c cng c thng, k c ti c tha, m php
s bi hoi. Php bi hoi th chnh tr lon, dng chnh tr lon tr dn bi hoi, l vic cha
tng thy thnh cng. V li dn c lng phn bi l v s sng sut ca vua c ch khng thu o.
Khng ch cho Nhip Cng thm sng sut m li khuyn lm cho k gn vui, k xa tm n,
l khng dng quyn th ca mnh cm m cng vi b ti tranh dn bng n hu, nh vy lm
sao gi c quyn th ca mnh (.)
Ai Cng c b ti, ngoi th ngn cn (ngi nc khc n), trong th lp b ng m hoc vua; vy
m Trng Ni li khuyn ng la ngi hin khng phi theo cch xt cng nghip ca ngi, ch
chn ngi lng mnh cho l hin thi. Nu Ai Cng bit rng ba i thn ca mnh (tc Mnh Tn,
Thc Tn, Qu Tn) ngoi th ngn cn k s cc nc ch hu, trong th kt b ng, th ba ngi
khng ng c mt ngy na; chnh v Ai Cng khng bit la ngi hin, ch la ngi m lng
ng cho l hin, nn h mi c giao cho vic nc. T Khoi nc Yn cho T Chi l hin m
ch Tn Khanh[7] cho nn phi cht nhc. Ph Sai cho thi t Ph l c tr, T T[8] l ngu cho nn
b nc Vit dit. Vua L nht nh khng bit ai l hin, m li khuyn ng la ngi hin, tc l
khin ng b ci ha ca Ph Sai v T Khoi nc Yn. Bc minh qun khng t c b ti m
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

cho b ti t tin thn (bng cch lp cng), khng t cho ai l hin m xt ai ty theo cng nghip
ca ngi ; b nhim h xt h, giao cho cng vic th ti ri phn on ty theo kt qu,
cho nn qun thn ngay thng, khng mu li ring, khng giu ngi hin, khng tin c k bt
tiu, nh vy vua u c kh nhc v vic chn ngi hin?
Cnh Cng ban 100 c xe cho b ti m Trng Ni khuyn ng phi tit kim ti sn, l khng c
thut phn bit xa x v tit kim; v li ring vua phi kim c th u trnh c s ngho.
V d c ng vua ly lc ngn dm nui ming mnh th d Kit, Tr cng khng xa x bng; hoc
nc T rng ba ngn dm m Hon Cng ly lc mt na nc t cung dng th l xa x hn
Kit, Tr. Nhng Hon Cng ng u ng b chnh l nh khi no nn xa x, khi no nn tit kim
() Bc minh qun khin cho b ti khng lo vic ring, cm h nh gian tr m sng; b ti no
tn lc lm vic th tt bit, bit th tt thng; b ti no tham lm vic ring t th tt bit, bit th
tt pht. Nh vy b ti trung s ht lng vi vic cng, dn v k s ht sc vi vic nh, bch quan
s thanh lim, t kim ch mnh phc v vua, v trong vic thng vua c xa x gp hai Cnh
cng cng khng hi g cho nc. Vy li khuyn tit kim ti sn khng phi l iu cn gp cho
Cnh Cng. Trng Ni ch tr li ba ng Nhip cng, Ai cng, Cnh cng mt cu ny thi l h
khng lo g na c: Phi bit k di. Bit r ngi di th cm ngay t khi gian mi hin, cm
nh vy th s gian khng tch ly, th khng c lng lm phn. Bit r ngi di th thy mt cch
tng tn, thy tng tn th sng sut trong vic thng pht, sng sut trong vic thng pht th
nc khng ngho. Cho nn ti bo rng ch tr li ba ng y mt cu: Phi bit k di l h
khng cn lo g na.

*
5- Tr dn th ng cy tr khn ca mnh m c theo php lut- Phi ly vt tr vt, ly ngi tr
ngi.
T Sn nc Trnh sng sm ra i, qua ca phng ng Tng[9] nghe ting mt ngi n b
khc, bn v vo tay ngi nh xe, (bo ngng li), lng tai nghe mt lt ri sai ngi thuc h bt
ngi n b , li tra hi th ra m ta t tay tht c chng. Hm khc, ngi nh xe hi ng:
Ngi lm sao bit c? ng p: V thy ting khc m run s. Thng tnh h ngi thn
ca mnh mi au th mnh lo lng, khi sp cht th mnh run s, khi cht ri th mnh au xt. M
khc chng cht, khng au xt m run s, v vy m bit c tnh gian.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

C ngi bo:
T Sn tr dn cch cng chng rc ri ? Phi i trng thy, nghe thy ri mi bit c l
gian th nc Trnh bt c t k gian lm. Khng dng bn li coi v ngc tng, khng dng chnh
sch kho st nhiu mt, khng lm sng t php o lng, m cy vo s tn dng tr thng minh,
s suy t mt tr ca mnh mi bit c k gian, chng l thiu thut qu ? V li s vic th nhiu
m tr lc th t, t khng thng c nhiu, cho nn phi ly vt m tr vt; k di th nhiu m
ngi trn th t, t khng thng c nhiu, cho nn phi dng ngi m tr ngi; nh vy khng
lao lc m c vic, khng dng nhiu tr lc m bt c k gian. Ngi Tng c cu: Nu Ngh
(ngi bn gii) bo con chim s no bay qua cng bn c th l Ngh ni khoc. Nu ly thin h
lm ci li th khng mt con chim s no s thot c. Mun bit k gian th cng phi c ci
li ln mi khng thot mt k no c. Khng sa ci li[10] m c ly lng (tr khn) mnh
lm cung tn th d T Sn cng l khoc lc. Lo t bo: Ly tr khn tr nc, tc l gic (ci
ha) ca nc[11] li p dng vo T Sn c.

*
6- Tr nc ch nn da vo ci th ca mnh thi. (Lc b)
7-Thng pht m ch cn c vo b ngoi th b ti gian di s gt mnh c (Lc b).
8- Php (lut) th phi cho mi ngi bit, thut th phi giu mi ngi.
Qun T (Qun Trng) ni: Li ni nh ring th phi y nh ring (ngha l ai cng nghe thy,
khng giu ai c), li ni cng ng th phi y cng ng, nh vy gi l lm vua thin h.

*
C ngi bo:
Qun Trng bo Li ni nh ring phi y nh ring, li ni cng ng th phi y cng
ng khng phi ch ring tr nhng vic du h, n ung, m tt cn tr nhng vic ln[12] na.
Nhng vic ln ca bc vua cha nu khng phi l php lut th l thut. Php lut l ci chp trong
sch v, by cng s v cng b cho ton dn. Thut l ci giu trong lng so snh mi vic m
ngm ch ng qun thn. Cho nn php lut khng g bng phi by ra cho mi ngi bit, m thut
th khng mun ngi khc thy. Bc minh ch ni n php lut th ht thy nhng k ti tin trong
nc u c nghe bit, ch no phi y nh ring m thi; cn nh dng thut th nhng k yu
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

mn, thn cn cng khng c nghe, lm sao c th y nh ring c? Vy li ni ca Qun T


khng phi l li ni ng vi php thut.

Cc nh ch thch cho l ch (gin).

[1]
[2] H vua mt nc ch hu.

[3] Tru v L l ni pht nguyn ca o Nho, nn dn hai nc c s gio ha ca Nho gia,


c thi quen khen c hnh v giu ti li ca ngi khc.
[4] Kh gi cho nc khi lon, ngi vua khi mt.
[5] Ch dip l l, y c l Nhip, tn t v tn h.
[6] Thi thi p ca i phu l 100 c xe, mi c bng su dm vung. Coi ch thch thin
XXXIII Ngoi tr thuyt t h.
[7] Tc Tun Khanh, s ph ca Hn Phi. Hn ch nhc ti thy mi on ny, m khng ai bit
vic ra sao. T Khoi l vua nc Yn, xem ch thch thin VII Nh Bnh.
[8] Ph Sai l vua nc Ng khng nghe li T T, sau b Cu Tin, vua Vit dit.
[9] C sch ging l xm th pha ng.
[10] C sch chp l bt tu k l v ging l khng hc ci l .
[11] o c kinh Chng LXV 2. D tr tr quc, quc chi tc (d).
[12] Nguyn vn: i vt (vt ln), c ngi ging l l php.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XXXIX
NN T (Trch)
(BIN NN IV)

Thin ny gm bn tit v khc vi ba thin trn ch sau li ph bnh li dn thm mt li ph

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

bnh li ph bnh - u ca Hn Phi - bc kin trn hoc xt thm mt kha cnh na ca vn


.

*
1 - B ti v vua nn gi phn mnh. Lc b.
2 - Vua nn sng v nghim.
Dng H nc L mun nh Tam Hon (ba i phu trong cng tht L, con ca L Hon Cng:
Mnh tn, Thc tn v Qu tn) khng c, phi trn qua T, T Cnh Cng ly l tip i. Bo
Vn t can: Khng nn, Dng H c h Qu yu m li nh Qu tn, l v ham s giu c ca
h y. Nh vua giu c hn Qu tn v nc T ln hn nc L, Dng H s cn ht sc gian tr
na. Cnh Cng bn b t Dng H.[1]

*
C ngi bo:
Nh c ngn vng th con ci bt nhn, v h qu gp mu li. (T) Cnh Cng ng u trong ng
b, (mi u) tranh nc m git anh l v ci li ln qu. Gia vua ti khng c tnh anh em rut
tht. Trong vic cp quyn git vua, ch ng mt nc vn c xe hng ci li ln th b ti no
chng l Dng H. Vic lm h tinh t, kho lo th thnh, s sut, vng v th tht bi. B ti cha
khi lon l v d b cha . Nhng b ti no cng c ci lng (cp ngi) nh Dng H m vua
khng bit, l v vic lm ca h tinh t, kho lo. Dng H v tham mun nh b trn, m cho
thin h bit c l do hn s sut, vng v. (Khng khuyn Cnh Cng trng pht bn b ti gian
xo ca T[2] m khuyn ng trng pht tn Dng H vng v, l ch sai trong li khuyn ca
Bo Vn t. B ti trung tn hay gian tr l tu hnh ng ca vua: vua sng sut v ngim khc th
h trung tn, vua nhu nhc v hn m th h gian tr. Sng sut l bit c ci tinh t, nghim khc
l khng tha ti. Khng bit ai l b ti gian xo ca T[3] m tr lon thn ca L, chng cng by
?

*
(Li) c ngi bo:
() Vua sng v nghim th b ti trung tn. Dng H lm lon L, vic khng thnh, chy qua
T, T khng trng tr, tc l cho H li lm lon T. Vua sng sut th bit rng vic trng tr
Dng H c th cu lon c cho T, nh vy l tinh t thy c tnh th (khi lon cha pht).
Li xa c cu: Ch hu ly nc lm tnh thn. Vua nghim khc th ti ca Dng H khng th
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

b qua, l php khng tha ti. Vy git Dng H l cho b ti phi trung tn. Cha bit
c bn b ti ca T k no gian xo, m b s trng pht mt k hin nhin lm phn, th l
trch k cha hn lm by m khng trng tr ci ti rnh rnh, hnh ng by. Trng pht
mt k lm loan L th oai vi bn b ti c lng gian ( T) m li c tnh thn i ca Qu
tn, Mnh tn, Thc tn, li khuyn ca Bo Vn c g l tri u.

*
3 Cha ng gin th ng t sc gin ra, cha ng pht th ng t mun pht ra.
(Lc b)

*
4 Dng ngi th trnh ng dng k mnh yu m khng thc hin.
(Hn Phi chp li y c s mt ngi hu bn (ng ra l h ln) em gic mng thy bp
khuyn V Linh Cng ng cho mt sng thn l Di T H che khut. C s ng k
trong truyn l thin Ni tr thuyt thng. Cui truyn Hn Phi thm cu ny:
V Linh cng khen phi ri ui Ung T, khng dng Di T H na m dng T khng Cn, ri
ng ph bnh nh sau:
C ngi bo:
Ngi h ln kho t s chuyn nm mng by t ci o lm vua, nhng Linh cng khng
hiu ht li ca anh ta. ui Ung T, khng dng Di T H m dng T khng Cn l b ngi
mnh yu m dng ngi hin. Nhng T nc Trnh cho Khnh Kin l hin m b Khnh Kin
che lp. T Khoi nc Yn cho T Chi l hin[4] m b T Chi che lp. B ngi mnh yu m
dng ngi mnh cho l hin, cha chc khi b mt ngi ng pha trc m che mnh. K bt
tiu ng pha trc ca cha, khng nht nh l lm hi s sng sut ca cha. Nu khng thy s
sng sut cho mnh m cho ngi (mnh cho l) hin ng pha trc th t b nguy.

*
(Li) c ngi bo:
Khut o (mt ng quan i Xun Thu) thch c u, vua Vn vng thch da xng b. Hai mn
khng phi l mn ngon m hai bc hin u chung, vy hp khu v cha nht nh l ngon.
Tn Linh hu a Tham V Tut,[5] T Khoi nc Yn cho T Chi l hin, hai ngi b ti
khng phi l k s chnh trc m c hai ng tn trng, vy ngi mnh cho l hin v tt hin.
Dng ngi mnh cho l hin m thc ra khng hin th cng nh dng ngi mnh yu, khng khc
g. Dng ngi thc s hin vi dng ngi mnh yu, hai ci khc nhau. V vy S Trang vng
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

dng Tn Thc (Ngao) (mt hin thn) m lm b ch, cn Thng Tn (tc vua Tr nh Thng)
dng Ph Trng (mt nnh thn) m b dit, hai ng vua u dng ngi mnh cho l hin m kt
qu tri ngc nhau. T Khoi nc Yn tuy c ngi ng cho l hin m ch nh dng ngi
ng yu thi. Trng hp V Linh Cng c khc g vy? Ngi h ln cha nhn ra c iu
y. Vua V b che lp m khng bit mnh b che lp, sau khi anh ta ni, vua mi bit rng mnh b
che lp, cho nn ui bn b ti che lp mnh i, nh vy l thm s sng sut cho mnh ri. Bo:
Khng thm s sng sut cho mnh, m cho ngi (mnh cho l) hin ng pha trc che mnh
th tt b nguy (li ng); nhng nay vua V thm s sng sut cho mnh ri, th d b (ngi
mi dng) che lp mnh, tt khng b nguy na.

[1] Sau Dng H qua Triu, c Triu Gin ch trng dng. Coi truyn 2c, thin XXXIII, Ngoi
tr thuyt t h.
[2][3] Cc nh hiu ch u cho rng phi thm nh vy mi ngha. Coi [3] s thy.
[4] Coi ch thch thin VII Nh kinh cha r truyn T v Khnh Kin.
[5] Cha r l ai.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XXII
THUYT LM THNG (Trch)
(RNG MU M - PHN TRN)

Thuyt lm c th hiu l rng truyn, rng c s; chng ti dch l Rng mu m v thin ny


cng nh thin sau, (Thuyt lm h), (m mi hc gi u nhn l ca Hn Phi) chp ton nhng

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

mu m ca ngi trc, a s l chnh tr gia, mt s t l ngi thng. Hn Phi nh u chp


y, khng sp t, phn loi, cng khng nhm mc ch chng minh hc thuyt ca ng m c h
ch tng cc nh cm quyn v c gi ca ng mt ci ti thut ca c nhn thi.
Thin ny gm 34 truyn, thin sau gm 37 truyn, tng cng l 71 truyn. [1]
C mt s truyn chp c,
+ Trong Chin Quc sch, nh:
Truyn XXII.8 tc truyn Ngy sch 1.1 (Chin Quc sch, L Bi 1972)
- XXII 10 - Tng sch -1 nt.
- XXII 13 - ng Chu sch 10 nt.
- XXII 17 - S sch IV 8 nt.
- XXII 22 - Ngy sch 122 nt.
- XXII 28 8 - Ngy sch 11.13 nt.
- XXII 34 - T sch 1.3 nt.
+ Hoc trong Lit t, nh: Truyn XXII.31 tc truyn Lit t II 16 (Lit t - Dng t - L Bi
1972)
- XXII.9 - Lit t VIII 24 nt.
Nhng truyn trng nhau chp gn y ht nhau, ch khc nhau t ch, khng r sch no chp ca
sch no.
Chng ti b khng dch li nhng truyn , tr truyn XXII.10, v ch trch trong thin ny 8
truyn gii thiu vi c gi, v cho c hai thin u khng quan trng, ch ng coi l phn ph
lc thi. Chng ti nh s tng truyn cho d kim.
*
1. Thang dit nh H (vua Kit), s mang ting l tham nn (lm b) em thin h nhng cho
(mt n s l) V Quang, nhng s V Quang nhn, li sai ngi thuyt V Quang: Thang git vua
m mun gieo ting xu cho ng y. Do , V Quang nhy xung sng t t[2].
2. Tn V vng bo Cam Mu t la ly cho mnh mt trong hai chc: bc (mt chc hu cn)
hay hnh (s thn). Mnh Mo khuyn Cam Mu[3]:
- ng nn xin lm quan bc. S trng ca ng l i s. Tuy ng gi chc bc, nh vua cng s
sai ng i s; m ng va cm n quan bc va lm vic ca quan hnh, nh vy l kim c hai
chc.
5. Nc Tn nh nc Hnh, T Hon Cng mun cu; Bo Thc tu:[4]
- Cn sm qu! Nc Hnh khng mt th nc Tn khng mt, Tn khng mt th T khng c
trng. V li ci cng cu mt nc nguy khng ln bng ci c phc hng mt nc mt. Tt
hn, i vng nn chm cu nc Hnh lm cho nc Tn mt, i cho Hnh mt ri, phc hng
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

li cho; nh vy xt v thc l c li m xt v danh li cng tt.


Hon Cng khng cu Hnh na.
10. T nh Tng. Tng sai Tang Tn t xung pha Nam cu cu vi nc Kinh (S). Vua Kinh rt
mng, ha s tn lc gip. Tang Tn t lo lng ra v, ngi nh xe thy vy hi:
- Vic cu cu c kt qu m sao ngi li c v lo lng?
Tang Tn t p:
- Tng nh m T ln. Cu nc Tng nh m cho nc T ln ght, iu ai cng ly lm lo
m vua Kinh li mng, chc ng ta (ha ho) chng ta kin tm chng c. Chng ta kin tm
chng c, (T?) s mt; l iu c li cho Kinh.
Tang Tn t v nc. (Qu nhin) T chim nm thnh ca Tng ri m Kinh vn cha em qun
cu.
16. Qun Trng v Thp Bng[5] theo T Hon Cng i nh nc C Trc. Ma xun i, ma
ng v, qun ng lc li. Qun Trng bo:
- C th dng tr nh ca con nga gi c.
H bn th con nga gi i trc ri theo n m tm c ng v. Ti mt ch trong ni, thiu
nc, Thp Bng bo:
- Loi kin, ma ng pha nam ca ni (v c nh nng, m p), ma h pha Bc ca ni (v c
bng mt). Ch no kin cao mt tc, o xung mt nhn (8 thc thi ) th c nc.
H cho o v c nc.
Qun Trng l bc thnh, Thp Bng l bc tr, m c iu khng bit cng khng ngi hc con nga
gi v loi kin. Ngy nay, ngi ta khng bit rng mnh ngu hc ci sng sut ca thnh nhn,
chng l lm ln ?
26. Vua Tr ung ru sut m[6], vui say[7] khng bit ngy no na, hi k t hu, khng k no
bit, bn sai ngi hi C t[8]. C t ni vi mn :
- Lm cha thin h m ti ni c nc khng ai bit ngy, nh vy thin h nguy ri. C nc
khng ai bit m ta bit th ta cng nguy ri.
Ri ng ly c l say cng khng bit ngy.
30. Thp T Di (mt v quan nc T) li thm in Thnh t[9], in Thnh t cng ng ta ln lu
ngm cnh bn pha. Ba pha u trng, duy c pha Nam l b cy nh Thp t che khut. in
Thnh t khng ni g. Thp t sai ngi n cy , mi cht c vi nht th ng ta bo thi.
Ngi qun gia hi sao i nh vy. ng ta p:
- Ngi xa c ngn ng ny: Bit c trong vc su l iu bt tng. H in ng mu tnh
i s[10] m ti t cho ng ta thy rng ti hiu c n ca ng th ti tt nguy. Khng n cy
ny, cha phi l c ti, m bit c iu ngi ta khng ni ra mi l ti ln.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Bn thi khng n cy na.


32. Mt ngi nc V g con gi, dy n: Con phi gp nht ca ring, nghen. Lm v ngi ta
m b ui v l chuyn thng; sng vi nhau ti gi mi l chuyn him c. Ngi con nghe li,
gom gp ca ring, m chng cho l qu lo vic ring t, ui c ta v. Lc v nh tin ca c ta gp
bi lc v nh chng. Ngi cha khng t nhn rng mnh dy con sai m cn t c rng mnh
khn, lm giu thm c. Ngy nay bn b ti lm vic quan u mt loi nh vy.

[1] Vi truyn l ng ngn hoc danh ngn.


[2] Truyn thuyt truyn ngi ny khng chc c thc, v c nhiu sch nhc ti; nhng ch Hn
Phi l cho rng Thang khng thc tm, ch lm b nhng thi v dng thut .
[3] Cam Mu l t tha tng ca Tn V Vng, Mnh Mo lm x nhn, thuc quyn Cam Mu.
[4] Hnh l mt nc nh tnh Trc L ngy nay. Bo Thc l bn thn ca Qun Trng (Coi tiu
s Qun Trng trong phn nht).
[5] Mt b ti gii ca Hon Cng.
[6] Tng truyn vua Tr trong cung, ng ca, t c dm lc, ly 120 ngy lm mt
m, v vy m qun ngy.
[7] C bn chp l cu (s). Ch cu vi ch hoan (vui) hi ging nhau.
[8] C t l ch vua Tr, can Tr khng c, gi in, lm tn n l. Chu V Vng dit Tr ri,
phong ng lm vua Triu Tin.
[9] in Thnh t hay in Thnh, in Thng, in Hng, hay Trn Hng i Xun Thu, lm
i phu triu T Gin cng, git Gin Cng lp Bnh Cng. Sau con chu ng ta cp ngi nc
T.
[10] m ch vic in Thnh t mu git Gin Cng. Coi thm ch thch thin XXXIV, Ngoi tr
thuyt hu thng.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XXIII
THUYT LM H (Trch)
(RNG MU M - PHN DI)

1.

B Lc dy hai ngi coi tng nhng con nga hay , dt h li chung nga ca

Triu Gin t. Mt ngi la mt con nga hay a ra, cn ngi kia i theo sau ba ln v vo
ch xng ct mng ca con nga, nhng n khng ; ngi la nga t cho rng mnh coi
tng nga sai. Ngi kia bo: Anh coi khng sai u, n hay y nhng vai ngn m u gi
sng. Nga khi th ct chn sau ln m chn trc phi chu tt c sc nng; u gi n sng th
lm sao chu c, cho nn chn sau khng ct ln c. Anh gii coi tng nga nhng d coi u
gi sng. Vic g cng c l do, m ch bc tr gi mi bit rng u gi sng th khng chu c
sc nng. Hu t[1] bo: Nht con vn vo ci th n khng khc g con heo. H ci th bt li
th khng t c kh nng ca mnh.
2.

Hon Hch[2] ni: Php tc tng th mi nn cho ln, mt cho nh v mi ln th c

th c li cho nh, ch nh th khng lm cho ln ln c; cn mt nh th c th c li cho


ln, ch ln th khng th lm cho nh li c. Lm vic g khc cng vy, h vic lm ri, sau
sa li c th t khi tht bi.
8.

Quan thi t nc Tng quyn ln m chuyn chnh. Qu t[3] sp yt kin vua Tng.

Lng t[4] hay tin bo Qu t: Trong khi hu chuyn vua, tt phi c quan thi t cng ngi nghe
ch? Nu khng th ng kh trnh c ha y. Qu t bn khuyn vua Tng nn trng sc kho,
ng quan tm qu n vic nc.
16. Ba con b cht (sng bm vo con heo) sp i kin nhau. Mt con khc i ngang qua, hi: Kin
nhau v vic g vy? Ba con kia p: V tranh nhau ch bo b. Con th t bo: Cc anh khng
lo ngy t chp[5] ti, ngi ta t c mao thui con heo ? M cn tranh nhau na? Ba con kia
nghe vy bn xm nhau ht mu con heo (cho tht nhiu); con heo gy i, khi b git.
24. Chu To hi Cung Tha[6]:
- Xin ng v ti m tu vi vua T rng nu vua T gip ti lm quan Ngy th ti xin lm cho
Ngy s phi th T.
Cung Tha bo:
- Khng c. Nh vy t rng ng khng c th lc g Ngy, vua T tt khng gip mt ngi
khng c th lc g Ngy kt on vi mt ngi khc c th lc Ngy. Tt hn ng nn
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ni: Nh vua mun th thn xin thuyt nc Ngy th nh vua. Nh vy vua T cho rng ng
c th lc Ngy, tt ng ng. Rt cuc ng c th lc T, ri nh T m c th lc Ngy na.
27. Vua nc Kinh (S) nh nc Ng. Vua Ng sai bt T V Qu Dung[7] khao qun Kinh.
Tng nc Kinh bo: Bt tri hn ly mu thoa trng. (Khi bt ri) ng ta hi (T V Qu
Dung): Ngi c bi ri mi i khng?
p
- C
- Qu tt khng?
- Tt
Ngi nc Kinh hi
- Nay Tng nc Kinh sp ly mu ch thoa trng, qu tt ch no?
p:
-

Chnh v vy m qu tt y. Nc Ng sai ngi qua y xem tng Kinh c gin hay khng.

Nu tng qun gin th nc Ng s o ho cho su thm, p ly cho cao thm; nu khng gin
th nc Ng s thng thng. Nay tng qun git ti th nc Ng s phng th gt. V qu bi
cho c nc, khng phi cho mt b ti. Git mt b ti cn c nc c bo tn, th sao khng gi
l tt c? Li thm, nu k cht ri khng bit g na th ly mu ti bi trng c ch g u; nu
cht ri m cn bit th trong khi lm chin, ti s lm cho trng khng ku.
Ngi Kinh nghe vy thi khng git ng ta.
32. T nh L, i ci nh t Sm. L a mt ci nh gi qua. Ngi T bo: nh gi.
Ngi L ci: nh tht. Ngi T bo: Mi ng Nhc Chnh T Xun[8] sang y, chng ti
s tin li ng y. Vua L cho mi Nhc Chnh T Xun, ng hi: Sao khng dm a ci nh tht
qua? Nh vua bo: Ta qu ci . ng p: Thn cng qu ci tn ngha ca thn vy.
37. Ngi nc Trnh c mt cu con sp i xa[9]. Trc khi i, cu ta dn ngi nh: Phi sa bc
tng h k bt lng khi v trm. Mt ngi hng xm cng ni vy. Cha kp sa tng th
qu nhin b trm ri. Ngi nc Trnh cho con mnh l khn m ng hng xm l k trm.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

[1] Tc Hu Thi, mt trit gia ng thi vi Trang t, lm tng quc cho Lng Hu Vng.
[2][3][4] Ba nhn vt: Hon Hch, Qu t, Lng t ny khng r l ai.
[5] Mt ngy t l ch thn trong tit ng ch.
[6] Chu To: ch bit l mt ngi nc Ngy - Cung Tha l mt mu thn nc T.
[7] Ch bit l b ti nc Ng.
[8] Ngi nc L, hc tr ng Tng t ni ting l hin s.
[9] Nguyn vn l hon. C sch ging l i lm quan, hoc i du hc. Truyn ny trong thin Thu
nn chp l ngi nc Tng.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XLI
VN BIN.
(HI V S TRANH BIN)

C ngi hi:
-

Do u m c s tranh bin?

p:
-

Do b trn (vua cha) khng sng sut.

Li hi:
-

Ti sao b trn khng sng sut m li sinh ra tranh bin?

p:
-

Trong nc ca mt v minh qun th lnh l li ni rt qu, php lut l rt thch

ng. Li khng th c hai cng qu[1], php lut khng th c hai cng thch ng. Cho nn li ni
v vic lm m khng theo php lnh th phi cm. Nu c ngi no (bo) khng theo php lnh m
c th i ph vi s gian tr, thch ng vi s bin ng, mu li, d on c s tnh th bc vua
cha nn thu np li ngi m xt xem c thc t khng. Li ni ca h m thch ng th thng
ln,[2] khng thch ng th pht nng. Nh vy ngi ngu s ti m khng dm ni (by), ngi
thng minh khng ci l, do m khng c s tranh bin. i lon th khng vy. Vua ban lnh m
dn ly vn hc ch bai, cng s c php lut m dn ly hnh ng ring sa php lut theo
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

mnh; vua lm lon php lnh m trng tr lc, hnh vi ca bn hc gi, v vy mi c nhiu vn
hc. Phm li ni v hnh vi phi ly cng dng lm tiu chun. Mi mi tn cho tht bn ri ly bn
cn th th no mi tn cng trng mt si lng ma thu (lng t), nhng nh vy khng th bo l
bn gii c, v khng c ci ch nht nh. t mt ci ch rng nm tc, ng cch xa trm
bc th nu khng phi l Ngh v Phng Mng[3] tt bn khng trng c, v phi nhm mt ci
ch nht nh. Cho nn nhm ch nht nh, th ch rng ti nm tc m bn c nh Ngh v
Phng Mng l kho ri; khng c ch nht nh m bn cn th d trng mi ci lng ma thu
cng l vng. Nay nghe li ni, xt hnh vi (ca ai) m khng ly cng dng lm tiu chun th li
tuy rt tinh thm, hnh vi tuy rt kin cng, cng ch l li ni cn (vic lm cn) thi. Cho nn thi
lon th ngi ta cho li kh hiu l tinh thm, cho s uyn bc l hng bin; xt hnh vi th ngi ta
cho s xa ri qun chng l hin minh, cho s phm thng l cao ngo. Bc vua cha thch li tinh
thm, hng bin, trng hnh vi hin minh, cao ngo, cho nn tuy c ngi lp ra php lut, nh hnh
vi no nn gi nn b, phn bit li no phi li no tri, (ti ch ny chc sp ch thiu?) nn k
mc o nh Nho v bn eo kim (hip khch) mi ng, nng phu v chin s mi t, li lun v
chc, trng, khng c chiu dy"[4] mi ni ln mnh, m php lnh ca quc gia khng cn. V
vy m ti bo rng b trn khng sng sut th sinh ra tranh bin.

[1] Ngha l v mt vic ra lnh th phi theo, ch khng th va theo lnh va theo mt mnh
lnh ngc hoc khc hn.
[2] Nguyn vn: hu i li = c li ln (cho ngi ni), tc l ngi s c thng.
[3] Hai ngi bn gii thi xa Phng Mng l hc tr ca Ngh. Nhiu ngi c l Bng Mng
hoc Bng Mng, nhng li c ny b cc hc gi Nhn S C v Nguyn Nguyn bc.
[4] ) Cng Tn Long tch ri ci cng v ci trng (li kin bch) Nh phin trng, lc th ta thy
n trng m khng thy n chc, lc th thy n chc m khng thy n trng, thy ci n, khng
thy ci kia, nh vy l ci n la ci kia, khng cha ci kia.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

Hu Thi bo: ci khng c chiu dy th khng chng cht ln c, vy m n ln ti ngn dm (v


hu, bt kh tch d, k i thin l).
Coi thin Thin h trong Trang t. Khng r Hu Thi (mt nh ngy bin cng nh Cng Tn Long)
mun ni g. C ngi khng chm cu sau ch hu v ging l: khng c ci g c chiu dy m
khng chng cht ln c, cht hoi n s ln ti ngn dm.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XII
THU NN
(DU THUYT KH)

1.

Du thuyt kh ch hiu c tm l i phng[1]

Du thuyt kh, nhng khng kh ch tr thc ca ta thuyt phc c vua cha hay khng,
cng khng kh ch khu ti ca ta pht biu c r ca ta hay khng, cng khng kh ch ta
dm tung honh phng dt din ht ca ta hay khng, m kh ch hiu c tm l i phng
cho li chng ta hp vi tnh ca h. Nh i phng ngh ti danh d thanh cao m ta em ti
li ra thuyt th tt h cho ta l b lu, t cch hn m khng dng ta, xa lnh ta. Nu i phng
ngh ti ti li m ta em danh d thanh cao thuyt th h cho ta l khng bit thi th, khng hiu
st s tnh, tt khng thu dng ta. i phng trong lng thch ti li m ngoi mt b thch danh d
cao, nu ta em danh d thanh cao ra thuyt th b ngoi h thu dng ta m thc tm xa lnh ta; nu
ta em ti li ra thuyt th b trong h dng li ta m b ngoi xa lnh ta. Nhng iu khng th
khng xt c.

2.

Nhng iu nn trnh khi nguy him ti thn.

Vic lm phi kn o mi thnh cng, li ni v tit lu m tht bi. Khng nht nh l mnh c
tit lu ra, c khi ch v v tnh ni n iu i phng mun giu m thn cng nguy ri. i
phng b ngoi lm vic m thc s nhm mc ch khc, k du thuyt khng nhng bit vic
mu tnh ca h li cn bit h v l g m lm nh vy, th l thn s nguy. Mnh gip h lp k
hoch v mt vic c bit no m tha ng, c k thng minh ngoi d xt bit c, vic tit
lu ra, h s cho l chnh mnh tit lu, nh vy thn s nguy. Tnh cha thn, n hu cha thm
nhun, m ni ht ra nh ch cc thn vi nhau, nu kin ca mnh c thi hnh m thnh cng
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

th ri mnh cng b qun; cn nu nh kin ca mnh thi hnh khng c m tht bi th s b


nghi, nh vy thn s nguy. Bc qu nhn c iu lm li m k du thuyt em l ngha ra bn che
ci c ca h, nh vy thn s nguy. Bc qu nhn c ngi ta by cho mt mu k no m thch,
coi l cng ca mnh, k du thuyt bit r u ui, nh vy thn s nguy. p buc h lm mt
vic m h khng lm c, ngn cn khng cho h lm mt vic m h khng th khng lm, nh
vy thn s nguy. Cng ph bnh vi h v cc i thn ca h th h cho l mnh c lng li gin bn
h vi nhau; cng ph bnh vi h v hng quan nh ca h th h cho rng mnh c yu m lng
quyn. Ph bnh nhng ngi h yu th h cho rng mnh mun nh cy bn ; ph bnh nhng k
h ght th h cho rng mnh mun d xt lng h. Li ca mnh thng tut m vn tt th h cho l
mnh bt tr, vng v; cn nh mnh bin bc t toi th h cho l mnh rm r, t im. By t s
tnh, kin mt cch s lc th h bo mnh nht nht, khng dm ni ht; suy xt k s tnh v
trnh by mt cch phng tng th h bo mnh l mng, khinh mn. l nhng ch kh khn trong
s du thuyt, khng th khng bit c.
3.

Nhng thut thnh cng.

iu ct yu ca php du thuyt l bit t im ci m i phng khoe khoang t ph v che giu


ci i phng ly lm h thn. H gp mun lm mt vic th phi thuyt sao cho vic ring
thnh ra ngha chung m khuyn khch h lm. Trong h, h cho vic l hn nhng khng
th khng lm c th k du thuyt phi t im sao cho vic ha ra p , nu khng lm th
ng tic. Trong lng h cho vic l cao thng nhng thc t h khng lm c, k du thuyt
phi vch r ch hng ca vic (cho?) h thy n xu, ri khen rng khng lm l sng sut. H
mun khoe tr th k cho h nghe nhiu vic khc ng loi vi vic h nh lm h tham kho
c rng, khin cho h dng kin ngh ca ta m ta c gi nh khng bit, h khng ng rng
mnh m tr cho h. Mun dng ci rng i bn (h v ngi khc) nn chung sng vi nhau
th phi khen rng hnh ng nh vy s c ting tt m ng thi m ch rng cng hp vi t li
ca h na; mun by t s nguy hi th cho h thy rng nh vy s b ph bng m ng thi m
ch rng c hi ring cho h na. Nn khen nhng ngi hnh vi ging hnh vi ca h, mu tnh
nhng vic ging vic ca h. Nu c k no cng d dy nh h th nn t im cho l khng c g
thng phong bi tc; c k no cng tht loi nh h th nn t r rng k khng h lm ln. Nu
h t nhn rng nng lc di do th ng em nhng ni kh khn ra lm nht ch ca h;[2] nu h
t cho l quyt on hn ngi th ng vch nhng lm ln ca h cho h gin, nu h cho rng
mu tnh sng sut th ng em s tht bi ra nn lng h. ng tri vi ch ca h, ng xung
t trong li ni vi h, nh vy ri mi em ht ti tr ra trn thuyt. l ci php lm cho h
thn cn, khng hoi nghi, ri mi c th ht li thuyt phc h c.
Y Don lm u bp, Bch L H[3] lm ti mi, u l v mun b trn bit ti mnh. Hai ng
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

u l bc thnh m cn lm nhng vic ti tin cu tin thn, xu xa nh vy . Nay ta lm tn


u bp hay k ti mi m c th c vua cha lng nghe li ta, dng mu ta cu i th c g
ng xu h cho hng s c ti nng u. Trn di gn nhau lu ngy, tnh thn thit m n
trch thm nhun, bn nhng k hoch su sc m khng b nghi ng, tranh bin m khng b ti,
lc ta mi c th phn tch li hi lp s nghip cho vua, ni thng iu phi tri sa c
hnh ca vua; vua ti i i vi nhau c nh vy l ta thnh cng trong s du thuyt.
4.

Dn c s chng minh.

Xa kia Trnh V Cng mun nh nc H, mi u em con gi g cho vua H lm cho vua


H vui lng. Ri hi qun thn: Trm mun dng binh th nc no nn nh? Quan i phu l
Quan K T bo: Nn nh nc H. V Cng gin, sai em git Quan K T, bo: H l nc
anh em, sao nh ngi li bo nn nh? Vua H nghe chuyn , cho l nc Trnh thn vi mnh,
khng phng, qun Trnh nh p m chim c.
Nc Tng c mt nh giu, tri ma, tng . Ngi con ni Khng xy li th s b trm. Cha
ngi hng xm cng ni nh vy. Ti, qu nhin mt trm ln; ngi trong nh rt khen ngi con
l khn ngoan m nghi cha ngi hng xm.
Li hai ngi ni u ng c m nng (Quan K T) th b git, nh (cha ngi hng xm) th b
nghi, vy thy: bit khng phi l kh, bit dng ci bit mi kh. Cho nn li on ca Nhiu
Triu[4]rt xc ng, ngi nc Tng coi ng l bc thnh m ngi nc Tn coi ng l v
dng[5]. iu khng th khng xt c.
5.

Phi xem vua yu hay ght mnh; ng lm tri vua.

Xa Di T H c vua V yu. Theo php nc V, h ln nh xe ca vua th b ti cht chn. M


Di T H au, c ngi hay tin, ng m bo cho Di T H; Di T H truyn lnh gi ri ngi xe
vua ra khi cung. Vua hay c khen: Thc c hiu, v m m qun ti cht chn. Mt hm khc,
Di T H cng do trong vn vi vua, n mt tri o, thy ngt, ly na tri o n d t cho
vua. Vua bo: Thc l yu ta. Qun ming ngon m t cho ta. n khi dung nhan Di T H suy
km, tnh yu ca vua li l, c ti vi vua, vua bo: N t tin ln ngi xe ca ta, li t cho ta
tri o n n d. Hnh vi ca Di T H c thay i g u m trc th c khen, sau li bt ti,
ch ti lng yu ght thay i vy. Cho nn c vua yu th ti tr ha ra hp , b vua ght th ti
tr ha ra khng hp , b ti m cng ha s. Cho nn k s can gin, du thuyt, m lun, khng th
khng xt vua cha yu hay ght mnh ri sau mi nn thuyt.
Rng l con vt thun, c th ln ln m ci, nhng di hng n c nhng vy ngc chu vi rng
c thc, ai m ng ti th n s git. Bc vua cha cng c nhng vy ngc, k du thuyt m bit
ng ng ti th l tm c ri.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

[1] Chng ti chia on, nh s v t tiu cho mi on. Thin ny chng ti dch trong C
vn Trung Quc (Tao n 1966) nay sa li vi ch.
[2] Nguyn vn: khi () l ci ng gt thc, sau tr cng vic gt thc, do c ngha l lm
cho vi i.
[3] Y Don l mt t tng gii i Thng, c cng nh vua Kit, hi tr ngho, mun c tin
c ln vua Thng, phi xin lm u bp em php gia v trong thut nu n ging cho vua Thang
hiu v vng o. ch l truyn thuyt, cha ng tin.
Bch L H l mt v t tng gii nh Tn. Trc lm i phu nc Ngu, ng b bt lm t binh, sau
trn c, b nc S bt phi lm y t chn b. Tn Mc cng em nm b da d chuc ng, giao
cho vic nc. Vy ng v hon cnh m phi chn b ch khng c chn tru b cu cnh vua
Tn bit n. Tc gi dn th d hi p.
[4] Nhiu Triu l mt i phu nc Tn. Mt v cng khanh nc Tn tn l S Hi trn qua Tn,
c Tn Mc Cng trng: nc Tn thy vy sai ngi ln qua Tn thuyt phc S Hi v n S
Hi v. Nhiu Triu bit trc vic , can vua Tn, vua Tn khng nghe.
[5] Ch lc () (git) y, (vi lc Tn) theo C kim vn tuyn, nn coi l ch nhc, c ngha l
b nhc khng c vua Tn tin dng.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN III
NN NGN
(KH NI)

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Thn l Phi, khng phi l kh ni. S d kh ni l v: li ni xui tai, thn mt, hot bt, trn tru
p , c th t th b xem l hoa m, khng thnh thc; li ni n hu, cung knh, cng trc, c
chp thn trng, chu o th b xem l vng v, m ln xn; ni nhiu m tng tn dn chng, so
snh a t d b xem l trng rng, v dng; li ni tm tt, gin lc, trnh nhng php chnh m
khng t im th b xem l khi qut khng r rng; li ni ng chm ti ngi thn cn ca vua
v thu o nhn tnh th b xem l ln ngi, khng khim nhng; li ni mnh mng, qung bc
xa xi, kh lng th b xem l khoe khoang, v dng; ni nhng chuyn vt trong nh, a c
nhng con s ra th th b xem l b lu; ni m hp th tc, trnh xa khng lm pht ngi th b
xem l tham sng, nnh b trn, ni m khc th tc, khng cn nhn tnh th b xem l qui n; li
ni mn tip, hng hn nhiu vn v th b xem l t im, khng thnh tht; b ht vn hoa, ci cht
phc ni thng s vic ra th b xem l qu ma; thng dn thi th kinh in, k nhng php tc thi
xa th b xem l ch bit tng sch c. l nhng l lm cho thn l Phi kh ni m rt s st. Cho
nn o lng tuy ng v tt c theo, ngha l tuy hon b, v tt c dng. Nu i
vng khng tin li thn mun ni th (xin xem ngi i xa can vua), ti nh th b hy bng m
ti nng th b ha cht chc n mnh[1].
(Chng ti ct b on gia Hn Phi dn chng hn mt chc c nhn nh Ng T T, Khng T,
Qun Trng, Y Don, Vn Vng, T Can, Tn T, Ng Khi, Thng ng.u l bc hin ti,
trung lng, c o thut, v chng may gp mt ng vua hung bo, hn m m phi cht Cui cng
Hn Phi kt lun:)
Vy tuy l hin thnh cng khng thot cht, khng trnh khi b lng nhc. Ti sao vy? Ti kh
thuyt phc c k ngu.[2] Li ni phi th tri tai, pht , khng phi l hin nhn, thnh nhn th
khng chp nhn c. Xin i vng xt k cho.
Nhn nh : V on cui c cu Ti kh thuyt phc c k ngu nn nhiu hc gi ng rng
thin ny khng phi l mt bi biu do Hn Phi vit, m do ngi sau ngy to. Nhng c nh nh
Lon Vandermeersch (trong sch dn, trang 183) li bo chnh ging phm thng chng t
rng thin ca Hn Phi, ch nu ngi sau vit th tt khng dm cho Hn Phi mt st vua l k
ngu nh vy. V ng on rng bi biu khng phi dng ln vua Hn, m gi Tn Thy
Hong khi Hn Phi bit chc rng mnh khng thot cht, chng cn gi na. Chng ti ghi li c
hai kin. Thc h ra sao, cha dm quyt on.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

[1] Nguyn vn: i vng nhc d th bt tn, tc tiu gi d vi hy, t ph bng, i gi hon ha
tai hi t vong cp k thn. C sch ging l: nu i vng khng tin li ngi ni th ngi ni t
ra cng b cho l c hy bng, nhiu hn th b tai ha cht chc n mnh.
[2] y c bn thm 6 ch: c qun t bt thiu d; ng rng sai.

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XI
C PHN
( NI UT C N )

K s bit thut[1] tt nhn xa, xt r; khng xt r th khng thu c t tm ca k khc. K s gii


php tt cng ngh m ngay thng, khng ngay thng th khng hiu chnh c k gian. B ti
no c tun lnh (vua) m lm, theo php lut m thi hnh chc v th khng gi l trng nhn[2].
K no khng c lnh (vua) m t chuyn, lm tri php lut li cho mnh, lm hao tn ca nc
ch cho nh, dng kh lc khin c vua theo mnh, nh vy mi l trng nhn. K s bit thut,
xt r m c dng th thu c tnh m m ca trng nhn. K s gii php , ngay thng m
c dng th kiu chng c hnh vi gian t ca trng nhn. Cho nn k s bit thut, gii php
m c dng th hng b ti tn qu tt b gt ra ngoi,[3] thnh th h vi bn cm quyn th nhau
n mt mt mt cn.
Bn cm quyn m nm s thng pht th ch hu ngoi v bch quan trong triu u b h sai
khin. Ch hu khng nng ta vo h th vic khng thnh, cho nn ch quc ca tng h; bch
quan khng nh cy h th cng nghip khng tin, cho nn qun thn b h sai khin; k t hu ca
vua khng nh cy h th khng c gn vua, cho nn che giu li ca h; hng hc s khng nh
cy h th lc t, l thp[4], cho nn ni tt cho h. Bn gian thn nh bn s ym tr (ca ch
hu, qun thn, k th ca nh vua, cc hc s) m t t im cho chng. Bn trng nhn khng th
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

trung vi cha m tin c k th (tc cc k s c php thut), cc vua cha khng vt c bn s


ym tr trn m xt r bn gian thn, cho nn vua cha b che lp th i thn cng quyn cao chc
trng. Bn i thn ng cm quyn, t khi khng c tin yu, li c vua bit t lu, cho nn
n c vua, vua thch hay ght ci g h cng thch, ght ci , nh vy m tin thn. Quan
tc cao qu m b ng li ng nn c c nc khen. Cn k s gii php thut c mun yt kin
vua th li thiu tnh thn yu tin cy, khng c ci may mn c vua bit t lu, m li em li
php thut ra kiu chnh lng vua, tt lm tri vua. a v h thp, li khng b ng nn b c
lp. H l k s tnh m mun tranh vi k thn cn ca vua, tt nhin l khng thng c; h mi
ti m mun tranh vi k quen bit t lu, tt nhin l khng thng c; h lm tri vua m mun
tranh vi k chiu vua, tt nhin l khng thng c; h a v thp hn m mun tranh vi k
cao qu, tt nhin l khng thng c; h ch c mt ming m mun tranh vi c nc, tt nhin l
khng thng c. K s gii php thut vo nm ci th khng thng c nn c i my nm
na cng khng c yt kin vua, cn bn ng cm quyn tha nm ci th thng c kia m
sm chiu trnh by trc mt vua, nh vy th k s gii php thut do ng no m c tin c,
cn vua cha bit bao gi mi c gic ng? Th khng thng c vua m li khng sng
chung c (vi bn trng nhn); tt c k mt ngi cn, k s gii php thut lm sao khi b
nguy? Bn trng nhn nu c vu ti li cho ai th s dng php cng m git ngi ; khng th vu
c th sai ngi m st[5]. Tm li, lm sng t php lut l tri vua cha, nu khng b quan
git th tt cng cht v b m st.
Nhng k lp b ng vo ha vi nhau che lp vua, ni nhng li tri php lut mu t li th
tt c bn trng nhn tin dng; ai c th gn cho cng lao th trng nhn s tng cho quan tc cao
sang, ai c th gn cho ting tt th mn th nc ngoi m cho c qu trng. Vy che lp vua m
ha theo mt h ring (tr bn i thn t chuyn) th nu khng c chc tc vinh hin, cng
c qu trng nh th nc ngoi. Nay cc vua cha khng dng cch tham nghim[6] m trng
pht, khng i thy cng lao ri mi ban tc lc, th k s bit php thut lm sao dm liu cht
m a kin, bn gian thn lm sao chu b t li m rt lui? Thnh th vua cha cng mt a v
cn cc h ring cng c tn qu. Nc Vit tuy giu, mnh, m cc vua Trung nguyn (nh Chu,
T, L) u cho l v ch cho mnh, bo : Nc ( xa) ta khng ch ng c (c ch li g
cho ta u). Nay bc lm vua mt nc t rng dn ng, m b i thn chuyn quyn che lp th
nc cng nh nc Vit vy (v ch cho vua). Nc Vit, mnh khng ch ng c, m nc
mnh, mnh cng khng ch ng c, l ch ging nhau; vy m nc Vit th mnh bit l v
ch cho mnh, cn nc mnh th mnh li khng bit vy, th l khng bit xt s ging nhau
u[7]. Ngi ta bo nc T mt, khng phi v t v thnh mt, m v h L mt quyn m quyn
v h in ht[8]. Ngi ta bo nc Tn mt cng khng phi v t v thnh mt, m v h C[9]
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

mt quyn m su quan khanh chuyn quyn. Nay i thn cm quyn c on m cha trn
khng bit thu quyn li, tc l khng sng sut. Mc cng bnh vi mt ngi cht th khng sao
sng c; cng c nhng hnh vi vi mt nc mt th nc cng khng sao cn c. Theo du
vt ca T, Tn m mong cho nc yn n tn ti, l iu khng th c.
Php v thut kh thi hnh c, khng phi ch nhng nc vn c xe (nc ln) mi vy, m cc
nc ngn c xe (nc nh) cng vy. K t hu ca bc vua cha khng nht nh l ngi tr; bc
vua cha nghe li c hay ca ngi tr, ri em li bn vi k t hu, nh vy l cng vi
ngi ngu lun v ngi tr[10]; bc vua cha thy hnh vi ca ngi hin m trng, ri em hnh vi
bn vi k t hu, nh vy l cng vi k cn d lun v ngi hin. K hoch ca ngi tr phi
do ngi ngu quyt nh, hnh vi ca ngi hin phi do k gn d ph phn, th k s tr mu v
hin ly lm xu h m li bn ca bc vua cha sai lm ht. B ti m mun c lm quan, th
hng s c c hnh phi sa mnh cho lim khit, hng s c tr mu phi luyn ti bin lun tin
nghip, ch khng th dng ca ci t lt v th ngi; ch trng vo c lim khit, ti bin lun
ca mnh, m li khng chu b cong php lut tr nc, nh vy khng th th k t hu ca vua
cha, khng tha mn yu cu ca chng c. Bn t hu c c khng c nh B Di[11], yu
sch (k s) khng c, khng c (k s) t lt, tt khng k g ti cng sa mnh cho lim khit,
luyn ti bin lun cho hn ngi ca k s m ch hy bng, vu oan cho h thi. Th l ci cng
luyn ti bin lun ha cng toi, ci c lim khit b hy bng, rt cuc k s hin, tr b b ri m
s sng sut ca vua cha b che lp. Khng xt cng lao nhiu t m phn on v ti tr, c hnh,
khng dng cch kho nghim thm xt ti li, ch nghe li k t hu thn cn, nh vy, triu
nh tt y k bt ti m bn ngu xun tham nm ht cc chc v. Mi lo ca nc c vn c xe l
i thn c quyn ln qu; mi lo ca nc c ngn c xe l k t hu c tin dng qu; l
nhng mi lo chung ca cc bc vua cha. (Ti nng ni th) b ti c ti nng ca b ti m vua
cha cng c li ln ca vua cha.
Ci li ca vua cha v b ti vn khc nhau. Sao bit c iu y? p: Ci li ca vua cha
ch k no c ti th giao cho quan chc, cn ci li ca b ti ch mnh v ti m c lm quan;
ci li ca vua cha ch ai c cng lao th mi thng cho tc lc, cn ci li ca b ti ch
mnh khng c cng m cng c giu sang; ci li ca vua cha ch khin cho ho kit tr ht
ti nng, cn ci li ca b ti ch kt b ng m mu t li. Do m t ai ca nc b tc
ln i[12] m t gia c giu thm, vua cha mt a v m quyn ca i thn mnh ln; vua tht th
m b ti nm quyn trong nc, vua phi xng l phin thn[13] cho nc ngoi m tng quc th
ch ph[14] (ra lnh cho qun thn), nh vy l b ti la vua mu li ring cho mnh. Cho nn
i thn cm quyn, mt khi vua c s thay i[15] m cn c sng i nh trc th mi ngi
khng chc c hai ba. Ti sao vy? Ti ti ca h ln qu. B ti c ti ln, la gt cha, ti
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

ng cht. K s c tr, thy xa, s ti cht nn khng theo chng. K s c c, lim khit, cho s
vo b vi gian thn l xu h, nn khng theo chng. Vy k i theo bn i thn ng cm
quyn, nu khng phi l ngu xun, khng s cht th tt l tham khng trnh bn gian. Bn i
thn nm hng ngi ngu xun tham trn th gt cha, di th thu li, v vt ca dn[16],
kt b ng, vo ha nhau, trm ming nh mt lm m hoc cha, bi hoi php lut lon s dn,
khin cho nc suy vong, mt ln t ai, cha b hao tn, nhc nh, ti ln lm. B ti c ti ln
m vua cha khng cm c, cng l c li ln. Khin cho trn vua c li ln, nh vy m mong
nc khng b dit vong, l iu khng th c.

[1] Nguyn vn l tri () thut chi s, c sch c l tr thut; chng ti ngh nn c l tri ng
vi nng (nng php chi s) di. C hai u l ng t ht.
[2] Hng qu tc quyn cao chc trng th cu, ch ngh ti t li.
[3] Nguyn vn: ti thng chi ngoi = phn ngoi ln dy mc tc phn phi o hoc ca b i.
[4] Nguyn vn: l ti, c sch ging l khng c thy (d) nhng l ln; ni l khng c trng
vng.
[5] Nguyn vn: d t kim nhi, cng chi = mn cy kim ring m tr i, tc l dng thch khch
tr.
[6] Xt mi mt xem c hp nhau khng ri mi quyt on.
[7] Cu ny chng ti ly m dch.
[8] H L y l hu du ca L Vng, c phong lm vua nc T. H in lm i thn T,
sau cp ngi T. Coi ch thch thin Ng .
[9] H C l h vua Chu v mt s vua ch hu: L, Tn, Trnh.
[10] Ch ny chc thiu mt cu: K t hu ca bc vua cha khng nht nh l ngi hin.
[11] Mt n s lim khit i Chu: Coi truyn B Di trong S k ca T M Thin Vn Hc ti bn
1994.
[12] V gian thn cu kt vi nc ngoi, khuyn vua ct t th nc ngoi.
[13] Nc nh chu l thuc nc ln, tc nh thuc a ca nc ln.

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

Hn Phi T

[14] Ph l th tre (hay g) lm tin. Ghi hiu lnh trn th ri ch lm hai, mt na giao cho k
tha hnh, mt na th mnh gi li.
[15] Nh khi vua cht hoc b tim ngi. C sch ging l khi vua thay i chnh sch. Trng hp
ny c th c, nhng rt him.
[16] Nguyn vn: xm ng, ngha l xm ot nh ba li bt c

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi


Hn Phi T
THIN XIII
HA TH
(H HA)

Ngi nc S l ( Bin) Ha tm c trong ni S mt khi ngc sng, em dng vua L


vng[1]. L vng sai th ngc xem. Th ngc bo ch l mt cc . L vng cho (Bin) Ha l
ni lo, ra lnh cht chn tri ng ta. Khi L vng mt, V vng[2] ni ngi, (Bin) Ha li dng
ngc ln. V vng li sai th ngc xem, th ngc li bo ch l . V vng li cho l Bin Ha
ni lo, ra lnh cht chn phi ng ta, V vng cht, Vn vng[3] ln ni ngi, (Bin) Ha m
khi ngc m khc chn ni S ba ngy m, ht nc mt th khc ra mu. Vn vng hay tin, sai
ngi hi nguyn do :
- Trong thin h c nhiu ngi b cht chn, sao m ring ng khc lc bi thm n vy ?
(Bin) Ha p :
- Ti khng au xt v b cht chn m v ni : thit l ngc m li bo l , k s ngay thng m li
bo l ni lo, ti au xt v l .
Nh vua bn sai th mi khi ngc , c mt hn ngc qu, v t tn l : ngc bch Bin Ha.

*
Chu ngc l th m nh vua mun c gp, d Bin Ha dng mt khi ngc khng tt th cng
khng hi g cho nh vua, th m phi b cht hai chn ri khi ngc mi c nhn l qu; nhn ra
c ca bu, kh nh vy . Ngy nay bc vua cha cn c php thut ngn cm qun thn, s
dn, gian t cha chc gp nh cu c ngc bch Bin Ha[4]; s d k s c o ( tc c php
thut) cha b git l v h cha dng th ngc lp nn nghip vng (tc php thut) cho vua
vy. Vua cha dng thut th i thn khng th t chuyn, k thn cn khng dm bn quyn chc;

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

qun thi hnh php lut th bn du th du thc vi quay v ngh nng, bn s du thuyt phi chu
cnh nguy him ngoi mt trn[5]. Vy th php thut l ci qun thn, s dn cho l tai ha; bc vua
cha nu khng phn i li bn bc ca i thn, khng bt chp li ch bai ca nhn dn, c lm
ng theo o th k s c php thut d cht, o[6] vn khng c chp nhn.

*
Xa Ng Khi dy[7] S iu vng v tc (tnh hnh) nc S: Quyn th ca i thn ln qu,
cc v hu c phong t nhiu qu, nh vy h p bc cha trn, ngc i dn di, nc tt
ngho m binh tt yu. Chi bng i vi con chu cc v hu c phong t, c ba i th thu tc
lc li, ti gim lng bng ca th li, b cc chc quan khng cn thit i c tin nui cc chin
s c chn v hun luyn k. iu vng mi thi hnh k hoch c mt nm th cht v Ng
Khi b cht tay chn S. Thng qun (tc Thng ng) dy Tn Hiu cng thi hnh php ng
gia v thp gia lin bo, nh no c ti, nh khc phi t co, nu khng th b lin ly; t thi th[8]
m lm r php lut; chn nhng li thnh cu ca t gia m thng nhng ngi c cng lao vi t
nc; cm bn i ni ny i ni khc xin x lm quan, hin dng nng dn v chin s. Hiu Cng
thi hnh k hoch m vua c tn sng, yn n, nc c ph cng, tm nm[9] sau cht,
Thng qun b xe x thy nc Tn. S khng dng Ng Khi m b mt t v lon. Tn thi
hnh php ca Thng qun m ph cng. Li hai ng y u ng m Ng Khi b cht chn tay.
Thng qun b xe x thy l ti sao? Ti bn i thn on[10] php thut m dn chng ght s cai
tr. i nay, i thn tham quyn, dn chng quen cnh lon cn hn Tn v S thi xa na, m
bc vua cha khng c ai nghe li phi nh iu vng, Hiu Cng, nh vy k s gii php thut
lm sao c mo him ci nguy ca hai ng y m lm sng t php thut ca mnh c? Do
m i nay mi lon m khng ai thc hin nghip b vng c.

[1], [2], [3] C sch chp l Vn vng, V vng v Thnh vng.


[4] Ch ny ng mt mt cu.
To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net

Hn Phi T

Nguyn Hin L & Gin Chi

[5] Ngha l phi nh gic, khng ni nhm na. C sch ging l bn s du thuyt khng dm ni
by v chin tranh na.
[6] o y l php thut.
[7] Nguyn vn l "gio": c l Hn Phi mun t lng knh trng Ng Khi v Thng ng.
[8] S khng chp vic ny, ch chp vic Tn Thu Hong nghe li L T m t sch thi. Thi th
l sch ca Nho gia.
[9] Mi tm nm th ng hn; chc thiu ch thp.
[10] Nguyn vn l kh php, c sch ging l kh v php thut.
Li cui: Cm n bn theo di ht cun truyn.
Ngun: http://vnthuquan.net
Pht hnh: Nguyn Kim V.
nh my: Trn Mnh Hng, tuusacqui, heo_ mapyeu , Cobe, sherlockhomes, muatrongdem,
snowqueen244, cunhoi, Ct.Ly, hoa_ sua, caufale, Chipmuck, taczan299, hai au trang, Ut cung,
tuyenduong114.
Ngun:
c bn: Ct.Ly a ln
vo ngy: 29 thng 4 nm 2009

To Ebook: Nguyn Kim V

Ngun truyn: vnthuquan.net