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Parametrics

1. Equation of parabola
2

x =4 ay

x=2 at

y=at 2
2. Points:

P ( 2 ap , a p2 )

Q(2 aq , a q 2)

Equations (memorisation not recommended)


1. Equation of tangent:

y= pxa p2

2. Intersection of tangents:

(a ( p+q ) , apq)

3. Equation normal:

x+ py=ap3 +2 ap

4. Intersection of normals:

(apq ( p+q ) , a ( p2 + pq+q 2+ 2 ) )

5. Equation of chord:

1
y ( p+q ) x +apq=0
2

6. Chord of contact from external point

x x 1=2 a( y + y 1 )

(x 1 , y 1)

Proof
1. Equation of tangent:

x 2=4 ay

y=

At x=2ap ,

dy x
=
dx 2 a

x
4a

mt=

2 ap
=p
2a

y y 1=m ( xx 1 )

ya p2 =p ( x2 ap )

ya p =px2a p

y px + a p2 =0
2. Intersection of tangents:

y px +a p2=0 ( 1 )

( 2 ) ( 1 ) :

From

yqx + a q2=0 ( 2 )

( pq ) x =a ( p2q 2 )

( pq ) x =a( pq)( p+q)

(1)

y p [ a ( p+q ) ] + a p 2=0

ya p apq+ a p =0

Intersection of tangents at

y =apq

[a ( p+ q ) , apq]

3. Equation of normal:

x 2=4 ay

y=

At x=2ap ,

m n=

1 1
=
mt
p

x
4a

mt=

dy x
=
dx 2 a
2 ap
=p
2a

y y 1=m ( xx 1 )

py +a p3=x 2 ap

ya p2 =

x + py=2 ap+ a p3

1
( x2 ap )
p

x=a( p+q)

4. Intersection of normals:

x+ py=2ap +a p3 ( 1 )

x+ qy=2 aq+ a q3 ( 2 )

y ( pq )=2 a ( pq )+ a ( p3q 3 )

( 1 ) ( 2 ) :

y ( pq )=2 a ( pq )+ a ( pq ) ( p 2+ pq+ q2 )
y =a ( p2 + pq+q 2+ 2 ) From

y=2 a+ a ( p 2+ pq+ q2 )

x+ p ( a p2 + apq+aq 2+ 2a )=2 ap+ a p3

(1)

x+ a p 3+ a p 2 q +a pq2 +2 ap=2 ap+ a p 3

x=a p 2 qap q2

x=(apq ( p+q ))

Intersection of normals at

[apq ( p+ q ) , a( p2 + pq+q 2+ 2)]

5. Equation of chord:
2

m pq =

a p a q
2ap2 aq
2

ya p =

m pq=

a ( p+ q ) ( pq )
2 a ( pq )

p+q
2
xa p apq
2

m pq=

p+ q
2

ya p =

p+q
( x2 ap )
2

p+ q
x +apq=0
2

6. Chord of contact from external point

(x 1 , y 1)

(Proof not required for

exam)
2

x =4 ay

dy x
=
At
dx 2 a

x
y=
4a

x=x 1 ,

m=

x1
2a

y y 1=

x1
( x x1 )
2a

2 ay2 a y 1=x x 1( x 1 )2
2

Sinc e ( x1 , y 1 ) lies on x =4 ay ,
2 ay2 a y 1=x x 14 a y 1

( x 1 )2=4 a y 1

2 ay+ 2 a y 1 =x x 1

x x1 =2 a( y + y 1)