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2015 , 2 (52)

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EDITORIAL BOARD
J.Amarsanaa

Academician

B.Amarsanaa

(LL.D)

J.Batzandan

(Ph.D)

J.Bayartsetseg

State Secretary, Ministry of Justice of Mongolia

B.Boldbaatar
Secretary General, the Secretariat of the State Greate
Hural of Mongolia
J.Byambadorj

(Ph.D)

D.Ganbat Chairman, the Standing Committee of Law of the State


Great Hural of Mongolia

B.Gunbileg

(Ph.D)

D.Dorligjav

Minister of Justice

Ts.Zorig Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Mongolia


O.Munkhsaikhan

(LL.D)

S.Narangerel

Academician

Ch.Unurbayar

(Ph.D)

D.Solongo (Ph.D)
Kh.Temuujin

Member of the State Great Hural of Mongolia

J.Erdenebulgan

(Ph.D)

P.Tsagaan Head, the Office of the President of Mongolia


Sh.Tsogtoo

(Ph.D)

Ch.Enkhbaatar

(Sc.D)
Editor-in-Chief
E.Batbayar
Acting Assistant Editor
B.Gonchigsumlaa
Designed by
D.Munkhjargal

State Registration Number:279


ISSN: 2226-9185
The National Legal Institute
publishes this law review five times
per year.

Address: Ulaanbaatar-46, Chingeltei District,


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Phone:+(976)-11-315735
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E-mail: lawjournal@legalinstitute.mn


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26

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- ,
(Ph.D), , .;
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60

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77


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98

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CONTENT
BEFORE CREATING A LAW
(UNDERLINE ARTICLE AND INTERVIEW)
Opportunity for Using Software for Drafting Law

Land and the Restricted Rights Related to Land

14

Some Issues on Juvenile Incarceration


N.Gantulga, (Ph.D), Dean of Court Enforcement School,
Law Enforcement University and the Colonel;
N.Batdorj, (LL.M), Senior Lecturer of Law Enforcement
University, and the Major

26

B.Amarsanaa,(LL.D), Associate Professor of Law, School of Law,


National University of Mongolia
B.Davaajav, Engineer in charge of Information and Technology,
the Constitution Tsets of Mongolia

N.Bayarmaa, Ph.D candidate, Tilburg University of the Netherlands

LEGAL THOUGHTS: REFLECTION


New Concept of the Contract

34

Regulations of Neughbours Rights and Some Considerable Issues

41

Cyber Crime: Tendencies and Types, and Forms

49

S.Doljin, (Ph.D), Professor of Civil Law Department, School of Law,


National University of Mongolia

Ts.Davkharbayar, Senior Lecturer of Civil Law Department, School of Law,


National University of Mongolia

Ts.Khurel-Ochir, Professor of Information and Computer Science Department,


School of Engineering and Applied Science, National University of Mongolia

IMPLEMENTATION OF LAW, EFFICIENCY AND PROBLEMS


Competence of Local Administration in System of Mineral Legislation

60

With Respect to Legal Regulations on State Secrets in Criminal Proceeding

70

D.Batbold, (LL.M, MPA), Professor of State and Administrative Law Department,


School of Law, National University of Mongolia

B.Batkhishig, (LL.M), Senior Officer, National Intelligence Academy of Mongolia

2015 2 (52)

Harmful Effects of Corruption and Other Official Crimes, and the


Current Challenging Issues
Ch.Jargalbaatar, Investigator of the Investigation Division, Anti-Corruption
Agency of Mongolia

77

RESEARCH OVERVIEW
Comparison of Criminal Procedure Laws: The Federal Republic of
Germany and The Republic of Korea
Summary of Research Paper of National Legal Institute

80

INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE
Improving Judicial Remedies: From Perspective of Various Countries

91

Legal Status and Responsibility of International Organization


(The Cases of International Law and Domestic Law)

98

Valerii Dmitrievich Zorkin, (Sc.D), Honorable Lawyer of the Russian


Federation, and Director of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation

E.Tuulaikhuu, Policy Researcher of the National Legal Institute



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Merril& Smith, Optimal Standardization in the Law of Property: Numerusclausus principle, 110 Yale L.J. 1 (2000-2001)
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13

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Supra note 13

Korea civil code, http://www.moleg.go.kr/english/korLawEng 2015 04 01


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emphyteose bail a construction/Erbbaurecht .
15

Korean legislation research institute, Introduction to Korean law,2012, Springer press, p. 131
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Lawrence M. Contract Law In America- A Social and economic study, New Orlenas, 2011, PP.1-5
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(intergovernmental organization),
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C.F.Amerasinghe, Principles of the institutional law of international organizations (Second Revised Edition), Cambridge University Press 2005, p.66
2

P.B. Potter, An Introduction to the Study of


International Organizations, Nabu Press 2011, pp. 3-19;
C.F.Amerasinghe, Principles of the institutional law of international organizations (Second Revised Edition), Cambridge University Press 2005, p.1; Dapo Akande, International Organizations at Malcolm D.Evans (ed.), International
Law (Third Edition), Oxford University Press 2010, p.270;
Ian Brownlie, Principles of Public International Law (Fourth
Edition), Oxford University Press 1990, p.679; Henry
G.Schermers, Niels M. Blokker, International Institutional
Law: Unity within Diversity (Fifth Revised Edition), Martinus
Nijhoff Publishers 2011, p.30 .
3


(1969)- 2.1 (i) ,
(1975)-
1(1) ,

(1986)- 1(i)
6

Henry G.Schermers, Niels M. Blokker, International Institutional Law: Unity within Diversity (Fifth Revised Edition),
Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 2011, p.30
4

34 1, 2

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8

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Finn Seyersted, Common Law of International Organizations, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 2008, p.8
10

.11


.
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(international tribunal).



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.
AS v. Iran-United States
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. 12
,

(World
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Defense Organization),
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,
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Cooperation)
. Henry G.Schermers,
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Diversity (Fifth Revised Edition), Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
2011, p.39- .
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Netherlands Yearbook of International Law(1984), No.15,


p.356
12

101


.13




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20-


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.
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Court of Justice) .
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August Reinisch, International Organizations before Domestic Courts, Cambridge University Press 2004, p.10
14

15

Ibid.

.


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16 .



.
2002 -
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(

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(Draft Articles on Responsibility of
International Organizations)-
(

)- .




.
2 2(a)




(international
legal personality)

.17



,
Peter Fischer, Die internationale Konzession (Vienna and NewYork, 1974), 321- August Reinisch,
International Organizations before Domestic Courts, Cambridge University Press 2004, p.11- .
16

Draft Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations (2011). Available at http://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/


instruments/english/draft%20articles/9_11_2011.pdf. Last
visited on 27 April 2015.
17

102

2015 2 (52)


. :
a)

;
b)
,
(
).






18 .









. ,
1949


(
-

), 1989
International Tin Council

(Maclaime Watson Co.Ltd v. International
Tin Council)


.19



First report on responsibility of international organizations
by Mr. Giorgio Gaja, Special Rapporteur, 26 March 2003,
UN DOCUMENT A/CN.4/532. Available at http://legal.un.org/ilc/documentation/english/a_cn4_532.pdf.
18

Fleur Johns, International Legal Personality, Ashgate


Publishing 2010, p.3
19

2
.
III.

1.

19 , 20




.


.
subject of
international law
international legal person20, international
legal personality
. International legal person,
subject of international law
21,
.

.
international legal personality



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. International legal
personality
,
22
International legal person (.persona jure gentium)

Codex Iuris Gentium diplomaticus (1693)
. Verzijl, Jan Hendrik
Willem, International law in historical perspective (1888),
Volume II International persons, p.2- .
20

Henry G.Schermers, Niels M. Blokker, International Institutional Law: Unity within Diversity (Fifth Revised Edition),
p.985
21

C.F.Amerasinghe, Principles of the institutional law of


international organizations (Second Revised Edition), Cambridge University Press 2005, p.1; Henry G.Schermers,
Niels M. Blokker, International Institutional Law: Unity within
Diversity (Fifth Revised Edition), p.985
22

103


.





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.24




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(2001)- 1.3
.
23

www.fabectreaty.tv/downloads/FABEC_Treaty_English_
version.pdf. Last visited on 27 April 2015.
24

104

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.





.

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.26
,

.
.


(objective legal
personality)- .
F. Seyersted .


(organ)-

.
27

()

.
G.I. Tunkin, Legal Nature of the United Nations (1966),
pp.20-25
25

Manual Rama-Montaldo, International Legal Personality


and Implied Powers of International Organizations, 44 Brit.
Y.B. Intl L. 111 (1970)
26

F. Seyersted- Objective International Personality of Intergovernmental Organizations(1964); The Legal Nature of


International Organizations (1982); Common Law of International Organizations (2008)
.
27








.


. ,
Ian Brownlie 1.

; 2.

, ,
; 3.



28 3
Dapo Akande
1.

; 2. ,
; 3.


(organ)- 29
3
. Henry
G. Schermers, Niels M. Blokker

;

(organ)- ;

30; Rudolf Bindschedler
,

( )

Ian Brownlie, Principles of Public International Law (Fourth
Edition), Oxford University Press 1990, p.679
28

Dapo Akande, International Organizations at Malcolm


D.Evans (ed.), International Law (Third Edition), Oxford University Press 2010, pp. 681-682
29

Henry G.Schermers, Niels M. Blokker, International Institutional Law: Unity within Diversity (Fifth Revised Edition),
p.20
30

105

31;August Reinisch
(

, ,


,



32),
,
33; Pastor Ridruejo
, ,
,
,
,


34

.






.
,
Rudolf Bindschedler, International Organizations. General
Aspects, in Rudolf Bernhardt (ed.), Encyclopedia of Public
International Law (Second edition. 1995), Vol.II, p.1289
31

Nordic Council


,
.


.


. Comecon ( /Council for Mutual Economic Assistance/ 1949
1991
/Organization for International Economic Cooperation/ )
, , , ,

.
32

August Reinisch, International Organizations before Domestic Courts, Cambridge University Press 2004, p.10
33

Finn Seyersted, Common Law of International Organizations, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 2008, p.8- .
34

,



.



,




, .35
,

36


.






. 1966
Manderlier v Organisation des Nations
Unies & Etat Belge ,
-, 1949 UNRRA v Daan
(1949) -,
1954 Branno v Ministry of War
- .37


,


C.F.Amerasinghe, Principles of the institutional law of
international organizations (Second Revised Edition), Cambridge University Press 2005, p.69
35


,
2 () .
,
. ,



.
36

Dapo Akande, International Organizations, in Malcolm


D.Evans (ed.), International Law (Third Edition), Oxford University Press 2010, p.277
37

106

2015 2 (52)





.

.

(1968)-

(Privy Council, Queen-inCouncil )-

.38 , JH Rayner
(Mincing Lane) Ltd v Department of Trade
and Industry
International Tin Council-



.

Oliver:
International Tin Council

.39 .


,

.

()

,

(personal law)
.


,

.
International Tin Council
v.Amalgament Inc- http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1968/48
.
2005

/http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2005/20/pdfs/ukpga_20050020_en.pdf/. 2015
04 30- .
38

JH Rayner (Mincing Lane) Ltd v. Department of Trade and


Industry (1989), in E. Lauterpacht (ed.), International Law
Report (1989)
39

:
International Tin ouncil-





- ,
. 40
.
IV.

1.






.
,

.



1949

Reparation for the Injuries suffered in the
service of the United Nations-
.

.

(
50 )


International Tin Council v.Amalgament Inc., 524 NYS 2d
(1988), p. 971
40

107




.41



,

.42



.
:

,



.





.

,
1945 6
.


.
-

, ,

.
,
,

.43
ICJ Advisory opinion on Reparation for Injuries Suffered
in the Service of the United Nations(1949), p.185. Available
at
http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?p1=3&p2=4&case=4&p3=4.
41

Sir Michael Wood, Maria Vicien-Milburn, Legal Responsibility of International Organizations in International Law (Summary of the International Law Discussion
Group meeting held at Chatham House on Thursday, 10 Feb
2011), p.2 .
42

ICJ Advisory opinion on Reparation for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations, 11 April 1949,
p.179. Available at http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.
php?p1=3&p2=4&case=4&p3=4.
43

1980-


3

. ,


?


.
,

?




.


.


.



.
,

(
,


)

?


.



.44


.

, 1999
(North Atlantic Treaty Organization)-



- 10

. -


.

.

,


.

.45
,
, ,

Arab
Organization
for
Industrialization

. Westland
Helicopters Ltd Arab British
Helicopters Company



. 1979 ,


Arab Organization for Industrialization
.

Westland
Helicopters
Ltd
,
Arab Organization for Industrialization,
Arab British Helicopters Company-
126 000 000

ICJ Preliminary Objection on the Case Concerning Legality of Use of Force (Serbia and Montenegro v. Canada), 15
December 2004. Available at http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/
files/106/8454.pdf.
45

Henry G.Schermers, Niels M. Blokker, International Institutional Law: Unity within Diversity (Fifth Revised Edition),
pp.1010-1011
44

108

2015 2 (52)

.46
Arab Organization for
Industrialization-







.
:
Arab
Organization
for
Industrialization-

4

4


.


4
,


4

.



.47
.
International
Tin
Council



23 ,

6
(The Sixth
International Tin Agreement (I.T.A.6)
. 16

(legal personality)-,
, ,
Bernard Hanotiau, The Issue of Non-Signatory States, in
the American Review of International Arbitration 2012/Vol.23
Nos. 3-4, pp.384-385
46

ICC interim award of March 5, 1984 in case No. 3879, XI


Y.B. COM. ARB. 127 (1986).
47

109

,
(
,

)
.48



,

-
.491980-

1985 10
24- International Tin
Council-


.
,

.

.

.50

,
.
,
.51



48 This agreement is available at https://treaties.un.org/doc/
Publication/UNTS/Volume%201282/volume-1282-I-21139English.pdf. Last visited on 2 May 2015.
Andrew Stumer, Liability of Member States for Acts of
International Organizations: Reconsidering the Policy Objections, Harvard International Law Review (2007)/ Vol.48/
No.2, p.559
49

50 Ibid.
R. Higgins, The legal consequences for member states
of the non-fulfilment by international organizations of their
obligations toward third parties (report), 66 Annuaire de
lInstitut de Droit International (Session of Lis bonne, Vol.
I, 1995), p.393
51

2001 -

(Responsibility of
States for Internationally Wrongful Acts) .
57

,

52 2002



.


, ,
,


.





(principle of speciality)-
.


.

.



.53

,
.54


Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts
(2001). Available at http://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/
english/draft%20articles/9_6_2001.pdf. Last visted on 30
April 2015.
52

Art.3, Draft Articles on the Responsibility of International


Organizations (2011)
53

Art.4, Draft Articles on the Responsibility of International


Organizations (2011)
54

110

2015 2 (52)

(
,
)

,
,

,
.

,



.55
-

56
.
,



. :
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;
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.


.


. 1)


, 2)

2
Art.6, Draft Articles on the Responsibility of International
Organizations (2011)
55

ICJ Advisory opinion, Difference Relating to Immunity


from Legal Process of a Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights(1999), pp.88-89
56

.57


,

( )

.58


.

. :
a)




;
b)
.59




,

,

.

.61
2
,

(an acknowledgement of the breach),
(an
expression of regret),
(a formal apology)
.62

,

(
),
.

//(restitution),
(compensation),
/
(satisfaction)
3
.60

2.




.





.
International
Tin Council-





63




Art.58, Draft Articles on the Responsibility of International


Organizations (2011)

61

Art.60, Draft Articles on the Responsibility of International


Organizations (2011)

62

57

58

Art.62.1, Draft Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations (2011)


59

Art.34, Draft Articles on the Responsibility of International


Organizations (2011)
60

111

Art.36, Draft Articles on the Responsibility of International


Organizations (2011)
Art.37, Draft Articles on the Responsibility of International
Organizations (2011)
Henry G.Schermers, Niels M. Blokker, International Institutional Law: Unity within Diversity (Fifth Revised Edition),
p.1013
63

2015 2 (52)

.64,
70 .
Kerr:

,


.

; Ralph Gibson:

International Tin Council-





; Nourse


?;


65;

Oliver:
?


.
66

, ,

,



.
67 .




(international legal personality)

.
.
:

a)
.
.


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, ,
68
;
(Court of Justice)
b)

,


69;
.



;
c)
64
Andrew Stumer, Liability of Member States for Acts of

International Organizations: Reconsidering the Policy Objections, Harvard International Law Review (2007)/ Vol.48/
.
No.2, pp.559-560
-
65
Maclaine Watson & Co.Ltd. v. Department of Trade

and Industry (1988), in E. Lauterpacht (ed.), Internation

al Law Report (1989)


66

JH Rayner (Mincing Lane) Ltd v. Department of Trade and
Industry (1989), in E. Lauterpacht (ed.), International Law

Report (1989)
.
67
Ibid.

68
Art.288 of the Treaty establishing the European Com
munity (2002). Available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/
legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:12002E/TXT& ,
from=EN. Last visited on 30 April 2015.

Art.235 of theTreaty establishing the European Community (2002).

69

112

Art.288 of theTreaty establishing the European Community (2002).


70


(
)





.





.

,


.

(
) ,





.
,



.
,


.
,


.

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113