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TC NG CA CHIN TRANH VIT NAM I VI

S PHT TRIN KINH T HN QUC (1965 - 1971))


PGS.TS. Hong Vn Hin, NCS.L Nam Trung Hiu.
Trng i hc Khoa hc Hu
TM TT: Thp nin 60 ca th k XX chng kin s pht trin mnh m ca nn kinh t Hn
Quc, t mt quc gia cn gp kh khn v nhiu mt chuyn mnh tr thnh mt trung tm sn xut
v xut khu hng ha ln ca khu vc. S vn ln ca Hn Quc l kt qu ca mt qu trnh vn
ng bn trong tch cc v c chun b k lng, ng thi chu s tc ng t nhiu nhn t bn
ngoi, trong cuc Chin tranh Vit Nam (1954 - 1975) ng vai tr quan trng nh mt cht xc
tc mnh m v kinh t. Trong bi vit ny, chng ti c gng bc u i su phn tch nhng tc
ng ngn hn cng nh di hn ca cuc Chin tranh Vit Nam i vi s pht trin kinh t Hn
Quc giai on 1965 1971, a n mt cch tip cn khc trong nghin cu k tch sng Hn.
T kha: Vit Nam, kinh t Hn Quc, vin tr, M.

Khi bn v cc nhn t khch quan tc ng n giai on ct cnh kinh t ln th nht (1961 1979) ca Hn Quc, mt s nh nghin cu nc ngoi v Vit Nam cho rng cuc Chin tranh Vit
Nam (1954 - 1975) v khch quan to iu kin thun li cho s pht trin kinh t v gii quyt mt s
vn x hi Hn Quc*. Nhng cch lun gii vn ny gia cc nh nghin cu c s khc nhau,
trong , nhiu cng trnh ch mi cp m cha c iu kin i su phn tch nhn t khch quan ny.
Vi bi vit di y, chng ti mong mun c gp phn nh vo vic phn tch tc ng ca
cuc Chin tranh Vit Nam i vi s pht trin kinh t Hn Quc trong giai on 1965 -1971.
1. Tnh hnh kinh t Hn Quc giai on 1948 - 1965 v quyt nh tham chin ti Vit Nam ca
Hn Quc
1.1.Vi nt v tnh hnh kinh t Hn Quc giai on 1948 - 1965
Ngay t khi qun i M tip qun vng t pha Nam v tuyn 38 bn o Triu Tin t tay
ngi Nht, khu vc ny tr thnh mt b phn then cht trong h thng quan h quc t thi k trt
t hai cc Yalta. Bn o Triu Tin, cng vi bn o ng Dng v khu vc Trung ng tr thnh
tuyn u xung t v tranh ginh nh hng ca hai cc, trong Lin X v M l hai i din thng
qua nhng cuc chin tranh cc b, hay cn gi l cc cuc chin tranh y nhim (proxy wars) m
Chin tranh Triu Tin (1950 - 1953) l mt in hnh. Kt qu ca cuc chin ny l tnh trng chia ct
ca bn o Triu Tin (cho n ngy nay), i km l tnh trng ph thuc ko di ca Hn Quc i vi
M trn lnh vc an ninh - quc phng v nht l kinh t cho n u thp nin 60 ca th k XX.

* Nh cc cng trnh ca Cole, Darrid v Lyman, Walden Bell v Stephanie Rosenfeld, Yoshihara Kunio,
Park Kim Ho; Trn Khnh, Hong Vn Hin...

Trc nm 1965, bt chp mi n lc ca gii cm quyn, tng lai ca nn kinh t Hn Quc


nhn chung khng c nhiu tn hiu lc quan. Vin tr M di thi Syn Man Rhee (L Tha
Vn) l yu t mang tnh sng cn m bo an sinh x hi v pht trin t nc. S ph
thuc vo vin tr M (lc ny chim ti mt na ngn sch quc gia) sn sinh ra mt nn
kinh t qu qut v yu km Hn Quc. Tc tng trng tng sn phm quc gia (GNP)
gim nhanh trong giai on 1957 1960. M hnh hng ni vi chin lc cng nghip ha
thay th nhp khu Hn Quc bn cnh nhng kt qu nht nh nh s hnh thnh mi
trng kinh t hng ha vi mt h thng php lut ring ca ngi Hn Quc, s xut hin i
ng doanh nghip dn tc v lc lng lao ng c tay ngh khngy cng bc l r nhng
hn ch. Thng mi ri vo tnh trng thiu ht, nn kinh t vn ph thuc vo nhp khu, n
nc ngoi tng v khng c kh nng tr ni. Xut khu mi ch t 1% thu nhp quc dn,
tch ly hu nh cha c v vn u t pht trin ch yu vn da vo M v nc ngoi. Tnh
hnh xut khu km dn n b sung ngoi t km, kh nng tip nhn k thut tin tin b hn
ch ko theo s tr tr, lc hu ca ngnh sn xut, c cu kinh t b mt cn i 1. Khong 1/5
ngi trong tui lao ng tht nghip to ra s bt n trm trng trong x hi. u nm 1960
cuc cch mng dn ch, cn gi l cuc cch mng sinh vin, n ra buc Tng thng Syn
Man Rhee phi t chc. Nn Cng ha th hai ca Hn Quc c thit lp ngay sau vn
khng th gii quyt n tha nhng di sn li t thi k trc, thm ch cn c kh nng y
t nc ln su vo mt cuc khng hong chnh tr ton din. Trc tnh hnh y, gii qun s
thy cn phi gp rt hnh ng bng cuc o chnh qun s.
Ngy 16/5/1961, tng Park Chung Hee tin hnh o chnh trong bi cnh Hn Quc
ang gp v vn kh khn, c bit v kinh t: Hn Quc ang trong tnh trng gn nh
hon ton sp 2 . Park Chung Hee tuyn b Nn lp php dn ch phng Ty khng hp
c vi iu kin km pht trin ca Hn Quc bin minh cho hnh ng o chnh. Park
kim sot ti chnh v cc thnh ph ln, n p cc nh chnh tr khc thng qua truy t ti
tham nhng, a tng lp doanh nhn vo tm nh hng ca nh nc (Lut 14/6). ng ra
mt ch ngha pht trin mi cho Hn Quc, tp trung mi ngun lc v sc mnh chnh tr cho
vic pht trin kinh t. thc hin mc tiu quan trng ny, Hn Quc thc hin ch ngha
t bn nh hng cho php nh nc thc hin k hoch tp trung v can thip su vo th
trng, thc hin k hoch 5 nm ln th nht (1962 1966). C nn kinh t Hn Quc nm
di s ch o ca Park thng qua y ban k hoch kinh t (EPB), ni ban hnh k hoch pht
trin kinh t v iu phi ngn sch quc gia.
Tuy nhin, nhng c gng bc u ca chnh quyn Park vn cha hiu qu, gn nh
khng t c nhng ch tiu c bn. Cc nh u t nc ngoi vn khng nh gi Hn
1

Hong Vn Hin (2008). Qu trnh pht trin kinh t - x hi cu Hn Quc (1961 - 1993) v
kinh nghim i vi Vit Nam, NXB Chnh tr Quc gia, H Ni, tr.31-35.
2

Iain Pirie (2004). The Korean Developmental State: From Dirigisme to Neo-Liberalism,
Routledge, UK, p.66.

Quc l mt a ch c trin vng tt. Bn cnh , mc d xut khu hng ha tng


trng mnh k t nm 1959, Hn Quc bt u t mt nn tng qu thp v mi cho n
nm 1963 th (xut khu hng ha) mi tr nn quan trng, tng cng hn 87 triu dollar hoc
khong 3,3% GNP3. Nguyn nhn chnh l do thiu vn, biu hin qua vic ti sn ngoi hi
ca Hn Quc, d c tng vo nm 1960, dn gim xung trong thi gian t nm 1961
n nm 1963 v s suy gim trong vin tr ca Hoa K v nhng chnh sch bnh trng ca
chnh quyn qun s 4. Mt khc l nhng hn ch v k thut - cng ngh, ngun nhn lc
p ng yu cu cng nghip ha t nc ngy cng cao
Vin tr t pha M ngy cng gim st t nn kinh t va mi hi phc ca Hn
Quc trc nhng th thch to ln. Vin tr gim cng ng thi e da s tn ti ca chnh
quyn Park Chung Hee v vin tr t lu ng vai tr chi phi nn chnh tr ca quc gia ny.
T nm 1957 n nm 1961, vin tr kinh t ca Hoa K dnh cho Hn Quc gim t 382
triu USD xung cn 192,8 triu USD mi nm. Chnh s ct gim vin tr ny gy ra s
suy thoi ca kinh t Hn Quc cui thp nin 50 ca th k XX v khin chnh quyn ca Rhee
phi ra i v chnh quyn ca Chang Myon tn ti khng c lu 5. n giai on Park
Chung Hee cm quyn, vin tr ca M ngy cng gim, ch cn chim 1% - 3% GNP Hn
Quc, th hin r t gia nhng nm 60. Thm ch c lc M cn da ct vin tr.
Khng nhn c u i t vin tr, Hn Quc buc phi tm kim ngun vn thng
qua vic vay n v thu ht u t trc tip (FDI), ch yu l t Nht Bn v M. Trong hai hnh
thc thu ht vn nc ngoi, Hn Quc ch trng nhiu vo vic vay n. Hn Quc t nm
1959 n nm 1970, ton b tin a t bn ngoi vo l 3,7 t USD, nhng c 3,4 t l
tin vay 6 m ch yu l vay n t M. Hn Quc hiu r nguy c t nhng khon vay khng
l ny v mun c mt ngun vn khc an ton v t ch hn. Park Chung Hee l ngi hiu r
iu ny khi ng cho rng: Chng ta cn tin hn bt c th g khc 7. R rng, Hn Quc cn
mt c s pht trin kinh t ni a, c bit l mt liu doping kinh t.
1.2. Quyt nh gi qun sang tham chin ti Vit Nam ca Hn Quc
Thch thc to ln trong nc gp phn thc y gii cm quyn Hn Quc ny sinh
gi qun phi hp cng vi M tham chin mt quc gia bn ngoi i li nhng li
ch kinh t t siu cng ny. Toan tnh ny tn ti kh sm: t u nm 1954, chnh ph
3

National Bureau of Economic Research (1975). Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic
Development: South Korea, NBER, p.18.
4

National Bureau of Economic Research (1975). Sd, p.1.


Iain Pirie (2004). Sd, p.66.

Bi Th Kim Hu (2010). Quan h Hn Quc Hoa K (1961 -1993), Lun n Tin s, i


hc Hu, tr. 73.
Kim Hyung-A (2004). Korea's Development under Park Chung Hee: Rapid Industrialization,
1961-1979, p.94
7

Syn Man Rhee mun gi qun sang chin trng ng Dng tham gia chng cng 8.
T duy diu hu ny xut pht mt phn t s m nh ca cuc chin tranh Triu Tin kch
thch Hn Quc tin vo hc thuyt Domino v v h nhn ra mt c hi him c ci thin
v pht trin kinh t ca t nc mnh. Nhiu ti liu chng minh Park Chung Hee sm c
gi qun sang chin trng Nam Vit Nam nhn c s hu thun trong pht trin kinh
t t pha Washington. Bin bn ghi nh mt trong nhng chuyn thm cp nh nc ln u
tin ca chnh ph Hn Quc ti th Washington vo thng 10/1961 cho thy ca
Park khi ng c Tng thng John F.Kenedy hi kin v vn Vit Nam ti Nh Trng:
Hn Quc c c triu qun c hun luyn k cng cho kiu chin tranh ny (chin tranh du
kch) Vi s ng h v gip ca Hoa K, Hn Quc s gi qun ca chnh mnh ti Vit
Nam hoc ng vin thm lnh tnh nguyn nu qun thng trc cha 9 v rng Hn Quc
sn sng gi ngay qun ti min Nam Vit Nam nu c yu cu 10. Cuc trao i trn cho
thy l do kinh t c v tr rt quan trng khi Park mc c Hn Quc c th nhn c ngoi
l ring trong chnh sch Mua hng M min Nam Vit Nam (Mt trong nhng iu kin
chnh quyn Si Gn nhn c vin tr ca M l tin vin tr ch c dng mua hng ha
ca M v qui nh 90% hng ha vin tr ca M cho chnh quyn Si Gn phi l hng ha
c xut x t M). Song John F.Kenedy t chi ngh ny, d rng Park Chung Hee
kin tr gi .
Vo thng 3/1963, trong mt cuc gp vi cc quan chc ch cht ca chnh ph, Park
tuyn b rng Trong trng hp Hoa K yu cu gi qun ti Vit Nam ng ta s bit n
(vic ny) v c hai l do kinh t v an ninh 11. C hi ca Hn Quc n khi ti mt cuc
hp bo vo cui thng 4 nm 1964, Tng thng Johnson trnh by ln u tin chnh sch
Thm c (More Flags hay Many Flags) ku gi s h tr v mt qun s t cc ng minh
cho cuc chin tranh Vit Nam. Sau Ngoi trng M Dean Rusk chnh thc nh in
i khp th gii vo ngy 1/5/196412. Ngay sau , i s Hn Quc ti M Kim Chung-yul
nhn c ch th c bit t Park Chung Hee thng qua i s Hn Quc ti Cng ha Lin
bang c Choi Duk Shin lc ny ang thm Washington yu cu Kim Chung Yul "nhn mnh
tm quan trng ca bo v min Nam Vit Nam cho cc quan chc cao cp ca chnh ph Hoa
K v ngh vi h rng chng ta s gi qun sang Vit Nam". Thng 7 cng nm, trong mt

Robert Larsen, James Lawton Collins (1985). Allied Participation in Vietnam , Department of
the Army, Washington, D.C, p.120.
9

Memorandum of Conversation (14/10/1961). National Security Files, Countries Series, Korea,


Park Visit, 11/61-12/61.
. Byung-Kook Kim, Pyng-guk Kim, Ezra F Vogel (2011). The Park Chung Hee Era: The
Transformation of South Korea , Harvard University Press, p.409
10

11

Byung-Kook Kim, Pyng-guk Kim, Ezra F Vogel (2011). Sd, p.409.

Sylvia Ellis (2004). Britain, America, and the Vietnam War, p.5 v Byung-Kook Kim, Pyngguk Kim, Ezra F Vogel (2011), Sd, p.409.
12

chuyn thm Seoul, Th trng Ngoi giao William P.Bundy thay mt chnh ph M ln u
tin chnh thc ku gi Hn Quc gi qun tham chin ti Vit Nam13.
Tuy nhin, p li li ku gi ca M, Hn Quc ch gi khong hn 2000 ngi thuc
lc lng qun y Dove Unit sang chin trng Vit Nam. Hnh ng khim tn ny l kt qu
ca vic Park vp phi s phn i t chnh trong nc do mu thun gia vic gi binh s ra
nc ngoi chin u vi s thiu ht lc lng phng th t nc. ng thi, Hn Quc
tm cch mc c nng cp Hip c phng th chung Hn Quc Hoa K nm 1954 theo
hng hai bn s t ng h tr ln nhau trong trng hp b tn cng, tc l nh Hip c Bc
i Ty Dng 14. M khng chp thun mong mun ny ca Hn Quc, ng thi mnh m
ln ting i hi Hn Quc phi gp mt chin trng min Nam Vit Nam. M va tin
hnh ku gi ln th hai vo thng 12/1964 va tm cch gy p lc vi Hn Quc v mt an
ninh quc gia, phn nh trong pht biu ca Park Chung Hee ba nm sau : Nu chng ti
hi khng quyt nh gi qun sang min Nam Vit Nam, ti cho l 2 s on chin u Hoa
K ng Hn Quc s c gi sang min Nam Vit Nammang n mt c hi khc
min Bc (Triu Tin) tn cng. D ng trc tnh hnh , Park vn cng rn nu ra 10 iu
kin M phi cam kt trc khi Hn Quc gi qun. Cc iu kin ca Park c pha M
ng thun sau hn hai thng m phn mc d iu ny lm Johnson pht . Th nhng,
vic trin khai qun tip tc b Hn Quc tr hon. Thng 4/1965, c phi vin ca tng thng
M l ng W.Averell Harriman ti Hn Quc, mang theo th ring ca Tng thng
L.Johnson gi cho Park Chung Hee ngh Hn Quc sm gi qun sang Vit Nam 15. Thng
5/1965, Park Chung Hee sang thm M theo li mi ca Tng thng L.Johnson v hai bn
tin hnh tho lun tho g nhng vn cn vng mc. Ngy 13/7/1965, M cam kt
khng ct gim qun i n tr Nam bn o Triu Tin nu khng c s tham kho trc
kin ca Hn Quc; cp thm 7 triu USD nng cp v kh cho 3 s on d b ca Hn Quc
cng nh hin i ha ton b qun i; chia s chi ph cng vi Hn Quc trong vic chuyn
qun vin chinh sang Vit Nam 16 .Mt thng sau tt c cc hot ng ngoi giao ny, 20.000
qun chin u Hn Quc (s on Mnh H) c gi sang Vit Nam.
Tuy nhin, ngay sau , nhn chuyn th st chin trng Nam Vit Nam ca B trng
Quc phng Robert Mc.Namara vo thng 10/1965, tng Westmoreland yu cu
Washington thc gic Hn Quc gi thm qun chin u do tnh hnh chin s leo thang. M
buc phi lin lc vi pha chnh ph Hn Quc nhm dn xp cho mt t chuyn qun mi
sang chin trng Vit Nam.

13

Orlando J. Prez (2000). Post-invasion Panama: The Challenges of Democratization in the


New World Order, Lexington Books, p.49.
14

Byung-Kook Kim, Pyng-guk Kim, Ezra F Vogel (2011). Sd, p.414

15

Orlando J. Prez (2000). Sd, p.49.

16

Byung-Kook Kim, Pyng-guk Kim, Ezra F Vogel (2011). Sd, p.413

Ngy 23/2/1966, Ph Tng thng M Hubert H.Humphrey sang Seoul gp Park


Chung Hee dn xp nhng bt ng. Nhn chung, M chp nhn nhng b v tha hip
trc mi yu cu ca Hn Quc, ch tr vn nng cp Hip c phng th chung 17. D ban
u khng tha mn, pha Hn Quc sau buc phi chp nhn thc t l vn nng cp
hip c khng th t c nu nh khng c s chp thun t Quc hi M.
Nhm xoa du ng minh, Washington quyt nh gia tng thm vin tr v qun s v
kinh t. Ngy 7/3/1966, i s Winthrop G.Brown chnh thc tuyn b 14 im nhng b ca
M vi Hn Quc i li vic Hn Quc gi qun sang chin trng Vit Nam. Tuyn b ni
ting ny cn c tn l Bin bn ghi nh (ca) Brown (Brown Memorandum), sau ny
thng c cc nh s hc s dng xc quyt tnh cht nh thu ca qun i Park
Chung Hee. Trong 14 im, c cc nhng b rt c li cho s pht trin kinh t ca Hn Quc:
Chng trnh h tr qun s (MAP) cho Hn Quc s dng vic mua hng ha M m thay vo
s mua hng ha Hn Quc bng ng USD; M s mua qun nhu v dch v ca Hn Quc
cho qun i Hn Quc nu kh nng, k nng v sn lng sn xut ca Hn Quc p ng
c tin v gi c pha M yu cu; tng t, M nhng cho Hn Quc sn xut v cung
ng nhng vt cht v dch v lin quan ti nhng vin tr gip , xy dng v ti nh c
Vit Nam; cc nh thu Hn Quc s c to c hi tham gia ti thit min Nam Vit Nam v
cng nhn, k s Hn Quc s c a sang Vit Nam; M s cung cp thm nhiu qu vin
tr v h tr qun s cho Hn Quc v ng thi thm o to v h tr k thut (mt dng
vin tr nhn lc) cho Hn Quc tng cng xut khu; M s cp thm cc khon vay h
tr cho Hn Quc xut khu ti Nam Vit Nam v ng Nam cng cc d n pht trin khc;
ng h cho Hn Quc sn xut n dc v trang thit b. Ngoi ra, cn c cc h tr quan
trng v mt qun s, nh vic tng cng phng th Hn Quc v bao tiu ton b chi ph ca
lc lng vin chinh Hn Quc ti Vit Nam18. Trc nhng li ch v nhng b to ln t pha
M, Seoul ln th hai chp thun gi thm lc lng chin u sang chin trng Nam Vit
Nam vo cui nm 1966 d vn cn c nhng iu cha tha mn.
L do cho vic gi qun sang Vit Nam c Park a ra trc cng lun Hn Quc l
chng ta nhn h tr t cc quc gia khc trong qu kh, v by gi l thi khc lch s
chng ta gip li h v Hn Quc ang tr mn n o c lch s cho th gii t do 19.
S hin din ca qun i Hn Quc trn chin trng Nam Vit Nam c xem l hnh ng
a qun sang nc ngoi tham chin u tin trong lch s t nc Triu Tin ni chung v
lch s Hn Quc ni ring. Lc lng qun vin chinh Hn Quc ti Vit Nam c duy tr
thng trc vi khong 2 s on hn 47 ngn lnh, ng nht trong s 5 nc ng minh, v
c xem l nhng ngi c kinh nghim chin u v gi v thnh tho trong vic s dng
v kh tin tin ca Hoa K 20. Sau khi M tht bi nng n trong n lc khng tp vo cc
thnh ph ln ca Vit Nam Dn ch Cng ha cui nm 1972, dn ti vic k kt Hip nh
17

Byung-Kook Kim, Pyng-guk Kim, Ezra F Vogel (2011). Sd, p.418.

18

Joungwon Alexander Kim (1966). Sd, p. 34.

19

Joungwon Alexander Kim(1966). Sd, pp. 28

Paris, ngy 1/3/1972, qun i Hn Quc bt u rt qun ra khi min Nam Vit Nam sau 8
nm hin din.

Nm
1964

Bng 1: Qun i Hn Quc ti chin trng Vit Nam (1964 - 1972)


Qun thng trc
Tng s
Khng Thy qun Thnh
Tng
Lc qun Hi qun
qun
lc chin phn khc
140
140
140

1965

20,541

20,541

15,973

261

21

4,286

1966

45,605

45,605

40,534

722

54

4,295

1967

48,839

48,839

41,877

735

83

6,144

1968

49,869

49,838

42,745

785

93

6,215

31

1969

49,755

49,720

42,772

767

85

6,096

35

1970

48,510

48,478

41,503

772

107

6,096

34

1971

45,694

45,663

42,345

662

98

2,558

31

1972

37,438

37,405

36,871

411

95

28

33

Ngun: Ministry of National Defense (2004), Kunsa pynchan ynguso, Petnam


chnjaeng-gwa Hangukkun, p.196. Trch li t Remco Breuker (2009), Koreas Forgotten War:
appropriating and subverting the vietnam war in korean popular imaginings, Korean histories,
p.42.
2. Tc ng ca Chin tranh Vit Nam i vi nn kinh t Hn Quc (1965 - 1971)
Nhn chung, nhng nhng b trn ca M m ra mt giai on mi cho nn kinh t
Hn Quc trn nhiu mt, c bit l gii quyt c nhu cu bc thit v t bn cho Hn Quc,
bn cnh nng cho kinh t ca Hn Quc tham gia vo phn cng lao ng khu vc v
chuyn dch c cu kinh t hng v xut khu v tng cng pht trin cng nghip nng mt
cch thun li nht, c th l:
Th nht, vic tham gia chin tranh Vit Nam gp phn gii quyt c cn kht
vn ca nn kinh t Hn Quc.
Dng tin quan trng u tin l ngun ngoi t khng l t nhng lnh Hn Quc tham
chin ti Vit Nam. Nhng ngi lnh Hn Quc tham gia chin tranh cng M ti Vit Nam
c qun i M tr ti 5.000 USD trn mt u ngi mt nm 21. Tin lng ca mt binh
nht Hn Quc chin u Vit Nam gp 28 ln s tin h c tr trong nc 22. Ngoi ra,
Washington cng tr li tng cng vin tr kinh t v qun s cho Hn Quc vi hn 100 trm
triu USD mi nm. Trong k hoch 5 nm ln th hai (1967 - 1971), vic qun i nh thu
Jinwung Kim (2012). A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in
Conflict, Indiana University Pres, USA, p.451.
20

21

Bong Lee (2003). The Unfinished War: Korea, Algora Publishing, p.235.

22

Joungwon Alexander Kim (1966). Sd, p. 31.

Hn Quc sang xm lc Vit Nam trc tip mang v cho quc gia ny mt ngun ti chnh
v li nhun ln ti 2 t USD 23. Vn ti sao ngi Hn Quc c gng bm tr Vit Nam
c l gii trong mt cng trnh nh sau:Xc nhn ca b trng B Quc phng ch ra rng
chnh quyn Hn Quc khng th rt qun ra khi Vit Nam v Hn Quc c hng
nhng li ch kinh t khng l t vic gi qun i ti Vit Namda vo thng k t pha Hoa
K, s tin binh s Hn Quc kim c Vit Nam l khong 171 triu USD nm 1968 v 200
triu USD nm 1969. Bn cnh , c con s cho rng h tr ti chnh t pha Hoa K cho
chnh quyn Hn Quc gi thm lc lng qun s l 200 triu USD. So snh vi GNP ca
Hn Quc lc l cha ti 5,2 t USD th r rng Hn Quc khng th no rt qun ra khi
chin tranh Vit Nam24. S tin khng l ny gip to ra mt lng kiu hi to ln, ng
gp vo sc mua ca th trng trong nc cng nh to ra ngun vn to ln cho qu trinh cng
nghip ha. GNP u ngi ca Hn Quc nm 1963 ch mi l 18,161 won th n nm 1968
l 57,713 won. S tin kim c t Vit Nam tnh ra t khong 1,5 % GNP vo nm
1965, 2,2% nm 1966, v 3,7% t nm 1967 n 1969 25. Chnh nhng ngoi t mnh m Hn
Quc c c t vic tham gia chin tranh l ngun ti chnh then cht u t cng
nghip26. Bn cnh ngun ngoi t chi tr cho s c mt ca binh lnh Hn Quc chin
trng Vit Nam cng nh nhng vin tr kinh t v qun s th M to iu kin chnh tr
ht sc thun li Hn Quc c th vay thm hng trm triu USD nhng t chc ti chnh
quc t nh Ngn hng pht trin chu (ADB) vi li sut thp v thi gian di. Phn ln s
tin vay n ny Hn Quc u t di hn vo pht trin cng ngh xut khu 27. Nh vy, vn
t bn pht trin cng nghip phc v xut khu c gii quyt mt cch n tha v
mang tnh lu di.
Bng 2: Tng vin tr kinh t ca Hoa K cho Hn Quc (1964 - 1968)
(n v: USD)
Nm
1964

PL480
(vin 60.985.000
tr lng thc)

AID
(vin88,346.000
tr pht trin)

1965

59.537.000

71,904.000

1966

37.951.000

65.310.000

23

Kisung Park (2008). Sd, p. 33.

24

Remco Breuker (2009). Koreas Forgotten War: appropriating and subverting the vietnam
war in korean popular imaginings, Korean histories, p.42.
25

Sang-Dawn Lee (2003). Big Brother, Little Brother: The American Influence on Korean
Culture in the Lyndon B. Johnson Years , Lexington Books, USA, p.51.
26

Jinwung Kim (2012). A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in
Conflict, Indiana University Pres, USA, p.451.
27

Bi Th Kim Hu (2010). Sd, tr.74.

1967

44.378.000

52.640.000

1968

55.927.000

49.929.000

Ngun: The Bank of Korea, Economic Statistic Yearbook 1973, p. 214. Trch li t Sang-Dawn
Lee (2003), Big Brother, Little Brother: The American Influence on Korean Culture in the
Lyndon B. Johnson Years , Lexington Books, USA, p.65.
Th hai, M m ca nhiu th trng thng mi tim nng cho Hn Quc i
ly vic Hn Quc duy tr s hin din qun vin chinh ti Vit Nam.
y l mt s c qua c li (quid pro quo) cho nhng i qun (Hn Quc) c gi
ti Vit Nam, Hoa K ng nhp mt t l ln cc hng ha c yu cu h tr cho chnh
quyn Si Gn v qun i Hoa K n tr y t Hn Quc 28. Th trng tim nng u
tin c m rng ca n hng ha v dch v t Hn Quc chnh l min Nam Vit Nam.
Sn phm cng nghip ca Hn Quc bt u t chn vo th trng Vit Nam v ngay lp tc
ng mt vai tr v cng quan trng i vi chnh sch cng nghip ha nh hng xut khu
ca Hn Quc. Nhn nhn vn ny, nh nghin cu Iain Pirie cho rng: Chnh ci th
trng b khng ch khng b cnh tranh ny l ni cc cng ty Hn Quc bt u xut khu
sn phm cng nghip vi s lng ln. Nam Vit Nam chim ti 94,3 % xut khu thp ca
Hn Quc, 51% xut khu trang thit b vn ti, 40,8% xut khu my mc khng s dng in
v 40,9% xut khu ha cht. Gi tr thc t ca nhng xut khu ny khng ch l lin quan
ti vn tin bc m cn l ci nn tng cho s thit lp xu th i su vo cng nghip
trong nhng nm 70 ca th k 2029. Hng ha Hn Quc xut sang Vit Nam gm nhng mt
hng sau:
Bng 3: Cc mt hng xut khu ca Hn Quc sang min Nam Vit Nam (1966 - 1967)
Mt hng
Nng phm

% so vi tng gi tr % so vi tng xut khu


xut khu sang VN
ca mt hng
5,19
1,31

ung

1,7

44,3

In n v xut bn

1,5

32,84

Ch phm ha cht

0,53

40,87

Ch phm thp

45,87

94,29

My mc khng dng in

15,53

40,77

Trang thit b vn ti

9,5

51,75

Knh, t st,

3,91

32,98

Kim loi khc(ngoi st)

3,54

16,53

28

28. Iain Pirie (2004). Sd, p.66.

29

Iain Pirie (2004). Sd, p.66.

Ngun: Seiji Naya (1971), The Viet Nam war and some aspects of its economic impact on Asian
countries, The Developing Economies, Volume 9, Issue 1, p.43.
Th trng bo b tip theo l M cng c m thng thong cho cc doanh nghip
Hn Quc. Cuc chin tranh phi ngha Vit Nam trc tip to ra mt mi trng c li
cho cc cng ty Hn Quc xm nhp vo th trng Hoa K 30v Hn Quc nhn c bit
l trong chnh sch Mua hng M ca chnh ph M . Ngoi cc thnh cng bc u, vic
xut khu qua M trong giai on ny ng vai tr quan trng trong vic thit lp cc quan
h lu di gia cc c nhn, cc cng ty Hn Quc vi cc c nhn, cc cng ty M, iu ny
duy tr mc tng tc kinh t lun pht trin gia Hn Quc vi Hoa K trong sut 30
nm tip theo v sau 31. Mc d M phi chu mt s thit hi v kinh t do s bng n
nhp khu, nhng nhn chung ng thi rng tay tip nhn hng ha Hn Quc khng gy nh
hng qu nhiu ti mt nn kinh t khng l nh M. Cn i vi Hn Quc, s khi u
thun li l vng mi bo chng cho s pht trin di hn ca quc gia ny.
Th ba, vic cc th trng tim nng m ca trc tip dn ti tc ng i vi hot
ng xut khu, c bit l xut khu sn phm cng nghip vi s tng trng mnh m di
hn.
K hoch 5 nm ln th hai (1967 1971) ca Hn Quc gn nh ph hp hon ton
vi nhng iu kin thun li mi ca nn kinh t k t khi tham gia chin tranh Vit Nam. Hn
Quc ra chin lc Cng nghip ha nh hng xut khu (EOI), bao gm nhng ni dung
tp trung khuyn khch, h tr cho mc tiu xut khu. Tt c b my chnh tr v kinh t gn
nh hot ng ht cng sut cho vic y mnh cng nghip ha xut khu hng ha nhm
gi vng nhng th trng va c m ca, ch yu l th trng Vit Nam Cng ha v M.
Cc s liu cho thy Vit Nam Cng ha nhp n 94% tng s thp v 52% thit b vn ti
Hn Quc xut khu ra bn ngoi, cn xut khu ca Hn Quc sang M t nm 1964 1972
tng 21 ln: t 35,6 triu tng ln 760 triu USD 32. Bn cnh , M cn dnh cho cc cng ty
Hn Quc nhiu hp ng quan trng lin quan ti lnh vc cung ng dch v v xy dng c
bn ti min Nam Vit Nam, to tin cho xut khu xy dng tr thnh mt trong nhng mi
nhn ca nn kinh t Hn Quc trong nhng thp nin tip theo. Nn kinh t nh hng xut
khu ca Hn Quc xy dng nn mng vng chc trong nhng nm thng s khc lit ca
chin tranh Vit Nam ang ln n nh im. R rng, chin ph v nhng li ch kinh t m
M mang li l nhng ng lc quan trng chnh ph Hn Quc thc hin c c m

30

Iain Pirie (2004). Sd, p.66-67 .

31

Iain Pirie (2004). Sd, p.66-67.

32

Kisung Park (2008). Military authoritarian regimes and economic development: The ROKs
economic take-off under Park Chung Hee, Masters Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, USA, p.
33 -34.

cng nghip ha ca mnh, t h c c s c lp, dn thot khi s ph thuc qu ln v


c chnh tr v kinh t ca M.
Th t, thnh cng t chin lc cng nghip ha nh hng xut khu lin quan n
cuc chin tranh Vit Nam tc ng mnh ti c cu kinh t ca Hn Quc vi t trng cng
nghip nng ngy cng ln.
Rt nhiu cng trnh ca cc hc gi Hn Quc cng ch ra thc t ny. Theo hc gi
Jingwung Kim th: S tin to ln kim c t chin tranh Vit Nam ca lnh trng v thng
nhn Hn Quc c tc ng quan trng ti s pht trin ca kinh t Hn Quc, khi n
cung cp khn cp ngun t bn cn thit chn hng s pht trin cng nghip quc gia.
Hn Quc nhiu mu v nhn mng t c nn tng thnh vng trong cng
nghip33. Nh nghin cu Bong Lee cng nh gi tng t: Mt s tin trin khc to
cho nn kinh t Hn Quc l chin tranh Vit Nam. Vic ny to ra Hn Quc ngoi t mnh
mua c nhiu hn nhng my mc v thit b t nc ngoi 34. Nhiu nh my c xy
dng, xy ra s chuyn dch trong c cu cng nghip, t cc ngnh cng nghip mi nhn n
cc ngnh cng nghip th cp, ko lc lng lao ng t nng thn ln thnh th. Cc doanh
nghip Hn Quc, tiu biu nh tp on vn ti Hanjin v tp on xy dng Huyndai, c
to iu kin c xt khu vc v quc t, t xy dng c uy tn trn th trng quc t. V
d nh tp on Hyundai t uy tn c c t hot ng no vt khu vc ng bng Mekong
trng gi thu xy cng nc su Al Jubayl tr gi 960 triu USD ln nht th gii cho ti
thi im (tng ng 5 t USD ngy nay) Arab Saudi vo nhng nm 70. T nhng
ng vn qu bu , h tin ln tr thnh Tp on Cng nghip nng Hyundai v hin ti
tr thnh tp on ng tu ln nht th gii 35. Nn cng nghip nng ca Hn Quc bt u i
ln tm th gii trong thp nin 70 ca th k XX vi nhng Hanjin, Hyundai, Deawoo,
Samsungr rng nhn c mt s tc ng v cng su sc v mnh m t vic chnh
ph Hn Quc quyt nh cng vi M tham gia vo chin tranh xm lc Vit Nam. C th
ni, cng vi hip c bnh thng ha quan h vi Nht Bn, chin tranh Vit Nam c nh
hng quan trng khng ch i vi s tng tc kinh t v m ngn hn m cn ng vai tr
quyt nh cch Hn Quc tr nn hi nhp vi kin trc kinh t khu vc v ton cu 36.
3. Mt vi nhn xt
- Nm 1965 c l l mt nm bc ngot trong lch s Hn Quc. y l nm lc lng
qun s Hn Quc chnh thc tham chin Vit Nam, cng l nm Hn Quc bnh thng ha
quan h vi Nht Bn. C hai s kin trn l nhng nhn t ng vai tr khng nh i vi s
pht trin (mang tnh hai mt) ca Hn Quc, trc ht l trong thp nin 60, 70 ca th k
33

Jinwung Kim (2012). Sd, p.451.

34

Bong Lee (2003). Sd, p.235.

35
36

Bong Lee (2003). Sd , p.236.


Iain Pirie (2004). Sd, p.66.

trc v ng thi u chu s nh hng t chin lc ca M. Nhng chuyn bin ln trong


nm 1965 Hn Quc phc v trc tip cho chin lc ton cu ca siu cng ny vo thi
im : hnh thnh cc lin minh qun s mnh do M lnh o ngn chn ln sng
, san s trch nhim chng cng cho cc quc gia ng minh nhm gim hao tn v ngi
v ca cho M.
- Quyt nh gi qun sang tham chin Vit Nam ca chnh ph Hn Quc chu tc
ng t hai pha: mt mt xut pht t nhu cu bn trong ca Hn Quc, mt khc t nhng p
lc t pha M. Trong , p lc di thi Tng thng Johnson ng vai tr rt quan trng.
Nhng trao i v mc c trong ba nm 1964 1966 gia M v Hn Quc cho thy tnh
cht c qua c li trong tha thun gi qun nhng quan trng hn, M chp nhn nhng
nhng b v ph tn kinh t i ly vic t c mc ch chin lc v chnh tr - qun
s: quc t ha chin tranh Vit Nam. Chnh v vy bn thn chnh ph M vp phi nhng
cng kch t trong ni b do vn ny, c bit l vo cui nhng nm 60 ca th k XX khi
tnh hnh Vit Nam ngy cng tr nn xu i: nhiu kin ch trch cng ni ln trong Quc
hi Hoa K rng Hn Quc c tnh thu li t tnh hnh ng Dng nhm phc v cho
cc li ch ca bn thn. Mt vi bo co cho Quc hi tha nhn rng Hoa K cung cp
qu nhiu h tr v hng ha cho Hn Quc i ly s can d ca Hn Quc vo Vit Nam
37
.
- Cuc chin tranh Vit Nam khng nhng tc ng su sc n nn kinh t m cn
n tnh hnh an ninh, chnh tr ca Hn Quc trong thp nin 60 ca th k trc. V an ninh,
Hn Quc a qun sang Vit Nam i ly s bo m lu di ca qun i M trong vic
phng th bin gii pha Bc nhm tp trung sc mnh cho cng cuc pht trin kinh t (y l
im ging vi Nht Bn). V chnh tr, a qun sang Vit Nam v ngn hn s m bo s
vng chc ca ch cm quyn do ginh c s ng h t pha M, gii quyt c mt
khi mu thun ang ln dn trong x hi do tht nghip v ngho i.
- Mc d em li nhiu li ch to ln v kinh t cng nh chnh tr, quyt nh tham
chin Vit Nam ca Hn Quc li nhiu hu qu c tnh lu di i vi quc gia ny.
Chnh sch i mu ly dollar trong nhng nm 60 lm dy ln nhiu bt bnh v phn i
Hn Quc khi nhiu thnh phn x hi nhn ra con em ca h phi mu Vit Nam ch
yu v li ch ca M. Hn 15000 qun nhn Hn Quc t trn hoc b thng chin
trng Vit Nam, mt s kh ng khc b m nh bi hi chng chin tranh Vit Nam cho n
hin nay, li mt gnh nng x hi khng h nh. Bn cnh , cc v thm st dn thng
Vit Nam li tai ting cho qun i v chnh ph Hn Quc, ng thi nh hng tiu cc
n tnh cm gia nhn dn hai nc cng nh quan h Vit Nam Hn Quc trong mt thi
gian di, nht l giai on trc khi hai nc chnh thc thit lp quan h ngoi giao vo thng
12/1992.
TI LIU THAM KHO
37

Sung Min Kim (2002). ROK-U.S Security relations: The China factor and a turning point,
Masters Thesis, Naval postgraduate school, USA, p.30.

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1961-1979.
2.Remco Breuker (2009). Koreas Forgotten War: appropriating and subverting the vietnam
war in korean popular imaginings, Korean histories
3. Hong Vn Hin (2008). Qu trnh pht trin kinh t - x hi cu Hn Quc (1961 - 1993)
v kinh nghim i vi Vit Nam, NXB Chnh tr Quc gia, H Ni.
4. Bi Th Kim Hu (2010). Quan h Hn Quc Hoa K (1961 -1993), Lun n Tin s, i
hc Hu.
5. Sylvia Ellis (2004). Britain, America, and the Vietnam War.
6. Jinwung Kim (2012). A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in
Conflict, Indiana University Pres, USA.
7. Sung Min Kim (2002). ROK-U.S Security relations: The China factor and a turning point,
Masters Thesis, Naval postgraduate school, USA, p.30.
8. Byung-Kook Kim, Pyng-guk Kim, Ezra F Vogel (2011). The Park Chung Hee Era: The
Transformation of South Korea , Harvard University Press.
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the Army, Washington, D.C.
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11. Sang-Dawn Lee (2003). Big Brother, Little Brother: The American Influence on Korean
Culture in the Lyndon B. Johnson Years , Lexington Books, USA.
12. National Bureau of Economic Research (1975). Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic
Development: South Korea, NBER.
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Korea, Park Visit, 11/61-12/61.
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economic take-off under Park Chung Hee, Masters Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, USA.
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New World Order, Lexington Books.
16. Iain Pirie (2004). The Korean Developmental State: From Dirigisme to Neo-Liberalism,
Routledge, UK.

THE INFLUENCE OF THE VIETNAM WAR ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF


SOUTH KOREAS ECONOMY (1965 - 1971)
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hoang Van Hien, PhD candidate Le Nam Trung Hieu
Hue University of Sciences

Abstract: The 1960s experienced the rapid development of South Koreas economy from a nation
confronting a wide range of difficulties to a center of manufacturing and exporting merchandise in the
region. The rise of South Korea was the achivement caused by an active and well-prepared internal
improvement process as well as influenced by many of the external factors, in which the Vietnam War
played an important role as an economic catalyst. In this paper, we attempt to initially analyse short-term
and long-term influences of the Vietnam war on the development of South Koreas economy in the period
1965 1971, which brings about a different approach in studying miracle on the Han River.
Keywords: Vietnam, Korean economy, economic aid, USA