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Intel 8257 Programmable DMA Controller

Intel 8257 Programmable DMA Controller

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the 8257 can transfer a block of data to/from a high speed peripheral (e. informing the CPU that the operation is complete. MfM* At* - Figure 3. 8257 Block Diagram Showing DMA Channels 2-104 AFN-018400 . For example.8257/8257-5 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION General The 8257 is a programmable. which does not actually involve the transfer of data.DA- «I control signals will be generated. After being initialized by software. load the value N-1 into the low-order 14-bits of the terminal count register. which causes data to be transferred from a peripheral to memory: —• 6U* I and (3) DMA verify. between memory and a peripheral device directly. containing up to 16. and 4. a sector of data on a floppy disk) in a single "burst".384 bytes. thus preventing the transfer of data The 8257. Each channel includes two sixteen-bit registers: (1) a DMA address register. outputs the most significant eight bits of the memory address to the 8212 I/O port via.the data bus (the 8212 places these address bits on lines A8-A15). Thus. a block of DMA verify cycles might follow a block of DMA read cycles (memory to peripheral) to allow the peripheral to verify its newly acquired data. When an 8257 channel is in the DMA verify mode. it will respond the same as described for transfer operations. and (2) a termi nal count register. In general. which causes data to be transferred from memory to a peripheral: (2) DMA write. Acknowledges that requesting peripheral which is connected to the highest priority channel. such as the accumulation of a CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Code) checkword. When the specified number of data bytes have been transferred. DMA Channels The 8257 provides four separate DMA channels (labeled CH-0 to CH-3). AfSfT- RIAO' wmtc LOGIC The 8257 offers three different modes of operation: (1) DMA read. The value loaded into the low-order 14-bits of the terminal count register specifies the number of DMA cycles minus one before the Terminal Count (TC) output is activated. Both registers must be initialized (DMA) device which. The most significant two bits of the terminal count register specify the type of DMA operation for that channel. dack J MKO M4. Generates the appropriate memory and I/O read/ write control signals that cause the peripheral to receive or deposit a data byte directly from or to the addressed location in memory. a terminal count of 0 would cause the TC output to be active in the first DMA cycle for that channel. The DMA address register is loaded with the address of the first memory location to be accessed. without further intervention required of the CPU. however. as long as a peripheral maintains its DMA request. 3. The 8257 will retain control of the system bus and repeat the transfer sequence. will gain control of the system bus and will acknowledge the peripheral's DMA request for each DMA cycle. the 8257 activates its Terminal Count (TC) output.g. if N = the number of desired DMA cycles. Upon receiving a DMA transfer request from an enabled peripheral.. when coupled with a single Intel® 8212 I/O port device. Acquires control of the system bus. except that no memory or I/O read/write CONTROL LOOC MOO* —. Direct Memory Access Block Diagram Description 1. provides a complete four-channel DMA controller for use in Intel® microcomputer systems. the 8257: 1. Outputs the least significant eight bits of the memory address onto system address lines A0-A7. before a channel is enabled. 2. The peripheral can use these acknowledge signals to enable an internal access of each byte of a data block in order to execute some verification procedure. the 8257 can transfer a block of data. For instance.

8257/8257-5 These two bits are not modified during a DMA cycle. The DACK output acts as a "chip select'* for the peripheral device requesting service. the data is sent to the CPU over the data bus. When the 8257 is being programmed by the CPU. a terminal count register or the Status register. This line goes active (low) and inactive (high) once for each byte transferred even if a burst of data is being transferred. —•> o*c« * This three-state. These address bits will be transferred at the beginning of the DMA cycle: the bus will then be released to handle the memory data transfer during the balance of the DMA cycle. eightbits of data for a DMA address register. a terminal count register or the Mode Set register are received on the data bus. For multiple DMA cycles (Burst Mode) the request line is held high until the DMA acknowledge of the last cycle arrives. When the CPU reads a DMA address register. Figure 4. but can be changed between DMA blocks. If not in the rotating priority mode then DRQ 0 has the highest priority and DRQ 3 has the lowest. A request can be generated by raising the request line and holding it high until DMA acknowledge. 2. Data Bus Buffer cm. 8257 Block Diagram Showing Oata Bus Buffer 2-105 AFN-018400 . 1 (DACK 0 . <D0-07) Data Bus Lines: These are bi-directional three-state lines. eight bit buffer interfaces the 8257 to the system data bus. During DMA cycles (when the 8257 is the bus master). BIT IS 0 0 1 BIT 14 0 1 TYPE OF DMA OPERATION Verify OMA Cycle Write DMA Cycle Read DMA Cycle (Illegal) Each channel accepts a DMA Request (DRQn) input and provides a DMA Acknowledge (DACKn) output 0 1 (DRQ 0-DRQ 3) DMA Request: These are individual asynchronous chan nel request inputs used by the peripherals to obtain a DMA cycle. bi-directional.DACK 3) DMA Acknowledge: An active low level on the acknowl edge output informs the peripheral connected to that channel that it has been selected for a DMA cycle. the 8257 will output the most significant eight-bits of the memory address (from one of the DMA address registers) to the 8212 latch via the data bus.

the Read/Write Logic accepts the I/O Address Lines: These least significant four address lines are bi-directional. bi-directional three-state line. and either writes the contents of the data bus into the addressed register which constitute the least significant four bits of the 16-bit memory address generated by the 8257. CS is automatically disabled to prevent the chip from selecting itself while performing the DMA function.e. During DMA cycles (i. 4. In the "master" mode. decodes the least significant four address bits. when the 8257 is a "slave" device on the system bus). RtSOlVfft INTtftNAl (RESET) BUS Reset: An asynchronous input (generally from an 8224 or 8085 device) which disables all DMA channels by clearing the mode register and 3-states all control lines.e. (A0-A3). Read/Write Logic When the CPU is programming or reading one of the 8257*s registers (i. 8257 Block Diagram Showing Read/Write Logic Function 2-106 AFN-01840D .. In the "slave" mode. I/OR is a control output which is used to access data from a peripheral during the DMA write cycle.8257/8257-5 3. (*2 TTL) or Intel® 8085A CLK output. bi-directional three-state line. I/OW is a control output which allows data to be output to a peripheral during a DMA read cycle. I ■ CM! CM! U »I •— WO1 — OACK 1 ADOA CNTM (I/OW) I/O Write: An active-low. the Read/Write Logic generates the I/O read and memory write (DMA write cycle) or I/O Write and memory read (DMA read cycle) signals which control the data link with the peripheral that has been granted the DMA cycle. they are outputs Read (USE) or I/O Write (175OT) signal. it is an input which allows the 8-bit CM« status register or the upper/lower byte of a 18-bit DMA address register or terminal count register to be read. In the "slave" mode. "master"). In the "slave" mode they are inputs which select one of the registers to be read or programmed.. Control Logic This block controls the sequence of operations during all DMA cycles by generating the appropriate control signals and the 16-bit address that specifies the memory location to be accessed. Figure 5. (i/OR) I/O Read: An active-low. In j—» CNTM —• 0AM 5 the "master" mode. (if I/OW is true) or places the contents of the addressed register onto the data bus (if I/OR is true). In the "master" mode. Note that during DMA transfers Non-DMA I/O devices should be de-selected (disabled) using "AEN" signal to inhibit I/O device decoding of the memory address as an erroneous device address. In the "master" mode. it is an input which allows the contents •IT AOOM of the data bus to be loaded into the 8-bit mode set register or the upper/lower byte of a 18-bit DMA address register CNTM or terminal count register. fl PRIORITY •IT AOO« CNTft —• OACK 1 (CLK) Clock Input: Generally from an Intel® 8224 Clock Gen erator device. when the 8257 is the bus (CS) Chip Select: An active-low input which enables the I/O Read or I/O Write input when the 8257 is being read or programmed in the "slave" mode.

TC is Ready: This asynchronous input is used to elongate the memory read and write cycles in the 8257 with wait states if the selected memory requires longer cycles.8257/8257-5 (TC) Address Lines: These four address lines are three-state outputs which constitute bits 4 through 7 of the 16-bit memory address generated by the 8257 during all OMA cycles. If the TC STOP bit in the Mode Set register is set. Hold Acknowledge: This input from the CPU indicates that the 8257 has acquired control of the system bus. When the 8257 is used in an I/O device structure (as opposed to memory (NTfftftAl •US mapped). It may also be used to disable (float) the System Address Bus by use of an enable on the Address Bus drivers in systems to t« •IT AOO« CMT« —► OAC« i inhibit non-DMA devices from responding during DMA cycles. (MEMW) #—• CNTft Memory Write: This active-low three-state output is used to write data into the addressed memory location during DMA Write cycles. the selected channel will be automatically disabled at the end of that DMA cycle. (AEN) CM 3 Address Enable: This output is used to disable (float) the System Data Bus and the System Control Bus. Figure 6. HRQ will normally be applied to the HOLD input on the CPU. Recall that the loworder 14-bits of the terminal count register should be loaded with the values (n-1). It may be further used to isolate the 8257 data bus from the System Data Bus to facilitate the transfer of the 8 most significant DMA address bits over the 8257 data I/O pins without subjecting the System Data Bus to any timing constraints for the transfer. 8257 Block Diagram Showing Control Logic and Mode Set Register 2-107 AFN-018400 . (HLDA) Modulo 128 Mark: This output notifies the selected peripheral that the current DMA cycle is the 128th cycle since the previous MARK output. (MEMR) Memory Read: This active-low three-state output is used to read data from the addressed memory location during DMA Read cycles. HRQ must conform to specified setup and hold times. READY must conform to specified setup and hold times. MARK always occurs at 128 (and all multiples of 128) cycles from the end of the data block. will MARK occur at 128 (and each succeeding multiple of 128) cycles from the beginning of the data block. The I/O device selection should be determined by the DMA acknowledge outputs for the 4 channels. In systems with only one 8257. activated when the 14-bit value in the selected channel's terminal count register equals zero. -I— CMI _J-fv U —• OACK I CLK - (AOSTB) MSCT- Address Strobe: This output strobes the most significant byte of the memory address into the 8212 device from the data bus. Only if the total number of DMA cycles (n) is evenly divisable by 128 (and the terminal count register was loaded with n-1). this AEN output should be used to disable the selection of an I/O device when the DMA address is on the address bus. (MARK) (HRQ) Hold Request: This output requests control of the system bus. (READY) Terminal Count: This output notifies the currently selected peripheral that the present DMA cycle should be the last cycle for this data block. where n = the desired number of the DMA cycles.

they would normally cause the 8257 to enter a wait state because it does not receive READY in time. the occurrence of the TC output has no effect on the channel enable bits. A channel should not be left enabled unless its DMA address and terminal count registers contain valid values. has a circular sequence. otherwise.e. Channel 3 registers.I 8257/8257-5 5. its enable bit is reset) after the Terminal Count (TC) output goes true. the duration of both the MEMW and I/OW signals is extended by activating them earlier in the DMA cycle. a channel is disabled (i. has no effect on Channel 2 when the Auto Load bit is set. Chan nel 2 registers are initialized as usual for the first data block. TC Stop Bit 6 If the TC STOP bit is set. the various bits in the Mode Set register enable each of the four DMA channels. but if they generate their READY response with the inhibiting all channels. Assignments Lowest CH-0 CH-1 CH-2 CH-3 2-108 AFN-018400 . the parameters stored in the Channel 3 registers are transferred to Channel 2 during an "update" cycle. the priority of the channels with these types of devices.. If the ROTATING PRIORITY bit is set to a one. If the TC STOP bit is not set.. The enable bit for that channel must be re-programmed to continue or begin another DMA operation.than one channel is enabled and requesting service. thus increasing system throughput. The channel which had just been serviced will have the lowest priority. while immediate software intervention between blocks. After each DMA cycle.e. Mode Sat Register When set. Channel 0 has the highest priority and Channel 3 has the lowest priority. described Highest CH-1 CH-2 CH-3 CH-0 CH-2 CH-3 CH-0 CH-1 CH-3 CH-0 CH-1 CH-2 above. Enable* DMA Channel 0 Enables DMA Channel 1 Enable* EXTCNDEO WRITE Enables ROTATING PRIORITY- Extended Write Bit 5 If the EXTENDED WRITE bit is set. and allow four different options for the 8257: I I I I I TTTI Erubfei AUTOLOAD Erublct TC STOP Note that rotating priority will prevent any one channel from monopolizing the PMA mode. it is generally the responsibility of the peripheral to cease DMA requests in order to terminate a DMA operation. the priority of each channel changes after If the ROTATING PRIORITY bit is not set (set to a zero). There is no overhead penalty associated with this mode of opera tion. After the first block of DMA cycles is executed by Channel 2 (i. All DMA operations began with Channel 0 initially assigned to the highest priority for the first DMA cycle. Data transfers within micro computer systems proceed asynchronously to allow Enables DMA Channel 2 Enables DMA Channel 3 The Mode Set register is normally programmed by the CPU after the DMA address register(s) and terminal count register(s) are initialized. terminal count and DMA transfer mode). Some devices are fast enough to be accessed without the use of wait states. consecutive DMA cycles will service different channels if more. however. without each DMA cycle (not each DMA request). J T. If a device cannot be accessed within a specific amount of time it returns a "not ready" indication to the 8257 that causes the 8257 to insert one or more wait states in its internal sequencing. thus automatically preventing further DMA operation on that channel. leading edge of the f/SW or MEMW signal (which generally occurs late in the transfer sequence). the priority of each channel changes. Auto Load Bit 7 The Auto Load mode permits Channel 2 to be used for repeat block or block chaining operations. an inadvertent DMA request (DROn) from a peripheral could initiate a DMA cycle that would destroy memory data. In this case. The Mode Set Register is use of various types of memory and I/O devices with cleared by the RESET input. are used to store the the channel which has just been serviced moves to the lowest priority assignment: block re-initialization parameters (DMA starting address. thus disabling all options. each DMA channel has a fixed priority. and preventing bus conflicts on power-up. different access times. after CHANNEL-** CH-0 CH-1 CH-2 CH-3 JUST SERVICED Priority —► the TC output goes true). Each channel moves up to the next highest priority assignment. For systems The various options which can be enabled by bits in the Mode Set register are explained below: Rotating Priority Bit 4 In the Rotating Priority Mode. Note that the TC STOP feature. the Extended Write option provides alternative timing for the I/O and memory write signals which allows the devices to return an early READY and prevents the unnecessary occurrence of wait states in the 8257. In the fixed priority mode.

The update flag is cleared at the conclusion of this DMA cycle. The UPDATE FLAG. however. the update flag in the status register is set and parameters in Channel 3 are transferred to Channel 2. For chaining operations. by resetting the AUTO LOAD bit in the Mode Set register) or it can be left to clear itself at the completion of the update cycle. 6.PARAMETERS PARAMETERS FOR BLOCK 3 CHANNEL 2UPOATE OCCURS HERE HANNEI2UPOATE FOR BLOCK 1 r IFOR BLOCK 2 OCCURS HERE JIRJUL-.e.inter 8257/8257-5 If the Auto Load bit is set.l -| hfOATA BLOCK 3 —' UPOATEFLAG Figure 7. Unless the DMA channels are inhibited a channel could reach ter The eight-bit status register indicates which channels have reached a terminal count condition and includes the update flag described previously. The UPDATE FLAG can be cleared by resetting the 8257. 1 PARAMETERS I .I. Status Register The user is cautioned against reading the TC status register and using this information to reenable chan nels that have not completed operation. DMA can be inhibited by a hardware gate on the HRQ line or by disabling channels with a mode word before reading the TC status. the initial parameters for Channel 2 are automatically duplicated in the Channel 3 registers when Channel 2 is programmed. This permits repeat block operations to be set up with the programming of a single channel. -OATABLOCK J OATA BLOCK? rUUUU|_fL\. by changing to the non-auto The TC status bits are set when the Terminal Count (TC) load mode (i. the update flag in the status register can be monitored by the CPU to determine when the re-initialization process has been completed so that the next block parameters can skipping a data block by overwriting a starting address or terminal count in the Channel 3 registers before those parameters are properly auto-loaded into Channel 2..I. Note that in the Auto Load mode. Each time that the 8257 enters an update cycle.I.I I I f I t—TC STATUS FOR CHANNEL 0 -TC STATUS FOR CHANNEL 1 TC STATUS FOR CHANNEL 1 TC STATUS FOR CHANNEL 2 -TC STATUS FOR CHANNEL 2 -TC STATUS FOR CHANNEL 3 output is activated for that channel. Channels 2 and 3 can still be loaded with separate values if Channel 2 is loaded before loading Channel 3. minal count (TC) between the status read and the mode write. Autoload Timing 2-109 AFN01840O . This will be the first DMA cycle of the new data block for Channel 2. non-destructively for Channel 3. Channel 3 is still available to the user if the Channel 3 enable bit is set. The purpose of the UPDATE FLAG is to prevent the CPU from inadvertently at the beginning of the next channel 2 DM A cycle after the TC cycle. is not affected by a status register read operation. but use of this channel will change the values to be auto loaded into Channel 2 at update time. The actual re-initialization of Channel 2 occurs 2 1 UfOATC FLAG J I. be safely loaded into Channel 3. These bits remain set until the status register is read or the 8257 is reset. All that is necessary to use the Auto Load feature for chaining operations is to reload Channel 3 registers at the conclusion of each update cycle with the new parameters for the next data block transfer. Repeat block operations can be used in applications such as CRT refreshing.

When accessing the Mode Set or Status register. To maintain proper synchronization when accessing the "channel registers" all channel command instruction operations should occur in pairs. two program instruction cycles are required to load data being read from the data bus. Ao-A:. UP: UPDATE FLAG. register (Ao = 1). with the lower byteof a addressed register is to be programmed. register always being accessed first. and either outputs the data to be written onto the system data bus or accepts the four channels. RP: ROTATING PRIORITY. The result of such a split would leave the F/L F/F in the wrong state. The F/L flip flop \o produce the chip select (CS) input to the 8257. TC3-TC0: TERMINAL COUNT STATUS BITS. When accessing a channel register bit Ao differentiates between the DMA address register (Ao = 0) and the terminal count interrupt structure. An I/O Write input (or Memory Write in memory mapped I/O configurations. as this will cause an erroneous F/L flip flop state. All or some of the most significant 12 address bits A4-A15 (depending on the systems memory. In systems utilizing an The least significant three address bits. Co-C13: Terminal Count value (N-1). Rd and Wr: DMAVerify (00). The Read Half of a Channel Register program moo© sei 0 1 0 0 8257 also includes two "general registers": one 8-bit Mode Set register and one 8-bit Status register. This problem is particularly obvious when other DMA channels are programmed by an interrupt structure. 2-110 AFN-01840D .8257/8257-5 OPERATIONAL SUMMARY Programming and Reading the 8257 Registers There are four pairs of "channel registers'*: each pair consisting of a 16-bit DMA address register and a 16-bit CONTROL INPUT CS 0 I/OW 0 I/OR 1 A* Program Half of a Channel Register 0 terminal count register (one pair for each channel). Write (01) or Read (10) cycle selection. EN3-EN0: CHANNEL ENABLE MASK. Do not allow CS to clock while either I/OR or I/OW is active. A(rA2 are all zero. AL: Auto Load. inputs •BI-DIRECTIONAL DATA BUS F/L REGISTER BYTE A3 0 0 0 0 A2 0 A1 0 0 0 Ao 0 0 1 os A7 D4 A4 <>3 A3 A11 D2 D1 A1 Do Ao Ae CH-0 DMA Address LSB 0 1 MSB 0 0 0 A15 Rd Ae A14 Wr A13 As A12 c4 A2 A10 C2 A9 C1 c9 CH-0 Terminal Count LSB MSB 0 1 c7 C6 0 1 1 1 1 1 c5 C13 c3 C11 C12 C10 Co Cs CH-1 DMA Address LSB MSB 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Same is Chi nnel C CH-1 Terminal Count LSB MSB 0 1 CH-2 DMA Address LSB MSB 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 Same is Chi mnel ( i CH-2 Terminal Count LSB MSB 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 CH-3 DMA Address LSB 0 0 0 0 1 MSB 0 1 Same ■sChi innel ( I CH-3 Terminal Count MODE SET (Program only) LSB MSB 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 AL 0 TCS 0 EW 0 RP EN3 TC3 EN2 TC2 EN1 TC1 ENO TCO STATUS (Read only) — t 0 UP •A0-A15: DMA Starting Address. while an I/O Read input (or Memory Read) specifies that the addressed register is to be read. TCS:TC STOP. The 8257 contains a first/last (F/L) flip flop which toggles at the completion of each channel program or read operation. Address bit 3 specifies whether a "channel register" (A3 = 0) or the Mode Set (program only)/Status (read only) register (Ay = 1) is to be accessed. The 8228 generates the appropriate read or write control signal 0 0 1 1 Register Read Status Register 0 1 0 1 (generally I/OR or I/OW while the CPU places a 16-bit address on the system address bus. I/O configuration) are usually decoded or read an entire register. while bits A| and A2 specify one of the 8257 Register Selection ADDRESS. The F/L flip flop is reset by the RESET input and whenever the Mode Set register is loaded. interrupts should be disabled prior to any paired programming operations to prevent an interrupt from splitting them. The registers are loaded or read when the CPU executes a write or read instruction that addresses the 8257 device and the appropriate register within the 8257. Because the "channel registers" are 16bits. EW: EXTENDED WRITE. described below) specifies that the determines whether the upper or lower byte of the register is to be accessed. indicate the specific register to be accessed.

(See timing diagram. The 8257 now waits until a HLOA is received insuring that the system bus is free for its use. No extra cycles are needed to execute this se UPPER AOORESS PRESENT LOWER ADDRESS quence and the HRQ tine remains active until all DRQ lines go LOW. If the chan device instead of as an I/O device for memory mapped I/O configurations by connecting the system memory control lines to the 8257s I/O control lines and the system I/O control lines to the 8257s memory control lines. If Ready is LOW the 8257 enters a wait state. the 8257 completes the current transfer. The 8257 then generates the loading the 8257s registers. When Ready returns HIGH the 8257 RESET ENABLE FOR CHANNEL N IF TC STOP ANO TC ARE ACTIVE DEACTIVATE COMMANDS DEACTIVATE DACKn. Control Override The continuous DMA transfer mode described above ACTIVATE REAO COMMAND AOVANCEO WRITE COMMAND AND OACKa can be interrupted by an external device by lowering the HLDA line. If it is not active. This configuration permits use of the 8080's considerably larger repertoire of memory instructions when reading or nel is enabled. the BKCK line is set HIGH and the HRQ line is set LOW to indicate to the CPU that the bus is now free for use. Note that with this connection. (See timing VEftlFV SAMPLE READY diagram. the 8257 will output a HRQ to the CPU. DRQ must remain HIGH until DACK is issued to be recognized and must go LOW before S4 of the transfer sequence to prevent another transfer from occuring. Once the high priority transfer has completed control SI PRESENT ANO LATCH will return to the lower priority channel if its DRQ is still active. Ready is sampled dur ing every wait state. MARK ANO TO OROn HLDA SAMPLE OROn ANO HLDA RESOLVE OROn PRIORITIES proceeds to State 4 to complete the transfer. Ready is RESET HRO IF HLOA ' OOR DRQ • 0 HLOA ♦ OROo used to interface memory or I/O devices that cannot meet the bus set up times required by the 8257.) LINE Not Ready REAOV ♦ VERIFY The 8257 has a Ready input similar to the 8080A and the 8085A. The DACK line acts as a chip select for the requesting I/O device.8257/8257-5 RCSCT transfer is complete. After the SAMPLE ORQntlNES SETHROIFDRQ*. The Ready line is sampled in State 3. the transfer will occur in the same way a burst does. Figure 8.1 If more than one channel requests service simultaneous SO SAMPLE HLOA ly. If DRQ lines are still active the 8257 will raise the HRQ line in S3 ACTIVATE WRITE COMMANO ACTIVATE MARK ANO TC IF APPROPRIATE REAOV SW the third cycle and proceed REAOV normally. No overhead is incurred by switching from one channel RESOLVE OROn PRIORITIES to another. Once HLOA is received the DACK line for the requesting channel is ac tivated (LOW). the programming of the Read (bit 15) and Write (bit 14) bits in the terminal count register will have a different meaning 2-111 AFN 018400 . After each DMA transfer the 8257 samples the HLDA line to insure that it is still active. A 2MHz clock input will allow the 8257 to transfer at a rate of 500K bytes/second. In each S4 the DRO lines are sampled and the highest priority request is recognized during the next transfer. Speed 1 DRQn REFERS TO ANY ORQ UNE ON AN ENABLED DMA CHANNEL The 8257 uses four clock cycles to transfer a byte of data.) Consecutive Transfers read and write commands and byte transfer occurs be tween the selected I/O device and memory. A burst mode transfer in a lower priority channel will be overridden by a higher priority request. DMA Operation State Diagram Memory Mapped I/O Configurations DMA OPERATION The 8257 can be connected to the system bus as a memory SlngK Byte Transfers A single byte transfer is initiated by the I/O device rais ing the DRO line of one channel of the 8257. releases the HRQ line (LOW) and returns to the idle state. No cycles are lost in the master to master transfer maximizing bus efficiency.

Floppy Disk Controller (4 Drives) ADDRESS BUS 7T CONTROL BUS DATA BUS DRQ 82S7 u AND U 0 U 82S1 SYSTEM 8212 OACK USART RAM MEMORY MODEM TELEPHONE LINES Rgure 12. MEMWR — I/ORD I/O WR 0 0 1 DMA Verify Cycle — — DMA Read Cycle DMA Write Cycle Illegal 0 1 1 Figure 9. System Interface for Memory Mapped I/O Figure 10. TC Register for Memory Mapped I/O Only SYSTEM APPLICATION EXAMPLE! \ \ ADDRESS BUS f> \ CONTROL BUS \ \ DATA BUS U 0 U DRQO OACKO DRQ1 J\1$) DISK 1 -- U 0 U SYSTEM RAM \ DISK 2 MEMORY AW 8212 0ACK ! DRQ2 OACK 2 OISK3 ORQ3 DACK3 DISK 4 DMA CONTROLLER Figure 11.8257/8257-5 • - r MEMRD — BIT 15 READ T7o"wr « MEMRD BIT 14 WRITE 0 1 " ■ •' 8257 . High-Speed Communication Controller 2-112 AFN-O184OD .

TESTING LOAD CIRCUIT 2. Specifications) are signals that follow similar paths through the silicon die.TESTING INPUT.C. The variation is less than or equal to 50 ns. and if TA and TB are tracking parameters. Suppose the following timing equation is being evaluated.0 2. OUTPUT WAVEFORM INPUT/OUTPUT 8257/8257-5 A.T«$TO vcc H 2-113 AFN-01840O . If T^min) is used.C.4 2.4S DEVICE UNDER TEST 0. AT 2 OV FOR A LOGIC 1 AND 0 8V FOR A LOGIC 0 r Ct INCLUOES JIG CAPACITANCE Tracking Parameters Signals labeled as Tracking Parameters (footnotes 1 and 6-7 under A. Tb<max) can be taken as Tb<min) + 50 n«- Tacmin) + (Tb<min)# + 50 ns) s 150 ns *if TA and TB are tracking parameters WAVEFORMS—PERIPHERAL MODE WRITE CHIPSCLCCT READ AOORESS6US CHIP SELECT \ H —*>! /" —r OAT A BUS AOORESSBUS X L— taw 1 Y RESET 1 0 HO i> f OATA BUS . The propagation speed of these signals varies in the manufacturing process but the relationship between all these parameters is constant.inter A-C.8 AC TESTING INPUTS ARL DRtVLN AT 2 4V FOR A LOGIC 1 AND0 45V FOR A IOGIC 0 TIMING MrASURCMINTS ARP MAOF.8 0. Ta(Min> ♦ Tb(max) * 150 ns and only minimum specifications exist for TA and TB.0 TEST POINTS <^ 0.

I S3 I S4 2-114- I SI I SI -1 S3 I S4 I SI I SI I SI AFN-01840O . SI I SO I SI I S2 . rur ORQO 3 =5): TOMT«$- AOR 0 7 (LOWER AOR»— — — DATAO 7IUPPER AOR)— — — —< Ta$$ - AOR STB MEM/RO/I'O RO— — — "TOCT MCM/WR/I/O WR — ^ — .-^c T.__y T« / v NOTf: I o«wdocli -mut.t*%*ria^ 8257/8257-5 WAVEFORMS—DMA CONSECUTIVE CYCLES AND BURST MODE SEQUENCE SI I SI I SO S1 I S2 I S3 I S4 .

8257/825?t5 *T» WAVEFORMS (Continued) CONTROL OVERRIOE SEQUENCE CLOCK \__/ ORQ 0 3 1 ". 1 M 1 a \ / 84 i St | SI 1 « j SI | S2 x^ \ \ HRQ -1 HLOA TA€L "^ : AEN h- J - NOT READY SEQUENCE so SI I S2 CLOCK ORQ0 3 f^ "v u 1 " SI | SI 6ACKTT3 \ f~ r \ \ T / S- - — -A / j \ RCAOY TC/MARK / 2-115 AFN-01MOO .

^ inter 8257/8257-5 AOORCtt BUS $TB 00. m M6MW IOW DACK« ORO. ORO. OACK. t212 • OO.-00. Detailed System Interface Schematic 2-1*16 AFN41840D . 14 16 OACK. CLK IS TC MARK TC RESET OS2 CLR ST8 OO. ORO. DATA BUS Oo A. o. ORQ. HRO HLOA DACK. 0S1 AD. ►2225 ORQ. • 01. 6~AC~K« ORO. 4 ^ Sack. •212 MO DS2 13 D»>—01. MO 6S1 Hgure 13. CHIP SELECT i HENRI CONTROL ol SCL (Bl REAOV T1S 10/0 HOLD MLOA ■i CS o. O. L REAOV CLK (OUT} Rf$f T iR RESET OUT 3 ^ _1 MEMR ORO.

Co I/O Capacitance • 20 PF Unmeasured pins returned to GND 2r117 AFN-01840D . CHARACTERISTICS Symbol (8257: TA = 0°C to 70°C.C.0V ±5%. VCc = 5.6 mA Vcc IOHe-150jiAforABf DBandAEN Ioh=-80/iA for others Vhh HRQ Output High Voltage Vcc Current Drain Input Leakage 3. vcc = gnd = ov) Mln. VCc = 5. Unit Volts Test Conditions 0. -0.N*VCC 0.inter ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS* Ambient Temperature Under Bias Storage Temperature Voltage on Any Pin 0°C to 70°C -65°C to +150°C -0.45 loL = 1. 10 Unit Test Conditions fc= 1MHz ClN pF .4 0. With Respect to Ground Power Dissipation D. Parameter Input Capacitance Typ.0 Max.0V ±10%.8 Vcc+5 V|H V0L V*)H Input High Voltage Volts Volts Volts Output Low Voltage Output High Voltage 2.5 2. This is a stress rating only and functional opera tion of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational sections of this specifi cation is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. Max. GND = 0V) Parameter Input Low Voltage Mln.3 vcc 120 ±10 Volts mA Ioh . GND = OV) (8257-5: TA = 0°C to 70°C.45V «£ Vquj ^ Vqq Output Leakage During Float ±10 CAPACITANCE Symbol (TA = 25°C.5V to +7V 1 Watt •NOTICE: Stresses above those listed under "Absolute Maximum Ratings" may cause permanent damage to the device.-80jiA «CC 'it lOFL /iA /iA 0V<V.

Cycle Time (Period) 0. Unit ns Test Conditions Tar Adr or CSi Setup to RD4 0 0 0 0 Tra Trd AdrorCSt Hold from RDt Data Access from RDi 0 ns 300 150 0 220 ns ns ns Tdf Trr DB-*Float Delay from RDt RD Width 20 250 20 250 120 WRITE CYCLE 8257 8257-5 Symbol Parameter Adr Setup to WR 4 Min.5. Unit ns Test Conditions Trstw Trstd Tf Tf Reset Pulse Width 300 500 300 500 Power Supply t (Vcc) Setup to Reset 1 Signal Rise Time Signal Fall Time PS 20 20 2 2 20 20 ns ns Trsts Reset to First I/OWR tCv A.0V ±5%. ns ns ns 100 30 Trs Trh ■ \<ix* .. Max.320 Clock Active (High) DRQt Setup to CLK1 (SI. QND = 0V) 8080 But Parameters READ CYCLE 8257 Symbol Parameter Min.•'***■ 30 30 READY Hold Time from CLKt(S3.0V ±5%.0°C to 70eC.0V ±10%.8257/8257-5 A. Unit ns ns ns ns ns Test Conditions TAW TWA Tow Two TWW 20 0 20 0 200 Adr Hold from WRt Data Setup to WRt Data Hold from WRt WR Width 200 10 200 10 200 OTHER TIMING 8257 Symbol Parameter 8257-5 Min. 4 Unit MS Tcv T. VCc = 5. GND = 0V) (8257-5: TA « 0°C to 70°C. Max. GND = 0V) TIMING REQUIREMENTS 8257 Min. S4) 120 120 0 8Tcy 80 120 8Tcy ns ns Tqs T0H Ths DRQI Hold from HLDAl'" HLDAI or ISetup to CLKI(SI. Max.. 4 Min. GND » 0V) (8257-5: TA . VCc = 5. 8257-5 Symbol Parameter Max. Min. Max. S4) READY Setup Time to CLKI(S3. CHARACTERISTICS—PERIPHERAL (SLAVE) MODE (8257: TA =■ O°C to 70°C. 8257-5 Max.C. Sw) 0 100 .320 0.C. Max. Vcc = 5. Min. Max.0V ±10%. Vcc . CHARACTERISTICS—DMA (MASTER) MODE (8257: TA = 0°C to 70°C. Min.. Sw) 2-118 30 ns AFN-018400 ..

6. Sl)m Adr (AB) (Valid) Hold from Wr| (St. S4) (measured at 2. GND <= 0V) (8257-5: TA = 0°C to 70°C.ATOCl < 50 ns. 1. ATAK < 50 ns. AT0CT < 50 ns. 2.0V) 8257 8257-5 Max. S1) and TC/MarkJ Delay from CLK| (S3) and TC/Markl Delay from CLKf (S4)141 Wr| Delay from CLKf (S3)l2f5J 250 250 ns TDCL TDCT RDi or Wr(Ext)| Delay from CLK| (S2) and 200 200 ns Wr| Delay from CLK| (S4)l2»6l Rdt Delay from CLKi (S1. VCc = 5. Mln. Vcc = 5.0V ±10%. 160 Unit TDQ TDQ1 Tael Taet ns (measured at 3. Load = Vqh = 3. SI) and 200 200 ns TFAC Rd or Wr (Active) from CLKf (S1)[21 Rd or Wr (Active) from CLK| (S1)l2) 300 300 ns TAFC TRWM TWWM T"WWME NOTES: 150 150 ns ns ns ns RdWidth(S2-S1orSI)111 Wr Width (S3-S4)m WR(Ext) Width (S2-S4)111 2TCY+T0-5O Tcy-50 2TCY+T0-5O Tcy-50 2TCY-50 2TCY-50 3. Load = + 50 pF. Tracking Parameter.8257/8257-5 A. Max. CHARACTERISTICS—DMA (MASTER) MODE (8257: TA = 0°C to 70°C. 5. GNO «= 0V) TIMING RESPONSES Symbol Parameter HRQj or i Delay from CLKf (SI.3V)131 HRQT or i Delay from CLK| (SI.C.3V. 2-119 AFN-018400 . 160 Mln.0V ±5%. S4) 250 300 200 250 300 ns AENf Delay from CLKi(S1) AENl Delay from CLK| (SI) ns ns 200 TAEA TFAAB Adr (AB) (Active) Delay from AENf (S1)m Adr (AB) (Active) Delay from CLKf (S1)[21 Adr (AB) (Float) Delay from CLKf (SI)121 Adr (AB) (Stable) Delay from CLKf (S1)121 Adr (AB) (Stable) Hold from CLK| (S1)[21 20 250 150 20 250 150 ns ns ns ns TAFAB TASM TAH 250 250 TaSM-50 60 TASM-50 60 ns ns TAHR TAHW Adr (AB) (Valid) Hold from RD| (S1. SI)111 Adr (DB) (Active) Delay from CLKf (S1)[21 Adr (DB) (Float) Delay from CLK| (S2)[21 Adr (DB) Setup to Adr Stbi (S1-S2)M1 300 300 Tstt+20 300 300 ns ns ns ns ns TFADB TAFDB 250 TSTT+20 100 170 TASS TAHS TSTL TSTT TSW 100 20 200 140 Adr (DB) (Valid) Hold from Adr Stb| (S2)I1J Adr Stb| Delay from CLKf (S1) Adr Stb| Delay from CLKf (S2) 20 200 140 ns ns Adr Stb Width (S1-S2)111 (S2)[11 Rd| or Wr(Ext)| Delay from Adr Stb| Tcy-100 Tcy-100 ns TASC TDBC TAK 70 70 ns (Float) (S2)111 RDj or WR(Ext)| Delay from Adr (DB) 20 20 ns DACKf or | Delay from CLK| (S2. 4.

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