You are on page 1of 23

APPENDIKS

Perhitungan pada pipa sirkuit


1. Menghitung Densitas dan Viskositas Air (Cara Interpolasi)
Mencari air pada suhu 27 0C :
25

997,08 Kg/m3

27

30

995,68 Kg/m3

- 997,08
30 25 995,68
=
30 27
995,68
x
- 1,4
5
=
995,68
-x
3
-4,2 = 4978,4 5x
5x = 4982,6
x = 996,52 Kg/m3 = 996,52 Kg/m3
Mencari air pada suhu 27 0C :
28

0,836 x 10-3 Kg/m s

27

30

0,8007 x 10-3 Kg/m s

x10-3 - 0,836x10-3
30 28 = 0,8007
30 27
0,8007
x10-3 x
x10-3
2 = - 0,00353
3
0,8007
x10-3 - x

-0,1059 x 10-3 = 1,6014 x 10-3 2x


2x = 1,7073 x 10-3
x = 0,85365 x 10-3 Kg/m s = 0,85365 x 10-3 Kg/m s

viii

2. Menghitung Debit
a) P = 17 lb/in2 V = 4458 ml
V
Q=
= 0,241 x 10-3 m3/s
t
b) P = 18 lb/in2 V = 4348,5 ml
V
Q=
= 0,236 x 10-3 m3/s
t
c) P = 20 lb/in2 V = 3500 ml
V
Q=
= 0,199 x 10-3 m3/s
t
3. Menentukan Kecepatan Alir
Untuk pipa dengan diameter
Pipa A = 1,961 x 10-4 m2
(Geankoplis, 1997, Appendiks A.5-1, hal. 892)

a) P = 17 lb/in2
Q=vxA
3

Q 0,241 103 m s
v=
=
= 1,23 m/s
A
1,961 104 m2

b) P = 18 lb/in2
Q=vxA
3

Q 0,236 103 m s
v=
=
= 1,204 m/s
A
1,961 104 m2

c) P = 20 lb/in2
Q=vxA
3

Q 0,199 103 m s
v=
=
= 1,015 m/s
A
1,961 104 m2

ix

4.

Menghitung Bilangan Reynold


a) P = 17 lb/in2
Dv
NRe =

( 0,0158m) (1,23ms ) 996,52 kgm3

0,85365
10 kg
m.s
3

= 22714,02

4,6 105
-2
=
3 = 0,291 x 10 f = 0,007
15,8

10
D
(Geankoplis, 1997, Figure 2.10-3, hal. 88)

b) P = 18 lb/in2
NRe =
=

Dv

( 0,0158m) (1,204ms ) 996,52 kgm3

0,85365
10 kg
m.s
3

= 22216,3

4,6 105
=
= 0,291 x 10-2 f = 0,0072
D 15,8 103
(Geankoplis, 1997, Figure 2.10-3, hal. 88)

c) P = 20 lb/in2
NRe =

Dv

( 0,0158m) (1,015ms ) 997,03 kgm3

0,85365
10 kg
m.s
3

= 18720,2

4,6 105
=
= 0,291 x 10-2 f = 0,0078
D 15,8 103
(Geankoplis, 1997, Figure 2.10-3, hal. 88)

5. Menghitung Friksi
Friksi pada pipa lurus

Pipa L = 7,06 m
a) P = 17 lb/in2

m
L v2
7,06m 1,23 s
Ff = 4 f
= 4 (0,007)

0,0158m
D 2
2

= 9,4872 J/Kg

b) P = 18 lb/in2

2
m
L v2
7,06m 1,204 s
Ff = 4 f
= 4 (0,0072)
0,0158m
D 2
2

= 9,3353 J/Kg

c) P = 20 lb/in2

m
L v2

1,015 s
Ff = 4 f
= 4 (0,0078) 7,06m
0,0158m
D 2
2

= 7,1807 J/Kg
Friksi pada valve (Globe valve wide open Kf = 6)
Pipa jumlah valve = 2
a) P = 17 lb/in2
2
v2 2x6 1,23 ms
hf = 2Kf
=
= 9,0774 J/Kg
2
2
b) P = 18 lb/in2
2
v2 2x6 1,204 ms
hf = 2Kf
=
= 8,6976 J/Kg
2
2
c) P = 20 lb/in2
2
v2 2x6 1,015 ms
hf = 2Kf
=
= 6,1812 J/Kg
2
2

xi

Friksi pada elbow (Elbow 900 Kf = 0,75 )


Pipa jumlah elbow = 9
a) P = 17 lb/in2
2
v2 9( 0,75) 1,23ms
hf = 9 Kf
=
= 5,106 J/kg
2
2
b) P = 18 lb/in2
2
v2 9( 0,75) 1,204ms
hf = 9 Kf
=
= 4,892 J/kg
2
2
c) P = 20 lb/in2
2
v2 9( 0,75) 1,015ms
hf = 9 Kf
=
= 3,477 J/kg
2
2

Friksi pada valve (Gate valve wide open Kf = 0,17)


Pipa jumlah valve = 2
a) P = 17 lb/in2
2
v2 2x0,171,23 ms
hf = 2Kf
=
= 0,2572 J/Kg
2
2
b) P = 18 lb/in2
2
v2 2x0,171,204 ms
hf = 2Kf
=
= 0,2464 J/Kg
2
2
c) P = 20 lb/in2
2
v2 2x0,171,015 ms
hf = 2Kf
=
= 0,1751 J/Kg
2
2

a) P = 17 lb/in2
hf total = 9,0774 + 5,106 + 0,2572 = 14,441 J/Kg
b) P = 18 lb/in2
hf total = 8,6976 + 4,892 + 0,2464 = 13,836 J/Kg

xii

c) P = 20 lb/in2
hf total = 6,1812 + 3,477 + 0,1751 = 9,833 J/Kg
Sudden expansion dari pipa kecil ke pipa besar 1
a) P = 17 lb/in2
2

2
A2 v
hex = 1
A1 2

2
5,574 104 m2 1,23ms
hex = 1

2( 1)
1,961 104 m2

hex = 2,574 J/Kg


b) P = 18 lb/in2

2
A2 v
hex = 1
A1 2

m
4
2 2 1,204

s
hex = 1 5,574 104 m2
1,961

2( 1)
10 m

hex = 2,462 J/Kg


c) P = 20 lb/in2

hex = 1

A2 v2

A1 2

m
4
2 2 1,015

s
hex = 1 5,574 104 m2

(
)
2
1
1,961

10
m

hex = 1,748 J/Kg

Sudden contraction dari tangki ke pipa kecil


a) P =17 lb/in2

hc = 0,55 1

A1 v2

A2 2

xiii

hc = 0,55

(1,23ms )
( 1 0)

2( 1)

hc = 0,4171 J/Kg
b) P =18 lb/in2
2
A1 v
hc = 0,55 1
A2 2

hc = 0,55

(
1,204m )
s
( 1 0)

2( 1)

hc = 0,399 J/Kg

c) P =18 lb/in2
2
A1 v
hc = 0,55 1
A2 2
hc = 0,55

(1,015ms )
( 1 0)

2( 1)

hc = 0,2833 J/Kg
Sudden contraction dari pipa besar 1 ke pipa kecil
a) P =17 lb/in2

hc = 0,55 1

A1 v2

A2 2

m
hc = 0,55 1,961
104 m2 1,23 s
1

4
2
5,574 10 m 2( 1)
hc = 0,2703 J/Kg
b) P =18 lb/in2

hc = 0,55 1

A1 v2

A2 2

xiv

m
hc = 0,55 1,961
104 m2 1,204 s
1

4
2
2( 1)
5,574 10 m
hc = 0,2586 J/Kg

c) P =20 lb/in2
2
A1 v
hc = 0,55 1
A2 2

m
hc = 0,55 1,961
104 m2 1,015 s
1

4
2
2( 1)
5,574 10 m
hc = 0,1836 J/Kg

6.

Menghitung Total Friksi


a) P = 17 lb/in2
F = hc + hf + hex + Ff
= 0,6874 + 14,441 + 2,574 + 9,4872
= 27,224 J/Kg
b) P = 18 lb/in2
F = hc + hf + hex + Ff
= 0,6576 + 13,836 + 2,462 + 9,3353
= 26,303 J/Kg
c) P = 20 lb/in2
F = hc + hf + hex + Ff
= 0,4669 + 9,833 + 1,748 + 7,1807
= 19,229 J/Kg
7. Menghitung Hukum Bernaulli
P = 0
Hal ini dikarenakan tangki penampung air merupakan
tangki terbuka sehingga tekanan pada saat air masuk sama
dengan tekanan pada saat air keluar yaitu 1 atm.
a) P = 17 lb/in2

P2 P1
v 2 v12

+ ( z 2 z1 ) g + 2
2

xv

+ F

-Ws =
-Ws =
1,23 2 0 2
0kg/ms2
2

+
0
,
115
mx
9
,
8
m
/
s
+
3

2
996,52
kg/m

+ 27,224

-Ws = 29,1095 m /s

b) P = 18 lb/in2
2
2

-Ws = P2 P1 + ( z z ) g + v 2 v1 + F
2
1
2

-Ws =
1,204 2 0 2
0kg/ms2
2
+ 26,303

+ ( 0,115mx9,8m / s ) +
3

2
996,52
kg/m

-Ws = 28,156 m /s

c) P = 20 lb/in2
2
2
-Ws = P2 P1 + ( z z ) g + v 2 v1 + F
2
1
2

-Ws =
1,015 2 0 2
0kg/ms2
2
+ 19,229

+ ( 0,115mx9,8m / s ) +
3

2
996,52
kg/m

-Ws = 20,871 m /s
8.

Menghitung WHP
a) P = 17 lb/in2
= 32 %
(Timmerhaus, 2003, Figure 12-17, hal. 516)

WHP = - Ws /

xvi

WHP =

29,1095
= 90,967 J/Kg
0,32

b) P = 18 lb/in2
= 31,5 %
(Timmerhaus, 2003, Figure 12-17, hal. 516)

WHP = - Ws /
28,156
WHP =
= 89,384 J/Kg
0,315
c) P = 20 lb/in2
= 29,5 %
(Timmerhaus, 2003, Figure 12-17, hal. 516)

WHP = - Ws /
20,871
WHP =
= 70,749 J/Kg
0,295
9. Menghitung BHP
a) P = 17 lb/in2
m x WHP
BHP =
1000
m = 0,241 x 10-3 m3/s x 996,52 Kg/m3 = 0,24 Kg/s
0,24 x90,967
BHP =
= 0,02189 kW
1000
b) P = 18 lb/in2
m x WHP
BHP =
1000
m = 0,236 x 10-3 m3/s x 996,52 Kg/m3 = 0,235 Kg/s
0,235 x89,384
BHP =
= 0,02104 kW
1000
c) P = 20 lb/in2
m x WHP
BHP =
1000
xvii

m = 0,199 x 10-3 m3/s x 996,52 Kg/m3 = 0,1983 Kg/s


BHP = 0,1983x 70,749 = 0,01403 kW
1000
10.

Menghitung Efisiensi Motor

a) P = 17 lb/in2
BHP = 0,02189 kW
motor = 66 %
(Timmerhaus, 2003, Figure 12-18, hal. 516)

b) P = 18 lb/in2
BHP = 0,02104 kW
motor = 65,5 %
(Timmerhaus, 2003, Figure 12-18, hal. 516)

c) P = 20 lb/in2
BHP = 0,01403 kW
motor = 62,5 %
(Timmerhaus, 2003, Figure 12-18, hal. 516)

11.

Menghitung Power Actual


a) P = 17 lb/in2

BHP
motor
0,02189
kW
=
0,66
= 0,03317 kW

Power Actual =

b) P = 18 lb/in2
BHP
motor
0,02104
kW
=
0,655
= 0,03212 kW

Power Actual =

c) P = 20 lb/in2

xviii

BHP
motor
0,01403
kW
=
0,625
= 0,02245 kW
Perhitungan pada pipa sirkuit 1
Menghitung Densitas dan Viskositas Air (Cara Interpolasi)
Mencari air pada suhu 27 0C :
Power Actual =

1.

25

997,08 Kg/m3

27

30

995,68 Kg/m3

- 997,08
30 25 995,68
=
30 27
995,68
x
- 1,4
5
=
995,68
-x
3
-4,2 = 4978,4 5x
5x = 4982,6
x = 996,52 Kg/m3 = 996,52 Kg/m3
Mencari air pada suhu 27 0C :
28

0,836 x 10-3 Kg/m s

27

30

0,8007 x 10-3 Kg/m s

x10-3 - 0,836x10-3
30 28 = 0,8007
30 27
0,8007
x10-3 x
x10-3
2 = - 0,00353
3
0,8007
x10-3 - x

-0,1059 x 10-3 = 1,6014 x 10-3 2x


2x = 1,7073 x 10-3
x = 0,85365 x 10-3 Kg/m s = 0,85365 x 10-3 Kg/m s
xix

2.

Menghitung Debit
a) P = 17 lb/in2 V = 4283 ml
Q=

V
= 0,231 x 10-3 m3/s
t

b) P = 18 lb/in2 V = 4187,5 ml
V
Q=
= 0,228 x 10-3 m3/s
t
c) P = 20 lb/in2 V = 2878 ml
V
Q=
= 0,177 x 10-3 m3/s
t
3.

Menentukan Kecepatan Alir


Untuk pipa dengan diameter
Pipa A = 5,574 x 10-4 m2
(Geankoplis, 1997, Appendiks A.5-1, hal. 892)

a) P = 17 lb/in2
Q=vxA
3

Q 0,231 103 m s
v=
=
= 0,415 m/s
A
5,574 104 m2

b) P = 18 lb/in2
Q=vxA
3

Q 0,228 103 m s
v=
=
= 0,41 m/s
A
5,574 104 m2

c) P = 20 lb/in2
Q=vxA

xx

Q 0,177 103 m s
v=
=
= 0,32 m/s
A
5,574 104 m2

4.

Menghitung Bilangan Reynold


a) P = 17 lb/in2
Dv
NRe =

( 0,0266m) (0,415ms ) 996,52 kgm3

0,85365
10 kg
m.s

= 12895,7

4,6 105

=
= 0,173 x 10-2 f = 0,008
3
26,6

10
D
(Geankoplis, 1997, Figure 2.10-3, hal. 88)

b) P = 18 lb/in2
NRe =

Dv

( 0,0266m) (0,41ms ) 996,52 kgm3

0,85365
10 kg
m.s
3

= 12742,3

4,6 105

=
= 0,173 x 10-2 f = 0,0081
3
D 26,6 10
(Geankoplis, 1997, Figure 2.10-3, hal. 88)

c) P = 20 lb/in2
NRe =

Dv

xxi

( 0,0266m) (0,32 ms ) 996,52 kgm3

= 9905,61

0,85365
10 kg
m.s
3

4,6 105

=
= 0,173 x 10-2 f = 0,0084
3
26,6

10
D
(Geankoplis, 1997, Figure 2.10-3, hal. 88)

5.

Menghitung Friksi
Friksi pada pipa Lurus
Pipa 1 L = 10,21 m
a) P = 17 lb/in2

m
L v2

m 0,415 s
Ff = 4 f
= 4 (0,008) 10,21

0,0266m
D 2
2

= 1,0544 J/Kg

b) P = 18 lb/in2

m
L v2

m 0,41 s
Ff = 4 f
= 4 (0,0081) 10,21

0,0266m
D 2
2

= 1,0424 J/Kg
a) P = 20 lb/in2

m
L v2

m 0,32 s
Ff = 4 f
= 4 (0,0084) 10,21
0,0266m
D 2
2

= 0,6533 J/Kg
Friksi pada valve (Globe valve wide open Kf = 6)
Pipa 1 jumlah valve = 2
a) P = 17 lb/in2
2
v2 2x6 0,415 ms
hf = 2Kf
=
= 1,0334 J/Kg
2
2

xxii

b) P = 18 lb/in2
2
v2 2x6 0,41ms
hf = 2Kf
=
= 1,0086 J/Kg
2
2
c) P = 20 lb/in2
2
v2 2x6 0,32 ms
hf = 2Kf
=
= 0,6144 J/Kg
2
2

Friksi pada elbow (Elbow 900 Kf = 0,75 )


Pipa 1 jumlah elbow = 13
a) P = 17 lb/in2
2
v2 13( 0,75) 0,415ms
hf = 13Kf
=
= 0,839 J/Kg
2
2
b) P = 18 lb/in2
2
v2 13( 0,75) 0,41ms
hf = 13Kf
=
= 0,819 J/Kg
2
2
c) P = 20 lb/in2
2
v2 13( 0,75) 0,32ms
hf = 13Kf
=
= 0,499 J/Kg
2
2

Friksi pada valve (Gate valve wide open Kf= 0,17)


Pipa 1 jumlah valve = 2
a) P = 17 lb/in2
2
v2 = 2x0,170,415 ms = 0,029 J/Kg
hf = 2Kf
2
2
2
P = 18 lb/in
2
2
v
2x0,170,41m
s = 0,0285 J/Kg
hf = 2Kf
=
2
2

b)

xxiii

c)

P = 20 lb/in2
hf = 2Kf

v2 = 2x0,170,32 ms = 0,017 J/Kg


2
2

a) P = 17 lb/in2

a)

hf total = 1,0334 + 0,839 + 0,029 = 1,901 J/Kg


b) P = 18 lb/in2
hf total = 1,0086 + 0,819 + 0,0285 = 1,856 J/Kg
c) P = 20 lb/in2
hf total = 0,6144 + 0,499 + 0,017 = 1,1304 J/Kg
Sudden expansion dari pipa kecil ke pipa besar 1
P = 17 lb/in2
2

A2 v2
1
A1 2

hex =

b)

m
4
2 2 0,415

s
hex = 1 5,574 104 m2
1,961

2( 1)
10 m

hex = 0,292 J/kg


P = 18 lb/in2
2

A2 v2
1
A1 2

hex =

c)

4
2 2 0,41m

s
hex = 1 5,574 104 m2
1,961

2( 1)
10 m

hex = 0,285 J/kg


P = 20 lb/in2

2
A2 v
hex = 1
A1 2

4
2 2 0,32m

s
hex = 1 5,574 104 m2
1,961

2( 1)
10 m

xxiv

hex = 0,172 J/kg


Sudden contraction dari tangki ke pipa besar 1
a) P =17 lb/in2

hc = 0,55 1
hc = 0,55

A1 v2

A2 2

(0,415ms )
( 1 0)

2( 1)

hc = 0,0473 J/Kg
b) P =18 lb/in2
2
A1 v
hc = 0,55 1
A2 2

hc = 0,55

(
0,41m )
s
( 1 0)

2( 1)

hc = 0,0462 J/Kg

c) P =18 lb/in2
2
A1 v
hc = 0,55 1
A2 2
hc = 0,55

(0,32ms )
( 1 0)

2( 1)

hc = 0,0279 J/Kg
Sudden contraction dari pipa besar 1 ke pipa kecil
a)
P =17 lb/in2

hc = 0,55 1

A1 v2

A2 2

xxv

104 m2 0,415 s
hc = 0,55 1 1,961

5,574 104 m2
2( 1)

hc = 0,03065 J/Kg
b) P =18 lb/in2
2
A1 v
hc = 0,55 1
A2 2

10 4 m2 0,41 s
hc = 0,55 1 1,961

5,574 10 4 m2
2( 1)

hc = 0,0299 J/Kg
c) P =20 lb/in2

hc = 0,55 1

A1 v2

A2 2

10 4 m2 0,32 s
hc = 0,55 1 1,961

5,574 10 4 m2
2( 1)

hc = 0,0181 J/Kg

6. Menghitung Total Friksi


a) P = 17 lb/in2
F = hc + hf + hex + Ff
= 0,0779 + 1,901 + 0,292 + 1,0544
= 3,323 J/Kg
b) P = 18 lb/in2
F = hc + hf + hex + Ff
= 0,0761 + 1,856 + 0,285 + 1,0424
= 3,2577 J/Kg
c) P = 20 lb/in2
F = hc + hf + hex + Ff
= 0,0181 + 1,1304 + 0,172 + 0,6533
= 1,992 J/Kg

xxvi

7.

Menghitung Hukum Bernaulli


P = 0
Hal ini dikarenakan tangki penampung air merupakan
tangki terbuka sehingga tekanan pada saat air masuk sama
dengan tekanan pada saat air keluar yaitu 1 atm.
a) P = 17 lb/in2
2
2
-Ws = P2 P1 + ( z z ) g + v 2 v1
2
1
2

+ F

-Ws =
0,415 2 0 2
0kg/ms2
2

+ 0,205mx9,8m / s +
3

2
996,52
kg/m

+ 3,323

-Ws = 5,4184 m /s

b) P = 18 lb/in2
P P1
v 2 v12
+ ( z 2 z1 ) g + 2
-Ws = 2
2

-Ws =

+ F

0,412 0 2
0kg/ms2
2

+ 0,205mx9,8m / s +
3

2
996,52
kg/m

+ 3,2577

-Ws = 5,531 m /s

c) P = 20 lb/in2
P P1
v 2 v12
+ ( z 2 z1 ) g + 2
-Ws = 2
2

xxvii

+ F

-Ws =
0,32 2 0 2
0kg/ms2
2

+ 1,992

+
0
,
205
mx
9
,
8
m
/
s
+

2
kg/m3
996,52

-Ws = 4,0518 m /s
8.

Menghitung WHP
a) P = 17 lb/in2
= 31 %
(Timmerhaus, 2003, Figure 12-17, hal. 516)

WHP = - Ws /
5,4184
WHP =
= 17,479 J/Kg
0,31

b) P = 18 lb/in2
= 30,8 %
(Timmerhaus, 2003, Figure 12-17, hal. 516)

WHP = - Ws /
5,531
WHP =
= 17,372 J/Kg
0,308
c) P = 20 lb/in2
= 28 %
(Timmerhaus, 2003, Figure 12-17, hal. 516)

WHP = - Ws /
4,0518
WHP =
= 14,471 J/Kg
0,28
9. Menghitung BHP
a) P = 17 lb/in2
m x WHP
BHP =
1000
m = 0,231 x 10-3 m3/s x 996,52 Kg/m3 = 0,23 Kg/s
xxviii

0,23x17,479
= 0,00403 kW
1000
b) P = 18 lb/in2
m x WHP
BHP =
1000
m = 0,228 x 10-3 m3/s x 996,52 Kg/m3 = 0,227 Kg/s
0,227 x17,372
BHP =
= 0,00395 kW
1000
c) P = 20 lb/in2
m x WHP
BHP =
1000
m = 0,177 x 10-3 m3/s x 996,52 Kg/m3 = 0,176 Kg/s
BHP = 0,176 x14,471 = 0,00256 kW
1000
BHP =

10.

Menghitung Efisiensi Motor


a) P = 17 lb/in2
BHP = 0,00403 kW
motor = 59 %
(Timmerhaus, 2003, Figure 12-18, hal. 516)

b) P = 18 lb/in2
BHP = 0,00395 kW
motor = 58,6 %
(Timmerhaus, 2003, Figure 12-18, hal. 516)

c) P = 20 lb/in2
BHP = 0,00256 kW
motor = 52,8 %
(Timmerhaus, 2003, Figure 12-18, hal. 516)

11.

Menghitung Power Actual


a) P = 17 lb/in2
Power Actual =

BHP
motor

xxix

0,0403
kW
0,59
= 0,00682 kW
=

b) P = 18 lb/in2
BHP
motor
0,00395
kW
=
0,586
= 0,00675 kW

Power Actual =

c) P = 20 lb/in2
BHP
motor
0,00256
kW
=
0,528
= 0,00485 kW

Power Actual =

xxx