Read the following passages and find the main idea of each one.

Question 1 Strictly speaking, cartography is the drawing or compiling of maps. The explorers and surveyors go out and make the measurements and gather the information from which the cartographers draw their maps. Sometimes the fieldwork and the creation of the map are done by the same person. But when the scope is broad and the sources of information many, maps are more often a compilation of that information. They represent the accumulated work of many people, brought together under the supervision of one person. the compiler. The value of the map depends, of course, on the expertise of the compiler, who must sift through available information, select the most accurate data, and come up with a thoughtful and accurate synthesis of the geographic knowledge of the region. Question 2 In the 1820s and 1830s American painting added a new chapter to the story of its development. Until the nineteenth century, portraiture and occasional historical pieces were the only concerns of American art, but throughout the 1800s some of America's most talented painters chose to depict landscapes and the daily activities of ordinary people. With the nation's declaration of independence had come prosperity and with it the opportunity and inclination for painters to contemplate their environment. As they traveled beyond the early settlements and left the nation's first cities, such as Boston and Philadelphia, they began to experience and appreciate the pristine beauty of the American scenery, which differed greatly from the European landscape, partly because in its unsettled state it appeared wild and primeval. Question 3 Speculation about the earth's crust has a special edge of urgency in California, which sits on the San Andreas fault, the world's most famous and respected fracture zone. Not surprisingly, it was a scientist at the California Institute of Technology, Charles F. Richter, who invented the Richter scale used to measure earthquakes. Seismic activity in California is being constantly monitored and mapped. Seismometers register many thousands of small earthquakes every year, and computers instantly calculate the location, depth, and magnitude of an earthquake. Laser distance-ranging networks can detect changes of length, indicating change in crustal stress, accurate to about half an inch in 20 miles. Satellite measurements of crustal blocks are improving, and California seismologists believe they may in time be precise enough to allow earthquake prediction.

Question 4 The first expedition down the Colorado River was made by John Wesley Powell and his party in 1869. Powell had made long trips down the Ohio and the Mississippi and its tributaries during his twenties, when his lifelong interest in natural history developed. In 1867 he led his first expedition to the Rockies, a collecting trip for the museum he had founded in Illinois. While on Pike's Peak, -near Colorado Springs, Powell conceived his great plan to explore the Colorado River. On May 24, 1869, he and his party set off down the upper Colorado and nothing was heard from them for 37 days. During that time Powell and party braved uncharted territory, encounters with the natives, fierce rapids, and 20-foot waterfalls, as they followed the Colorado through the Grand Canyon to the Gulf of California. Question 5 Innovations in transportation in the 1800s permitted space to be traversed more rapidly and were crucial to the industrial expansion of the North. The great spaces that separated producers from consumers made speed essential, especially in the movement of perishable freight. The development of the steampowered locomotive in the 1830s and the rapid extension of the railways in the 1840s and 1850s provided the answer to the need for faster transport and dramatically altered patterns of economic development throughout the United States. In 1830 there were 32 miles of rails in the country, in 1840 there were 2,818 miles, and by 1850 there were more than 9,000 miles. The rapid extension of rail mileage enabled the railroads significantly to reduce their costs for shipping freight and carrying passengers, thus enabling them to price their services more cheaply and competitively. The extension of trunk lines, into which short or local lines fed, further tightened the east-west flow of commerce and bound the Northeast and the old Northwest together with bands of steel. Question 6 The few places left on earth that have not been altered by humankind are almost invariably hostile to humans. One such place is the Alaskan Arctic, which is inhabited, where inhabited at all, by only a scattering of Eskimos, Native Americans, and whites. But while the Arctic is indeed a chill and inimical realm of snow, ice, and polar bears, it is also a region of great beauty and, above all, purity, where plants and animals still exist undisturbed in a state of natural balance. Nearly one-third of Alaska lies north of the Arctic Circle and consists of pristine land. The Brooks Range cuts across the region like a wall, making access difficult. Even today, in an age of jet travel, the number of persons, who have had firsthand experience in the Alaskan Arctic remains small, and countless valleys and mountains go unnamed and even unexplored.

3. when plant life abundantly colonized marshy land. who arrived in the islands in canoes laden with breadfruit. and with concentrated study and practice. the Hawaiians have accepted each group's offerings and drawn the best from them. as American . In fact. seed-bearing trees had evolved that shed their leaves in winter. soybeans. X The compiler's task is more important than that of the explorers and surveyors. The romance. Fifty million years later came the dense forests of tree ferns that prevailed in tropical climates of that era. lomi lumi salmon. Question 10 Hawaii was originally settled by the natives of the South Pacific. :-) Conditions ire the early 1800s were favorable to the emergence of the American landscape artist. 1. landscapes were produced in preference to portraits and historical pieces. The primitive forests of several hundred million years ago consisted of fewer kinds of trees. The theme of the individual confronting nature was further developed by Herman Melville in the classic novel Moby Dick (1851). Thus a Hawaiian feast is a gastronomic experience.writers began to look within themselves and across their enlarged continental homeland for their subjects and themes. the first distinctly American culture took I—m. Japan. 3. seasoned with coconut. The rise of an American tradition in literature paralleled the expansion of the nation. 2. 4. Songs are usually more complex than calls and are utilized primarily by adult males during the breeding season to establish territories or attract mates. The Chinese brought rice. In the early 1800s. X Not all of the information initially compiled for maps is accurate. yams. coconut. What is the main topic of the passage? 1. X The definition of cartography is the drawing or compiling of maps. bird watchers can learn to identify many birds by their sounds and to call them as well. Most likely. and Indian and cornstarch puddings. during the Cretaceous period. Supplementing these foods were over a hundred different edible fishes and 4C kinds of seaweed from the surrounding waters. Question 8 Because different tree species adapted to different climates and soil types have evolved over millennia. taro. pipkaula (jerked beef). ? In the early 1800s. salt salmon. What is the main idea expressed in the passage? 1. 3. or other birds of the same species. vocalized by males and females in all seasons to express alarm or maintain contact with mates. Calls are normally simple notes. from these have sprung the angiosperms and our present deciduous forests. and chickens. pigs. In the late nineteenth century immigrants from China. . 4. offspring. corned beef. the earliest "trees. and cooked. chowders curries. The forerunners of modern conifers were on the scene 300 million years ago. What is the main idea of the passage? 1. and Korea were brought to Hawaii to work the sugar plantations. They lacked true roots and consisted of a tangle of specialized branches that clambered over rocky ground.Question 7 In the first half of the nineteenth century. Nathaniel Hawthorne dealt with equally difficult questions of inner limits and the individual's responsibilities to society in The Scarlet Letter (1850) and The House of the Seven Gables (1851). chronicling the advance of "civilization" and questioning the implications of its impact on the natural world. provided a useful form for dealing with the Fenimore Cooper's The Pioneers (1823) and The Deerslayer (1841). the whalers and missionaries introduced stews. were like giant club mosses. and vegetables and their ways of cooking them." which grew nearly 500 million years ago. ? Maps are the product of a group effort brought together usually by one person. Natty Bumppo and the Mohican guide Chingachgook confronted the environment of the American frontier. Hawaiian food was eaten raw or wrapped in taro leaves. All songs and most calls are distinctive. dried beef. and haupia (coconut pudding) evolved during this period. Settlers from the continental United States also brought their favorite recipes and in the spirit of aloha. many kinds of forests occupy the earth today. X Computers provide a variety of information about earthquakes. By the time the dinosaurs roamed the earth some 180 million years ago. X An increase in travel in America led to an appreciation of the beauty of the American landscape. the essence of Hawaii and its many cultures. bananas. 2. single or repeated. ? America's declaration of independence brought prosperity to the nation and with it an appreciation of the outdoors. Question 9 Birds have two basic types of sounds: songs and calls. The Japanese brought sukiyaki and teriyaki. or novel. building the tremendous coal and oil reserves so important today. among many other foods. 2.

10. What is the main topic of the passage? 1. 2. (8). ? A great deal of attention is paid to earthquake activity in California. women's basketball was added to the program. 4. X The Alaskan Arctic is a beautifully pristine realm of snow. Basketball was on the Olympic program in 1904. X Railroads made the transportation of perishable freight possible. winning gold medals in 1984. which was so dominant in those days that they were inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame as a team. (5). X Powell was uniquely qualified to lead an expedition down the Colorado. ? The natives of the South Pacific who first settled in Hawaii ate raw food. What is the main subject of the passage? 1. ? Powell and his party faced daunting challenges on the first Colorado River expedition. 2. X The Richter scale was invented in California. X Conifers are the oldest trees in today's forests. 1996 and 2000. 1980 and 1992. The Soviet women were originally the top team on the female side. :-) Bird calls and songs are distinctive. :-) The ruggedness of the Alaskan Arctic makes it one of the last few remaining pristine areas in the world. ? Remarkably. 4. X Railroads provided an important link between the Northwest and the Northeast. novelists began writing about the American frontier. whereas other immigrants cooked theirs. 7. but the US women have now surpassed them. 2. 4. Text 1. parts of the Alaskan Arctic still remain unexplored.4. (2). The USA won all the Olympic titles until 1972 when they were defeated by the Soviet Union. ? The first American literature took the form of novels that dealt with uniquely American themes. ? The Alaskan Arctic is habitable only to arctic animals and a few hardy humans. :-) Hawaiian food is a combination of the foods of many peoples and a reflection of Hawaii's history. ? Between 1830 and 185C over 8. incidentally. hat is the primary topic of the passage? 1. the nation expanded. (7). and ideal liable. 1988. 3. but the event was contested by only a few American club teams and actually served as the AAU (Amateur Athletic Union of the USA) Championship for that year. meaningful. What is the main idea expressed in the passage? 1. What is the main idea of the passage? 1. In 1936. 4. and polar bears. 3. 2. 3. X Earthquake prediction will be possible in the future. The winning team.000 miles of railroad track were laid. 2. (6). 4. X Birdwatchers can identify many bird calls and their meanings and learn to mimic them as well. X People were concerned when nothing was heard from Powell and his party for over a month. X At. who brought their native foods with them. ? Sugar plantations were worked by immigrants from Asia. 4. X The predecessors of today's forests were giant club mosses and tree ferns. What is the main idea of the passage? ? The variety of trees in today's forests area result of millions of years of evolution. Thus the event is usually considered only an exhibition. X The individual versus nature was one of the main themes explored in early American literature. winning gold in 1976. X Climate affected the development of trees over millennia. 6. In 1976. 4. 2. Melville and Hawthorne both addressed difficult questions facing Americans. :-) Railroads had a profound effect on the economic development of the United States in the nineteenth century. X Birds have their own language by which they maintain contact. Question 1 . 2. ice. (4). 8. 1. basketball made its first appearance as a medal sport at the Olympics.2 (1). The United States has many sport events for women. ? Bird songs are complicated and used mainly by males to attract mates. 3. What is the main theme in the passage? 1. . 2. 5. (3). 4. and the sport has been included in every Olympic Games since. X In their novels. ? Whalers and missionaries introduced new kinds of foods to the people of Hawaii. X Powell was inspired to explore the Colorado while on Pike's Peak. 3. 3. 3. 9. was the Buffalo German club. 3.

It seems that making masks has its roots in prehistoric times. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Text 3. It is therefore difficult. Supernatural forces are projected into a mask and the spectator gives it life and meaning. Although some masks can be very sophisticated. the Thakali of the upper KaliGandaki valley in western Nepal first converted from their shamanic religion to Buddhism. Currently. distribution. The immediate response of many animals to disturbance is a change in behavior. laying a curse or killing into Tibetan Buddhist Cham dances. and several of the masks remain only as mute witnesses to a dead civilization. or of central Indian tribes such as the Bhugas who wore masks for divination before hunting ceremonies. such as cessation of foraging. Disturbance from recreation may have both immediate and long-term effects on wildlife. Question 3-4 T-shirts represent one of the highest grossing markets in youth culture fashion. transformed and even incorporated many of these rites. the function of various masks has altered and evolved so that an old mask has sometimes been given a new meaning. there is a lack of information on the responses of wildlife to mountain bikers. As the execution of tribal masks was not often subject to canonical rules. T-shirts. in part because it is assumed to be more (12) …… for wildlife than hiking. which makes this marketplace one of the most vital components towards understanding trends and market opportunities in youth culture in general. (10) …. healing. it can nevertheless be a Buddhist or Hindu image from a remote village or a small temple. and have more recently converted to Hinduism. …researchers have examined the responses of wildlife to pedestrians.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Text 2. fleeing.3 million persons participating at least once in 2000 (USDA Forest Service and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2000). and in many cases. political and religious changes over the last two centuries. although the appearance of the sculpture is archaic . two holes for the eyes. knowing what's going on in the subcultures of the T-shirt industry indicate where the marketplace is headed next. Indonesian or American counterparts. the artist being at liberty to express his fantasy. The wearing of an animal mask or skin could originally have been used in magic rites for hunting. Despite this lack of knowledge. In these last two cases. In many ways. considering the number of existing ethnic groups. to ascertain exactly all the original purposes of these masks. and gives an idea of how Buddhism or Hinduism. Even when it was produced by a Buddhist or a Hindu. even the launch of entirely new companies based on the success of a series of collections. or altering (14) …… behavior. It is a mode of expression that reveals specific characteristics of the original spirit. Question 10-14 Hiking and mountain biking are rapidly increasing in popularity as forms of outdoor recreation. Owing to social. Inspiration for the masks often reflects the individual. and where cultural shifts within youth culture globally may take shape. often leading new directions for brands. Himalayan tribal masks evoke by their shape. but only patient comparative studies will be able to determine the depth to which such a comparison can be carried. patina and carving their African. after defeating the shamanic traditions. this art was in contact with shamanism.. for example. it is possible that there is more than just an aesthetic similarity. others may have very little embellishment. one for the mouth. The masks discussed in this article were all produced in Nepal by the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Terai (the low plains of the south along the Indian border). the Middle Hills (with the exclusion of the Kathmandu valley) and the northern Himalayas. which are often less expensive than other forms of apparel play many roles when it comes to individuals style. marketing. and sometimes they resemble those of Siberian shamans. Some of the tribal masks represent vanished cults and deities that have been swept away by the conversion to another religion. beliefs and visions of the people who created the masks. . Question 5-9 To focus attention on the so-called 'primitive' or tribal masks of the Himalayas is to adapt the eye to a completely different style than is generally expected in the West of Himalayan art. how spending patterns effect other categories. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Text 4. In some cases. designs. Mountain biking in particular is one of the fastest-growing outdoor activities. The ethnic groups that created the masks have undergone radical changes. mountain biking is (11) …… in all federal wilderness areas and on many other public lands. with 43. They can be reminiscent of Japanese jomon (cord pattern) terracotta masks dating from the second millennium BC. such as boar mask from a Buddhist village. Aesthetic interest in the objects themselves or astonishment at their shape and their mysterious beauty provokes questions as to what they mean and how they originated. and they exhibit many different levels of technical ability. it is not known (13) …… wildlife respond differently to these activities. the objects are the products of ingenuous freshness and instinctive expressionism. or are roughly carved with a few quick strokes.

X reproducible 5. ? 8 5.. ? The Origin of Himalayan Mask 5. 5. The masks discussed in the text were made in …. :-) T-shirt is getting cheaper and cheaper 3. 2. :-) While 11. ? 4 4. ? 2 2. ? An announcement board 4. 4. 3. 1. ? Northern Himalayas 7. 4. :-) The T-shirt industry and the market opportunity 3. 1. 8. X The masks are considered holly to the Himalayan people. ? The T-shirt industry and the youth subculture 4. ? That is why T-shirt is so popular among the youth. 1. ? An advertisement 5. ? denied 12. ? that 4. 1. ? reproduction 3. X Since 2.1. ? disturbance 2. 1. X The masks are still used for traditional ritual in Himalayan cultures. Fibers made of glass . ? The T-shirt industries take advantage of the youth culture.. X In 1904. 1. 1. X The Olympic basketball program in 1904 was dominated by Amateur Athletic Union of the USA. X 7 3. ? disturber 3. ? although 14. ? Aesthetic of Primitive Mask of the Himalayas 2. ? The T-shirt industry and the changes of design 2. ? disturb 2. 3. 2. 1. only a few American clubs participated in the basketball Olympic program. ? A newspaper editorial. :-) A journal article. 10. 3. 2. ? Kali-Gandaki 3. 5. :-) disturbing 13. ? T-shirt design is changing rapidly among the youth. ? until 2. ? The first basketball program on the Olympic in 1904 was contested by only American club teams. 5. X The Buffalo German club won the first medal sport on the Olympic for basketball. X The USA won all the Olympic medals until 1972 when they were defeated by the Soviet Union. 1. ? prevailing 5. ? blocked 3. ? disturbingly 4. 4. ? cheap 3.. Which of the following is best for the last sentence of the paragraph? 1. ? tedious 2. 2. What is the main idea of the above text? 1. ? A popular magazine. 1. X The masks are priceless to the Himalayan people. ? The youth and the T-shirt design 5. ? The changes of T-shirt trends and design 4. ? contemporary 4. :-) whether 3. 2. :-) prehistoric 9. The above text is probably found in …. ? reproduce 4. ? Styles of the Primitive Mask of the Himalayas 4. What is the topic of the text? 1. :-) Nepal 5. The word archaic (in the first line of the last paragraph) can be best replaced by …. ? Kathmandu valley 4. ? disturb 5. X Until 3. :-) banned 5. ? Whenever 4. X The masks were made in the prehistoric times and were kept in temples. ? Before 5. ? rejected 4. What is the best title for the above text? 1. ? The West of Himalayan Art 6. :-) Tribal masks of the Himalayas 3. ? reproducing 2. ? The masks have been influenced by many religions and cultures. The irrelevant sentence in the above text is sentence number …. :-) reproductive Reading Texts Questions 1-6 Fiberscopes are one of the most important outcomes of the science of fiber optics. ? Terai 2. From the text we can conclude that …. :-) 6 3.

like many immigrants. physicians use fiberscopes to examine internal organs and as an aid in delicate surgeries. a trip that proved to be a turning point in her life and career. The sound of the voice is electronically broken down into thousands of pulses per second. Huge glaciers also sculpted the coast. Tan obtained a bachelor's degree in English and linguistics and a master's degree in linguistics and eventually established herself as a highly successful business writer. This immense quantity of food supports vast shoals of shrimp. each 0. and when thousands of these fibers are combined in what is called a fiberscope. and stony debris moved seaward from the continent by the glaciers and carried by rivers. herring. the diameter of the fiber may be as small as 5 microns. The sixteen interrelated stories that constitute the work alternate between the tales of four Chinese immigrant mothers and their Americanized daughters. to a depth of about 600 feet before dropping into the ocean's depth. The most far-reaching applications of fiber-optic technology are in communications. and they All form the basis of the "electronic superhighway" expected to crisscross the nation in the near future of the information age. Tan felt a sense of completeness. called a faceplate." In 1987 Tan visited her half-sisters in China with her mother. especially on long summer days." and then a second. Bundles of fiberscopes fused together in a solid plate. sand. It was a resounding success. in essence drowning the coast and forming thousands of islands. received the Commonwealth Club Gold Award in 190'9 for her first work of fiction. or 10 microns. rebelled against her parents' expectations. At the receiving end. The weight of the glaciers. the light pulses are converted to electrical signals and the voice message is reconstructed. Light-wave communication systems can handle an immensely greater number of telephone calls and television programs than the current system. In the medical field. expecting Amy and her two brothers to think like Chinese but to speak perfect English. and take advantage of every circumstance that might lead to success. including Chinese. Miniature probes have also been developed to view muscle fiber. excel academically. and bays. Tan closed her business and wrote the remaining stories for the Joy Luck Club. and blood cells. in diameter. however. when their blooms carpet the ocean floor. skin tissue. Fiberscopes have also found varied uses in industry. they can transmit images. Beneath the sea a long. and devoted herself to being thoroughly American and dreaming of being a fiction writer. Fiberscopes have a wide range of applications. however. the shelf provides the perfect environment for diatoms. melting glaciers raised the sea level by 400 feet. In the shallow water of the shelf. "End game. Tan. Aided by the cold Labrador current which is saturated with oxygen and minerals. Questions 15-20 Maine's jagged ribbon of rocky coastline wasfashioned over millennia by the violent forces of the inner earth. For certain uses. and was made into a movie in 1993. she wrote her first short story. Tan's parents. Questions 7-14 Amy Tan. which included such exalted professions as neurosurgery. Turning to her life-long dream. It has been translated into 17 languages. Diatoms are tiny plants that form the base of the oceanic food chain.000 fibers. Tan. a bonding with the country and its culture that she had never expected. Returning from China. are being used in the manufacture of television picture tubes and other cathode-ray tube devices. This continental shelf falls gradually outward and downward. in some places for hundreds of miles. on which was deposited the mud. particularly to inspect or control operations in inaccessible areas. the American-born daughter of Chinese immigrants. fjords. pressed down the entire land mass beneath. gentle underwater slope formed.and transparent acrylic plastic are capable of conveying light energy. in an exploration of the generational and cultural tensions experienced by many first-generation daughters of immigrants. these minute plants receive the sunlight they need for photosynthesis. Optical fibers carry voice messages for telephone service. The most common fiberscopes contain about 750. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions lifted and crumbled plains to form mountains that again rose and fell as molten materials welled up in huge bulges that solidified into the granitic rocks typical of the Northeast. Tan was surprised to learn that on the strength of her short stories she had received an advance from a publisher. which in turn are food for the larger fish that are part of the legendary abundance of the Northeast's continental shelf. scraping and chiseling the land's features as they passed on their way to the sea. "Waiting between the Trees. had high expectations for their children and often set confusing standards. Meanwhile. Ideal conditions for abundant marine life make the riches of the continental shelf unparalleled. and other small fish. the best selling Joy Luck Club. well received by the critics and appearing on the New York Times bestseller list.001 centimeter. was not satisfied despite her material success. . which causes a transmitting laser to send coordinated pulses of light through the optical fibers. estimated to have been between one and two miles thick.

but the longest life of any tortoise of which there is an authentic record is of a great tortoise of the Seychelles Islands. Berlandier's tortoise. X impossible to climb 4.000. the states also gained a role in applying checks and balances. 3. the elbows meeting in the middle in front of it and the claws of the forelimbs overlapping the lower edge of the opening at the front. ? extremely smallhard to reach 4. whose age was known to be not less than 180 years.000 3. X To analyze Amy Tan's literary works .006 3. X have more uses in industry than in medicine 3. X Lines 21-266. of which there are approximately 40 different kinds. X have reached the peak of their development 2. properly called tortoises. 1. X the structure of fiberscopes 2. How do optical fibers carry voice messages? 1. The principle of separation of powers was applied throughout the document. a veritable work of genius. and of persistence. of longevity. The passage will most likely be followed by a discussion of 1. The head can be entirely withdrawn.34 Living on land. X 1.000 2. X will decrease in importance as they become more common 5. Of these. Gopherus. and they are adapted to walking on land by their club-shaped feet. snakes. In their powers to amend the Constitution and to elect the president and members of the Senate. is especially fond of prickly-pear cactus. ? Lines 18-20 2. are the land turtles. Their limbs are covered with hard scales that often have a bony core. a slow-moving inhabitant of the arid lands of southern Texas and Mexico. The shell is high-domed in all but a very few forms. feeding on grass and leaves. The new federal system accommodated the 13 original state governments while establishing new bodies and powers designed to address national concerns. The national government created by the union of states stood above the state governments in specific national matters while acknowledging the role of the states or sharing power with them in other areas. ? the use of fiber optics in the electronic superhighway 3. X 25. They are primarily vegetarians.000 4. greatly enhanced the power of central government but carefully divided its functions into three distinct branches—executive. Gopher tortoises are so called because they dig long burrows. :-) hard to reach 2. ? Lines 2-10 6. Approximately how many fibers does a fiberscope contain? 1. The true tortoises come to water only to drink or bathe. It can be inferred from the passage that fiberscopes 1. is found in the southern United States as far west as New Mexico. and state courts were required to recognize the Constitution and the laws and treaties made under it as the supreme law. such as frogs. Questions 29 . ? By fusing bundles of fiberscopes into a faceplate 2. and burrowing owls. Where in the passage does the author discuss the uses of miniature probes in medicine? 1. X By using cathode-ray tube devices 3. The Constitution. including the three gopher tortoises. X homes and businesses of the future 4. ? By sending coordinated electrical pulses through optical fibers 2. which may be nearly 50 feet long and provide a hone for many other animals. Carefully measured checks and balances were inserted to prevent the acquisition or concentration of power in any one branch and also for the purpose of protecting minority rights from the potential rule of the majority. Tortoises have become symbols of leisurely movement. The word inaccessible means 1. 1.Questions 21-28 The United States Constitution established a political system comprising a national and federal government. X additional uses of fiberscopes in industry 7. State officials were required to take an oath to support the Constitution. ? will play a major role in the information age 4. :-) Lines 12-13 4. legislative and judicial. The openings at the front and rear of the shell are usually neatly closed by the retracted limbs. ? 750. however. ? difficult to find 3. on which the enlarged scales may be defensively augmented with still larger spines. as in Aesop's fable of the hare and the tortoise. X 500. :-) By converting electrical signals to light pulses 4. What is the author's main purpose in this passage? 1. All tortoises share the ability to live to a great age. The hardscaled soles of the hind feet cover the openings at the rear.

X Tan started writing fiction in order to make more money The word exalted means 1. X speaking perfect English 2. ? was not surprising in the least The words "the work" refer to 1. ? To describe how the rising sea level covered the coastal land 4. 23. X national matters 4. ? neurosurgeon 2. 15. ? Winter 4. 20. X To criticize Amy Tan's rebellion against her parents 4.8. 13. X publisher 3. ? Earthquakes 4. X writing 3. 19. 14. 21. :-) highly respected 3. at what time of year are diatoms ii. ? Glaciers 2. Amy Tan's visit to China 1. X Commonwealth Club Gold Award 4. 17. :-) not equaled 3. ? stories Before becoming a fiction writer. ? Volcanic eruptions 3. ? Ocean currents Why does the author use the phrase "in essence drowning the coast" to discuss the effects of melting glaciers? 1. :-) Joy Luck Club 2. ? the states According to the passage. 9. ? Tan's parents understood her dilemma but wanted the best for her 4. X share power with the federal government 3. X state officials 3. X excelling academically 4. Amy Tan was a successful 1. :-) A cold current saturated with oxygen and minerals 2. ? English teacher The expectations of Tan's parents included all of the following EXCEPT 1. :-) The formation and characteristics of the Northeast coast 16. X recognize the Constitution as a work of genius The word "amend" could best be replaced by . :-) questioning tradition 3. X To show the devastating nature of glaciers 3. :-) business writer 4. ? common 2. X was a trip she had always dreamed of taking 2. X national and federal government 2. X To support the notion that animal life was lost when the glaciers melted 2. X Tan always knew she was Chinese foremost and American only in her imagination 2. ? common 4. X The effect of the movement of ice sheets on the shape of the land 4. :-) It took Tan a while to summon the courage to pursue her dreams 3. ? very difficult It can be concluded from this passage that 1. X Autum 3. ? Tan made the right decision when she closed her business With which of the following topics is the author primarily concerned? 1. 10. the greatest abundance? 1. ? Spring The word "them" refers to 1. ? The riches of the continental shelf Which of the following is NOT mentioned as having affected the creation of Maine's rocky coastline? 1. 11. :-) had a profound affect on her 4. X Tan did not use personal experience in her writing 4. X protect minority rights 4. :-) Summer 2. ? To support Amy Tan's decision to become a fiction writer According to the passage. X To indicate the importance of natural disasters What are the "ideal conditions" the author is referring to? 1. state officials were required to take an oath to 1. 2. 18. :-) To present biographical information about Amy Tan 3. ? Blooms carpeting the ocean floor 3. X Parents don't know what's best for their children 3. ? choosing an important profession It can be inferred from the passage that 1. ? The islands off the Maine coast 3. X rivaled 4. 2. ? was disappointing 3. ? not original 2. ? imperceptible According to the passage. ? A 600-foot drop into the ocean's depth The word "unparalleled" means 1. 22. ? Diatoms existing in the shallow water of the shelf 4. ? support the Constitution 2. 12. X Tan had always wanted to return to China 2.

" was published in 1899. steady beat. ? They have long lives. :-) They are well adapted to water 2. ? humor 3. ? intended above all to preserve the unity of the states What is the author's main purpose in the passage? 1. ? social science 4. and each section is 16 bars in length. X enhance 4. is a style of composed piano music that was popular from the 1890s to about 1915. 25. The pianist's right hand plays a highly syncopated melody. 4. ? Line 21 4. Gopher tortoises primarily eat 1. About three minutes long. X The symbolism associated with tortoises. and piano style. developed primarily by black pianists. X restricted 3. 26. ? burrowing animals 3. ? owls Reading Test Questions 1-8 Ragtime. X To mention the roles of state officials in government 3. ? The life of spans of tortoises Which of the following not mentioned as a characteristics of tortoises? 1. ? snakes 33. :-) change 2. it has the standard AA BB A CC DD form. X To persuade the state legislators to support the Constitution 2. ragtime songs. "Maple Leaf Rag" is a classic example of ragtime. :-) commendation It can be concluded from the passage that the authors of Constitution 1. ragtime played an integral part in the jazz legacy. 2. The opening melody. X contained 4. ? enhanced 34. The word "augmented" could best be replaced try 1. X provided the states with the most power to govern 3. while the left hand steadily maintains the beat with an "oom-pah" accompaniment. ? The difference between the 40 different kinds of land turtles 3. ? indifference 4. features the typical ragtime right-hand syncopations. where each letter represents a melodic phrase. 1. and arrangements for dance and marching bands. "Maple Leaf Rag. 27. ? snails 4. :-) wanted to avoid usurpation of power by any individual or body 2. ? frogs 2. With its syncopations. Early jazz musicians often used ragtime melodies as introductions to their improvisations. known as the "King of Ragtime. X limbs 3. 28. in march tempo. ? Their head can be entirely withdrawn into the shell. 3. X public housing 3. duple meter (2/4. ? didn't believe that the state and federal branches of the government could work well together 4. X To summarize the role of the Senate 4. Ragtime piano music has a generally standard form. A ragtime piece usually consists of several similar melodies that take such forms as AA BB A CC DD or Introduction AA BB CC DD EE. ? disapproval 2. 30. :-) political science Where in the passage does the author describe the three branches of government? 1. The word "their" refers to 1. 11. ? They have retracting limbs. 29. reaching millions on a national scale through sheet music. :-) grass and leaves 4. ? tortoises 4. :-) water turtles 2. X balance 3. X feet 32. The leading ragtime composer was Scott Joplin. :-) The characteristics of land turtles 4. ? To discuss one of the principal elements of the Constitution What is the main topic of the passage? 1. :-) Line 16 2. The passage preceding this one is probably about 1. X prickly pear cactus 3. player pianos. 31. the same rich body of music that became a vital source of jazz. X minority issues 2. or two beats per measure) performed at a moderate march tempo. ." whose most famous piano piece. Ragtime quickly gained popularity after its first appearances. X added 2. .24. ? construct The author of the passage is probably an expert in 1. ? Line 14 3. ? Line 8 The author's attitude toward the Constitution is one of 1. is a style of jazz characterized by an elaborately syncopated rhythm in the melody and a steadily accented accompaniment. The forms of ragtime derive from European marches and dances. X scales 2. but the rhythms are rooted in AfricanAmerican folk music.

this does not present a problem. However. Several smaller red spots have been seen occasionally but have not lasted. education. though for relatively brief periods Mars may outshine it. From the trees. However. for the bison use their hooves and massive heads to clear away the snow and then feed on the grasses below. there were fewer than a thousand plains bison left. however. and ultimately its greatest use. . Questions 27-33 The Chumash people inhabited an area of southwestern California that included large portions of present-day Los Angeles. government. publishing. Though the latitude of the Red Spot varies little. As an educational aid. with protection and careful breeding they have been brought back to the point where their numbers can be multiplied at will. Questions 14-19 Jupiter is the largest and most massive planet and is fifth in order of distance from the sun. so its surface area is greater than that of Earth. aerospace. computer graphics can be used to create weather maps and cartographic materials. where it is used to create graphs. computer graphics has emerged as one of the most rapidly growing fields in computer science. statistical. The bison has a great tolerance to-cold. It is used routinely in such diverse areas as business. and ship designers use CAD techniques to design vehicles and test their performance. particularly for computer animation. where it is used in advertising. generally referred to as computer-aided design (CAD). they used wood to make bowls. Although the Chumash were accomplished fishers and hunted a variety of animals.000 kilometers long and 14. bison lower their heads and face directly into the storm. the Pioneer and Voyager results have refuted that idea and proven the Red Spot to be a phenomenon of Jovian meteorology. The most famous mark on Jupiter is the Great Red Spot. In winter the vegetation on which these animals feed may be hidden beneath a deep blanket of snow. One of its greatest advantages is that designers can see how an object will look after construction and make changes freely and much more quickly than with hand drafting. It has shown variations in both intensity and color. Its longevity may well be due to its exceptional size. Questions 20-26 As computers have become powerful tools for the rapid and economic production of pictures. including elk. mathematical. and economic data. There are no true seasons on Jupiter because the axial inclination to the perpendicular of the orbital plane is only just over 3°—less than that for any other planet. They made great use of stone for milling and for making tools and weapons. It was once thought that the Red Spot might be a solid or semisolid body floating in Jupiter's outer gas. Automobile. industry. who reduced their population to the point at which. The latitude is generally very close to -22°. north is the edge of the Canadian forest. has been as an aid to design. charts. but there are signs that it is decreasing in size. intricate patterns that are regarded as being among the finest in the world. create a three-dimensional model. Business graphics is another rapidly growing area of computer graphics. research. Other endangered species need the same planning and protection. but it always returns after a few years. Ventura. They took advantage of the rich resources of their homeland. and it may not be permanent. Large herds presently range on both government and private lands where they are protected. training. which is achieved by a sequential process. Jupiter's less than 10-hour rotation period gives it the shortest day in the solar system insofar as the principal planets are concerned. scientific. the plains bison and the woodland bison. and several types of canoes. around 1900. Computer art also has creative and commercial art applications. When blizzards rage across the North American prairie. and cost models to summarize financial. and south onto the central plateau of Mexico. The plains bison once ranged from Pennsylvania and Georgia to the Rockies. Architects can design a building layout. Over the past century the total longitudinal drift has amounted to approximately 1200°. and at times it has been invisible. Their large domed huts were framed by willow poles covered with mats made from twined bulrushes harvested from the marshlands. It is well placed for observation for several months in every year and on average is the brightest of the planets apart from Venus. One of the initial uses of computer graphics. Plant fiber was also used to weave baskets with beautiful. engineers now rely on heavily on CAD. bows. art. spacecraft. the largest and most durable of which could hold up to twelve people and ply the open ocean. At its greatest extent it may be 40.Questions 9-13 In North America there are two forms of bison. and Medicine.000 kilometers wide. Building designs are also created with computer graphics systems. For threedimensional rendering of machine parts. Bison are strong survivors and have few predators except for humans. and film productions. Santa Barbara. and San Luis Obispo counties as well as the Channel islands. it drifts about in longitude. and even go for a simulated "walk" through the rooms or around the outside of the building.

deer. ? In caves 2. ? Behind trees 4. political. ? compare ragtime and jazz 3. ? oom-pah -accompaniment 3. beads. The Chumash even had a currency represented by a string of small white shell beads. X syncopated melody 2. :-) its rotation period is shorter than 10 hours 4. rabbits. and economic ties. The word "it" (bold) refers to 8.000 to 30. X melodic phrase 2. :-) a melodic phrase 4. :-) Ragtime has an easily recognizable rhythm. ? move about According to the passage. 9. ? the axial inclination is only just over 3° 2. a ceremonial dance ground. headdresses. X Sixteen-bar sections 3. from which they made flour.antelope. X Left-hand accompaniment 4. X player pianos 3. a burial ground. baskets. X bison were native to a limited territory. :-) Fast march tempo 2. :-) compositions for orchestras 2. ? there is the interference of the Great Red Spot 3. 1. The Chumash lived in villages that were connected by social. X drive a long distance 2. :-) In the open The word "range" (bold) means to 1. X Ragtime music is complex and hard to identify. 3. a field for game playing. X Bison will eventually be extinct. ? Art History 6. ? march tempo 4. X humans 3.America According to the passage. and bulbs. X surround 4. X Bison are more fragile than they appear. utensils. X cook on a stove 3. :-) discuss the origin and elements of ragtime 4. ? numbers 2. According to the passage. and canoes. The topic of the passage following this one would likely be about 1. X cold-blooded animals of the Southwestern desert 2. leather. A typical village consisted of several domed houses. 13. 2. X national parks of North America 4. X arrangements for marching bands 4. ? sheet music 3. 1. including flowers. This passage would be part of required reading in which of the following courses? 1. X never changing 2. Which of the following is NOT. The word "their" (bold) refers to 1. ? The bison population can be controlled. 3. :-) derived from 3. who bartered for Chumash hides. 2. At its height the Chumash nation consisted of 20. ? criticize the compositions of Scott Joplin 2. at least threefourths of their diet consisted of plant foods. leaves. nets. ? it is on the average the brightest of all the planets . X predators The passage supports which of the following conclusions? 1. 11. and one or more sweatlodges. ? unmoving 7. the letters A in AA and B in BB each represent 1. roots. seeds. :-) Music Appreciation 3. X show how ragtime is arranged 2. ? Ragtime is a completely different form of music than jazz. 4. 14. Ragtime reached people nationwide through all of the following EXCEPT 1. X African-American history 2. :-) "Maple Leaf Rag" 3. X Seeking shelter behind boulders 3. The word "rooted" (bold) means 1. ? the endangered grizzly of North . X attached to the ground 4. ? ragtime 4. X the diversity of climates in America 3. Their most important food source was the acorn. each with one or more granaries. where would bison be found during a severe winter storm? 1. The Chumash were avid traders with other western tribes. Plants were also used to make medicines. X Social Studies 4. :-) plains bison 4. ? Ragtime was popular only with African-Americans. 4. ? Highly syncopated melody 5. X each letter Which of the following conclusions can be made from this passage? 1. fruit. who inhabited 75 to 100 villages.000 people. The author's main purpose in the passage is to 1. characteristic of ragtime? 1. grains. 12. Jupiter has the shortest day among the principal planets because 1. and squirrels. tools. 10.

X wooden beads 4. X flight training 2. X isolated themselves from other tribes 4. :-) Computer graphics applications 21. X making cost models 2. X computer science 22. X brilliance 4. It can be inferred from this passage that Jupiter's Great Red Spot 1. X create graphs 2. X were not a seafaring people 3. X The rapidly growing field of computer science 3. ? geologists 2. ? mathematicians 18. The passage was most probably written by a specialist in 1. X advertising 3. X is made of floating gases 4. X surface area 20. ? supportive 2. X make cartographic materials 4. :-) rendering machine parts 4. The word” Intensity" could best be replaced with 1. ? nutrition 2. :-) from time to time 2. ? The impact of the Chumash legacy 4. ? create three-dimensional models 3. :-) were a highly developed people 4. ? layers 27. ? jobs 2. ? enthusiastic 4. ? lived very primitively 30. X density 3. X ecological systems 3.15. ? will continue expanding 19. X Computers as the architects of the future 4. :-) amateur astronomers 3. The paragraph following this passage would most likely be about 1. ? computer graphics 4. X on a regular basis 3. architects use CAD to 1. X canoes 2. :-) willow poles 4. According to the passage. :-) A description of Chumash life 28. X currency and government 4. ? students of anthropology 4. :-) Lines 7-9 25. ? less often than any other planet 4. :-) computer animation 3. The author mentions all of the following goods the Chumash traded EXCEPT 1. inventive people 29. ? every several months 17. ? Support for the Chumash nation 2. ? Lines 4-6 2. X Lines 12-14 4. X fields 2. ? fruit 3. X acorns 32. ? applications of CAD in medicine 23. The author's tone in this passage is 1. ? tools 33. X were a localized tribe 3. :-) plant foods 3. 26. ? visibility 2. Mars outshines Jupiter 1. :-) anthropology . ? did not make the most of their natural resources 2. :-) neutral 3. X were not artistic in nature 2. The Chumash currency was represented by 1. According to the passage. three-fourths of the Chumash diet consisted of 1. ? a simulated "walk" through model rooms. X computers 3. ? argumentative 16. ? were an industrious. The author implies that the Chumash 1. It can be inferred from the passage that the Chumash 1. engineers use CAD for 1. X will become brighter with time 3. According to the passage. The word "it" (bold) refers to 1. ? Routine uses of computers 2. What does the passage mainly discuss? 1. X cost models 4. ? grains 2. X inspect buildings 24. ? antelope and rabbits 2. Where in the passage does the author discuss the greatest advantage of computer-aided design? 1. X Lines 16-18 3. This passage would be of most interest to 1. According to the passage. X An analysis of Chumash inventions 3. With which of the following topics is the author primarily concerned? 1. ? leather 31. :-) shells 3. The word "applications" in bold means 1. X fish 4. :-) will one day vanish 2. :-) uses 3. X creativity 4.