Read the following passages and find the main idea of each one.

Question 1 Strictly speaking, cartography is the drawing or compiling of maps. The explorers and surveyors go out and make the measurements and gather the information from which the cartographers draw their maps. Sometimes the fieldwork and the creation of the map are done by the same person. But when the scope is broad and the sources of information many, maps are more often a compilation of that information. They represent the accumulated work of many people, brought together under the supervision of one person. the compiler. The value of the map depends, of course, on the expertise of the compiler, who must sift through available information, select the most accurate data, and come up with a thoughtful and accurate synthesis of the geographic knowledge of the region. Question 2 In the 1820s and 1830s American painting added a new chapter to the story of its development. Until the nineteenth century, portraiture and occasional historical pieces were the only concerns of American art, but throughout the 1800s some of America's most talented painters chose to depict landscapes and the daily activities of ordinary people. With the nation's declaration of independence had come prosperity and with it the opportunity and inclination for painters to contemplate their environment. As they traveled beyond the early settlements and left the nation's first cities, such as Boston and Philadelphia, they began to experience and appreciate the pristine beauty of the American scenery, which differed greatly from the European landscape, partly because in its unsettled state it appeared wild and primeval. Question 3 Speculation about the earth's crust has a special edge of urgency in California, which sits on the San Andreas fault, the world's most famous and respected fracture zone. Not surprisingly, it was a scientist at the California Institute of Technology, Charles F. Richter, who invented the Richter scale used to measure earthquakes. Seismic activity in California is being constantly monitored and mapped. Seismometers register many thousands of small earthquakes every year, and computers instantly calculate the location, depth, and magnitude of an earthquake. Laser distance-ranging networks can detect changes of length, indicating change in crustal stress, accurate to about half an inch in 20 miles. Satellite measurements of crustal blocks are improving, and California seismologists believe they may in time be precise enough to allow earthquake prediction.

Question 4 The first expedition down the Colorado River was made by John Wesley Powell and his party in 1869. Powell had made long trips down the Ohio and the Mississippi and its tributaries during his twenties, when his lifelong interest in natural history developed. In 1867 he led his first expedition to the Rockies, a collecting trip for the museum he had founded in Illinois. While on Pike's Peak, -near Colorado Springs, Powell conceived his great plan to explore the Colorado River. On May 24, 1869, he and his party set off down the upper Colorado and nothing was heard from them for 37 days. During that time Powell and party braved uncharted territory, encounters with the natives, fierce rapids, and 20-foot waterfalls, as they followed the Colorado through the Grand Canyon to the Gulf of California. Question 5 Innovations in transportation in the 1800s permitted space to be traversed more rapidly and were crucial to the industrial expansion of the North. The great spaces that separated producers from consumers made speed essential, especially in the movement of perishable freight. The development of the steampowered locomotive in the 1830s and the rapid extension of the railways in the 1840s and 1850s provided the answer to the need for faster transport and dramatically altered patterns of economic development throughout the United States. In 1830 there were 32 miles of rails in the country, in 1840 there were 2,818 miles, and by 1850 there were more than 9,000 miles. The rapid extension of rail mileage enabled the railroads significantly to reduce their costs for shipping freight and carrying passengers, thus enabling them to price their services more cheaply and competitively. The extension of trunk lines, into which short or local lines fed, further tightened the east-west flow of commerce and bound the Northeast and the old Northwest together with bands of steel. Question 6 The few places left on earth that have not been altered by humankind are almost invariably hostile to humans. One such place is the Alaskan Arctic, which is inhabited, where inhabited at all, by only a scattering of Eskimos, Native Americans, and whites. But while the Arctic is indeed a chill and inimical realm of snow, ice, and polar bears, it is also a region of great beauty and, above all, purity, where plants and animals still exist undisturbed in a state of natural balance. Nearly one-third of Alaska lies north of the Arctic Circle and consists of pristine land. The Brooks Range cuts across the region like a wall, making access difficult. Even today, in an age of jet travel, the number of persons, who have had firsthand experience in the Alaskan Arctic remains small, and countless valleys and mountains go unnamed and even unexplored.

and cooked. salt salmon. chowders curries. ? America's declaration of independence brought prosperity to the nation and with it an appreciation of the outdoors. pigs. lomi lumi salmon. X The compiler's task is more important than that of the explorers and surveyors. Question 8 Because different tree species adapted to different climates and soil types have evolved over millennia. ? In the early 1800s. dried beef. What is the main idea expressed in the passage? 1. X An increase in travel in America led to an appreciation of the beauty of the American landscape. Fifty million years later came the dense forests of tree ferns that prevailed in tropical climates of that era. during the Cretaceous period. Most likely. the earliest "trees. Question 10 Hawaii was originally settled by the natives of the South Pacific. many kinds of forests occupy the earth today. 2. the first distinctly American culture took I—m. building the tremendous coal and oil reserves so important today. or other birds of the same species. corned beef. from these have sprung the angiosperms and our present deciduous forests. The romance. X Computers provide a variety of information about earthquakes. Settlers from the continental United States also brought their favorite recipes and in the spirit of aloha. What is the main topic of the passage? 1. The Chinese brought rice. The primitive forests of several hundred million years ago consisted of fewer kinds of trees.writers began to look within themselves and across their enlarged continental homeland for their subjects and themes. bananas. 2. 3. Japan. taro. the essence of Hawaii and its many cultures. Natty Bumppo and the Mohican guide Chingachgook confronted the environment of the American frontier. and Indian and cornstarch puddings. and chickens. All songs and most calls are distinctive. Supplementing these foods were over a hundred different edible fishes and 4C kinds of seaweed from the surrounding waters. 1. Calls are normally simple notes. landscapes were produced in preference to portraits and historical pieces. 2. seed-bearing trees had evolved that shed their leaves in winter. who arrived in the islands in canoes laden with breadfruit. 3. The Japanese brought sukiyaki and teriyaki. 4. chronicling the advance of "civilization" and questioning the implications of its impact on the natural world. coconut. 4. 3. the whalers and missionaries introduced stews. single or repeated. In the late nineteenth century immigrants from China. ? Maps are the product of a group effort brought together usually by one person.Question 7 In the first half of the nineteenth century. The rise of an American tradition in literature paralleled the expansion of the nation. pipkaula (jerked beef). and vegetables and their ways of cooking them. offspring. What is the main idea of the passage? 1. or novel. Hawaiian food was eaten raw or wrapped in taro leaves. provided a useful form for dealing with the Fenimore Cooper's The Pioneers (1823) and The Deerslayer (1841). Nathaniel Hawthorne dealt with equally difficult questions of inner limits and the individual's responsibilities to society in The Scarlet Letter (1850) and The House of the Seven Gables (1851). X Not all of the information initially compiled for maps is accurate." which grew nearly 500 million years ago. among many other foods. In the early 1800s. Thus a Hawaiian feast is a gastronomic experience. The theme of the individual confronting nature was further developed by Herman Melville in the classic novel Moby Dick (1851). and Korea were brought to Hawaii to work the sugar plantations. They lacked true roots and consisted of a tangle of specialized branches that clambered over rocky ground. as American . were like giant club mosses. :-) Conditions ire the early 1800s were favorable to the emergence of the American landscape artist. . vocalized by males and females in all seasons to express alarm or maintain contact with mates. bird watchers can learn to identify many birds by their sounds and to call them as well. the Hawaiians have accepted each group's offerings and drawn the best from them. Question 9 Birds have two basic types of sounds: songs and calls. when plant life abundantly colonized marshy land. soybeans. seasoned with coconut. The forerunners of modern conifers were on the scene 300 million years ago. By the time the dinosaurs roamed the earth some 180 million years ago. and haupia (coconut pudding) evolved during this period. X The definition of cartography is the drawing or compiling of maps. In fact. and with concentrated study and practice. Songs are usually more complex than calls and are utilized primarily by adult males during the breeding season to establish territories or attract mates. yams.

Question 1 . X Earthquake prediction will be possible in the future. ? Sugar plantations were worked by immigrants from Asia. was the Buffalo German club. X People were concerned when nothing was heard from Powell and his party for over a month. X Conifers are the oldest trees in today's forests. ? Whalers and missionaries introduced new kinds of foods to the people of Hawaii. 4. X Powell was uniquely qualified to lead an expedition down the Colorado. 1996 and 2000. (7). and polar bears. 4. X Powell was inspired to explore the Colorado while on Pike's Peak. ? The natives of the South Pacific who first settled in Hawaii ate raw food. The USA won all the Olympic titles until 1972 when they were defeated by the Soviet Union. 3. ? Remarkably. X The Alaskan Arctic is a beautifully pristine realm of snow. 4. (6). incidentally.2 (1). 3. 8. 3. 9. winning gold in 1976. 3. 3. :-) Railroads had a profound effect on the economic development of the United States in the nineteenth century. and ideal liable. 2. which was so dominant in those days that they were inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame as a team. (2). 2. 3. 2. What is the main idea of the passage? 1. ? The Alaskan Arctic is habitable only to arctic animals and a few hardy humans. Melville and Hawthorne both addressed difficult questions facing Americans. (4). parts of the Alaskan Arctic still remain unexplored. What is the main topic of the passage? 1. 2. X At. 2. winning gold medals in 1984. 4. X Birds have their own language by which they maintain contact. 4. Thus the event is usually considered only an exhibition. 5. ice. meaningful. who brought their native foods with them. What is the main idea expressed in the passage? 1. Text 1. ? The first American literature took the form of novels that dealt with uniquely American themes. In 1976. X In their novels. 1988. 3. (5). but the US women have now surpassed them. 3. The United States has many sport events for women. X Railroads made the transportation of perishable freight possible. ? Powell and his party faced daunting challenges on the first Colorado River expedition. ? Bird songs are complicated and used mainly by males to attract mates. 1. :-) The ruggedness of the Alaskan Arctic makes it one of the last few remaining pristine areas in the world. :-) Bird calls and songs are distinctive. What is the main subject of the passage? 1. The Soviet women were originally the top team on the female side. 4. 4. whereas other immigrants cooked theirs. but the event was contested by only a few American club teams and actually served as the AAU (Amateur Athletic Union of the USA) Championship for that year. 10. X The Richter scale was invented in California. X The predecessors of today's forests were giant club mosses and tree ferns. 7. 6. :-) Hawaiian food is a combination of the foods of many peoples and a reflection of Hawaii's history. X Railroads provided an important link between the Northwest and the Northeast. 4. 2. basketball made its first appearance as a medal sport at the Olympics. In 1936. 2.4. women's basketball was added to the program. and the sport has been included in every Olympic Games since.000 miles of railroad track were laid. The winning team. novelists began writing about the American frontier. ? A great deal of attention is paid to earthquake activity in California. What is the main theme in the passage? 1. . ? Between 1830 and 185C over 8. X Birdwatchers can identify many bird calls and their meanings and learn to mimic them as well. X The individual versus nature was one of the main themes explored in early American literature. (8). (3). hat is the primary topic of the passage? 1. the nation expanded. X Climate affected the development of trees over millennia. What is the main idea of the passage? ? The variety of trees in today's forests area result of millions of years of evolution. 1980 and 1992. 2. Basketball was on the Olympic program in 1904.

. patina and carving their African. the artist being at liberty to express his fantasy. Currently. and several of the masks remain only as mute witnesses to a dead civilization. The masks discussed in this article were all produced in Nepal by the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Terai (the low plains of the south along the Indian border). two holes for the eyes. and they exhibit many different levels of technical ability. how spending patterns effect other categories. It is therefore difficult. there is a lack of information on the responses of wildlife to mountain bikers. Supernatural forces are projected into a mask and the spectator gives it life and meaning. The wearing of an animal mask or skin could originally have been used in magic rites for hunting. this art was in contact with shamanism. such as cessation of foraging. and where cultural shifts within youth culture globally may take shape. In some cases. after defeating the shamanic traditions. …researchers have examined the responses of wildlife to pedestrians. the Thakali of the upper KaliGandaki valley in western Nepal first converted from their shamanic religion to Buddhism. Aesthetic interest in the objects themselves or astonishment at their shape and their mysterious beauty provokes questions as to what they mean and how they originated. Some of the tribal masks represent vanished cults and deities that have been swept away by the conversion to another religion. Even when it was produced by a Buddhist or a Hindu. mountain biking is (11) …… in all federal wilderness areas and on many other public lands. or are roughly carved with a few quick strokes. the function of various masks has altered and evolved so that an old mask has sometimes been given a new meaning. distribution. They can be reminiscent of Japanese jomon (cord pattern) terracotta masks dating from the second millennium BC. laying a curse or killing into Tibetan Buddhist Cham dances. Himalayan tribal masks evoke by their shape. . with 43. but only patient comparative studies will be able to determine the depth to which such a comparison can be carried. or altering (14) …… behavior. Despite this lack of knowledge. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Text 4. one for the mouth. which makes this marketplace one of the most vital components towards understanding trends and market opportunities in youth culture in general. In many ways. and sometimes they resemble those of Siberian shamans. Owing to social. in part because it is assumed to be more (12) …… for wildlife than hiking. T-shirts. it is not known (13) …… wildlife respond differently to these activities. beliefs and visions of the people who created the masks. knowing what's going on in the subcultures of the T-shirt industry indicate where the marketplace is headed next.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Text 2. It seems that making masks has its roots in prehistoric times. and in many cases. Mountain biking in particular is one of the fastest-growing outdoor activities. such as boar mask from a Buddhist village. The immediate response of many animals to disturbance is a change in behavior. it can nevertheless be a Buddhist or Hindu image from a remote village or a small temple. designs. to ascertain exactly all the original purposes of these masks. even the launch of entirely new companies based on the success of a series of collections. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Text 3. for example. which are often less expensive than other forms of apparel play many roles when it comes to individuals style. or of central Indian tribes such as the Bhugas who wore masks for divination before hunting ceremonies. Inspiration for the masks often reflects the individual. It is a mode of expression that reveals specific characteristics of the original spirit. Question 3-4 T-shirts represent one of the highest grossing markets in youth culture fashion. In these last two cases. healing. others may have very little embellishment. As the execution of tribal masks was not often subject to canonical rules. Question 10-14 Hiking and mountain biking are rapidly increasing in popularity as forms of outdoor recreation. and gives an idea of how Buddhism or Hinduism. the Middle Hills (with the exclusion of the Kathmandu valley) and the northern Himalayas. the objects are the products of ingenuous freshness and instinctive expressionism. Indonesian or American counterparts. The ethnic groups that created the masks have undergone radical changes. transformed and even incorporated many of these rites. political and religious changes over the last two centuries. Disturbance from recreation may have both immediate and long-term effects on wildlife. considering the number of existing ethnic groups. (10) …. Although some masks can be very sophisticated. it is possible that there is more than just an aesthetic similarity.3 million persons participating at least once in 2000 (USDA Forest Service and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2000). often leading new directions for brands. although the appearance of the sculpture is archaic . marketing. Question 5-9 To focus attention on the so-called 'primitive' or tribal masks of the Himalayas is to adapt the eye to a completely different style than is generally expected in the West of Himalayan art. and have more recently converted to Hinduism. fleeing.

5. 1. The above text is probably found in …. What is the main idea of the above text? 1. Fibers made of glass . The word archaic (in the first line of the last paragraph) can be best replaced by …. ? disturber 3. 1. ? Whenever 4. From the text we can conclude that …. ? 2 2. 1. 1. 2. ? The first basketball program on the Olympic in 1904 was contested by only American club teams. 2. 1.1. 3. ? Before 5. ? A newspaper editorial. X 7 3. :-) disturbing 13. ? The T-shirt industry and the changes of design 2. ? rejected 4.. :-) T-shirt is getting cheaper and cheaper 3. 1. ? although 14. Which of the following is best for the last sentence of the paragraph? 1. ? reproduction 3. ? The Origin of Himalayan Mask 5. ? Styles of the Primitive Mask of the Himalayas 4. ? that 4. 5. X reproducible 5. ? Northern Himalayas 7. ? tedious 2. :-) reproductive Reading Texts Questions 1-6 Fiberscopes are one of the most important outcomes of the science of fiber optics. ? The youth and the T-shirt design 5. ? denied 12. ? contemporary 4. X The masks were made in the prehistoric times and were kept in temples. :-) While 11. 1. ? reproducing 2. 3. X The Olympic basketball program in 1904 was dominated by Amateur Athletic Union of the USA. X Until 3. ? Terai 2. :-) Tribal masks of the Himalayas 3. X The masks are considered holly to the Himalayan people. ? The T-shirt industries take advantage of the youth culture. The irrelevant sentence in the above text is sentence number …. 3. 2. :-) A journal article. X The masks are still used for traditional ritual in Himalayan cultures. ? Kali-Gandaki 3. ? T-shirt design is changing rapidly among the youth. 1. ? reproduce 4. X The Buffalo German club won the first medal sport on the Olympic for basketball. The masks discussed in the text were made in …. 2. ? 4 4.. ? An advertisement 5. ? disturbingly 4. ? disturb 5. only a few American clubs participated in the basketball Olympic program. ? The T-shirt industry and the youth subculture 4. ? The masks have been influenced by many religions and cultures. X Since 2. X The masks are priceless to the Himalayan people. :-) prehistoric 9. 1. 10. What is the best title for the above text? 1.. 4. :-) 6 3. :-) Nepal 5. 4. X The USA won all the Olympic medals until 1972 when they were defeated by the Soviet Union. What is the topic of the text? 1. ? The West of Himalayan Art 6. ? 8 5. ? blocked 3. 1. 5. ? prevailing 5. ? disturb 2. 4. ? Aesthetic of Primitive Mask of the Himalayas 2. ? An announcement board 4. :-) The T-shirt industry and the market opportunity 3. ? until 2. ? The changes of T-shirt trends and design 4. 8. X In 1904. ? Kathmandu valley 4. ? cheap 3. :-) whether 3. :-) banned 5. 2. ? disturbance 2. ? That is why T-shirt is so popular among the youth. ? A popular magazine.

are being used in the manufacture of television picture tubes and other cathode-ray tube devices. The most far-reaching applications of fiber-optic technology are in communications. . a trip that proved to be a turning point in her life and career." and then a second. The sound of the voice is electronically broken down into thousands of pulses per second. called a faceplate. In the medical field. especially on long summer days. skin tissue. they can transmit images. This continental shelf falls gradually outward and downward. sand. the best selling Joy Luck Club. Ideal conditions for abundant marine life make the riches of the continental shelf unparalleled. The weight of the glaciers. in essence drowning the coast and forming thousands of islands. the American-born daughter of Chinese immigrants. Optical fibers carry voice messages for telephone service. melting glaciers raised the sea level by 400 feet. the shelf provides the perfect environment for diatoms. "End game. to a depth of about 600 feet before dropping into the ocean's depth. and take advantage of every circumstance that might lead to success. in diameter. on which was deposited the mud. pressed down the entire land mass beneath. The most common fiberscopes contain about 750. It has been translated into 17 languages. Aided by the cold Labrador current which is saturated with oxygen and minerals. physicians use fiberscopes to examine internal organs and as an aid in delicate surgeries. had high expectations for their children and often set confusing standards. gentle underwater slope formed. Questions 15-20 Maine's jagged ribbon of rocky coastline wasfashioned over millennia by the violent forces of the inner earth. Tan obtained a bachelor's degree in English and linguistics and a master's degree in linguistics and eventually established herself as a highly successful business writer. and was made into a movie in 1993. the diameter of the fiber may be as small as 5 microns. the light pulses are converted to electrical signals and the voice message is reconstructed. a bonding with the country and its culture that she had never expected. and blood cells.and transparent acrylic plastic are capable of conveying light energy. and when thousands of these fibers are combined in what is called a fiberscope. in an exploration of the generational and cultural tensions experienced by many first-generation daughters of immigrants. It was a resounding success. Fiberscopes have a wide range of applications. Light-wave communication systems can handle an immensely greater number of telephone calls and television programs than the current system. received the Commonwealth Club Gold Award in 190'9 for her first work of fiction. Miniature probes have also been developed to view muscle fiber. well received by the critics and appearing on the New York Times bestseller list. The sixteen interrelated stories that constitute the work alternate between the tales of four Chinese immigrant mothers and their Americanized daughters. and they All form the basis of the "electronic superhighway" expected to crisscross the nation in the near future of the information age. like many immigrants. Turning to her life-long dream. Huge glaciers also sculpted the coast. and devoted herself to being thoroughly American and dreaming of being a fiction writer. Bundles of fiberscopes fused together in a solid plate. when their blooms carpet the ocean floor. and bays. which in turn are food for the larger fish that are part of the legendary abundance of the Northeast's continental shelf.000 fibers. In the shallow water of the shelf. Returning from China. "Waiting between the Trees. and other small fish. Beneath the sea a long. At the receiving end. Tan's parents. each 0. including Chinese.001 centimeter. in some places for hundreds of miles. herring. fjords. This immense quantity of food supports vast shoals of shrimp. Tan felt a sense of completeness. Tan was surprised to learn that on the strength of her short stories she had received an advance from a publisher. Meanwhile. rebelled against her parents' expectations." In 1987 Tan visited her half-sisters in China with her mother. expecting Amy and her two brothers to think like Chinese but to speak perfect English. and stony debris moved seaward from the continent by the glaciers and carried by rivers. scraping and chiseling the land's features as they passed on their way to the sea. Tan closed her business and wrote the remaining stories for the Joy Luck Club. which causes a transmitting laser to send coordinated pulses of light through the optical fibers. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions lifted and crumbled plains to form mountains that again rose and fell as molten materials welled up in huge bulges that solidified into the granitic rocks typical of the Northeast. Fiberscopes have also found varied uses in industry. was not satisfied despite her material success. particularly to inspect or control operations in inaccessible areas. however. she wrote her first short story. Diatoms are tiny plants that form the base of the oceanic food chain. Questions 7-14 Amy Tan. however. Tan. Tan. or 10 microns. estimated to have been between one and two miles thick. excel academically. which included such exalted professions as neurosurgery. these minute plants receive the sunlight they need for photosynthesis. For certain uses.

as in Aesop's fable of the hare and the tortoise. whose age was known to be not less than 180 years. The principle of separation of powers was applied throughout the document. X Lines 21-266. of longevity. Approximately how many fibers does a fiberscope contain? 1. The head can be entirely withdrawn. and of persistence. which may be nearly 50 feet long and provide a hone for many other animals. ? the use of fiber optics in the electronic superhighway 3. ? Lines 2-10 6. X the structure of fiberscopes 2. are the land turtles. but the longest life of any tortoise of which there is an authentic record is of a great tortoise of the Seychelles Islands. The true tortoises come to water only to drink or bathe. X will decrease in importance as they become more common 5. such as frogs. and state courts were required to recognize the Constitution and the laws and treaties made under it as the supreme law.000 3.000 4. Carefully measured checks and balances were inserted to prevent the acquisition or concentration of power in any one branch and also for the purpose of protecting minority rights from the potential rule of the majority. 1. It can be inferred from the passage that fiberscopes 1. The Constitution. ? difficult to find 3. The hardscaled soles of the hind feet cover the openings at the rear. The shell is high-domed in all but a very few forms. including the three gopher tortoises. ? extremely smallhard to reach 4. How do optical fibers carry voice messages? 1. They are primarily vegetarians. X have more uses in industry than in medicine 3. ? will play a major role in the information age 4. Of these. is found in the southern United States as far west as New Mexico. The word inaccessible means 1.000. All tortoises share the ability to live to a great age. ? By fusing bundles of fiberscopes into a faceplate 2. snakes. and they are adapted to walking on land by their club-shaped feet. :-) hard to reach 2. The openings at the front and rear of the shell are usually neatly closed by the retracted limbs. Gopher tortoises are so called because they dig long burrows.Questions 21-28 The United States Constitution established a political system comprising a national and federal government. Their limbs are covered with hard scales that often have a bony core. X To analyze Amy Tan's literary works . Gopherus.34 Living on land. What is the author's main purpose in this passage? 1. greatly enhanced the power of central government but carefully divided its functions into three distinct branches—executive. and burrowing owls. X 500. ? Lines 18-20 2. X impossible to climb 4. Questions 29 . legislative and judicial. X By using cathode-ray tube devices 3. Berlandier's tortoise. properly called tortoises. The passage will most likely be followed by a discussion of 1. State officials were required to take an oath to support the Constitution. X homes and businesses of the future 4. ? By sending coordinated electrical pulses through optical fibers 2. the states also gained a role in applying checks and balances.006 3. feeding on grass and leaves. In their powers to amend the Constitution and to elect the president and members of the Senate. the elbows meeting in the middle in front of it and the claws of the forelimbs overlapping the lower edge of the opening at the front. however. on which the enlarged scales may be defensively augmented with still larger spines. X additional uses of fiberscopes in industry 7. a veritable work of genius. X have reached the peak of their development 2. Tortoises have become symbols of leisurely movement. :-) By converting electrical signals to light pulses 4. X 1. The new federal system accommodated the 13 original state governments while establishing new bodies and powers designed to address national concerns. :-) Lines 12-13 4. 1. The national government created by the union of states stood above the state governments in specific national matters while acknowledging the role of the states or sharing power with them in other areas. of which there are approximately 40 different kinds.000 2. 3. ? 750. Where in the passage does the author discuss the uses of miniature probes in medicine? 1. is especially fond of prickly-pear cactus. X 25. a slow-moving inhabitant of the arid lands of southern Texas and Mexico.

X excelling academically 4. ? choosing an important profession It can be inferred from the passage that 1. 18. 20. X Tan had always wanted to return to China 2. X Autum 3. ? the states According to the passage. 23. 2. 11. Amy Tan was a successful 1. X Tan started writing fiction in order to make more money The word exalted means 1. :-) Joy Luck Club 2. :-) questioning tradition 3. ? was not surprising in the least The words "the work" refer to 1. ? common 2. X Tan always knew she was Chinese foremost and American only in her imagination 2. ? Winter 4. ? Blooms carpeting the ocean floor 3. X To show the devastating nature of glaciers 3. 15. ? Earthquakes 4. ? Glaciers 2. X national matters 4. X share power with the federal government 3. X recognize the Constitution as a work of genius The word "amend" could best be replaced by . :-) Summer 2. X publisher 3. 9. ? neurosurgeon 2. :-) To present biographical information about Amy Tan 3. 21. X writing 3.8. ? The islands off the Maine coast 3. :-) A cold current saturated with oxygen and minerals 2. 13. ? Ocean currents Why does the author use the phrase "in essence drowning the coast" to discuss the effects of melting glaciers? 1. state officials were required to take an oath to 1. :-) had a profound affect on her 4. :-) highly respected 3. X was a trip she had always dreamed of taking 2. X To indicate the importance of natural disasters What are the "ideal conditions" the author is referring to? 1. :-) business writer 4. :-) It took Tan a while to summon the courage to pursue her dreams 3. ? Tan's parents understood her dilemma but wanted the best for her 4. X Commonwealth Club Gold Award 4. ? Diatoms existing in the shallow water of the shelf 4. 10. X state officials 3. :-) not equaled 3. ? not original 2. X Parents don't know what's best for their children 3. 12. Amy Tan's visit to China 1. 17. X The effect of the movement of ice sheets on the shape of the land 4. ? support the Constitution 2. X national and federal government 2. ? A 600-foot drop into the ocean's depth The word "unparalleled" means 1. 14. X speaking perfect English 2. ? common 4. ? Spring The word "them" refers to 1. ? The riches of the continental shelf Which of the following is NOT mentioned as having affected the creation of Maine's rocky coastline? 1. 2. 19. at what time of year are diatoms ii. ? stories Before becoming a fiction writer. X To support the notion that animal life was lost when the glaciers melted 2. ? very difficult It can be concluded from this passage that 1. the greatest abundance? 1. X Tan did not use personal experience in her writing 4. :-) The formation and characteristics of the Northeast coast 16. 22. ? To describe how the rising sea level covered the coastal land 4. ? Tan made the right decision when she closed her business With which of the following topics is the author primarily concerned? 1. ? Volcanic eruptions 3. ? To support Amy Tan's decision to become a fiction writer According to the passage. ? English teacher The expectations of Tan's parents included all of the following EXCEPT 1. X rivaled 4. X To criticize Amy Tan's rebellion against her parents 4. X protect minority rights 4. ? imperceptible According to the passage. ? was disappointing 3.

About three minutes long. Gopher tortoises primarily eat 1. The passage preceding this one is probably about 1. :-) grass and leaves 4. ? The difference between the 40 different kinds of land turtles 3. :-) water turtles 2. ? indifference 4. ? snakes 33." whose most famous piano piece. The pianist's right hand plays a highly syncopated melody. ? frogs 2. Early jazz musicians often used ragtime melodies as introductions to their improvisations. X minority issues 2. X prickly pear cactus 3. ? construct The author of the passage is probably an expert in 1. ? Line 14 3. ? They have long lives. ? humor 3. ? The life of spans of tortoises Which of the following not mentioned as a characteristics of tortoises? 1. X The symbolism associated with tortoises. . 4. Ragtime quickly gained popularity after its first appearances. 25. ? enhanced 34.24. ? intended above all to preserve the unity of the states What is the author's main purpose in the passage? 1. player pianos. X To mention the roles of state officials in government 3. ? burrowing animals 3. :-) Line 16 2. 11. X contained 4. X feet 32. or two beats per measure) performed at a moderate march tempo. ? Line 8 The author's attitude toward the Constitution is one of 1. X To persuade the state legislators to support the Constitution 2." was published in 1899. 28. X enhance 4. With its syncopations. The leading ragtime composer was Scott Joplin. 2. and piano style. "Maple Leaf Rag. duple meter (2/4. steady beat. is a style of jazz characterized by an elaborately syncopated rhythm in the melody and a steadily accented accompaniment. and each section is 16 bars in length. ? owls Reading Test Questions 1-8 Ragtime. . "Maple Leaf Rag" is a classic example of ragtime. is a style of composed piano music that was popular from the 1890s to about 1915. 29. 30. in march tempo. X balance 3. The forms of ragtime derive from European marches and dances. X public housing 3. but the rhythms are rooted in AfricanAmerican folk music. ? To discuss one of the principal elements of the Constitution What is the main topic of the passage? 1. X added 2. ? social science 4. X To summarize the role of the Senate 4. developed primarily by black pianists. ragtime played an integral part in the jazz legacy. 27. A ragtime piece usually consists of several similar melodies that take such forms as AA BB A CC DD or Introduction AA BB CC DD EE. 26. The word "augmented" could best be replaced try 1. while the left hand steadily maintains the beat with an "oom-pah" accompaniment. :-) change 2. :-) The characteristics of land turtles 4. 31. Ragtime piano music has a generally standard form. and arrangements for dance and marching bands. X provided the states with the most power to govern 3. :-) political science Where in the passage does the author describe the three branches of government? 1. :-) wanted to avoid usurpation of power by any individual or body 2. X restricted 3. it has the standard AA BB A CC DD form. the same rich body of music that became a vital source of jazz. ? They have retracting limbs. ragtime songs. ? Line 21 4. reaching millions on a national scale through sheet music. ? tortoises 4. 3. ? disapproval 2. ? Their head can be entirely withdrawn into the shell. known as the "King of Ragtime. The opening melody. X scales 2. :-) They are well adapted to water 2. ? didn't believe that the state and federal branches of the government could work well together 4. features the typical ragtime right-hand syncopations. :-) commendation It can be concluded from the passage that the authors of Constitution 1. 1. The word "their" refers to 1. where each letter represents a melodic phrase. ? snails 4. X limbs 3.

The bison has a great tolerance to-cold. art. spacecraft. From the trees. publishing. and it may not be permanent. north is the edge of the Canadian forest. Over the past century the total longitudinal drift has amounted to approximately 1200°. the Pioneer and Voyager results have refuted that idea and proven the Red Spot to be a phenomenon of Jovian meteorology.000 kilometers long and 14. Computer art also has creative and commercial art applications. Its longevity may well be due to its exceptional size. For threedimensional rendering of machine parts. The most famous mark on Jupiter is the Great Red Spot. bison lower their heads and face directly into the storm. intricate patterns that are regarded as being among the finest in the world.000 kilometers wide. In winter the vegetation on which these animals feed may be hidden beneath a deep blanket of snow. but it always returns after a few years. Automobile. Several smaller red spots have been seen occasionally but have not lasted. . and at times it has been invisible. statistical. Bison are strong survivors and have few predators except for humans. There are no true seasons on Jupiter because the axial inclination to the perpendicular of the orbital plane is only just over 3°—less than that for any other planet. Plant fiber was also used to weave baskets with beautiful. and film productions. there were fewer than a thousand plains bison left. generally referred to as computer-aided design (CAD). They made great use of stone for milling and for making tools and weapons. where it is used in advertising. education. the largest and most durable of which could hold up to twelve people and ply the open ocean. bows. It was once thought that the Red Spot might be a solid or semisolid body floating in Jupiter's outer gas. industry. Though the latitude of the Red Spot varies little. The plains bison once ranged from Pennsylvania and Georgia to the Rockies. charts. who reduced their population to the point at which. this does not present a problem. with protection and careful breeding they have been brought back to the point where their numbers can be multiplied at will. mathematical. so its surface area is greater than that of Earth. Architects can design a building layout. has been as an aid to design. but there are signs that it is decreasing in size. computer graphics can be used to create weather maps and cartographic materials. It has shown variations in both intensity and color. training. and even go for a simulated "walk" through the rooms or around the outside of the building. the plains bison and the woodland bison. and cost models to summarize financial. engineers now rely on heavily on CAD. however. As an educational aid. scientific. Jupiter's less than 10-hour rotation period gives it the shortest day in the solar system insofar as the principal planets are concerned. Questions 27-33 The Chumash people inhabited an area of southwestern California that included large portions of present-day Los Angeles. they used wood to make bowls. computer graphics has emerged as one of the most rapidly growing fields in computer science. The latitude is generally very close to -22°. and San Luis Obispo counties as well as the Channel islands. However. Santa Barbara. create a three-dimensional model. Business graphics is another rapidly growing area of computer graphics. It is used routinely in such diverse areas as business. It is well placed for observation for several months in every year and on average is the brightest of the planets apart from Venus. and several types of canoes.Questions 9-13 In North America there are two forms of bison. Although the Chumash were accomplished fishers and hunted a variety of animals. it drifts about in longitude. though for relatively brief periods Mars may outshine it. One of the initial uses of computer graphics. Ventura. which is achieved by a sequential process. and Medicine. One of its greatest advantages is that designers can see how an object will look after construction and make changes freely and much more quickly than with hand drafting. and ultimately its greatest use. They took advantage of the rich resources of their homeland. and south onto the central plateau of Mexico. However. government. where it is used to create graphs. and ship designers use CAD techniques to design vehicles and test their performance. Other endangered species need the same planning and protection. particularly for computer animation. When blizzards rage across the North American prairie. and economic data. Building designs are also created with computer graphics systems. Questions 14-19 Jupiter is the largest and most massive planet and is fifth in order of distance from the sun. for the bison use their hooves and massive heads to clear away the snow and then feed on the grasses below. aerospace. including elk. At its greatest extent it may be 40. Questions 20-26 As computers have become powerful tools for the rapid and economic production of pictures. research. Large herds presently range on both government and private lands where they are protected. Their large domed huts were framed by willow poles covered with mats made from twined bulrushes harvested from the marshlands. around 1900.

characteristic of ragtime? 1. who inhabited 75 to 100 villages. ? oom-pah -accompaniment 3. :-) its rotation period is shorter than 10 hours 4. The word "rooted" (bold) means 1. nets. X never changing 2. This passage would be part of required reading in which of the following courses? 1. X drive a long distance 2. political. X Bison will eventually be extinct. :-) compositions for orchestras 2. ? Ragtime is a completely different form of music than jazz. X bison were native to a limited territory. ? unmoving 7. and economic ties. roots. deer. 10. X syncopated melody 2. at least threefourths of their diet consisted of plant foods. :-) derived from 3. grains.America According to the passage. The topic of the passage following this one would likely be about 1. 1. 12. :-) "Maple Leaf Rag" 3. ? Ragtime was popular only with African-Americans. :-) plains bison 4. tools.000 people. 13. A typical village consisted of several domed houses. X Bison are more fragile than they appear. ? there is the interference of the Great Red Spot 3. a field for game playing. X player pianos 3. each with one or more granaries. ? In caves 2. 3. ? numbers 2. seeds. ? march tempo 4. X African-American history 2. and one or more sweatlodges. X cold-blooded animals of the Southwestern desert 2. ? it is on the average the brightest of all the planets . ? Behind trees 4. ? sheet music 3. leather. X national parks of North America 4. The Chumash lived in villages that were connected by social. and squirrels. Plants were also used to make medicines. baskets. The Chumash even had a currency represented by a string of small white shell beads. The author's main purpose in the passage is to 1. 9. 2. ? the endangered grizzly of North . 14. ? Highly syncopated melody 5. and bulbs. :-) a melodic phrase 4. 3. X Sixteen-bar sections 3. fruit. X attached to the ground 4. 4. The word "their" (bold) refers to 1. According to the passage. the letters A in AA and B in BB each represent 1. 1. Their most important food source was the acorn. X arrangements for marching bands 4. and canoes. beads. :-) In the open The word "range" (bold) means to 1. where would bison be found during a severe winter storm? 1.000 to 30. from which they made flour. At its height the Chumash nation consisted of 20. X each letter Which of the following conclusions can be made from this passage? 1. utensils. The Chumash were avid traders with other western tribes. leaves. a ceremonial dance ground. :-) Ragtime has an easily recognizable rhythm. headdresses. X melodic phrase 2. who bartered for Chumash hides. rabbits. 4.antelope. X Social Studies 4. X Seeking shelter behind boulders 3. a burial ground. :-) Fast march tempo 2. The word "it" (bold) refers to 8. X Left-hand accompaniment 4. ? move about According to the passage. X Ragtime music is complex and hard to identify. X surround 4. Jupiter has the shortest day among the principal planets because 1. 11. 2. including flowers. ? the axial inclination is only just over 3° 2. X the diversity of climates in America 3. :-) Music Appreciation 3. Which of the following is NOT. :-) discuss the origin and elements of ragtime 4. Ragtime reached people nationwide through all of the following EXCEPT 1. ? Art History 6. X humans 3. X cook on a stove 3. ? compare ragtime and jazz 3. ? ragtime 4. ? The bison population can be controlled. ? criticize the compositions of Scott Joplin 2. X show how ragtime is arranged 2. X predators The passage supports which of the following conclusions? 1.

According to the passage. :-) Lines 7-9 25. ? fruit 3. engineers use CAD for 1. ? every several months 17. X wooden beads 4. ? applications of CAD in medicine 23. X brilliance 4. The Chumash currency was represented by 1. X Computers as the architects of the future 4. :-) will one day vanish 2. :-) anthropology . ? will continue expanding 19. X creativity 4. The author mentions all of the following goods the Chumash traded EXCEPT 1. ? nutrition 2. ? tools 33. X inspect buildings 24. The word "it" (bold) refers to 1. X canoes 2. X create graphs 2. ? jobs 2. ? grains 2. X Lines 16-18 3. :-) shells 3. X cost models 4. ? a simulated "walk" through model rooms. X Lines 12-14 4. :-) Computer graphics applications 21. ? computer graphics 4. X acorns 32. :-) uses 3. X currency and government 4. What does the passage mainly discuss? 1. X computer science 22. According to the passage. :-) plant foods 3. X making cost models 2. ? layers 27. This passage would be of most interest to 1. The word” Intensity" could best be replaced with 1. The paragraph following this passage would most likely be about 1. X flight training 2. According to the passage. :-) from time to time 2. :-) rendering machine parts 4. ? Routine uses of computers 2. :-) computer animation 3. X computers 3. X surface area 20. X were a localized tribe 3. :-) willow poles 4. :-) A description of Chumash life 28. The author implies that the Chumash 1. The passage was most probably written by a specialist in 1. ? were an industrious. :-) were a highly developed people 4. ? Support for the Chumash nation 2. inventive people 29. ? leather 31. :-) amateur astronomers 3. ? mathematicians 18. X were not a seafaring people 3. architects use CAD to 1. Mars outshines Jupiter 1. The author's tone in this passage is 1. ? visibility 2. ? supportive 2. ? lived very primitively 30. X advertising 3. three-fourths of the Chumash diet consisted of 1. X density 3. X isolated themselves from other tribes 4. Where in the passage does the author discuss the greatest advantage of computer-aided design? 1. ? create three-dimensional models 3. 26. X fields 2. ? The impact of the Chumash legacy 4.15. :-) neutral 3. X were not artistic in nature 2. ? less often than any other planet 4. The word "applications" in bold means 1. X fish 4. It can be inferred from the passage that the Chumash 1. X An analysis of Chumash inventions 3. ? students of anthropology 4. ? geologists 2. According to the passage. With which of the following topics is the author primarily concerned? 1. ? argumentative 16. ? Lines 4-6 2. X make cartographic materials 4. ? antelope and rabbits 2. X is made of floating gases 4. It can be inferred from this passage that Jupiter's Great Red Spot 1. X on a regular basis 3. X The rapidly growing field of computer science 3. X will become brighter with time 3. X ecological systems 3. ? did not make the most of their natural resources 2. ? enthusiastic 4.

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