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Main Idea

Main Idea

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Published by: Syarif Hidayat Suita on Apr 22, 2012
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Read the following passages and find the main idea of each one.

Question 1 Strictly speaking, cartography is the drawing or compiling of maps. The explorers and surveyors go out and make the measurements and gather the information from which the cartographers draw their maps. Sometimes the fieldwork and the creation of the map are done by the same person. But when the scope is broad and the sources of information many, maps are more often a compilation of that information. They represent the accumulated work of many people, brought together under the supervision of one person. the compiler. The value of the map depends, of course, on the expertise of the compiler, who must sift through available information, select the most accurate data, and come up with a thoughtful and accurate synthesis of the geographic knowledge of the region. Question 2 In the 1820s and 1830s American painting added a new chapter to the story of its development. Until the nineteenth century, portraiture and occasional historical pieces were the only concerns of American art, but throughout the 1800s some of America's most talented painters chose to depict landscapes and the daily activities of ordinary people. With the nation's declaration of independence had come prosperity and with it the opportunity and inclination for painters to contemplate their environment. As they traveled beyond the early settlements and left the nation's first cities, such as Boston and Philadelphia, they began to experience and appreciate the pristine beauty of the American scenery, which differed greatly from the European landscape, partly because in its unsettled state it appeared wild and primeval. Question 3 Speculation about the earth's crust has a special edge of urgency in California, which sits on the San Andreas fault, the world's most famous and respected fracture zone. Not surprisingly, it was a scientist at the California Institute of Technology, Charles F. Richter, who invented the Richter scale used to measure earthquakes. Seismic activity in California is being constantly monitored and mapped. Seismometers register many thousands of small earthquakes every year, and computers instantly calculate the location, depth, and magnitude of an earthquake. Laser distance-ranging networks can detect changes of length, indicating change in crustal stress, accurate to about half an inch in 20 miles. Satellite measurements of crustal blocks are improving, and California seismologists believe they may in time be precise enough to allow earthquake prediction.

Question 4 The first expedition down the Colorado River was made by John Wesley Powell and his party in 1869. Powell had made long trips down the Ohio and the Mississippi and its tributaries during his twenties, when his lifelong interest in natural history developed. In 1867 he led his first expedition to the Rockies, a collecting trip for the museum he had founded in Illinois. While on Pike's Peak, -near Colorado Springs, Powell conceived his great plan to explore the Colorado River. On May 24, 1869, he and his party set off down the upper Colorado and nothing was heard from them for 37 days. During that time Powell and party braved uncharted territory, encounters with the natives, fierce rapids, and 20-foot waterfalls, as they followed the Colorado through the Grand Canyon to the Gulf of California. Question 5 Innovations in transportation in the 1800s permitted space to be traversed more rapidly and were crucial to the industrial expansion of the North. The great spaces that separated producers from consumers made speed essential, especially in the movement of perishable freight. The development of the steampowered locomotive in the 1830s and the rapid extension of the railways in the 1840s and 1850s provided the answer to the need for faster transport and dramatically altered patterns of economic development throughout the United States. In 1830 there were 32 miles of rails in the country, in 1840 there were 2,818 miles, and by 1850 there were more than 9,000 miles. The rapid extension of rail mileage enabled the railroads significantly to reduce their costs for shipping freight and carrying passengers, thus enabling them to price their services more cheaply and competitively. The extension of trunk lines, into which short or local lines fed, further tightened the east-west flow of commerce and bound the Northeast and the old Northwest together with bands of steel. Question 6 The few places left on earth that have not been altered by humankind are almost invariably hostile to humans. One such place is the Alaskan Arctic, which is inhabited, where inhabited at all, by only a scattering of Eskimos, Native Americans, and whites. But while the Arctic is indeed a chill and inimical realm of snow, ice, and polar bears, it is also a region of great beauty and, above all, purity, where plants and animals still exist undisturbed in a state of natural balance. Nearly one-third of Alaska lies north of the Arctic Circle and consists of pristine land. The Brooks Range cuts across the region like a wall, making access difficult. Even today, in an age of jet travel, the number of persons, who have had firsthand experience in the Alaskan Arctic remains small, and countless valleys and mountains go unnamed and even unexplored.

The theme of the individual confronting nature was further developed by Herman Melville in the classic novel Moby Dick (1851). provided a useful form for dealing with the Fenimore Cooper's The Pioneers (1823) and The Deerslayer (1841). and haupia (coconut pudding) evolved during this period. Nathaniel Hawthorne dealt with equally difficult questions of inner limits and the individual's responsibilities to society in The Scarlet Letter (1850) and The House of the Seven Gables (1851). What is the main idea of the passage? 1. 2. All songs and most calls are distinctive. Question 9 Birds have two basic types of sounds: songs and calls. They lacked true roots and consisted of a tangle of specialized branches that clambered over rocky ground. landscapes were produced in preference to portraits and historical pieces. chowders curries. and cooked. when plant life abundantly colonized marshy land. or novel. or other birds of the same species. Natty Bumppo and the Mohican guide Chingachgook confronted the environment of the American frontier. ? America's declaration of independence brought prosperity to the nation and with it an appreciation of the outdoors. the earliest "trees. In the early 1800s. the Hawaiians have accepted each group's offerings and drawn the best from them.Question 7 In the first half of the nineteenth century. as American . The Chinese brought rice. corned beef. single or repeated. The primitive forests of several hundred million years ago consisted of fewer kinds of trees. Songs are usually more complex than calls and are utilized primarily by adult males during the breeding season to establish territories or attract mates. 3. during the Cretaceous period. The romance. offspring. X The definition of cartography is the drawing or compiling of maps. chronicling the advance of "civilization" and questioning the implications of its impact on the natural world. many kinds of forests occupy the earth today. bananas. In the late nineteenth century immigrants from China. :-) Conditions ire the early 1800s were favorable to the emergence of the American landscape artist. X Not all of the information initially compiled for maps is accurate. 2. Supplementing these foods were over a hundred different edible fishes and 4C kinds of seaweed from the surrounding waters. Japan. Settlers from the continental United States also brought their favorite recipes and in the spirit of aloha. taro. yams. were like giant club mosses. the essence of Hawaii and its many cultures. X Computers provide a variety of information about earthquakes. What is the main topic of the passage? 1. Thus a Hawaiian feast is a gastronomic experience. ? Maps are the product of a group effort brought together usually by one person. building the tremendous coal and oil reserves so important today. the whalers and missionaries introduced stews. coconut. Question 10 Hawaii was originally settled by the natives of the South Pacific. pipkaula (jerked beef). What is the main idea expressed in the passage? 1. X The compiler's task is more important than that of the explorers and surveyors. Question 8 Because different tree species adapted to different climates and soil types have evolved over millennia. In fact. among many other foods. seasoned with coconut. Hawaiian food was eaten raw or wrapped in taro leaves. 1. dried beef. who arrived in the islands in canoes laden with breadfruit. lomi lumi salmon. 3. from these have sprung the angiosperms and our present deciduous forests. and vegetables and their ways of cooking them. and chickens. and Indian and cornstarch puddings. soybeans. The rise of an American tradition in literature paralleled the expansion of the nation. The Japanese brought sukiyaki and teriyaki. the first distinctly American culture took I—m." which grew nearly 500 million years ago. The forerunners of modern conifers were on the scene 300 million years ago. bird watchers can learn to identify many birds by their sounds and to call them as well. and Korea were brought to Hawaii to work the sugar plantations. ? In the early 1800s. By the time the dinosaurs roamed the earth some 180 million years ago. pigs. 4. 4. and with concentrated study and practice. 3. seed-bearing trees had evolved that shed their leaves in winter. . Most likely.writers began to look within themselves and across their enlarged continental homeland for their subjects and themes. Fifty million years later came the dense forests of tree ferns that prevailed in tropical climates of that era. 2. Calls are normally simple notes. salt salmon. vocalized by males and females in all seasons to express alarm or maintain contact with mates. X An increase in travel in America led to an appreciation of the beauty of the American landscape.

:-) The ruggedness of the Alaskan Arctic makes it one of the last few remaining pristine areas in the world. 1. 9. X The Richter scale was invented in California. The winning team. Thus the event is usually considered only an exhibition. (3). 4. Text 1. hat is the primary topic of the passage? 1. X The predecessors of today's forests were giant club mosses and tree ferns. X Railroads provided an important link between the Northwest and the Northeast. winning gold in 1976. 8. X Birds have their own language by which they maintain contact. :-) Railroads had a profound effect on the economic development of the United States in the nineteenth century. In 1936. What is the main topic of the passage? 1. was the Buffalo German club. Question 1 . women's basketball was added to the program. What is the main theme in the passage? 1. 4. the nation expanded. who brought their native foods with them. ? Remarkably. ? A great deal of attention is paid to earthquake activity in California. X The Alaskan Arctic is a beautifully pristine realm of snow. 2. X At. ? Powell and his party faced daunting challenges on the first Colorado River expedition. X In their novels. What is the main idea of the passage? ? The variety of trees in today's forests area result of millions of years of evolution. X Railroads made the transportation of perishable freight possible. 6. ? Whalers and missionaries introduced new kinds of foods to the people of Hawaii.000 miles of railroad track were laid. whereas other immigrants cooked theirs. The Soviet women were originally the top team on the female side. 3. 10. :-) Bird calls and songs are distinctive. but the US women have now surpassed them. (6). 3. 1988. What is the main idea expressed in the passage? 1. ? Sugar plantations were worked by immigrants from Asia. (8). 3. In 1976. X Earthquake prediction will be possible in the future. What is the main subject of the passage? 1. parts of the Alaskan Arctic still remain unexplored. 3. 2. ? Between 1830 and 185C over 8. 4. Basketball was on the Olympic program in 1904. 2. X Powell was inspired to explore the Colorado while on Pike's Peak.4. but the event was contested by only a few American club teams and actually served as the AAU (Amateur Athletic Union of the USA) Championship for that year. ice. 5. winning gold medals in 1984. . (7). 2. which was so dominant in those days that they were inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame as a team. 4. meaningful. 2. 7. 1980 and 1992. Melville and Hawthorne both addressed difficult questions facing Americans. 2. X The individual versus nature was one of the main themes explored in early American literature. 4. The United States has many sport events for women. X Birdwatchers can identify many bird calls and their meanings and learn to mimic them as well. and the sport has been included in every Olympic Games since. 4. X Conifers are the oldest trees in today's forests. 3. ? The Alaskan Arctic is habitable only to arctic animals and a few hardy humans. ? The first American literature took the form of novels that dealt with uniquely American themes. 3. basketball made its first appearance as a medal sport at the Olympics. and polar bears. 1996 and 2000. incidentally. (2). 4. novelists began writing about the American frontier. 2. (4). 2. ? The natives of the South Pacific who first settled in Hawaii ate raw food. X People were concerned when nothing was heard from Powell and his party for over a month. ? Bird songs are complicated and used mainly by males to attract mates. 3. X Climate affected the development of trees over millennia. :-) Hawaiian food is a combination of the foods of many peoples and a reflection of Hawaii's history. What is the main idea of the passage? 1. X Powell was uniquely qualified to lead an expedition down the Colorado. 3. and ideal liable. 4.2 (1). (5). The USA won all the Olympic titles until 1972 when they were defeated by the Soviet Union.

It is therefore difficult. fleeing. others may have very little embellishment. the Middle Hills (with the exclusion of the Kathmandu valley) and the northern Himalayas. …researchers have examined the responses of wildlife to pedestrians. in part because it is assumed to be more (12) …… for wildlife than hiking. it can nevertheless be a Buddhist or Hindu image from a remote village or a small temple. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Text 3. to ascertain exactly all the original purposes of these masks. which are often less expensive than other forms of apparel play many roles when it comes to individuals style. The masks discussed in this article were all produced in Nepal by the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Terai (the low plains of the south along the Indian border). the objects are the products of ingenuous freshness and instinctive expressionism. They can be reminiscent of Japanese jomon (cord pattern) terracotta masks dating from the second millennium BC. Question 5-9 To focus attention on the so-called 'primitive' or tribal masks of the Himalayas is to adapt the eye to a completely different style than is generally expected in the West of Himalayan art. one for the mouth.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Text 2. or are roughly carved with a few quick strokes. Inspiration for the masks often reflects the individual. T-shirts. patina and carving their African. but only patient comparative studies will be able to determine the depth to which such a comparison can be carried. or of central Indian tribes such as the Bhugas who wore masks for divination before hunting ceremonies. it is possible that there is more than just an aesthetic similarity. it is not known (13) …… wildlife respond differently to these activities. (10) …. for example. how spending patterns effect other categories. Himalayan tribal masks evoke by their shape. healing. the artist being at liberty to express his fantasy. Mountain biking in particular is one of the fastest-growing outdoor activities. The immediate response of many animals to disturbance is a change in behavior. beliefs and visions of the people who created the masks. In some cases. mountain biking is (11) …… in all federal wilderness areas and on many other public lands.. and where cultural shifts within youth culture globally may take shape. The wearing of an animal mask or skin could originally have been used in magic rites for hunting. It seems that making masks has its roots in prehistoric times. Currently. even the launch of entirely new companies based on the success of a series of collections. after defeating the shamanic traditions. Some of the tribal masks represent vanished cults and deities that have been swept away by the conversion to another religion. political and religious changes over the last two centuries. the Thakali of the upper KaliGandaki valley in western Nepal first converted from their shamanic religion to Buddhism. knowing what's going on in the subcultures of the T-shirt industry indicate where the marketplace is headed next. Disturbance from recreation may have both immediate and long-term effects on wildlife. and gives an idea of how Buddhism or Hinduism. or altering (14) …… behavior. and in many cases. which makes this marketplace one of the most vital components towards understanding trends and market opportunities in youth culture in general. laying a curse or killing into Tibetan Buddhist Cham dances. marketing. In these last two cases. Question 3-4 T-shirts represent one of the highest grossing markets in youth culture fashion. and sometimes they resemble those of Siberian shamans. Question 10-14 Hiking and mountain biking are rapidly increasing in popularity as forms of outdoor recreation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Text 4. Even when it was produced by a Buddhist or a Hindu. with 43. As the execution of tribal masks was not often subject to canonical rules. In many ways. often leading new directions for brands. considering the number of existing ethnic groups. Aesthetic interest in the objects themselves or astonishment at their shape and their mysterious beauty provokes questions as to what they mean and how they originated. although the appearance of the sculpture is archaic . two holes for the eyes. such as boar mask from a Buddhist village. and have more recently converted to Hinduism. Indonesian or American counterparts. . and they exhibit many different levels of technical ability. there is a lack of information on the responses of wildlife to mountain bikers. Owing to social.3 million persons participating at least once in 2000 (USDA Forest Service and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2000). and several of the masks remain only as mute witnesses to a dead civilization. Despite this lack of knowledge. distribution. such as cessation of foraging. designs. Supernatural forces are projected into a mask and the spectator gives it life and meaning. this art was in contact with shamanism. the function of various masks has altered and evolved so that an old mask has sometimes been given a new meaning. The ethnic groups that created the masks have undergone radical changes. Although some masks can be very sophisticated. It is a mode of expression that reveals specific characteristics of the original spirit. transformed and even incorporated many of these rites.

? Aesthetic of Primitive Mask of the Himalayas 2. ? The first basketball program on the Olympic in 1904 was contested by only American club teams. X Since 2. ? An announcement board 4. ? reproducing 2. ? Terai 2. The word archaic (in the first line of the last paragraph) can be best replaced by …. ? The T-shirt industry and the changes of design 2. X The Olympic basketball program in 1904 was dominated by Amateur Athletic Union of the USA.. ? Before 5. 1. ? Whenever 4. ? disturbingly 4. X In 1904. :-) whether 3. X The masks were made in the prehistoric times and were kept in temples. 1. :-) disturbing 13. ? disturb 2. 1. ? An advertisement 5. 4. 8. ? The West of Himalayan Art 6. 5. ? The Origin of Himalayan Mask 5. :-) Tribal masks of the Himalayas 3. ? contemporary 4. What is the topic of the text? 1. ? blocked 3. ? Northern Himalayas 7. 5. The irrelevant sentence in the above text is sentence number …. ? Kali-Gandaki 3. 2. ? The T-shirt industry and the youth subculture 4. 4. ? That is why T-shirt is so popular among the youth. 3. ? tedious 2. ? reproduce 4. ? T-shirt design is changing rapidly among the youth. :-) A journal article. 2. 1. 4. :-) The T-shirt industry and the market opportunity 3. 1. The masks discussed in the text were made in …. 5. ? The T-shirt industries take advantage of the youth culture. X 7 3. ? disturbance 2. What is the main idea of the above text? 1. X The Buffalo German club won the first medal sport on the Olympic for basketball. X The masks are considered holly to the Himalayan people. ? A newspaper editorial. ? although 14. :-) prehistoric 9. :-) Nepal 5. X Until 3. ? Kathmandu valley 4. ? The changes of T-shirt trends and design 4. ? prevailing 5. X The masks are still used for traditional ritual in Himalayan cultures. ? until 2. :-) T-shirt is getting cheaper and cheaper 3. ? disturber 3. ? that 4. 2. ? denied 12. :-) While 11. 3. ? 8 5. ? Styles of the Primitive Mask of the Himalayas 4. 3. ? A popular magazine. ? cheap 3. ? 2 2. 1.. ? disturb 5. :-) reproductive Reading Texts Questions 1-6 Fiberscopes are one of the most important outcomes of the science of fiber optics. 2.. 2. From the text we can conclude that …. What is the best title for the above text? 1. 10. ? 4 4. 1. Fibers made of glass . X The USA won all the Olympic medals until 1972 when they were defeated by the Soviet Union. ? rejected 4. 1. ? reproduction 3. X reproducible 5. :-) 6 3. Which of the following is best for the last sentence of the paragraph? 1. X The masks are priceless to the Himalayan people. The above text is probably found in …. ? The masks have been influenced by many religions and cultures. :-) banned 5. 1.1. 1. only a few American clubs participated in the basketball Olympic program. ? The youth and the T-shirt design 5.

which included such exalted professions as neurosurgery. excel academically. The most common fiberscopes contain about 750. she wrote her first short story. the best selling Joy Luck Club. on which was deposited the mud. these minute plants receive the sunlight they need for photosynthesis. expecting Amy and her two brothers to think like Chinese but to speak perfect English. . Bundles of fiberscopes fused together in a solid plate. Turning to her life-long dream. Returning from China. Optical fibers carry voice messages for telephone service. The weight of the glaciers. Huge glaciers also sculpted the coast. which in turn are food for the larger fish that are part of the legendary abundance of the Northeast's continental shelf. At the receiving end. and other small fish. and when thousands of these fibers are combined in what is called a fiberscope. For certain uses. gentle underwater slope formed. was not satisfied despite her material success. It has been translated into 17 languages. they can transmit images. the diameter of the fiber may be as small as 5 microns. the light pulses are converted to electrical signals and the voice message is reconstructed. each 0. and blood cells. and was made into a movie in 1993. when their blooms carpet the ocean floor. Questions 15-20 Maine's jagged ribbon of rocky coastline wasfashioned over millennia by the violent forces of the inner earth. especially on long summer days. and they All form the basis of the "electronic superhighway" expected to crisscross the nation in the near future of the information age. however. "Waiting between the Trees. pressed down the entire land mass beneath. in an exploration of the generational and cultural tensions experienced by many first-generation daughters of immigrants. scraping and chiseling the land's features as they passed on their way to the sea. and bays. Tan closed her business and wrote the remaining stories for the Joy Luck Club. Tan. in some places for hundreds of miles. This continental shelf falls gradually outward and downward. Miniature probes have also been developed to view muscle fiber. melting glaciers raised the sea level by 400 feet. in diameter. and take advantage of every circumstance that might lead to success. The most far-reaching applications of fiber-optic technology are in communications. This immense quantity of food supports vast shoals of shrimp. Fiberscopes have a wide range of applications. like many immigrants. particularly to inspect or control operations in inaccessible areas. herring. sand. skin tissue. It was a resounding success. the shelf provides the perfect environment for diatoms. Light-wave communication systems can handle an immensely greater number of telephone calls and television programs than the current system. a bonding with the country and its culture that she had never expected. Aided by the cold Labrador current which is saturated with oxygen and minerals." In 1987 Tan visited her half-sisters in China with her mother. which causes a transmitting laser to send coordinated pulses of light through the optical fibers. Ideal conditions for abundant marine life make the riches of the continental shelf unparalleled.and transparent acrylic plastic are capable of conveying light energy." and then a second. called a faceplate. to a depth of about 600 feet before dropping into the ocean's depth. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions lifted and crumbled plains to form mountains that again rose and fell as molten materials welled up in huge bulges that solidified into the granitic rocks typical of the Northeast. fjords. "End game. Tan's parents. and stony debris moved seaward from the continent by the glaciers and carried by rivers. the American-born daughter of Chinese immigrants. Tan was surprised to learn that on the strength of her short stories she had received an advance from a publisher. estimated to have been between one and two miles thick. had high expectations for their children and often set confusing standards. Questions 7-14 Amy Tan. Tan. physicians use fiberscopes to examine internal organs and as an aid in delicate surgeries. well received by the critics and appearing on the New York Times bestseller list. The sound of the voice is electronically broken down into thousands of pulses per second. in essence drowning the coast and forming thousands of islands. Meanwhile. Tan felt a sense of completeness. Beneath the sea a long.000 fibers. or 10 microns. and devoted herself to being thoroughly American and dreaming of being a fiction writer. Tan obtained a bachelor's degree in English and linguistics and a master's degree in linguistics and eventually established herself as a highly successful business writer. a trip that proved to be a turning point in her life and career. are being used in the manufacture of television picture tubes and other cathode-ray tube devices. Diatoms are tiny plants that form the base of the oceanic food chain.001 centimeter. In the shallow water of the shelf. Fiberscopes have also found varied uses in industry. In the medical field. received the Commonwealth Club Gold Award in 190'9 for her first work of fiction. The sixteen interrelated stories that constitute the work alternate between the tales of four Chinese immigrant mothers and their Americanized daughters. however. including Chinese. rebelled against her parents' expectations.

but the longest life of any tortoise of which there is an authentic record is of a great tortoise of the Seychelles Islands. and they are adapted to walking on land by their club-shaped feet. ? will play a major role in the information age 4. Their limbs are covered with hard scales that often have a bony core. They are primarily vegetarians. Gopher tortoises are so called because they dig long burrows. X the structure of fiberscopes 2. which may be nearly 50 feet long and provide a hone for many other animals. Approximately how many fibers does a fiberscope contain? 1. X additional uses of fiberscopes in industry 7. however. ? By fusing bundles of fiberscopes into a faceplate 2.34 Living on land. The head can be entirely withdrawn. such as frogs. Tortoises have become symbols of leisurely movement. X homes and businesses of the future 4. State officials were required to take an oath to support the Constitution. All tortoises share the ability to live to a great age. :-) By converting electrical signals to light pulses 4. is especially fond of prickly-pear cactus. X have more uses in industry than in medicine 3. The principle of separation of powers was applied throughout the document. Of these. ? extremely smallhard to reach 4. feeding on grass and leaves. greatly enhanced the power of central government but carefully divided its functions into three distinct branches—executive. ? 750. ? By sending coordinated electrical pulses through optical fibers 2. X Lines 21-266. Questions 29 . are the land turtles. The hardscaled soles of the hind feet cover the openings at the rear. and of persistence. properly called tortoises. The national government created by the union of states stood above the state governments in specific national matters while acknowledging the role of the states or sharing power with them in other areas. the states also gained a role in applying checks and balances. X To analyze Amy Tan's literary works . ? Lines 18-20 2. The true tortoises come to water only to drink or bathe. and burrowing owls.Questions 21-28 The United States Constitution established a political system comprising a national and federal government. X 1. The new federal system accommodated the 13 original state governments while establishing new bodies and powers designed to address national concerns. It can be inferred from the passage that fiberscopes 1. Berlandier's tortoise. 3. ? Lines 2-10 6. of longevity. a slow-moving inhabitant of the arid lands of southern Texas and Mexico. as in Aesop's fable of the hare and the tortoise. The openings at the front and rear of the shell are usually neatly closed by the retracted limbs. 1. In their powers to amend the Constitution and to elect the president and members of the Senate. X will decrease in importance as they become more common 5. the elbows meeting in the middle in front of it and the claws of the forelimbs overlapping the lower edge of the opening at the front. of which there are approximately 40 different kinds. and state courts were required to recognize the Constitution and the laws and treaties made under it as the supreme law. The Constitution. ? the use of fiber optics in the electronic superhighway 3. X 500.006 3. The passage will most likely be followed by a discussion of 1.000 3. on which the enlarged scales may be defensively augmented with still larger spines. X 25.000. whose age was known to be not less than 180 years. Carefully measured checks and balances were inserted to prevent the acquisition or concentration of power in any one branch and also for the purpose of protecting minority rights from the potential rule of the majority. :-) Lines 12-13 4. The word inaccessible means 1.000 4. Where in the passage does the author discuss the uses of miniature probes in medicine? 1. 1. What is the author's main purpose in this passage? 1. a veritable work of genius. :-) hard to reach 2. X impossible to climb 4.000 2. legislative and judicial. The shell is high-domed in all but a very few forms. X have reached the peak of their development 2. X By using cathode-ray tube devices 3. snakes. including the three gopher tortoises. Gopherus. is found in the southern United States as far west as New Mexico. How do optical fibers carry voice messages? 1. ? difficult to find 3.

X Tan started writing fiction in order to make more money The word exalted means 1. ? very difficult It can be concluded from this passage that 1. X national and federal government 2. Amy Tan was a successful 1. 2. state officials were required to take an oath to 1. ? not original 2. ? was not surprising in the least The words "the work" refer to 1. X rivaled 4. :-) To present biographical information about Amy Tan 3. X protect minority rights 4. ? support the Constitution 2. 2. ? Glaciers 2. :-) Summer 2. X Commonwealth Club Gold Award 4. 20. X speaking perfect English 2. ? A 600-foot drop into the ocean's depth The word "unparalleled" means 1. :-) business writer 4. ? To describe how the rising sea level covered the coastal land 4. 14. 11. 12. :-) The formation and characteristics of the Northeast coast 16. X state officials 3. 22. ? common 2. X writing 3. ? imperceptible According to the passage. Amy Tan's visit to China 1. :-) A cold current saturated with oxygen and minerals 2.8. 17. 18. :-) It took Tan a while to summon the courage to pursue her dreams 3. X To criticize Amy Tan's rebellion against her parents 4. :-) not equaled 3. X recognize the Constitution as a work of genius The word "amend" could best be replaced by . X Autum 3. ? stories Before becoming a fiction writer. ? To support Amy Tan's decision to become a fiction writer According to the passage. ? English teacher The expectations of Tan's parents included all of the following EXCEPT 1. ? Ocean currents Why does the author use the phrase "in essence drowning the coast" to discuss the effects of melting glaciers? 1. ? Blooms carpeting the ocean floor 3. X To show the devastating nature of glaciers 3. ? common 4. ? Earthquakes 4. X Parents don't know what's best for their children 3. 23. :-) had a profound affect on her 4. X share power with the federal government 3. 21. at what time of year are diatoms ii. ? The riches of the continental shelf Which of the following is NOT mentioned as having affected the creation of Maine's rocky coastline? 1. 10. ? the states According to the passage. 19. 13. X The effect of the movement of ice sheets on the shape of the land 4. X excelling academically 4. :-) questioning tradition 3. ? Diatoms existing in the shallow water of the shelf 4. X Tan always knew she was Chinese foremost and American only in her imagination 2. ? choosing an important profession It can be inferred from the passage that 1. ? The islands off the Maine coast 3. X was a trip she had always dreamed of taking 2. ? was disappointing 3. ? Spring The word "them" refers to 1. ? Winter 4. ? Volcanic eruptions 3. X national matters 4. :-) Joy Luck Club 2. X publisher 3. ? Tan's parents understood her dilemma but wanted the best for her 4. 15. X Tan did not use personal experience in her writing 4. the greatest abundance? 1. :-) highly respected 3. X To support the notion that animal life was lost when the glaciers melted 2. 9. ? neurosurgeon 2. X To indicate the importance of natural disasters What are the "ideal conditions" the author is referring to? 1. ? Tan made the right decision when she closed her business With which of the following topics is the author primarily concerned? 1. X Tan had always wanted to return to China 2.

Ragtime quickly gained popularity after its first appearances. The leading ragtime composer was Scott Joplin. "Maple Leaf Rag. ? humor 3. player pianos. is a style of jazz characterized by an elaborately syncopated rhythm in the melody and a steadily accented accompaniment. A ragtime piece usually consists of several similar melodies that take such forms as AA BB A CC DD or Introduction AA BB CC DD EE. 31. ragtime songs. ? disapproval 2. ? intended above all to preserve the unity of the states What is the author's main purpose in the passage? 1. ? Their head can be entirely withdrawn into the shell. ? snails 4. :-) grass and leaves 4. X enhance 4. ? social science 4. 4. X limbs 3. X added 2. X minority issues 2. ? tortoises 4. ? snakes 33. 3. X restricted 3. The pianist's right hand plays a highly syncopated melody. 11. ? The difference between the 40 different kinds of land turtles 3. The word "their" refers to 1. X contained 4. 1. developed primarily by black pianists. where each letter represents a melodic phrase.24. 27. ? indifference 4. With its syncopations. The forms of ragtime derive from European marches and dances. ragtime played an integral part in the jazz legacy. 26. The passage preceding this one is probably about 1. X The symbolism associated with tortoises. Gopher tortoises primarily eat 1. The opening melody. :-) commendation It can be concluded from the passage that the authors of Constitution 1. Ragtime piano music has a generally standard form. ? owls Reading Test Questions 1-8 Ragtime. About three minutes long. X public housing 3. reaching millions on a national scale through sheet music. 2. 30. and each section is 16 bars in length. it has the standard AA BB A CC DD form. "Maple Leaf Rag" is a classic example of ragtime. . X To persuade the state legislators to support the Constitution 2. ? Line 21 4. Early jazz musicians often used ragtime melodies as introductions to their improvisations. 29. ? The life of spans of tortoises Which of the following not mentioned as a characteristics of tortoises? 1. duple meter (2/4. :-) They are well adapted to water 2. ? Line 14 3. 28. ? They have long lives. X To summarize the role of the Senate 4. in march tempo. X prickly pear cactus 3. while the left hand steadily maintains the beat with an "oom-pah" accompaniment. features the typical ragtime right-hand syncopations. ? To discuss one of the principal elements of the Constitution What is the main topic of the passage? 1. or two beats per measure) performed at a moderate march tempo." was published in 1899. ? Line 8 The author's attitude toward the Constitution is one of 1. The word "augmented" could best be replaced try 1. is a style of composed piano music that was popular from the 1890s to about 1915." whose most famous piano piece. steady beat. :-) wanted to avoid usurpation of power by any individual or body 2. known as the "King of Ragtime. . ? They have retracting limbs. but the rhythms are rooted in AfricanAmerican folk music. the same rich body of music that became a vital source of jazz. ? frogs 2. :-) water turtles 2. X feet 32. X To mention the roles of state officials in government 3. :-) Line 16 2. 25. ? didn't believe that the state and federal branches of the government could work well together 4. and arrangements for dance and marching bands. :-) The characteristics of land turtles 4. :-) political science Where in the passage does the author describe the three branches of government? 1. ? construct The author of the passage is probably an expert in 1. X provided the states with the most power to govern 3. ? enhanced 34. ? burrowing animals 3. X balance 3. X scales 2. and piano style. :-) change 2.

It is well placed for observation for several months in every year and on average is the brightest of the planets apart from Venus. Several smaller red spots have been seen occasionally but have not lasted. and ship designers use CAD techniques to design vehicles and test their performance. and ultimately its greatest use. the plains bison and the woodland bison. Other endangered species need the same planning and protection. so its surface area is greater than that of Earth. They made great use of stone for milling and for making tools and weapons. and even go for a simulated "walk" through the rooms or around the outside of the building. but it always returns after a few years. Its longevity may well be due to its exceptional size. research.000 kilometers wide. Their large domed huts were framed by willow poles covered with mats made from twined bulrushes harvested from the marshlands. The latitude is generally very close to -22°. the largest and most durable of which could hold up to twelve people and ply the open ocean. Bison are strong survivors and have few predators except for humans. and film productions. . Jupiter's less than 10-hour rotation period gives it the shortest day in the solar system insofar as the principal planets are concerned. they used wood to make bowls. scientific. Ventura. Though the latitude of the Red Spot varies little. However. When blizzards rage across the North American prairie. particularly for computer animation. charts.Questions 9-13 In North America there are two forms of bison. intricate patterns that are regarded as being among the finest in the world. Questions 27-33 The Chumash people inhabited an area of southwestern California that included large portions of present-day Los Angeles. and Medicine. with protection and careful breeding they have been brought back to the point where their numbers can be multiplied at will. for the bison use their hooves and massive heads to clear away the snow and then feed on the grasses below. where it is used in advertising. and it may not be permanent. which is achieved by a sequential process. training. industry. generally referred to as computer-aided design (CAD). It has shown variations in both intensity and color. and several types of canoes. bison lower their heads and face directly into the storm. It is used routinely in such diverse areas as business. Questions 14-19 Jupiter is the largest and most massive planet and is fifth in order of distance from the sun. where it is used to create graphs. but there are signs that it is decreasing in size. and at times it has been invisible. create a three-dimensional model. computer graphics can be used to create weather maps and cartographic materials. The most famous mark on Jupiter is the Great Red Spot. and San Luis Obispo counties as well as the Channel islands. Business graphics is another rapidly growing area of computer graphics. has been as an aid to design. though for relatively brief periods Mars may outshine it. government. however. art. They took advantage of the rich resources of their homeland. The bison has a great tolerance to-cold. Santa Barbara. One of the initial uses of computer graphics. Automobile. As an educational aid. statistical. Plant fiber was also used to weave baskets with beautiful. computer graphics has emerged as one of the most rapidly growing fields in computer science. engineers now rely on heavily on CAD. Architects can design a building layout. At its greatest extent it may be 40. Large herds presently range on both government and private lands where they are protected. Although the Chumash were accomplished fishers and hunted a variety of animals. north is the edge of the Canadian forest. publishing. In winter the vegetation on which these animals feed may be hidden beneath a deep blanket of snow.000 kilometers long and 14. One of its greatest advantages is that designers can see how an object will look after construction and make changes freely and much more quickly than with hand drafting. it drifts about in longitude. this does not present a problem. around 1900. However. For threedimensional rendering of machine parts. the Pioneer and Voyager results have refuted that idea and proven the Red Spot to be a phenomenon of Jovian meteorology. Questions 20-26 As computers have become powerful tools for the rapid and economic production of pictures. there were fewer than a thousand plains bison left. and economic data. Over the past century the total longitudinal drift has amounted to approximately 1200°. There are no true seasons on Jupiter because the axial inclination to the perpendicular of the orbital plane is only just over 3°—less than that for any other planet. education. The plains bison once ranged from Pennsylvania and Georgia to the Rockies. Computer art also has creative and commercial art applications. and south onto the central plateau of Mexico. who reduced their population to the point at which. Building designs are also created with computer graphics systems. spacecraft. aerospace. and cost models to summarize financial. From the trees. bows. mathematical. It was once thought that the Red Spot might be a solid or semisolid body floating in Jupiter's outer gas. including elk.

Their most important food source was the acorn. :-) In the open The word "range" (bold) means to 1. X show how ragtime is arranged 2. leather. The Chumash were avid traders with other western tribes. X predators The passage supports which of the following conclusions? 1. A typical village consisted of several domed houses. political. a burial ground. and economic ties. a field for game playing. deer. 12. ? Behind trees 4. grains. X drive a long distance 2. Jupiter has the shortest day among the principal planets because 1. X never changing 2. ? numbers 2. The Chumash even had a currency represented by a string of small white shell beads. :-) derived from 3. X arrangements for marching bands 4. rabbits. 1. X melodic phrase 2. ? march tempo 4. 9. 14. :-) a melodic phrase 4. :-) its rotation period is shorter than 10 hours 4. 10.000 people. Plants were also used to make medicines. 13. each with one or more granaries. X cook on a stove 3. ? compare ragtime and jazz 3. X Left-hand accompaniment 4. who inhabited 75 to 100 villages. X bison were native to a limited territory. tools. utensils. ? ragtime 4.antelope. baskets. ? oom-pah -accompaniment 3. X Bison are more fragile than they appear. ? it is on the average the brightest of all the planets . :-) plains bison 4. from which they made flour. X national parks of North America 4. ? Art History 6. nets. This passage would be part of required reading in which of the following courses? 1. X syncopated melody 2.000 to 30. including flowers. :-) compositions for orchestras 2. The word "rooted" (bold) means 1. X surround 4. and bulbs. ? the axial inclination is only just over 3° 2. X Social Studies 4. seeds. ? sheet music 3. 3. X the diversity of climates in America 3. 2. leaves. where would bison be found during a severe winter storm? 1. X Ragtime music is complex and hard to identify. X Sixteen-bar sections 3. headdresses. :-) "Maple Leaf Rag" 3. X Bison will eventually be extinct. The Chumash lived in villages that were connected by social. ? In caves 2. 4. who bartered for Chumash hides. X cold-blooded animals of the Southwestern desert 2. ? Highly syncopated melody 5. ? move about According to the passage. :-) discuss the origin and elements of ragtime 4. X each letter Which of the following conclusions can be made from this passage? 1. ? criticize the compositions of Scott Joplin 2. 2. :-) Fast march tempo 2. the letters A in AA and B in BB each represent 1. The word "their" (bold) refers to 1. X attached to the ground 4. According to the passage. X African-American history 2. :-) Music Appreciation 3. Ragtime reached people nationwide through all of the following EXCEPT 1. ? the endangered grizzly of North . and squirrels. X Seeking shelter behind boulders 3. 4. The author's main purpose in the passage is to 1. fruit. 1. ? Ragtime was popular only with African-Americans. :-) Ragtime has an easily recognizable rhythm. at least threefourths of their diet consisted of plant foods.America According to the passage. 3. X player pianos 3. and canoes. ? The bison population can be controlled. X humans 3. At its height the Chumash nation consisted of 20. and one or more sweatlodges. beads. 11. The word "it" (bold) refers to 8. a ceremonial dance ground. characteristic of ragtime? 1. roots. The topic of the passage following this one would likely be about 1. Which of the following is NOT. ? there is the interference of the Great Red Spot 3. ? Ragtime is a completely different form of music than jazz. ? unmoving 7.

? computer graphics 4. It can be inferred from this passage that Jupiter's Great Red Spot 1. X making cost models 2. :-) shells 3. ? leather 31. :-) Lines 7-9 25. ? create three-dimensional models 3. ? mathematicians 18. ? grains 2. :-) were a highly developed people 4. ? The impact of the Chumash legacy 4. According to the passage. X create graphs 2. ? did not make the most of their natural resources 2. The author implies that the Chumash 1. ? enthusiastic 4. X will become brighter with time 3. X An analysis of Chumash inventions 3. X density 3. According to the passage. X computers 3. ? geologists 2. X computer science 22. X flight training 2. X The rapidly growing field of computer science 3. ? visibility 2. X cost models 4. Where in the passage does the author discuss the greatest advantage of computer-aided design? 1. According to the passage. :-) neutral 3. The paragraph following this passage would most likely be about 1. ? layers 27. The passage was most probably written by a specialist in 1. This passage would be of most interest to 1. X brilliance 4. X acorns 32. architects use CAD to 1. engineers use CAD for 1. ? less often than any other planet 4. :-) from time to time 2. It can be inferred from the passage that the Chumash 1. X isolated themselves from other tribes 4. ? will continue expanding 19. X is made of floating gases 4. inventive people 29. ? tools 33. The author mentions all of the following goods the Chumash traded EXCEPT 1. ? were an industrious. X advertising 3. :-) uses 3. ? a simulated "walk" through model rooms. The word "it" (bold) refers to 1. :-) plant foods 3. :-) rendering machine parts 4. X fields 2.15. :-) amateur astronomers 3. X canoes 2. ? antelope and rabbits 2. ? applications of CAD in medicine 23. The word” Intensity" could best be replaced with 1. X Lines 16-18 3. X wooden beads 4. X creativity 4. :-) Computer graphics applications 21. The word "applications" in bold means 1. X currency and government 4. X inspect buildings 24. :-) anthropology . three-fourths of the Chumash diet consisted of 1. X were a localized tribe 3. X fish 4. :-) A description of Chumash life 28. ? students of anthropology 4. ? supportive 2. ? Support for the Chumash nation 2. What does the passage mainly discuss? 1. ? argumentative 16. X make cartographic materials 4. ? every several months 17. The Chumash currency was represented by 1. Mars outshines Jupiter 1. X were not a seafaring people 3. ? nutrition 2. According to the passage. X ecological systems 3. X surface area 20. 26. With which of the following topics is the author primarily concerned? 1. ? Lines 4-6 2. X on a regular basis 3. X were not artistic in nature 2. ? Routine uses of computers 2. :-) computer animation 3. ? lived very primitively 30. ? jobs 2. X Computers as the architects of the future 4. The author's tone in this passage is 1. ? fruit 3. :-) willow poles 4. :-) will one day vanish 2. X Lines 12-14 4.

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