Read the following passages and find the main idea of each one.

Question 1 Strictly speaking, cartography is the drawing or compiling of maps. The explorers and surveyors go out and make the measurements and gather the information from which the cartographers draw their maps. Sometimes the fieldwork and the creation of the map are done by the same person. But when the scope is broad and the sources of information many, maps are more often a compilation of that information. They represent the accumulated work of many people, brought together under the supervision of one person. the compiler. The value of the map depends, of course, on the expertise of the compiler, who must sift through available information, select the most accurate data, and come up with a thoughtful and accurate synthesis of the geographic knowledge of the region. Question 2 In the 1820s and 1830s American painting added a new chapter to the story of its development. Until the nineteenth century, portraiture and occasional historical pieces were the only concerns of American art, but throughout the 1800s some of America's most talented painters chose to depict landscapes and the daily activities of ordinary people. With the nation's declaration of independence had come prosperity and with it the opportunity and inclination for painters to contemplate their environment. As they traveled beyond the early settlements and left the nation's first cities, such as Boston and Philadelphia, they began to experience and appreciate the pristine beauty of the American scenery, which differed greatly from the European landscape, partly because in its unsettled state it appeared wild and primeval. Question 3 Speculation about the earth's crust has a special edge of urgency in California, which sits on the San Andreas fault, the world's most famous and respected fracture zone. Not surprisingly, it was a scientist at the California Institute of Technology, Charles F. Richter, who invented the Richter scale used to measure earthquakes. Seismic activity in California is being constantly monitored and mapped. Seismometers register many thousands of small earthquakes every year, and computers instantly calculate the location, depth, and magnitude of an earthquake. Laser distance-ranging networks can detect changes of length, indicating change in crustal stress, accurate to about half an inch in 20 miles. Satellite measurements of crustal blocks are improving, and California seismologists believe they may in time be precise enough to allow earthquake prediction.

Question 4 The first expedition down the Colorado River was made by John Wesley Powell and his party in 1869. Powell had made long trips down the Ohio and the Mississippi and its tributaries during his twenties, when his lifelong interest in natural history developed. In 1867 he led his first expedition to the Rockies, a collecting trip for the museum he had founded in Illinois. While on Pike's Peak, -near Colorado Springs, Powell conceived his great plan to explore the Colorado River. On May 24, 1869, he and his party set off down the upper Colorado and nothing was heard from them for 37 days. During that time Powell and party braved uncharted territory, encounters with the natives, fierce rapids, and 20-foot waterfalls, as they followed the Colorado through the Grand Canyon to the Gulf of California. Question 5 Innovations in transportation in the 1800s permitted space to be traversed more rapidly and were crucial to the industrial expansion of the North. The great spaces that separated producers from consumers made speed essential, especially in the movement of perishable freight. The development of the steampowered locomotive in the 1830s and the rapid extension of the railways in the 1840s and 1850s provided the answer to the need for faster transport and dramatically altered patterns of economic development throughout the United States. In 1830 there were 32 miles of rails in the country, in 1840 there were 2,818 miles, and by 1850 there were more than 9,000 miles. The rapid extension of rail mileage enabled the railroads significantly to reduce their costs for shipping freight and carrying passengers, thus enabling them to price their services more cheaply and competitively. The extension of trunk lines, into which short or local lines fed, further tightened the east-west flow of commerce and bound the Northeast and the old Northwest together with bands of steel. Question 6 The few places left on earth that have not been altered by humankind are almost invariably hostile to humans. One such place is the Alaskan Arctic, which is inhabited, where inhabited at all, by only a scattering of Eskimos, Native Americans, and whites. But while the Arctic is indeed a chill and inimical realm of snow, ice, and polar bears, it is also a region of great beauty and, above all, purity, where plants and animals still exist undisturbed in a state of natural balance. Nearly one-third of Alaska lies north of the Arctic Circle and consists of pristine land. The Brooks Range cuts across the region like a wall, making access difficult. Even today, in an age of jet travel, the number of persons, who have had firsthand experience in the Alaskan Arctic remains small, and countless valleys and mountains go unnamed and even unexplored.

corned beef. the Hawaiians have accepted each group's offerings and drawn the best from them. The primitive forests of several hundred million years ago consisted of fewer kinds of trees.writers began to look within themselves and across their enlarged continental homeland for their subjects and themes. Thus a Hawaiian feast is a gastronomic experience. as American . when plant life abundantly colonized marshy land. chowders curries. In fact. and with concentrated study and practice. They lacked true roots and consisted of a tangle of specialized branches that clambered over rocky ground. 3. seasoned with coconut. the essence of Hawaii and its many cultures. . Question 10 Hawaii was originally settled by the natives of the South Pacific. or other birds of the same species. ? In the early 1800s. and chickens. The romance. The Chinese brought rice. and vegetables and their ways of cooking them. 3. or novel. X Not all of the information initially compiled for maps is accurate. All songs and most calls are distinctive. Songs are usually more complex than calls and are utilized primarily by adult males during the breeding season to establish territories or attract mates. provided a useful form for dealing with the Fenimore Cooper's The Pioneers (1823) and The Deerslayer (1841). The forerunners of modern conifers were on the scene 300 million years ago. vocalized by males and females in all seasons to express alarm or maintain contact with mates. X The compiler's task is more important than that of the explorers and surveyors. Settlers from the continental United States also brought their favorite recipes and in the spirit of aloha. the first distinctly American culture took I—m. The Japanese brought sukiyaki and teriyaki.Question 7 In the first half of the nineteenth century. The rise of an American tradition in literature paralleled the expansion of the nation. X An increase in travel in America led to an appreciation of the beauty of the American landscape. bananas. X Computers provide a variety of information about earthquakes. chronicling the advance of "civilization" and questioning the implications of its impact on the natural world. Calls are normally simple notes. dried beef. coconut. What is the main topic of the passage? 1. Nathaniel Hawthorne dealt with equally difficult questions of inner limits and the individual's responsibilities to society in The Scarlet Letter (1850) and The House of the Seven Gables (1851). single or repeated. seed-bearing trees had evolved that shed their leaves in winter. during the Cretaceous period. In the late nineteenth century immigrants from China. By the time the dinosaurs roamed the earth some 180 million years ago. What is the main idea of the passage? 1. salt salmon. Supplementing these foods were over a hundred different edible fishes and 4C kinds of seaweed from the surrounding waters. taro. 3. who arrived in the islands in canoes laden with breadfruit. soybeans. 1. Question 8 Because different tree species adapted to different climates and soil types have evolved over millennia. the earliest "trees. 4. In the early 1800s. Question 9 Birds have two basic types of sounds: songs and calls. lomi lumi salmon. and Indian and cornstarch puddings. Most likely. pipkaula (jerked beef). pigs. :-) Conditions ire the early 1800s were favorable to the emergence of the American landscape artist. X The definition of cartography is the drawing or compiling of maps. The theme of the individual confronting nature was further developed by Herman Melville in the classic novel Moby Dick (1851). many kinds of forests occupy the earth today. Hawaiian food was eaten raw or wrapped in taro leaves. and haupia (coconut pudding) evolved during this period. What is the main idea expressed in the passage? 1. ? Maps are the product of a group effort brought together usually by one person. yams. 4. Japan. the whalers and missionaries introduced stews. and Korea were brought to Hawaii to work the sugar plantations. 2. bird watchers can learn to identify many birds by their sounds and to call them as well. landscapes were produced in preference to portraits and historical pieces. among many other foods. offspring. building the tremendous coal and oil reserves so important today. ? America's declaration of independence brought prosperity to the nation and with it an appreciation of the outdoors. Natty Bumppo and the Mohican guide Chingachgook confronted the environment of the American frontier. 2. 2. from these have sprung the angiosperms and our present deciduous forests. Fifty million years later came the dense forests of tree ferns that prevailed in tropical climates of that era. were like giant club mosses. and cooked." which grew nearly 500 million years ago.

What is the main theme in the passage? 1. ? Powell and his party faced daunting challenges on the first Colorado River expedition. ? The Alaskan Arctic is habitable only to arctic animals and a few hardy humans. X At. which was so dominant in those days that they were inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame as a team. Melville and Hawthorne both addressed difficult questions facing Americans. ? Remarkably. meaningful. 2. was the Buffalo German club. winning gold in 1976. 3. X Powell was uniquely qualified to lead an expedition down the Colorado. Basketball was on the Olympic program in 1904. X The Alaskan Arctic is a beautifully pristine realm of snow. What is the main subject of the passage? 1. In 1936. 1. (5). What is the main topic of the passage? 1. parts of the Alaskan Arctic still remain unexplored. 3. 4. What is the main idea expressed in the passage? 1. ice. ? The natives of the South Pacific who first settled in Hawaii ate raw food. and polar bears. 2. 9. 4. 2. In 1976. ? Sugar plantations were worked by immigrants from Asia. ? Between 1830 and 185C over 8. Text 1. winning gold medals in 1984. 4. 4. :-) Hawaiian food is a combination of the foods of many peoples and a reflection of Hawaii's history. X The predecessors of today's forests were giant club mosses and tree ferns. 2. X Powell was inspired to explore the Colorado while on Pike's Peak. the nation expanded. basketball made its first appearance as a medal sport at the Olympics. :-) Railroads had a profound effect on the economic development of the United States in the nineteenth century. X Birdwatchers can identify many bird calls and their meanings and learn to mimic them as well. ? Whalers and missionaries introduced new kinds of foods to the people of Hawaii. novelists began writing about the American frontier. 3. The Soviet women were originally the top team on the female side. What is the main idea of the passage? 1. women's basketball was added to the program. X Railroads made the transportation of perishable freight possible. . and the sport has been included in every Olympic Games since. :-) The ruggedness of the Alaskan Arctic makes it one of the last few remaining pristine areas in the world. 2.4. 4. (8). X People were concerned when nothing was heard from Powell and his party for over a month. (3). X In their novels. whereas other immigrants cooked theirs.000 miles of railroad track were laid. (6). who brought their native foods with them. 2. 7.2 (1). 4. X Conifers are the oldest trees in today's forests. ? A great deal of attention is paid to earthquake activity in California. ? The first American literature took the form of novels that dealt with uniquely American themes. 1980 and 1992. X The Richter scale was invented in California. (4). 2. (7). The winning team. 4. 4. 1988. 3. X Railroads provided an important link between the Northwest and the Northeast. :-) Bird calls and songs are distinctive. (2). 3. 6. 3. but the US women have now surpassed them. 8. hat is the primary topic of the passage? 1. 2. ? Bird songs are complicated and used mainly by males to attract mates. 3. and ideal liable. Question 1 . X Birds have their own language by which they maintain contact. X The individual versus nature was one of the main themes explored in early American literature. but the event was contested by only a few American club teams and actually served as the AAU (Amateur Athletic Union of the USA) Championship for that year. 5. The USA won all the Olympic titles until 1972 when they were defeated by the Soviet Union. The United States has many sport events for women. 1996 and 2000. 3. 10. incidentally. X Earthquake prediction will be possible in the future. Thus the event is usually considered only an exhibition. What is the main idea of the passage? ? The variety of trees in today's forests area result of millions of years of evolution. X Climate affected the development of trees over millennia.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Text 2. political and religious changes over the last two centuries. laying a curse or killing into Tibetan Buddhist Cham dances. Himalayan tribal masks evoke by their shape. They can be reminiscent of Japanese jomon (cord pattern) terracotta masks dating from the second millennium BC. Supernatural forces are projected into a mask and the spectator gives it life and meaning. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Text 3. which are often less expensive than other forms of apparel play many roles when it comes to individuals style. or are roughly carved with a few quick strokes. and have more recently converted to Hinduism. the objects are the products of ingenuous freshness and instinctive expressionism. Owing to social. marketing. Despite this lack of knowledge. after defeating the shamanic traditions. for example. Although some masks can be very sophisticated. Mountain biking in particular is one of the fastest-growing outdoor activities. beliefs and visions of the people who created the masks.. It is therefore difficult. it can nevertheless be a Buddhist or Hindu image from a remote village or a small temple. The masks discussed in this article were all produced in Nepal by the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Terai (the low plains of the south along the Indian border). or altering (14) …… behavior. considering the number of existing ethnic groups.3 million persons participating at least once in 2000 (USDA Forest Service and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2000). and gives an idea of how Buddhism or Hinduism. to ascertain exactly all the original purposes of these masks. Indonesian or American counterparts. often leading new directions for brands. healing. two holes for the eyes. T-shirts. In these last two cases. In some cases. Even when it was produced by a Buddhist or a Hindu. one for the mouth. the Thakali of the upper KaliGandaki valley in western Nepal first converted from their shamanic religion to Buddhism. and several of the masks remain only as mute witnesses to a dead civilization. designs. fleeing. . Currently. Question 10-14 Hiking and mountain biking are rapidly increasing in popularity as forms of outdoor recreation. in part because it is assumed to be more (12) …… for wildlife than hiking. transformed and even incorporated many of these rites. the artist being at liberty to express his fantasy. Some of the tribal masks represent vanished cults and deities that have been swept away by the conversion to another religion. although the appearance of the sculpture is archaic . knowing what's going on in the subcultures of the T-shirt industry indicate where the marketplace is headed next. The immediate response of many animals to disturbance is a change in behavior. such as cessation of foraging. how spending patterns effect other categories. and in many cases. the Middle Hills (with the exclusion of the Kathmandu valley) and the northern Himalayas. Question 3-4 T-shirts represent one of the highest grossing markets in youth culture fashion. patina and carving their African. It is a mode of expression that reveals specific characteristics of the original spirit. Disturbance from recreation may have both immediate and long-term effects on wildlife. Aesthetic interest in the objects themselves or astonishment at their shape and their mysterious beauty provokes questions as to what they mean and how they originated. which makes this marketplace one of the most vital components towards understanding trends and market opportunities in youth culture in general. and where cultural shifts within youth culture globally may take shape. and they exhibit many different levels of technical ability. with 43. the function of various masks has altered and evolved so that an old mask has sometimes been given a new meaning. others may have very little embellishment. The wearing of an animal mask or skin could originally have been used in magic rites for hunting. and sometimes they resemble those of Siberian shamans. there is a lack of information on the responses of wildlife to mountain bikers. even the launch of entirely new companies based on the success of a series of collections. distribution. it is not known (13) …… wildlife respond differently to these activities. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Text 4. The ethnic groups that created the masks have undergone radical changes. …researchers have examined the responses of wildlife to pedestrians. It seems that making masks has its roots in prehistoric times. Question 5-9 To focus attention on the so-called 'primitive' or tribal masks of the Himalayas is to adapt the eye to a completely different style than is generally expected in the West of Himalayan art. mountain biking is (11) …… in all federal wilderness areas and on many other public lands. or of central Indian tribes such as the Bhugas who wore masks for divination before hunting ceremonies. Inspiration for the masks often reflects the individual. (10) …. but only patient comparative studies will be able to determine the depth to which such a comparison can be carried. this art was in contact with shamanism. it is possible that there is more than just an aesthetic similarity. In many ways. such as boar mask from a Buddhist village. As the execution of tribal masks was not often subject to canonical rules.

The irrelevant sentence in the above text is sentence number …. ? cheap 3. ? The T-shirt industry and the changes of design 2. ? The youth and the T-shirt design 5. X reproducible 5. ? contemporary 4. 2. Fibers made of glass . ? until 2. X The masks are considered holly to the Himalayan people. X 7 3. 8. 1. ? Before 5. 1. ? The T-shirt industry and the youth subculture 4. Which of the following is best for the last sentence of the paragraph? 1. :-) prehistoric 9. ? Terai 2. ? disturber 3. ? That is why T-shirt is so popular among the youth. 10. ? that 4. 5. only a few American clubs participated in the basketball Olympic program. ? Whenever 4. 3.1. ? The T-shirt industries take advantage of the youth culture. 4. ? rejected 4. ? 2 2. 1. The word archaic (in the first line of the last paragraph) can be best replaced by …. ? disturbance 2. What is the main idea of the above text? 1. ? Styles of the Primitive Mask of the Himalayas 4.. ? although 14. 2. X Since 2. X The masks are still used for traditional ritual in Himalayan cultures. ? The West of Himalayan Art 6. ? Northern Himalayas 7. ? 4 4. ? reproduce 4. ? The changes of T-shirt trends and design 4. 1.. 1. ? tedious 2. ? The masks have been influenced by many religions and cultures. X The USA won all the Olympic medals until 1972 when they were defeated by the Soviet Union. ? A newspaper editorial. :-) whether 3. ? prevailing 5. 2. X The masks are priceless to the Himalayan people. What is the topic of the text? 1. :-) disturbing 13. :-) The T-shirt industry and the market opportunity 3. :-) Nepal 5. :-) banned 5. 1. The masks discussed in the text were made in …. 2. 5. :-) While 11. 1. 3. ? An announcement board 4. 3. The above text is probably found in …. :-) T-shirt is getting cheaper and cheaper 3.. ? disturbingly 4. From the text we can conclude that …. ? reproduction 3. ? Aesthetic of Primitive Mask of the Himalayas 2. :-) A journal article. X The Buffalo German club won the first medal sport on the Olympic for basketball. 1. X Until 3. ? disturb 2. 4. ? denied 12. ? T-shirt design is changing rapidly among the youth. ? Kali-Gandaki 3. :-) reproductive Reading Texts Questions 1-6 Fiberscopes are one of the most important outcomes of the science of fiber optics. 5. :-) 6 3. X The Olympic basketball program in 1904 was dominated by Amateur Athletic Union of the USA. ? An advertisement 5. 2. X The masks were made in the prehistoric times and were kept in temples. :-) Tribal masks of the Himalayas 3. ? Kathmandu valley 4. ? The Origin of Himalayan Mask 5. ? The first basketball program on the Olympic in 1904 was contested by only American club teams. ? disturb 5. X In 1904. 4. ? A popular magazine. ? 8 5. ? blocked 3. ? reproducing 2. What is the best title for the above text? 1. 1. 1.

Tan.000 fibers. when their blooms carpet the ocean floor. particularly to inspect or control operations in inaccessible areas. Diatoms are tiny plants that form the base of the oceanic food chain. herring. expecting Amy and her two brothers to think like Chinese but to speak perfect English. estimated to have been between one and two miles thick. in some places for hundreds of miles. and blood cells. and stony debris moved seaward from the continent by the glaciers and carried by rivers. the American-born daughter of Chinese immigrants. melting glaciers raised the sea level by 400 feet. and they All form the basis of the "electronic superhighway" expected to crisscross the nation in the near future of the information age. and other small fish." In 1987 Tan visited her half-sisters in China with her mother. excel academically. called a faceplate. Questions 7-14 Amy Tan. Tan was surprised to learn that on the strength of her short stories she had received an advance from a publisher. The most common fiberscopes contain about 750. The weight of the glaciers. including Chinese. "End game. Bundles of fiberscopes fused together in a solid plate. "Waiting between the Trees." and then a second. Turning to her life-long dream. Ideal conditions for abundant marine life make the riches of the continental shelf unparalleled. Optical fibers carry voice messages for telephone service. however. in an exploration of the generational and cultural tensions experienced by many first-generation daughters of immigrants. which included such exalted professions as neurosurgery. The sound of the voice is electronically broken down into thousands of pulses per second. which causes a transmitting laser to send coordinated pulses of light through the optical fibers. they can transmit images. Light-wave communication systems can handle an immensely greater number of telephone calls and television programs than the current system. and take advantage of every circumstance that might lead to success. . like many immigrants. in essence drowning the coast and forming thousands of islands. gentle underwater slope formed. however. In the medical field. or 10 microns.and transparent acrylic plastic are capable of conveying light energy. Questions 15-20 Maine's jagged ribbon of rocky coastline wasfashioned over millennia by the violent forces of the inner earth. and devoted herself to being thoroughly American and dreaming of being a fiction writer. fjords. Tan's parents. For certain uses. was not satisfied despite her material success. and was made into a movie in 1993. In the shallow water of the shelf. Meanwhile. the shelf provides the perfect environment for diatoms. scraping and chiseling the land's features as they passed on their way to the sea. Fiberscopes have also found varied uses in industry. in diameter.001 centimeter. especially on long summer days. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions lifted and crumbled plains to form mountains that again rose and fell as molten materials welled up in huge bulges that solidified into the granitic rocks typical of the Northeast. pressed down the entire land mass beneath. Beneath the sea a long. well received by the critics and appearing on the New York Times bestseller list. The most far-reaching applications of fiber-optic technology are in communications. It has been translated into 17 languages. sand. these minute plants receive the sunlight they need for photosynthesis. a bonding with the country and its culture that she had never expected. each 0. on which was deposited the mud. Huge glaciers also sculpted the coast. which in turn are food for the larger fish that are part of the legendary abundance of the Northeast's continental shelf. Tan felt a sense of completeness. she wrote her first short story. the best selling Joy Luck Club. Fiberscopes have a wide range of applications. to a depth of about 600 feet before dropping into the ocean's depth. Tan closed her business and wrote the remaining stories for the Joy Luck Club. the diameter of the fiber may be as small as 5 microns. Aided by the cold Labrador current which is saturated with oxygen and minerals. received the Commonwealth Club Gold Award in 190'9 for her first work of fiction. and when thousands of these fibers are combined in what is called a fiberscope. a trip that proved to be a turning point in her life and career. rebelled against her parents' expectations. the light pulses are converted to electrical signals and the voice message is reconstructed. Tan obtained a bachelor's degree in English and linguistics and a master's degree in linguistics and eventually established herself as a highly successful business writer. At the receiving end. physicians use fiberscopes to examine internal organs and as an aid in delicate surgeries. skin tissue. It was a resounding success. The sixteen interrelated stories that constitute the work alternate between the tales of four Chinese immigrant mothers and their Americanized daughters. Tan. Returning from China. This continental shelf falls gradually outward and downward. and bays. had high expectations for their children and often set confusing standards. Miniature probes have also been developed to view muscle fiber. are being used in the manufacture of television picture tubes and other cathode-ray tube devices. This immense quantity of food supports vast shoals of shrimp.

? By fusing bundles of fiberscopes into a faceplate 2. and of persistence. the states also gained a role in applying checks and balances. Gopherus. a veritable work of genius. X have more uses in industry than in medicine 3. Berlandier's tortoise. X additional uses of fiberscopes in industry 7. is found in the southern United States as far west as New Mexico. They are primarily vegetarians. The shell is high-domed in all but a very few forms.000. Questions 29 . The word inaccessible means 1. greatly enhanced the power of central government but carefully divided its functions into three distinct branches—executive. and state courts were required to recognize the Constitution and the laws and treaties made under it as the supreme law. ? extremely smallhard to reach 4. :-) By converting electrical signals to light pulses 4. ? will play a major role in the information age 4. The true tortoises come to water only to drink or bathe. ? Lines 2-10 6. X impossible to climb 4. ? difficult to find 3.000 4. State officials were required to take an oath to support the Constitution. feeding on grass and leaves. X To analyze Amy Tan's literary works . 1. Their limbs are covered with hard scales that often have a bony core. Carefully measured checks and balances were inserted to prevent the acquisition or concentration of power in any one branch and also for the purpose of protecting minority rights from the potential rule of the majority. whose age was known to be not less than 180 years. X Lines 21-266. a slow-moving inhabitant of the arid lands of southern Texas and Mexico. It can be inferred from the passage that fiberscopes 1. The head can be entirely withdrawn. of which there are approximately 40 different kinds. Tortoises have become symbols of leisurely movement. and burrowing owls. as in Aesop's fable of the hare and the tortoise. however. ? 750. Gopher tortoises are so called because they dig long burrows. The national government created by the union of states stood above the state governments in specific national matters while acknowledging the role of the states or sharing power with them in other areas. is especially fond of prickly-pear cactus. The passage will most likely be followed by a discussion of 1. In their powers to amend the Constitution and to elect the president and members of the Senate. All tortoises share the ability to live to a great age. How do optical fibers carry voice messages? 1. on which the enlarged scales may be defensively augmented with still larger spines. properly called tortoises. :-) Lines 12-13 4. and they are adapted to walking on land by their club-shaped feet.34 Living on land. X 500. X 25. are the land turtles.000 3.Questions 21-28 The United States Constitution established a political system comprising a national and federal government. Where in the passage does the author discuss the uses of miniature probes in medicine? 1. The principle of separation of powers was applied throughout the document. The Constitution. :-) hard to reach 2. snakes. the elbows meeting in the middle in front of it and the claws of the forelimbs overlapping the lower edge of the opening at the front. 3. but the longest life of any tortoise of which there is an authentic record is of a great tortoise of the Seychelles Islands. The hardscaled soles of the hind feet cover the openings at the rear. X homes and businesses of the future 4.006 3. X 1. What is the author's main purpose in this passage? 1. legislative and judicial. ? the use of fiber optics in the electronic superhighway 3. ? By sending coordinated electrical pulses through optical fibers 2. The new federal system accommodated the 13 original state governments while establishing new bodies and powers designed to address national concerns. X By using cathode-ray tube devices 3. Approximately how many fibers does a fiberscope contain? 1. of longevity. X the structure of fiberscopes 2. such as frogs. The openings at the front and rear of the shell are usually neatly closed by the retracted limbs. including the three gopher tortoises. Of these. X will decrease in importance as they become more common 5. 1. which may be nearly 50 feet long and provide a hone for many other animals. ? Lines 18-20 2.000 2. X have reached the peak of their development 2.

? stories Before becoming a fiction writer. ? the states According to the passage. X rivaled 4. X share power with the federal government 3. 23. X speaking perfect English 2. X protect minority rights 4. ? very difficult It can be concluded from this passage that 1. ? Winter 4. 20. X Parents don't know what's best for their children 3. :-) business writer 4. ? The islands off the Maine coast 3. X recognize the Constitution as a work of genius The word "amend" could best be replaced by . 21. X was a trip she had always dreamed of taking 2. ? Spring The word "them" refers to 1. 19. :-) Summer 2. ? imperceptible According to the passage. X To indicate the importance of natural disasters What are the "ideal conditions" the author is referring to? 1. 9.8. ? Tan's parents understood her dilemma but wanted the best for her 4. ? Glaciers 2. ? common 2. X To criticize Amy Tan's rebellion against her parents 4. :-) questioning tradition 3. X national and federal government 2. 14. 13. :-) A cold current saturated with oxygen and minerals 2. 15. X state officials 3. 10. ? was not surprising in the least The words "the work" refer to 1. 2. 11. X Tan did not use personal experience in her writing 4. :-) Joy Luck Club 2. state officials were required to take an oath to 1. ? support the Constitution 2. X publisher 3. ? Earthquakes 4. X writing 3. ? English teacher The expectations of Tan's parents included all of the following EXCEPT 1. ? The riches of the continental shelf Which of the following is NOT mentioned as having affected the creation of Maine's rocky coastline? 1. Amy Tan's visit to China 1. Amy Tan was a successful 1. the greatest abundance? 1. :-) highly respected 3. 2. X To show the devastating nature of glaciers 3. 22. ? Diatoms existing in the shallow water of the shelf 4. ? choosing an important profession It can be inferred from the passage that 1. ? To support Amy Tan's decision to become a fiction writer According to the passage. X Tan had always wanted to return to China 2. :-) It took Tan a while to summon the courage to pursue her dreams 3. X excelling academically 4. X The effect of the movement of ice sheets on the shape of the land 4. ? Blooms carpeting the ocean floor 3. X Commonwealth Club Gold Award 4. :-) had a profound affect on her 4. ? was disappointing 3. X To support the notion that animal life was lost when the glaciers melted 2. 12. :-) not equaled 3. ? A 600-foot drop into the ocean's depth The word "unparalleled" means 1. ? Ocean currents Why does the author use the phrase "in essence drowning the coast" to discuss the effects of melting glaciers? 1. X Tan started writing fiction in order to make more money The word exalted means 1. ? not original 2. :-) The formation and characteristics of the Northeast coast 16. :-) To present biographical information about Amy Tan 3. 18. X Autum 3. 17. X Tan always knew she was Chinese foremost and American only in her imagination 2. ? Tan made the right decision when she closed her business With which of the following topics is the author primarily concerned? 1. ? neurosurgeon 2. X national matters 4. at what time of year are diatoms ii. ? common 4. ? To describe how the rising sea level covered the coastal land 4. ? Volcanic eruptions 3.

player pianos. The forms of ragtime derive from European marches and dances. ? construct The author of the passage is probably an expert in 1. X restricted 3. ? The difference between the 40 different kinds of land turtles 3. or two beats per measure) performed at a moderate march tempo. 28. ? intended above all to preserve the unity of the states What is the author's main purpose in the passage? 1. ? disapproval 2. . "Maple Leaf Rag" is a classic example of ragtime. X provided the states with the most power to govern 3. :-) They are well adapted to water 2. The opening melody. ? indifference 4. 27. :-) change 2. The leading ragtime composer was Scott Joplin. 25. ragtime songs. X To persuade the state legislators to support the Constitution 2. The word "augmented" could best be replaced try 1. and piano style. it has the standard AA BB A CC DD form. ? social science 4. X feet 32. X public housing 3. ? To discuss one of the principal elements of the Constitution What is the main topic of the passage? 1. the same rich body of music that became a vital source of jazz. X contained 4. Gopher tortoises primarily eat 1. ? Line 21 4. ? frogs 2." was published in 1899. X The symbolism associated with tortoises. Ragtime piano music has a generally standard form. ? They have retracting limbs. X scales 2. and each section is 16 bars in length. steady beat. 3. while the left hand steadily maintains the beat with an "oom-pah" accompaniment. 1. 26. . ? tortoises 4. The passage preceding this one is probably about 1. Ragtime quickly gained popularity after its first appearances. With its syncopations.24. X enhance 4. ? They have long lives. X balance 3. known as the "King of Ragtime. reaching millions on a national scale through sheet music. ? Line 14 3. and arrangements for dance and marching bands. duple meter (2/4. :-) commendation It can be concluded from the passage that the authors of Constitution 1. 29. :-) water turtles 2. developed primarily by black pianists. ? humor 3. X To summarize the role of the Senate 4. 30. in march tempo. ? Line 8 The author's attitude toward the Constitution is one of 1. The pianist's right hand plays a highly syncopated melody. X added 2. 11. :-) grass and leaves 4. is a style of composed piano music that was popular from the 1890s to about 1915. :-) political science Where in the passage does the author describe the three branches of government? 1. where each letter represents a melodic phrase. ? snails 4. A ragtime piece usually consists of several similar melodies that take such forms as AA BB A CC DD or Introduction AA BB CC DD EE. :-) wanted to avoid usurpation of power by any individual or body 2. features the typical ragtime right-hand syncopations. 2. ? owls Reading Test Questions 1-8 Ragtime. ? snakes 33." whose most famous piano piece. ? didn't believe that the state and federal branches of the government could work well together 4. X To mention the roles of state officials in government 3. X prickly pear cactus 3. Early jazz musicians often used ragtime melodies as introductions to their improvisations. About three minutes long. 31. ? burrowing animals 3. ? The life of spans of tortoises Which of the following not mentioned as a characteristics of tortoises? 1. is a style of jazz characterized by an elaborately syncopated rhythm in the melody and a steadily accented accompaniment. X minority issues 2. but the rhythms are rooted in AfricanAmerican folk music. "Maple Leaf Rag. :-) Line 16 2. 4. ? Their head can be entirely withdrawn into the shell. :-) The characteristics of land turtles 4. X limbs 3. ? enhanced 34. The word "their" refers to 1. ragtime played an integral part in the jazz legacy.

From the trees. Though the latitude of the Red Spot varies little. and San Luis Obispo counties as well as the Channel islands. However. and ultimately its greatest use. Plant fiber was also used to weave baskets with beautiful. intricate patterns that are regarded as being among the finest in the world. engineers now rely on heavily on CAD. Questions 27-33 The Chumash people inhabited an area of southwestern California that included large portions of present-day Los Angeles. However. Jupiter's less than 10-hour rotation period gives it the shortest day in the solar system insofar as the principal planets are concerned. and Medicine. There are no true seasons on Jupiter because the axial inclination to the perpendicular of the orbital plane is only just over 3°—less than that for any other planet. At its greatest extent it may be 40. Questions 20-26 As computers have become powerful tools for the rapid and economic production of pictures. They made great use of stone for milling and for making tools and weapons. computer graphics can be used to create weather maps and cartographic materials. though for relatively brief periods Mars may outshine it. It is used routinely in such diverse areas as business. so its surface area is greater than that of Earth. . Large herds presently range on both government and private lands where they are protected. and at times it has been invisible. Other endangered species need the same planning and protection. publishing. which is achieved by a sequential process. the Pioneer and Voyager results have refuted that idea and proven the Red Spot to be a phenomenon of Jovian meteorology. The bison has a great tolerance to-cold. and even go for a simulated "walk" through the rooms or around the outside of the building. Architects can design a building layout. and several types of canoes. and it may not be permanent. the plains bison and the woodland bison. Ventura. government. around 1900. It is well placed for observation for several months in every year and on average is the brightest of the planets apart from Venus. It has shown variations in both intensity and color. The latitude is generally very close to -22°. and cost models to summarize financial. art. Although the Chumash were accomplished fishers and hunted a variety of animals. where it is used in advertising. scientific. generally referred to as computer-aided design (CAD). training. In winter the vegetation on which these animals feed may be hidden beneath a deep blanket of snow. there were fewer than a thousand plains bison left. Bison are strong survivors and have few predators except for humans. Over the past century the total longitudinal drift has amounted to approximately 1200°. the largest and most durable of which could hold up to twelve people and ply the open ocean. When blizzards rage across the North American prairie. mathematical. for the bison use their hooves and massive heads to clear away the snow and then feed on the grasses below. For threedimensional rendering of machine parts. where it is used to create graphs. They took advantage of the rich resources of their homeland. Questions 14-19 Jupiter is the largest and most massive planet and is fifth in order of distance from the sun. education. with protection and careful breeding they have been brought back to the point where their numbers can be multiplied at will. but there are signs that it is decreasing in size. industry. research. particularly for computer animation.000 kilometers long and 14. who reduced their population to the point at which. however. and film productions. Computer art also has creative and commercial art applications. including elk. spacecraft. computer graphics has emerged as one of the most rapidly growing fields in computer science. but it always returns after a few years. aerospace. One of its greatest advantages is that designers can see how an object will look after construction and make changes freely and much more quickly than with hand drafting. Its longevity may well be due to its exceptional size. Business graphics is another rapidly growing area of computer graphics. The plains bison once ranged from Pennsylvania and Georgia to the Rockies. this does not present a problem. The most famous mark on Jupiter is the Great Red Spot. and south onto the central plateau of Mexico. Automobile.Questions 9-13 In North America there are two forms of bison. bows. they used wood to make bowls. As an educational aid. Building designs are also created with computer graphics systems. Their large domed huts were framed by willow poles covered with mats made from twined bulrushes harvested from the marshlands.000 kilometers wide. and ship designers use CAD techniques to design vehicles and test their performance. it drifts about in longitude. north is the edge of the Canadian forest. It was once thought that the Red Spot might be a solid or semisolid body floating in Jupiter's outer gas. Several smaller red spots have been seen occasionally but have not lasted. charts. bison lower their heads and face directly into the storm. statistical. Santa Barbara. and economic data. create a three-dimensional model. One of the initial uses of computer graphics. has been as an aid to design.

X Social Studies 4. :-) Fast march tempo 2. who bartered for Chumash hides. headdresses. ? Art History 6. :-) Ragtime has an easily recognizable rhythm. X cook on a stove 3. ? the axial inclination is only just over 3° 2. X Bison are more fragile than they appear. 14.000 people. X humans 3. X the diversity of climates in America 3. Plants were also used to make medicines. ? The bison population can be controlled. rabbits. ? criticize the compositions of Scott Joplin 2. At its height the Chumash nation consisted of 20.America According to the passage. 2. 2. The word "rooted" (bold) means 1. characteristic of ragtime? 1. X bison were native to a limited territory. tools. political. Jupiter has the shortest day among the principal planets because 1. ? numbers 2. and one or more sweatlodges. and canoes. ? In caves 2. ? the endangered grizzly of North . Which of the following is NOT. where would bison be found during a severe winter storm? 1. X syncopated melody 2. X each letter Which of the following conclusions can be made from this passage? 1. The Chumash lived in villages that were connected by social.antelope. and economic ties. the letters A in AA and B in BB each represent 1. X Sixteen-bar sections 3. Ragtime reached people nationwide through all of the following EXCEPT 1. ? ragtime 4. X predators The passage supports which of the following conclusions? 1. 11. 4. 13. leaves. X melodic phrase 2. X attached to the ground 4. nets. 10. :-) discuss the origin and elements of ragtime 4. :-) In the open The word "range" (bold) means to 1. a ceremonial dance ground. :-) plains bison 4. ? Ragtime was popular only with African-Americans. ? Behind trees 4. This passage would be part of required reading in which of the following courses? 1. 1. :-) compositions for orchestras 2. The author's main purpose in the passage is to 1. Their most important food source was the acorn. ? sheet music 3. seeds. 12. The Chumash even had a currency represented by a string of small white shell beads. who inhabited 75 to 100 villages. X arrangements for marching bands 4. X African-American history 2. 3. X Seeking shelter behind boulders 3. ? unmoving 7. including flowers. :-) Music Appreciation 3. a burial ground. X surround 4. :-) its rotation period is shorter than 10 hours 4. X drive a long distance 2. 3. deer. According to the passage. X show how ragtime is arranged 2. X Ragtime music is complex and hard to identify. ? Ragtime is a completely different form of music than jazz. fruit. X Bison will eventually be extinct. A typical village consisted of several domed houses. X Left-hand accompaniment 4. The word "their" (bold) refers to 1. ? compare ragtime and jazz 3. and bulbs.000 to 30. ? it is on the average the brightest of all the planets . X national parks of North America 4. grains. leather. The word "it" (bold) refers to 8. The topic of the passage following this one would likely be about 1. each with one or more granaries. baskets. roots. beads. 4. ? Highly syncopated melody 5. ? oom-pah -accompaniment 3. The Chumash were avid traders with other western tribes. X never changing 2. ? march tempo 4. :-) a melodic phrase 4. ? move about According to the passage. at least threefourths of their diet consisted of plant foods. ? there is the interference of the Great Red Spot 3. utensils. X player pianos 3. :-) "Maple Leaf Rag" 3. :-) derived from 3. 1. 9. a field for game playing. X cold-blooded animals of the Southwestern desert 2. and squirrels. from which they made flour.

? did not make the most of their natural resources 2. X were not artistic in nature 2. ? tools 33. X make cartographic materials 4. :-) willow poles 4. X An analysis of Chumash inventions 3. X is made of floating gases 4. X advertising 3. :-) were a highly developed people 4. ? Support for the Chumash nation 2. X cost models 4. ? enthusiastic 4. ? were an industrious. X will become brighter with time 3. The paragraph following this passage would most likely be about 1. :-) Computer graphics applications 21. :-) Lines 7-9 25. ? Routine uses of computers 2. ? geologists 2. X fish 4. X canoes 2. ? visibility 2.15. ? every several months 17. ? less often than any other planet 4. ? leather 31. X Lines 12-14 4. X surface area 20. The word” Intensity" could best be replaced with 1. ? supportive 2. The author mentions all of the following goods the Chumash traded EXCEPT 1. ? mathematicians 18. According to the passage. :-) from time to time 2. Mars outshines Jupiter 1. The word "it" (bold) refers to 1. ? layers 27. X were not a seafaring people 3. The author implies that the Chumash 1. With which of the following topics is the author primarily concerned? 1. X were a localized tribe 3. :-) will one day vanish 2. :-) uses 3. :-) amateur astronomers 3. ? students of anthropology 4. engineers use CAD for 1. ? will continue expanding 19. X creativity 4. This passage would be of most interest to 1. :-) rendering machine parts 4. ? nutrition 2. X flight training 2. ? create three-dimensional models 3. According to the passage. According to the passage. ? a simulated "walk" through model rooms. X Computers as the architects of the future 4. ? grains 2. X computers 3. Where in the passage does the author discuss the greatest advantage of computer-aided design? 1. X brilliance 4. The Chumash currency was represented by 1. X ecological systems 3. It can be inferred from the passage that the Chumash 1. X create graphs 2. 26. ? applications of CAD in medicine 23. X fields 2. It can be inferred from this passage that Jupiter's Great Red Spot 1. :-) plant foods 3. X on a regular basis 3. :-) computer animation 3. X making cost models 2. ? jobs 2. X isolated themselves from other tribes 4. ? Lines 4-6 2. ? lived very primitively 30. X The rapidly growing field of computer science 3. X inspect buildings 24. :-) anthropology . X Lines 16-18 3. The passage was most probably written by a specialist in 1. X computer science 22. The author's tone in this passage is 1. inventive people 29. What does the passage mainly discuss? 1. ? argumentative 16. architects use CAD to 1. :-) A description of Chumash life 28. :-) shells 3. X currency and government 4. The word "applications" in bold means 1. ? fruit 3. :-) neutral 3. ? The impact of the Chumash legacy 4. X wooden beads 4. According to the passage. ? antelope and rabbits 2. three-fourths of the Chumash diet consisted of 1. X density 3. X acorns 32. ? computer graphics 4.

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