Read the following passages and find the main idea of each one.

Question 1 Strictly speaking, cartography is the drawing or compiling of maps. The explorers and surveyors go out and make the measurements and gather the information from which the cartographers draw their maps. Sometimes the fieldwork and the creation of the map are done by the same person. But when the scope is broad and the sources of information many, maps are more often a compilation of that information. They represent the accumulated work of many people, brought together under the supervision of one person. the compiler. The value of the map depends, of course, on the expertise of the compiler, who must sift through available information, select the most accurate data, and come up with a thoughtful and accurate synthesis of the geographic knowledge of the region. Question 2 In the 1820s and 1830s American painting added a new chapter to the story of its development. Until the nineteenth century, portraiture and occasional historical pieces were the only concerns of American art, but throughout the 1800s some of America's most talented painters chose to depict landscapes and the daily activities of ordinary people. With the nation's declaration of independence had come prosperity and with it the opportunity and inclination for painters to contemplate their environment. As they traveled beyond the early settlements and left the nation's first cities, such as Boston and Philadelphia, they began to experience and appreciate the pristine beauty of the American scenery, which differed greatly from the European landscape, partly because in its unsettled state it appeared wild and primeval. Question 3 Speculation about the earth's crust has a special edge of urgency in California, which sits on the San Andreas fault, the world's most famous and respected fracture zone. Not surprisingly, it was a scientist at the California Institute of Technology, Charles F. Richter, who invented the Richter scale used to measure earthquakes. Seismic activity in California is being constantly monitored and mapped. Seismometers register many thousands of small earthquakes every year, and computers instantly calculate the location, depth, and magnitude of an earthquake. Laser distance-ranging networks can detect changes of length, indicating change in crustal stress, accurate to about half an inch in 20 miles. Satellite measurements of crustal blocks are improving, and California seismologists believe they may in time be precise enough to allow earthquake prediction.

Question 4 The first expedition down the Colorado River was made by John Wesley Powell and his party in 1869. Powell had made long trips down the Ohio and the Mississippi and its tributaries during his twenties, when his lifelong interest in natural history developed. In 1867 he led his first expedition to the Rockies, a collecting trip for the museum he had founded in Illinois. While on Pike's Peak, -near Colorado Springs, Powell conceived his great plan to explore the Colorado River. On May 24, 1869, he and his party set off down the upper Colorado and nothing was heard from them for 37 days. During that time Powell and party braved uncharted territory, encounters with the natives, fierce rapids, and 20-foot waterfalls, as they followed the Colorado through the Grand Canyon to the Gulf of California. Question 5 Innovations in transportation in the 1800s permitted space to be traversed more rapidly and were crucial to the industrial expansion of the North. The great spaces that separated producers from consumers made speed essential, especially in the movement of perishable freight. The development of the steampowered locomotive in the 1830s and the rapid extension of the railways in the 1840s and 1850s provided the answer to the need for faster transport and dramatically altered patterns of economic development throughout the United States. In 1830 there were 32 miles of rails in the country, in 1840 there were 2,818 miles, and by 1850 there were more than 9,000 miles. The rapid extension of rail mileage enabled the railroads significantly to reduce their costs for shipping freight and carrying passengers, thus enabling them to price their services more cheaply and competitively. The extension of trunk lines, into which short or local lines fed, further tightened the east-west flow of commerce and bound the Northeast and the old Northwest together with bands of steel. Question 6 The few places left on earth that have not been altered by humankind are almost invariably hostile to humans. One such place is the Alaskan Arctic, which is inhabited, where inhabited at all, by only a scattering of Eskimos, Native Americans, and whites. But while the Arctic is indeed a chill and inimical realm of snow, ice, and polar bears, it is also a region of great beauty and, above all, purity, where plants and animals still exist undisturbed in a state of natural balance. Nearly one-third of Alaska lies north of the Arctic Circle and consists of pristine land. The Brooks Range cuts across the region like a wall, making access difficult. Even today, in an age of jet travel, the number of persons, who have had firsthand experience in the Alaskan Arctic remains small, and countless valleys and mountains go unnamed and even unexplored.

3. 3. and cooked. They lacked true roots and consisted of a tangle of specialized branches that clambered over rocky ground. The Chinese brought rice. Question 10 Hawaii was originally settled by the natives of the South Pacific. 2. or other birds of the same species. or novel. dried beef. The theme of the individual confronting nature was further developed by Herman Melville in the classic novel Moby Dick (1851). when plant life abundantly colonized marshy land. from these have sprung the angiosperms and our present deciduous forests. Natty Bumppo and the Mohican guide Chingachgook confronted the environment of the American frontier. were like giant club mosses." which grew nearly 500 million years ago. . taro. among many other foods. the earliest "trees. seasoned with coconut. single or repeated. In fact.writers began to look within themselves and across their enlarged continental homeland for their subjects and themes. seed-bearing trees had evolved that shed their leaves in winter. vocalized by males and females in all seasons to express alarm or maintain contact with mates. All songs and most calls are distinctive. What is the main idea of the passage? 1. and Indian and cornstarch puddings. bird watchers can learn to identify many birds by their sounds and to call them as well. pipkaula (jerked beef). many kinds of forests occupy the earth today. pigs. In the early 1800s. What is the main idea expressed in the passage? 1. provided a useful form for dealing with the Fenimore Cooper's The Pioneers (1823) and The Deerslayer (1841). Hawaiian food was eaten raw or wrapped in taro leaves. the essence of Hawaii and its many cultures. during the Cretaceous period. and vegetables and their ways of cooking them. 4. the Hawaiians have accepted each group's offerings and drawn the best from them. :-) Conditions ire the early 1800s were favorable to the emergence of the American landscape artist. Question 9 Birds have two basic types of sounds: songs and calls. landscapes were produced in preference to portraits and historical pieces. Thus a Hawaiian feast is a gastronomic experience. ? Maps are the product of a group effort brought together usually by one person. 3. the first distinctly American culture took I—m. The romance. Question 8 Because different tree species adapted to different climates and soil types have evolved over millennia. By the time the dinosaurs roamed the earth some 180 million years ago.Question 7 In the first half of the nineteenth century. Songs are usually more complex than calls and are utilized primarily by adult males during the breeding season to establish territories or attract mates. corned beef. salt salmon. X Not all of the information initially compiled for maps is accurate. 2. and haupia (coconut pudding) evolved during this period. ? In the early 1800s. and chickens. The Japanese brought sukiyaki and teriyaki. X The definition of cartography is the drawing or compiling of maps. What is the main topic of the passage? 1. lomi lumi salmon. and with concentrated study and practice. Nathaniel Hawthorne dealt with equally difficult questions of inner limits and the individual's responsibilities to society in The Scarlet Letter (1850) and The House of the Seven Gables (1851). who arrived in the islands in canoes laden with breadfruit. The rise of an American tradition in literature paralleled the expansion of the nation. Japan. 4. 1. Supplementing these foods were over a hundred different edible fishes and 4C kinds of seaweed from the surrounding waters. building the tremendous coal and oil reserves so important today. soybeans. In the late nineteenth century immigrants from China. X Computers provide a variety of information about earthquakes. The primitive forests of several hundred million years ago consisted of fewer kinds of trees. chowders curries. and Korea were brought to Hawaii to work the sugar plantations. Calls are normally simple notes. bananas. Settlers from the continental United States also brought their favorite recipes and in the spirit of aloha. X The compiler's task is more important than that of the explorers and surveyors. ? America's declaration of independence brought prosperity to the nation and with it an appreciation of the outdoors. Fifty million years later came the dense forests of tree ferns that prevailed in tropical climates of that era. X An increase in travel in America led to an appreciation of the beauty of the American landscape. coconut. as American . The forerunners of modern conifers were on the scene 300 million years ago. chronicling the advance of "civilization" and questioning the implications of its impact on the natural world. yams. 2. offspring. the whalers and missionaries introduced stews. Most likely.

and ideal liable. 1. the nation expanded. 3. (4). 4. What is the main theme in the passage? 1. 4. In 1976. 10. 1988. 4. What is the main topic of the passage? 1. . 3. ? The first American literature took the form of novels that dealt with uniquely American themes. X Railroads made the transportation of perishable freight possible. :-) Hawaiian food is a combination of the foods of many peoples and a reflection of Hawaii's history. X The individual versus nature was one of the main themes explored in early American literature. 2. X Railroads provided an important link between the Northwest and the Northeast. X The predecessors of today's forests were giant club mosses and tree ferns. women's basketball was added to the program. 6.4. X The Richter scale was invented in California. ? Bird songs are complicated and used mainly by males to attract mates. The USA won all the Olympic titles until 1972 when they were defeated by the Soviet Union. 3. 4. 4. X Powell was uniquely qualified to lead an expedition down the Colorado. but the US women have now surpassed them. ice. 8. 3. :-) Railroads had a profound effect on the economic development of the United States in the nineteenth century. (6). 4. What is the main idea expressed in the passage? 1. (7). What is the main subject of the passage? 1. winning gold in 1976. (8). and polar bears. 1996 and 2000. basketball made its first appearance as a medal sport at the Olympics. What is the main idea of the passage? ? The variety of trees in today's forests area result of millions of years of evolution. incidentally. Thus the event is usually considered only an exhibition. 2. Question 1 . meaningful. hat is the primary topic of the passage? 1. (2). X Conifers are the oldest trees in today's forests. The United States has many sport events for women. 2. ? Between 1830 and 185C over 8. X In their novels. parts of the Alaskan Arctic still remain unexplored. 7. 2. Basketball was on the Olympic program in 1904. 3. 1980 and 1992. 4.2 (1). (3). was the Buffalo German club. 3. X Birds have their own language by which they maintain contact. ? Remarkably. X Powell was inspired to explore the Colorado while on Pike's Peak. ? The natives of the South Pacific who first settled in Hawaii ate raw food. Text 1. but the event was contested by only a few American club teams and actually served as the AAU (Amateur Athletic Union of the USA) Championship for that year.000 miles of railroad track were laid. winning gold medals in 1984. :-) The ruggedness of the Alaskan Arctic makes it one of the last few remaining pristine areas in the world. 2. 5. ? Sugar plantations were worked by immigrants from Asia. 3. Melville and Hawthorne both addressed difficult questions facing Americans. ? Powell and his party faced daunting challenges on the first Colorado River expedition. In 1936. 2. 3. and the sport has been included in every Olympic Games since. X Climate affected the development of trees over millennia. The Soviet women were originally the top team on the female side. novelists began writing about the American frontier. 9. X People were concerned when nothing was heard from Powell and his party for over a month. 4. X Birdwatchers can identify many bird calls and their meanings and learn to mimic them as well. X At. ? Whalers and missionaries introduced new kinds of foods to the people of Hawaii. The winning team. What is the main idea of the passage? 1. ? The Alaskan Arctic is habitable only to arctic animals and a few hardy humans. which was so dominant in those days that they were inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame as a team. X The Alaskan Arctic is a beautifully pristine realm of snow. 2. X Earthquake prediction will be possible in the future. ? A great deal of attention is paid to earthquake activity in California. who brought their native foods with them. (5). 2. :-) Bird calls and songs are distinctive. whereas other immigrants cooked theirs.

the function of various masks has altered and evolved so that an old mask has sometimes been given a new meaning. this art was in contact with shamanism. and sometimes they resemble those of Siberian shamans. T-shirts. how spending patterns effect other categories. knowing what's going on in the subcultures of the T-shirt industry indicate where the marketplace is headed next. after defeating the shamanic traditions. Mountain biking in particular is one of the fastest-growing outdoor activities. it can nevertheless be a Buddhist or Hindu image from a remote village or a small temple. it is possible that there is more than just an aesthetic similarity. considering the number of existing ethnic groups. beliefs and visions of the people who created the masks. but only patient comparative studies will be able to determine the depth to which such a comparison can be carried.3 million persons participating at least once in 2000 (USDA Forest Service and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2000). or altering (14) …… behavior. Currently. Inspiration for the masks often reflects the individual. transformed and even incorporated many of these rites. Despite this lack of knowledge. with 43. there is a lack of information on the responses of wildlife to mountain bikers. Himalayan tribal masks evoke by their shape. …researchers have examined the responses of wildlife to pedestrians. marketing. or of central Indian tribes such as the Bhugas who wore masks for divination before hunting ceremonies. fleeing. distribution. the artist being at liberty to express his fantasy. In these last two cases. which are often less expensive than other forms of apparel play many roles when it comes to individuals style. and they exhibit many different levels of technical ability. others may have very little embellishment. mountain biking is (11) …… in all federal wilderness areas and on many other public lands. laying a curse or killing into Tibetan Buddhist Cham dances. The wearing of an animal mask or skin could originally have been used in magic rites for hunting. It seems that making masks has its roots in prehistoric times. Even when it was produced by a Buddhist or a Hindu. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Text 4. Supernatural forces are projected into a mask and the spectator gives it life and meaning. two holes for the eyes. and gives an idea of how Buddhism or Hinduism. to ascertain exactly all the original purposes of these masks. and in many cases. It is therefore difficult. The immediate response of many animals to disturbance is a change in behavior. Owing to social. in part because it is assumed to be more (12) …… for wildlife than hiking. political and religious changes over the last two centuries. such as boar mask from a Buddhist village. Indonesian or American counterparts. one for the mouth. Although some masks can be very sophisticated. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Text 3. healing. Question 3-4 T-shirts represent one of the highest grossing markets in youth culture fashion. . Question 5-9 To focus attention on the so-called 'primitive' or tribal masks of the Himalayas is to adapt the eye to a completely different style than is generally expected in the West of Himalayan art. As the execution of tribal masks was not often subject to canonical rules. patina and carving their African. designs. Aesthetic interest in the objects themselves or astonishment at their shape and their mysterious beauty provokes questions as to what they mean and how they originated. The ethnic groups that created the masks have undergone radical changes. (10) …. and several of the masks remain only as mute witnesses to a dead civilization. the objects are the products of ingenuous freshness and instinctive expressionism.. although the appearance of the sculpture is archaic . the Middle Hills (with the exclusion of the Kathmandu valley) and the northern Himalayas. it is not known (13) …… wildlife respond differently to these activities. Disturbance from recreation may have both immediate and long-term effects on wildlife. They can be reminiscent of Japanese jomon (cord pattern) terracotta masks dating from the second millennium BC. Some of the tribal masks represent vanished cults and deities that have been swept away by the conversion to another religion. the Thakali of the upper KaliGandaki valley in western Nepal first converted from their shamanic religion to Buddhism. In many ways. even the launch of entirely new companies based on the success of a series of collections. which makes this marketplace one of the most vital components towards understanding trends and market opportunities in youth culture in general. The masks discussed in this article were all produced in Nepal by the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Terai (the low plains of the south along the Indian border). In some cases. for example. often leading new directions for brands.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Text 2. or are roughly carved with a few quick strokes. and have more recently converted to Hinduism. It is a mode of expression that reveals specific characteristics of the original spirit. and where cultural shifts within youth culture globally may take shape. such as cessation of foraging. Question 10-14 Hiking and mountain biking are rapidly increasing in popularity as forms of outdoor recreation.

? Styles of the Primitive Mask of the Himalayas 4. X The Olympic basketball program in 1904 was dominated by Amateur Athletic Union of the USA. 2. ? A popular magazine. The irrelevant sentence in the above text is sentence number …. :-) 6 3. ? although 14. only a few American clubs participated in the basketball Olympic program. X The Buffalo German club won the first medal sport on the Olympic for basketball. ? 4 4. 1. 4. ? The West of Himalayan Art 6. ? disturber 3. ? tedious 2. 4. ? The first basketball program on the Olympic in 1904 was contested by only American club teams. 4. ? reproducing 2. ? prevailing 5. ? The masks have been influenced by many religions and cultures. ? Terai 2. :-) whether 3. What is the topic of the text? 1. The word archaic (in the first line of the last paragraph) can be best replaced by …. ? reproduction 3. What is the best title for the above text? 1. 3. ? blocked 3. ? The changes of T-shirt trends and design 4. X The masks are priceless to the Himalayan people. X The masks are considered holly to the Himalayan people. X The masks are still used for traditional ritual in Himalayan cultures. From the text we can conclude that …. :-) A journal article. ? Aesthetic of Primitive Mask of the Himalayas 2. ? The youth and the T-shirt design 5. :-) T-shirt is getting cheaper and cheaper 3. 1. :-) The T-shirt industry and the market opportunity 3. X reproducible 5. :-) Tribal masks of the Himalayas 3. ? denied 12. What is the main idea of the above text? 1. 2. Which of the following is best for the last sentence of the paragraph? 1. 8. 2. ? disturb 2. X Since 2. ? until 2.1. 1. :-) reproductive Reading Texts Questions 1-6 Fiberscopes are one of the most important outcomes of the science of fiber optics. The above text is probably found in …. ? A newspaper editorial. 3.. 1. 2. ? The T-shirt industry and the changes of design 2. ? 8 5. 5. X Until 3. ? Whenever 4. 1. 5. ? The T-shirt industry and the youth subculture 4. ? Kali-Gandaki 3. 1. :-) disturbing 13.. ? reproduce 4. ? An advertisement 5. ? disturb 5. X The USA won all the Olympic medals until 1972 when they were defeated by the Soviet Union. :-) Nepal 5. 10. ? An announcement board 4. X In 1904. 2. ? that 4. :-) banned 5. 3. ? The T-shirt industries take advantage of the youth culture. 1. X The masks were made in the prehistoric times and were kept in temples. ? Kathmandu valley 4. 1. ? contemporary 4. ? 2 2. ? Before 5. Fibers made of glass . ? cheap 3. ? disturbance 2. ? That is why T-shirt is so popular among the youth. ? The Origin of Himalayan Mask 5. X 7 3. 1. ? disturbingly 4. :-) prehistoric 9. ? rejected 4. ? Northern Himalayas 7. The masks discussed in the text were made in …. 5. 1. :-) While 11.. ? T-shirt design is changing rapidly among the youth.

the best selling Joy Luck Club. and was made into a movie in 1993. expecting Amy and her two brothers to think like Chinese but to speak perfect English. skin tissue. This continental shelf falls gradually outward and downward. the shelf provides the perfect environment for diatoms. gentle underwater slope formed. she wrote her first short story. well received by the critics and appearing on the New York Times bestseller list. Tan closed her business and wrote the remaining stories for the Joy Luck Club. and they All form the basis of the "electronic superhighway" expected to crisscross the nation in the near future of the information age. in essence drowning the coast and forming thousands of islands. Fiberscopes have also found varied uses in industry. Bundles of fiberscopes fused together in a solid plate. had high expectations for their children and often set confusing standards. particularly to inspect or control operations in inaccessible areas. a trip that proved to be a turning point in her life and career. in diameter. called a faceplate. and blood cells. these minute plants receive the sunlight they need for photosynthesis. . which included such exalted professions as neurosurgery. Turning to her life-long dream. Tan felt a sense of completeness. however.and transparent acrylic plastic are capable of conveying light energy. Optical fibers carry voice messages for telephone service. they can transmit images. Returning from China. melting glaciers raised the sea level by 400 feet. In the medical field. especially on long summer days. Tan was surprised to learn that on the strength of her short stories she had received an advance from a publisher. "End game. to a depth of about 600 feet before dropping into the ocean's depth." In 1987 Tan visited her half-sisters in China with her mother. in an exploration of the generational and cultural tensions experienced by many first-generation daughters of immigrants. The most common fiberscopes contain about 750. Tan obtained a bachelor's degree in English and linguistics and a master's degree in linguistics and eventually established herself as a highly successful business writer. Fiberscopes have a wide range of applications. which causes a transmitting laser to send coordinated pulses of light through the optical fibers. when their blooms carpet the ocean floor. Ideal conditions for abundant marine life make the riches of the continental shelf unparalleled.000 fibers.001 centimeter. It has been translated into 17 languages. Aided by the cold Labrador current which is saturated with oxygen and minerals. pressed down the entire land mass beneath. each 0. Tan. the light pulses are converted to electrical signals and the voice message is reconstructed. The weight of the glaciers. are being used in the manufacture of television picture tubes and other cathode-ray tube devices. including Chinese. This immense quantity of food supports vast shoals of shrimp. the American-born daughter of Chinese immigrants. Light-wave communication systems can handle an immensely greater number of telephone calls and television programs than the current system. Huge glaciers also sculpted the coast. For certain uses. Beneath the sea a long. scraping and chiseling the land's features as they passed on their way to the sea. rebelled against her parents' expectations. Tan. The sixteen interrelated stories that constitute the work alternate between the tales of four Chinese immigrant mothers and their Americanized daughters. and other small fish. and when thousands of these fibers are combined in what is called a fiberscope. The most far-reaching applications of fiber-optic technology are in communications. like many immigrants. estimated to have been between one and two miles thick. Tan's parents. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions lifted and crumbled plains to form mountains that again rose and fell as molten materials welled up in huge bulges that solidified into the granitic rocks typical of the Northeast. herring. It was a resounding success. Diatoms are tiny plants that form the base of the oceanic food chain. fjords. and stony debris moved seaward from the continent by the glaciers and carried by rivers. excel academically. or 10 microns. Questions 15-20 Maine's jagged ribbon of rocky coastline wasfashioned over millennia by the violent forces of the inner earth. and devoted herself to being thoroughly American and dreaming of being a fiction writer. and bays. In the shallow water of the shelf." and then a second. a bonding with the country and its culture that she had never expected. Miniature probes have also been developed to view muscle fiber. which in turn are food for the larger fish that are part of the legendary abundance of the Northeast's continental shelf. sand. however. on which was deposited the mud. was not satisfied despite her material success. and take advantage of every circumstance that might lead to success. At the receiving end. received the Commonwealth Club Gold Award in 190'9 for her first work of fiction. Meanwhile. Questions 7-14 Amy Tan. physicians use fiberscopes to examine internal organs and as an aid in delicate surgeries. the diameter of the fiber may be as small as 5 microns. in some places for hundreds of miles. "Waiting between the Trees. The sound of the voice is electronically broken down into thousands of pulses per second.

The new federal system accommodated the 13 original state governments while establishing new bodies and powers designed to address national concerns. How do optical fibers carry voice messages? 1. ? extremely smallhard to reach 4. ? Lines 2-10 6.34 Living on land. whose age was known to be not less than 180 years. The true tortoises come to water only to drink or bathe. The hardscaled soles of the hind feet cover the openings at the rear. X have reached the peak of their development 2. Approximately how many fibers does a fiberscope contain? 1. ? By sending coordinated electrical pulses through optical fibers 2. 1.000. ? By fusing bundles of fiberscopes into a faceplate 2. such as frogs. In their powers to amend the Constitution and to elect the president and members of the Senate. on which the enlarged scales may be defensively augmented with still larger spines. What is the author's main purpose in this passage? 1. 1. :-) hard to reach 2. ? difficult to find 3.Questions 21-28 The United States Constitution established a political system comprising a national and federal government. The head can be entirely withdrawn.000 3. 3. Carefully measured checks and balances were inserted to prevent the acquisition or concentration of power in any one branch and also for the purpose of protecting minority rights from the potential rule of the majority. X 1. as in Aesop's fable of the hare and the tortoise. and burrowing owls. The shell is high-domed in all but a very few forms. including the three gopher tortoises. All tortoises share the ability to live to a great age. the elbows meeting in the middle in front of it and the claws of the forelimbs overlapping the lower edge of the opening at the front. Of these. Tortoises have become symbols of leisurely movement. ? 750. greatly enhanced the power of central government but carefully divided its functions into three distinct branches—executive. of which there are approximately 40 different kinds. is found in the southern United States as far west as New Mexico. The Constitution. X By using cathode-ray tube devices 3.006 3. The word inaccessible means 1. properly called tortoises. The national government created by the union of states stood above the state governments in specific national matters while acknowledging the role of the states or sharing power with them in other areas. X 500.000 4. the states also gained a role in applying checks and balances. X homes and businesses of the future 4. but the longest life of any tortoise of which there is an authentic record is of a great tortoise of the Seychelles Islands. X the structure of fiberscopes 2. and state courts were required to recognize the Constitution and the laws and treaties made under it as the supreme law. The principle of separation of powers was applied throughout the document. legislative and judicial. X impossible to climb 4. and of persistence. X 25. :-) By converting electrical signals to light pulses 4. ? Lines 18-20 2. a veritable work of genius. Their limbs are covered with hard scales that often have a bony core. State officials were required to take an oath to support the Constitution. It can be inferred from the passage that fiberscopes 1. a slow-moving inhabitant of the arid lands of southern Texas and Mexico. feeding on grass and leaves. Gopherus. The passage will most likely be followed by a discussion of 1. Berlandier's tortoise. and they are adapted to walking on land by their club-shaped feet. X have more uses in industry than in medicine 3. which may be nearly 50 feet long and provide a hone for many other animals.000 2. ? the use of fiber optics in the electronic superhighway 3. however. The openings at the front and rear of the shell are usually neatly closed by the retracted limbs. snakes. of longevity. They are primarily vegetarians. Questions 29 . X Lines 21-266. X additional uses of fiberscopes in industry 7. :-) Lines 12-13 4. X To analyze Amy Tan's literary works . is especially fond of prickly-pear cactus. X will decrease in importance as they become more common 5. are the land turtles. Gopher tortoises are so called because they dig long burrows. ? will play a major role in the information age 4. Where in the passage does the author discuss the uses of miniature probes in medicine? 1.

2. Amy Tan was a successful 1. ? common 4. X state officials 3. 14. ? Volcanic eruptions 3. 22. X To support the notion that animal life was lost when the glaciers melted 2. :-) A cold current saturated with oxygen and minerals 2. X protect minority rights 4. :-) It took Tan a while to summon the courage to pursue her dreams 3. X national matters 4. X recognize the Constitution as a work of genius The word "amend" could best be replaced by .8. at what time of year are diatoms ii. X was a trip she had always dreamed of taking 2. 20. :-) Joy Luck Club 2. 9. state officials were required to take an oath to 1. 12. X The effect of the movement of ice sheets on the shape of the land 4. :-) The formation and characteristics of the Northeast coast 16. ? was disappointing 3. :-) To present biographical information about Amy Tan 3. 13. ? common 2. ? Ocean currents Why does the author use the phrase "in essence drowning the coast" to discuss the effects of melting glaciers? 1. :-) highly respected 3. ? the states According to the passage. ? Diatoms existing in the shallow water of the shelf 4. 11. X Tan had always wanted to return to China 2. the greatest abundance? 1. X Tan started writing fiction in order to make more money The word exalted means 1. 21. ? choosing an important profession It can be inferred from the passage that 1. ? To support Amy Tan's decision to become a fiction writer According to the passage. ? not original 2. X Tan always knew she was Chinese foremost and American only in her imagination 2. 15. X excelling academically 4. X Autum 3. 19. X To indicate the importance of natural disasters What are the "ideal conditions" the author is referring to? 1. X Tan did not use personal experience in her writing 4. 17. ? support the Constitution 2. ? Glaciers 2. :-) questioning tradition 3. ? very difficult It can be concluded from this passage that 1. ? The riches of the continental shelf Which of the following is NOT mentioned as having affected the creation of Maine's rocky coastline? 1. ? stories Before becoming a fiction writer. 2. :-) had a profound affect on her 4. ? Tan made the right decision when she closed her business With which of the following topics is the author primarily concerned? 1. ? Winter 4. ? was not surprising in the least The words "the work" refer to 1. X Parents don't know what's best for their children 3. ? A 600-foot drop into the ocean's depth The word "unparalleled" means 1. 10. 23. X share power with the federal government 3. X To show the devastating nature of glaciers 3. ? Earthquakes 4. ? To describe how the rising sea level covered the coastal land 4. :-) Summer 2. X rivaled 4. ? Spring The word "them" refers to 1. X publisher 3. :-) not equaled 3. ? The islands off the Maine coast 3. ? Tan's parents understood her dilemma but wanted the best for her 4. :-) business writer 4. X Commonwealth Club Gold Award 4. ? Blooms carpeting the ocean floor 3. X national and federal government 2. ? neurosurgeon 2. ? imperceptible According to the passage. X To criticize Amy Tan's rebellion against her parents 4. ? English teacher The expectations of Tan's parents included all of the following EXCEPT 1. X speaking perfect English 2. Amy Tan's visit to China 1. 18. X writing 3.

? didn't believe that the state and federal branches of the government could work well together 4. The forms of ragtime derive from European marches and dances. ? frogs 2. 25. "Maple Leaf Rag. ragtime songs. :-) Line 16 2. X public housing 3. X added 2. ? Line 21 4. duple meter (2/4. X limbs 3. :-) They are well adapted to water 2. 4. ? snakes 33. where each letter represents a melodic phrase. :-) water turtles 2. "Maple Leaf Rag" is a classic example of ragtime. 29. known as the "King of Ragtime. and piano style. ? Line 14 3. The opening melody. . The word "their" refers to 1. X feet 32. features the typical ragtime right-hand syncopations. ? They have long lives. 27. X The symbolism associated with tortoises. A ragtime piece usually consists of several similar melodies that take such forms as AA BB A CC DD or Introduction AA BB CC DD EE. 1. Early jazz musicians often used ragtime melodies as introductions to their improvisations. ? Line 8 The author's attitude toward the Constitution is one of 1. while the left hand steadily maintains the beat with an "oom-pah" accompaniment." was published in 1899. :-) The characteristics of land turtles 4. With its syncopations. but the rhythms are rooted in AfricanAmerican folk music. :-) change 2. or two beats per measure) performed at a moderate march tempo. ? social science 4. ? enhanced 34. X minority issues 2. X To summarize the role of the Senate 4. About three minutes long. The leading ragtime composer was Scott Joplin. The word "augmented" could best be replaced try 1. and arrangements for dance and marching bands. X prickly pear cactus 3. is a style of jazz characterized by an elaborately syncopated rhythm in the melody and a steadily accented accompaniment. and each section is 16 bars in length. :-) political science Where in the passage does the author describe the three branches of government? 1. the same rich body of music that became a vital source of jazz. ? construct The author of the passage is probably an expert in 1. in march tempo. steady beat." whose most famous piano piece. X balance 3. X To mention the roles of state officials in government 3. it has the standard AA BB A CC DD form. Ragtime quickly gained popularity after its first appearances. . ? burrowing animals 3. developed primarily by black pianists. The pianist's right hand plays a highly syncopated melody. ? disapproval 2. X enhance 4.24. :-) grass and leaves 4. 31. 28. ? They have retracting limbs. X provided the states with the most power to govern 3. ? The life of spans of tortoises Which of the following not mentioned as a characteristics of tortoises? 1. 11. ? tortoises 4. X scales 2. ragtime played an integral part in the jazz legacy. X To persuade the state legislators to support the Constitution 2. Gopher tortoises primarily eat 1. ? The difference between the 40 different kinds of land turtles 3. X restricted 3. 2. :-) wanted to avoid usurpation of power by any individual or body 2. reaching millions on a national scale through sheet music. 30. ? humor 3. ? indifference 4. ? owls Reading Test Questions 1-8 Ragtime. 3. :-) commendation It can be concluded from the passage that the authors of Constitution 1. The passage preceding this one is probably about 1. 26. player pianos. ? snails 4. is a style of composed piano music that was popular from the 1890s to about 1915. X contained 4. ? Their head can be entirely withdrawn into the shell. Ragtime piano music has a generally standard form. ? To discuss one of the principal elements of the Constitution What is the main topic of the passage? 1. ? intended above all to preserve the unity of the states What is the author's main purpose in the passage? 1.

. statistical. engineers now rely on heavily on CAD. create a three-dimensional model. In winter the vegetation on which these animals feed may be hidden beneath a deep blanket of snow. Their large domed huts were framed by willow poles covered with mats made from twined bulrushes harvested from the marshlands. Ventura. As an educational aid. Automobile. From the trees. and at times it has been invisible. Its longevity may well be due to its exceptional size. Santa Barbara. However. it drifts about in longitude. computer graphics can be used to create weather maps and cartographic materials. The plains bison once ranged from Pennsylvania and Georgia to the Rockies. art. Building designs are also created with computer graphics systems. this does not present a problem. and south onto the central plateau of Mexico. The most famous mark on Jupiter is the Great Red Spot. Over the past century the total longitudinal drift has amounted to approximately 1200°. and economic data. It is used routinely in such diverse areas as business. When blizzards rage across the North American prairie. and Medicine. has been as an aid to design. and even go for a simulated "walk" through the rooms or around the outside of the building. Several smaller red spots have been seen occasionally but have not lasted. and it may not be permanent. and cost models to summarize financial. It has shown variations in both intensity and color. The latitude is generally very close to -22°. Computer art also has creative and commercial art applications. and several types of canoes. with protection and careful breeding they have been brought back to the point where their numbers can be multiplied at will. including elk. aerospace. It was once thought that the Red Spot might be a solid or semisolid body floating in Jupiter's outer gas. where it is used to create graphs. where it is used in advertising. Questions 27-33 The Chumash people inhabited an area of southwestern California that included large portions of present-day Los Angeles. Jupiter's less than 10-hour rotation period gives it the shortest day in the solar system insofar as the principal planets are concerned. so its surface area is greater than that of Earth. bows. but it always returns after a few years. Plant fiber was also used to weave baskets with beautiful. At its greatest extent it may be 40. particularly for computer animation. which is achieved by a sequential process. scientific. industry. Questions 20-26 As computers have become powerful tools for the rapid and economic production of pictures. who reduced their population to the point at which. However. the plains bison and the woodland bison. publishing. They took advantage of the rich resources of their homeland. government.Questions 9-13 In North America there are two forms of bison. and ship designers use CAD techniques to design vehicles and test their performance. and film productions. For threedimensional rendering of machine parts. It is well placed for observation for several months in every year and on average is the brightest of the planets apart from Venus. They made great use of stone for milling and for making tools and weapons. Business graphics is another rapidly growing area of computer graphics. Though the latitude of the Red Spot varies little.000 kilometers long and 14. The bison has a great tolerance to-cold. Other endangered species need the same planning and protection. the Pioneer and Voyager results have refuted that idea and proven the Red Spot to be a phenomenon of Jovian meteorology. north is the edge of the Canadian forest. the largest and most durable of which could hold up to twelve people and ply the open ocean. spacecraft. charts. around 1900. One of its greatest advantages is that designers can see how an object will look after construction and make changes freely and much more quickly than with hand drafting. bison lower their heads and face directly into the storm. generally referred to as computer-aided design (CAD). for the bison use their hooves and massive heads to clear away the snow and then feed on the grasses below. but there are signs that it is decreasing in size. and San Luis Obispo counties as well as the Channel islands. and ultimately its greatest use. though for relatively brief periods Mars may outshine it. There are no true seasons on Jupiter because the axial inclination to the perpendicular of the orbital plane is only just over 3°—less than that for any other planet. Large herds presently range on both government and private lands where they are protected. mathematical. computer graphics has emerged as one of the most rapidly growing fields in computer science. Although the Chumash were accomplished fishers and hunted a variety of animals. Bison are strong survivors and have few predators except for humans. research. intricate patterns that are regarded as being among the finest in the world.000 kilometers wide. there were fewer than a thousand plains bison left. Architects can design a building layout. training. Questions 14-19 Jupiter is the largest and most massive planet and is fifth in order of distance from the sun. education. One of the initial uses of computer graphics. however. they used wood to make bowls.

X Left-hand accompaniment 4. utensils. ? Ragtime is a completely different form of music than jazz. :-) a melodic phrase 4. Their most important food source was the acorn. ? In caves 2. and economic ties. X Social Studies 4. where would bison be found during a severe winter storm? 1. The Chumash even had a currency represented by a string of small white shell beads. ? Highly syncopated melody 5. nets. roots. ? move about According to the passage. leaves. a burial ground. 4. :-) "Maple Leaf Rag" 3. X cook on a stove 3. 12. and bulbs. and one or more sweatlodges. grains. X Bison are more fragile than they appear. :-) In the open The word "range" (bold) means to 1. X African-American history 2. X predators The passage supports which of the following conclusions? 1. who inhabited 75 to 100 villages. The Chumash lived in villages that were connected by social. 1. tools. a field for game playing. :-) plains bison 4. Ragtime reached people nationwide through all of the following EXCEPT 1. X humans 3. 2. The word "rooted" (bold) means 1. ? the axial inclination is only just over 3° 2.000 people. and squirrels. 2. 1. :-) Fast march tempo 2. X arrangements for marching bands 4. X cold-blooded animals of the Southwestern desert 2. X each letter Which of the following conclusions can be made from this passage? 1. Which of the following is NOT. The topic of the passage following this one would likely be about 1.000 to 30. X bison were native to a limited territory. including flowers. X melodic phrase 2. ? march tempo 4. According to the passage. and canoes. X attached to the ground 4. The word "their" (bold) refers to 1. The Chumash were avid traders with other western tribes. ? The bison population can be controlled. Jupiter has the shortest day among the principal planets because 1. X drive a long distance 2. X Seeking shelter behind boulders 3. ? unmoving 7. ? Ragtime was popular only with African-Americans. each with one or more granaries. X national parks of North America 4. ? compare ragtime and jazz 3. X never changing 2. This passage would be part of required reading in which of the following courses? 1. A typical village consisted of several domed houses. characteristic of ragtime? 1. ? criticize the compositions of Scott Joplin 2. :-) Ragtime has an easily recognizable rhythm. headdresses. ? the endangered grizzly of North . :-) derived from 3. X the diversity of climates in America 3. baskets. 10. X surround 4. 13. ? ragtime 4. 4. rabbits. At its height the Chumash nation consisted of 20. X show how ragtime is arranged 2. X Ragtime music is complex and hard to identify. 3. from which they made flour. :-) its rotation period is shorter than 10 hours 4. X syncopated melody 2. 9. The word "it" (bold) refers to 8. beads.antelope. 3. ? oom-pah -accompaniment 3. ? sheet music 3. a ceremonial dance ground. X Bison will eventually be extinct. fruit. 11. X Sixteen-bar sections 3. 14. deer. The author's main purpose in the passage is to 1. the letters A in AA and B in BB each represent 1. ? numbers 2. ? Behind trees 4. political. :-) compositions for orchestras 2. :-) discuss the origin and elements of ragtime 4. X player pianos 3. at least threefourths of their diet consisted of plant foods. :-) Music Appreciation 3. ? there is the interference of the Great Red Spot 3. who bartered for Chumash hides. leather. ? it is on the average the brightest of all the planets .America According to the passage. Plants were also used to make medicines. ? Art History 6. seeds.

The passage was most probably written by a specialist in 1. X fish 4. The word "it" (bold) refers to 1. This passage would be of most interest to 1. X making cost models 2. :-) willow poles 4. ? grains 2. :-) uses 3. X create graphs 2. :-) will one day vanish 2. ? every several months 17. ? will continue expanding 19. X isolated themselves from other tribes 4. X were a localized tribe 3. X density 3. ? create three-dimensional models 3. X will become brighter with time 3. X flight training 2. What does the passage mainly discuss? 1. :-) A description of Chumash life 28. ? layers 27. The word "applications" in bold means 1. ? were an industrious. X were not artistic in nature 2. The word” Intensity" could best be replaced with 1. :-) computer animation 3. :-) shells 3. ? did not make the most of their natural resources 2. :-) amateur astronomers 3. X The rapidly growing field of computer science 3. :-) rendering machine parts 4. engineers use CAD for 1. :-) were a highly developed people 4. ? Support for the Chumash nation 2. ? applications of CAD in medicine 23. X computers 3. ? The impact of the Chumash legacy 4. ? Routine uses of computers 2. ? geologists 2. :-) plant foods 3. ? supportive 2. :-) Computer graphics applications 21. 26. The author implies that the Chumash 1. X is made of floating gases 4. It can be inferred from this passage that Jupiter's Great Red Spot 1. X brilliance 4. X on a regular basis 3. three-fourths of the Chumash diet consisted of 1. ? jobs 2. architects use CAD to 1. It can be inferred from the passage that the Chumash 1. inventive people 29. X acorns 32. X Computers as the architects of the future 4. According to the passage. ? mathematicians 18. According to the passage. The Chumash currency was represented by 1. ? a simulated "walk" through model rooms. The author's tone in this passage is 1. ? argumentative 16. X wooden beads 4. X An analysis of Chumash inventions 3. X surface area 20. X canoes 2. X Lines 16-18 3. ? tools 33. With which of the following topics is the author primarily concerned? 1. X inspect buildings 24. The author mentions all of the following goods the Chumash traded EXCEPT 1. X ecological systems 3. ? Lines 4-6 2. ? computer graphics 4. X were not a seafaring people 3.15. Where in the passage does the author discuss the greatest advantage of computer-aided design? 1. The paragraph following this passage would most likely be about 1. X Lines 12-14 4. :-) anthropology . ? enthusiastic 4. According to the passage. :-) neutral 3. ? nutrition 2. X currency and government 4. X computer science 22. X advertising 3. According to the passage. ? visibility 2. X make cartographic materials 4. X creativity 4. ? students of anthropology 4. ? fruit 3. X fields 2. ? lived very primitively 30. ? less often than any other planet 4. ? antelope and rabbits 2. :-) from time to time 2. :-) Lines 7-9 25. Mars outshines Jupiter 1. ? leather 31. X cost models 4.

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