Read the following passages and find the main idea of each one.

Question 1 Strictly speaking, cartography is the drawing or compiling of maps. The explorers and surveyors go out and make the measurements and gather the information from which the cartographers draw their maps. Sometimes the fieldwork and the creation of the map are done by the same person. But when the scope is broad and the sources of information many, maps are more often a compilation of that information. They represent the accumulated work of many people, brought together under the supervision of one person. the compiler. The value of the map depends, of course, on the expertise of the compiler, who must sift through available information, select the most accurate data, and come up with a thoughtful and accurate synthesis of the geographic knowledge of the region. Question 2 In the 1820s and 1830s American painting added a new chapter to the story of its development. Until the nineteenth century, portraiture and occasional historical pieces were the only concerns of American art, but throughout the 1800s some of America's most talented painters chose to depict landscapes and the daily activities of ordinary people. With the nation's declaration of independence had come prosperity and with it the opportunity and inclination for painters to contemplate their environment. As they traveled beyond the early settlements and left the nation's first cities, such as Boston and Philadelphia, they began to experience and appreciate the pristine beauty of the American scenery, which differed greatly from the European landscape, partly because in its unsettled state it appeared wild and primeval. Question 3 Speculation about the earth's crust has a special edge of urgency in California, which sits on the San Andreas fault, the world's most famous and respected fracture zone. Not surprisingly, it was a scientist at the California Institute of Technology, Charles F. Richter, who invented the Richter scale used to measure earthquakes. Seismic activity in California is being constantly monitored and mapped. Seismometers register many thousands of small earthquakes every year, and computers instantly calculate the location, depth, and magnitude of an earthquake. Laser distance-ranging networks can detect changes of length, indicating change in crustal stress, accurate to about half an inch in 20 miles. Satellite measurements of crustal blocks are improving, and California seismologists believe they may in time be precise enough to allow earthquake prediction.

Question 4 The first expedition down the Colorado River was made by John Wesley Powell and his party in 1869. Powell had made long trips down the Ohio and the Mississippi and its tributaries during his twenties, when his lifelong interest in natural history developed. In 1867 he led his first expedition to the Rockies, a collecting trip for the museum he had founded in Illinois. While on Pike's Peak, -near Colorado Springs, Powell conceived his great plan to explore the Colorado River. On May 24, 1869, he and his party set off down the upper Colorado and nothing was heard from them for 37 days. During that time Powell and party braved uncharted territory, encounters with the natives, fierce rapids, and 20-foot waterfalls, as they followed the Colorado through the Grand Canyon to the Gulf of California. Question 5 Innovations in transportation in the 1800s permitted space to be traversed more rapidly and were crucial to the industrial expansion of the North. The great spaces that separated producers from consumers made speed essential, especially in the movement of perishable freight. The development of the steampowered locomotive in the 1830s and the rapid extension of the railways in the 1840s and 1850s provided the answer to the need for faster transport and dramatically altered patterns of economic development throughout the United States. In 1830 there were 32 miles of rails in the country, in 1840 there were 2,818 miles, and by 1850 there were more than 9,000 miles. The rapid extension of rail mileage enabled the railroads significantly to reduce their costs for shipping freight and carrying passengers, thus enabling them to price their services more cheaply and competitively. The extension of trunk lines, into which short or local lines fed, further tightened the east-west flow of commerce and bound the Northeast and the old Northwest together with bands of steel. Question 6 The few places left on earth that have not been altered by humankind are almost invariably hostile to humans. One such place is the Alaskan Arctic, which is inhabited, where inhabited at all, by only a scattering of Eskimos, Native Americans, and whites. But while the Arctic is indeed a chill and inimical realm of snow, ice, and polar bears, it is also a region of great beauty and, above all, purity, where plants and animals still exist undisturbed in a state of natural balance. Nearly one-third of Alaska lies north of the Arctic Circle and consists of pristine land. The Brooks Range cuts across the region like a wall, making access difficult. Even today, in an age of jet travel, the number of persons, who have had firsthand experience in the Alaskan Arctic remains small, and countless valleys and mountains go unnamed and even unexplored.

" which grew nearly 500 million years ago. 2. vocalized by males and females in all seasons to express alarm or maintain contact with mates. Fifty million years later came the dense forests of tree ferns that prevailed in tropical climates of that era. Question 9 Birds have two basic types of sounds: songs and calls. chowders curries. The Japanese brought sukiyaki and teriyaki. from these have sprung the angiosperms and our present deciduous forests. 1.Question 7 In the first half of the nineteenth century. and Indian and cornstarch puddings. pipkaula (jerked beef). Most likely. soybeans. coconut. :-) Conditions ire the early 1800s were favorable to the emergence of the American landscape artist. landscapes were produced in preference to portraits and historical pieces. What is the main idea of the passage? 1. building the tremendous coal and oil reserves so important today. single or repeated. provided a useful form for dealing with the Fenimore Cooper's The Pioneers (1823) and The Deerslayer (1841). dried beef. ? America's declaration of independence brought prosperity to the nation and with it an appreciation of the outdoors. the first distinctly American culture took I—m. Songs are usually more complex than calls and are utilized primarily by adult males during the breeding season to establish territories or attract mates. The Chinese brought rice. Question 8 Because different tree species adapted to different climates and soil types have evolved over millennia. All songs and most calls are distinctive. By the time the dinosaurs roamed the earth some 180 million years ago. . X Not all of the information initially compiled for maps is accurate. Question 10 Hawaii was originally settled by the natives of the South Pacific. 3. the earliest "trees. The forerunners of modern conifers were on the scene 300 million years ago. In the early 1800s. 4. when plant life abundantly colonized marshy land. who arrived in the islands in canoes laden with breadfruit.writers began to look within themselves and across their enlarged continental homeland for their subjects and themes. The rise of an American tradition in literature paralleled the expansion of the nation. Calls are normally simple notes. pigs. ? In the early 1800s. 3. The romance. the whalers and missionaries introduced stews. and vegetables and their ways of cooking them. seed-bearing trees had evolved that shed their leaves in winter. Nathaniel Hawthorne dealt with equally difficult questions of inner limits and the individual's responsibilities to society in The Scarlet Letter (1850) and The House of the Seven Gables (1851). 2. or novel. Supplementing these foods were over a hundred different edible fishes and 4C kinds of seaweed from the surrounding waters. and chickens. Thus a Hawaiian feast is a gastronomic experience. X The compiler's task is more important than that of the explorers and surveyors. and Korea were brought to Hawaii to work the sugar plantations. What is the main idea expressed in the passage? 1. X An increase in travel in America led to an appreciation of the beauty of the American landscape. What is the main topic of the passage? 1. many kinds of forests occupy the earth today. the Hawaiians have accepted each group's offerings and drawn the best from them. during the Cretaceous period. and cooked. In fact. lomi lumi salmon. as American . The primitive forests of several hundred million years ago consisted of fewer kinds of trees. The theme of the individual confronting nature was further developed by Herman Melville in the classic novel Moby Dick (1851). seasoned with coconut. and haupia (coconut pudding) evolved during this period. Japan. They lacked true roots and consisted of a tangle of specialized branches that clambered over rocky ground. chronicling the advance of "civilization" and questioning the implications of its impact on the natural world. corned beef. In the late nineteenth century immigrants from China. Settlers from the continental United States also brought their favorite recipes and in the spirit of aloha. Hawaiian food was eaten raw or wrapped in taro leaves. among many other foods. yams. were like giant club mosses. bananas. ? Maps are the product of a group effort brought together usually by one person. taro. the essence of Hawaii and its many cultures. offspring. or other birds of the same species. bird watchers can learn to identify many birds by their sounds and to call them as well. salt salmon. X The definition of cartography is the drawing or compiling of maps. 4. 3. Natty Bumppo and the Mohican guide Chingachgook confronted the environment of the American frontier. 2. X Computers provide a variety of information about earthquakes. and with concentrated study and practice.

8. 6.4. (2). (3). The United States has many sport events for women. basketball made its first appearance as a medal sport at the Olympics. 2. 4. which was so dominant in those days that they were inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame as a team. 2. 4. X Climate affected the development of trees over millennia. ice. Question 1 . 2. :-) Bird calls and songs are distinctive. Melville and Hawthorne both addressed difficult questions facing Americans. X Birds have their own language by which they maintain contact. ? Powell and his party faced daunting challenges on the first Colorado River expedition. What is the main idea of the passage? ? The variety of trees in today's forests area result of millions of years of evolution. 4. ? Bird songs are complicated and used mainly by males to attract mates. 3. 2. 2. Thus the event is usually considered only an exhibition. 2. 4. :-) Railroads had a profound effect on the economic development of the United States in the nineteenth century. (5). but the US women have now surpassed them. The USA won all the Olympic titles until 1972 when they were defeated by the Soviet Union. (7). 2. X The individual versus nature was one of the main themes explored in early American literature. the nation expanded. and the sport has been included in every Olympic Games since. who brought their native foods with them. 1996 and 2000. 9. The winning team. 3. X Earthquake prediction will be possible in the future. X Railroads provided an important link between the Northwest and the Northeast. What is the main theme in the passage? 1. 1988. 1980 and 1992. 3. winning gold medals in 1984. Text 1. X The predecessors of today's forests were giant club mosses and tree ferns. Basketball was on the Olympic program in 1904. 4. (8). X In their novels. In 1976. 1. What is the main topic of the passage? 1. 4. women's basketball was added to the program. (4). ? A great deal of attention is paid to earthquake activity in California. 7. X Birdwatchers can identify many bird calls and their meanings and learn to mimic them as well. What is the main subject of the passage? 1. 3. 3. was the Buffalo German club. What is the main idea expressed in the passage? 1. X The Richter scale was invented in California. . hat is the primary topic of the passage? 1. X Conifers are the oldest trees in today's forests. X At. 10. ? The first American literature took the form of novels that dealt with uniquely American themes. 4. novelists began writing about the American frontier. incidentally.2 (1). winning gold in 1976. parts of the Alaskan Arctic still remain unexplored. 3. ? The natives of the South Pacific who first settled in Hawaii ate raw food. ? The Alaskan Arctic is habitable only to arctic animals and a few hardy humans. but the event was contested by only a few American club teams and actually served as the AAU (Amateur Athletic Union of the USA) Championship for that year. X Powell was uniquely qualified to lead an expedition down the Colorado. 5. 4. What is the main idea of the passage? 1. ? Whalers and missionaries introduced new kinds of foods to the people of Hawaii.000 miles of railroad track were laid. X Powell was inspired to explore the Colorado while on Pike's Peak. :-) The ruggedness of the Alaskan Arctic makes it one of the last few remaining pristine areas in the world. whereas other immigrants cooked theirs. and polar bears. X Railroads made the transportation of perishable freight possible. 3. meaningful. In 1936. and ideal liable. ? Sugar plantations were worked by immigrants from Asia. 3. (6). The Soviet women were originally the top team on the female side. 2. X The Alaskan Arctic is a beautifully pristine realm of snow. :-) Hawaiian food is a combination of the foods of many peoples and a reflection of Hawaii's history. ? Between 1830 and 185C over 8. X People were concerned when nothing was heard from Powell and his party for over a month. ? Remarkably.

the objects are the products of ingenuous freshness and instinctive expressionism. Himalayan tribal masks evoke by their shape. fleeing. Disturbance from recreation may have both immediate and long-term effects on wildlife. designs. considering the number of existing ethnic groups. Some of the tribal masks represent vanished cults and deities that have been swept away by the conversion to another religion. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Text 3. . It seems that making masks has its roots in prehistoric times. often leading new directions for brands. Question 10-14 Hiking and mountain biking are rapidly increasing in popularity as forms of outdoor recreation. the Middle Hills (with the exclusion of the Kathmandu valley) and the northern Himalayas. marketing. The immediate response of many animals to disturbance is a change in behavior. it can nevertheless be a Buddhist or Hindu image from a remote village or a small temple. after defeating the shamanic traditions. patina and carving their African. or are roughly carved with a few quick strokes. mountain biking is (11) …… in all federal wilderness areas and on many other public lands. others may have very little embellishment. two holes for the eyes. knowing what's going on in the subcultures of the T-shirt industry indicate where the marketplace is headed next. the Thakali of the upper KaliGandaki valley in western Nepal first converted from their shamanic religion to Buddhism. Supernatural forces are projected into a mask and the spectator gives it life and meaning. such as cessation of foraging. Indonesian or American counterparts. (10) …. how spending patterns effect other categories. and where cultural shifts within youth culture globally may take shape. or altering (14) …… behavior. T-shirts. in part because it is assumed to be more (12) …… for wildlife than hiking. Inspiration for the masks often reflects the individual. even the launch of entirely new companies based on the success of a series of collections. laying a curse or killing into Tibetan Buddhist Cham dances. the function of various masks has altered and evolved so that an old mask has sometimes been given a new meaning. Question 5-9 To focus attention on the so-called 'primitive' or tribal masks of the Himalayas is to adapt the eye to a completely different style than is generally expected in the West of Himalayan art. They can be reminiscent of Japanese jomon (cord pattern) terracotta masks dating from the second millennium BC. one for the mouth. political and religious changes over the last two centuries. this art was in contact with shamanism. Currently. and they exhibit many different levels of technical ability. to ascertain exactly all the original purposes of these masks. and several of the masks remain only as mute witnesses to a dead civilization. the artist being at liberty to express his fantasy. In these last two cases. for example. Question 3-4 T-shirts represent one of the highest grossing markets in youth culture fashion.3 million persons participating at least once in 2000 (USDA Forest Service and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2000). and sometimes they resemble those of Siberian shamans. healing. Owing to social. Even when it was produced by a Buddhist or a Hindu. it is not known (13) …… wildlife respond differently to these activities. Despite this lack of knowledge. and gives an idea of how Buddhism or Hinduism.. Aesthetic interest in the objects themselves or astonishment at their shape and their mysterious beauty provokes questions as to what they mean and how they originated. it is possible that there is more than just an aesthetic similarity. although the appearance of the sculpture is archaic . transformed and even incorporated many of these rites. or of central Indian tribes such as the Bhugas who wore masks for divination before hunting ceremonies.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Text 2. which are often less expensive than other forms of apparel play many roles when it comes to individuals style. The ethnic groups that created the masks have undergone radical changes. The masks discussed in this article were all produced in Nepal by the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Terai (the low plains of the south along the Indian border). It is a mode of expression that reveals specific characteristics of the original spirit. As the execution of tribal masks was not often subject to canonical rules. beliefs and visions of the people who created the masks. …researchers have examined the responses of wildlife to pedestrians. there is a lack of information on the responses of wildlife to mountain bikers. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Text 4. Mountain biking in particular is one of the fastest-growing outdoor activities. In some cases. It is therefore difficult. Although some masks can be very sophisticated. distribution. and in many cases. such as boar mask from a Buddhist village. but only patient comparative studies will be able to determine the depth to which such a comparison can be carried. with 43. In many ways. and have more recently converted to Hinduism. which makes this marketplace one of the most vital components towards understanding trends and market opportunities in youth culture in general. The wearing of an animal mask or skin could originally have been used in magic rites for hunting.

3. ? disturbance 2. 4. 2.1. ? Terai 2. X The Olympic basketball program in 1904 was dominated by Amateur Athletic Union of the USA. :-) Nepal 5. ? A popular magazine. ? T-shirt design is changing rapidly among the youth. 2. :-) The T-shirt industry and the market opportunity 3. ? prevailing 5. X reproducible 5. 2. 2. ? That is why T-shirt is so popular among the youth. :-) T-shirt is getting cheaper and cheaper 3. Which of the following is best for the last sentence of the paragraph? 1. :-) 6 3. 3. From the text we can conclude that …. ? disturb 5. :-) banned 5. X Until 3. :-) whether 3. ? Before 5. only a few American clubs participated in the basketball Olympic program. ? until 2. 1. ? 8 5. 4. :-) disturbing 13. 10. ? reproduction 3. ? Styles of the Primitive Mask of the Himalayas 4. ? cheap 3. ? An announcement board 4. X The masks are considered holly to the Himalayan people. ? The changes of T-shirt trends and design 4.. 5. 2. ? reproducing 2. ? 4 4. X The USA won all the Olympic medals until 1972 when they were defeated by the Soviet Union. The irrelevant sentence in the above text is sentence number …. X Since 2. 1. :-) While 11. ? An advertisement 5. ? Whenever 4. ? The T-shirt industries take advantage of the youth culture. ? Aesthetic of Primitive Mask of the Himalayas 2. 1. ? disturber 3. ? The T-shirt industry and the changes of design 2. ? disturbingly 4. ? The T-shirt industry and the youth subculture 4. ? blocked 3. ? The West of Himalayan Art 6. ? 2 2. What is the best title for the above text? 1. :-) prehistoric 9. X The Buffalo German club won the first medal sport on the Olympic for basketball. The masks discussed in the text were made in ….. ? although 14. ? rejected 4. X In 1904.. ? A newspaper editorial. X 7 3. ? The first basketball program on the Olympic in 1904 was contested by only American club teams. :-) Tribal masks of the Himalayas 3. The word archaic (in the first line of the last paragraph) can be best replaced by …. 5. ? reproduce 4. 1. ? Kali-Gandaki 3. ? disturb 2. ? Northern Himalayas 7. ? The youth and the T-shirt design 5. Fibers made of glass . What is the topic of the text? 1. X The masks are priceless to the Himalayan people. X The masks are still used for traditional ritual in Himalayan cultures. ? The Origin of Himalayan Mask 5. ? Kathmandu valley 4. 1. What is the main idea of the above text? 1. X The masks were made in the prehistoric times and were kept in temples. ? contemporary 4. 4. 1. The above text is probably found in …. ? denied 12. 1. 1. ? The masks have been influenced by many religions and cultures. :-) reproductive Reading Texts Questions 1-6 Fiberscopes are one of the most important outcomes of the science of fiber optics. 1. 8. :-) A journal article. ? tedious 2. ? that 4. 5. 1. 3.

and take advantage of every circumstance that might lead to success. Fiberscopes have also found varied uses in industry. or 10 microns. on which was deposited the mud. pressed down the entire land mass beneath. Tan's parents. At the receiving end. Questions 15-20 Maine's jagged ribbon of rocky coastline wasfashioned over millennia by the violent forces of the inner earth. in essence drowning the coast and forming thousands of islands. and other small fish. especially on long summer days. the best selling Joy Luck Club. The most far-reaching applications of fiber-optic technology are in communications. and bays. called a faceplate. This continental shelf falls gradually outward and downward. the light pulses are converted to electrical signals and the voice message is reconstructed. Fiberscopes have a wide range of applications. In the medical field. Light-wave communication systems can handle an immensely greater number of telephone calls and television programs than the current system. melting glaciers raised the sea level by 400 feet. like many immigrants. Miniature probes have also been developed to view muscle fiber. The most common fiberscopes contain about 750. in diameter. Tan felt a sense of completeness. herring. scraping and chiseling the land's features as they passed on their way to the sea. which included such exalted professions as neurosurgery. Huge glaciers also sculpted the coast. received the Commonwealth Club Gold Award in 190'9 for her first work of fiction. and when thousands of these fibers are combined in what is called a fiberscope. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions lifted and crumbled plains to form mountains that again rose and fell as molten materials welled up in huge bulges that solidified into the granitic rocks typical of the Northeast." In 1987 Tan visited her half-sisters in China with her mother. For certain uses.000 fibers. The sixteen interrelated stories that constitute the work alternate between the tales of four Chinese immigrant mothers and their Americanized daughters. The weight of the glaciers. This immense quantity of food supports vast shoals of shrimp.001 centimeter. however.and transparent acrylic plastic are capable of conveying light energy. physicians use fiberscopes to examine internal organs and as an aid in delicate surgeries. Tan was surprised to learn that on the strength of her short stories she had received an advance from a publisher. excel academically. Tan obtained a bachelor's degree in English and linguistics and a master's degree in linguistics and eventually established herself as a highly successful business writer. Diatoms are tiny plants that form the base of the oceanic food chain. in some places for hundreds of miles. . these minute plants receive the sunlight they need for photosynthesis. a bonding with the country and its culture that she had never expected. sand. estimated to have been between one and two miles thick. In the shallow water of the shelf. which causes a transmitting laser to send coordinated pulses of light through the optical fibers. It was a resounding success. Returning from China. however. are being used in the manufacture of television picture tubes and other cathode-ray tube devices. was not satisfied despite her material success. the shelf provides the perfect environment for diatoms. each 0. had high expectations for their children and often set confusing standards. Bundles of fiberscopes fused together in a solid plate. particularly to inspect or control operations in inaccessible areas. Tan closed her business and wrote the remaining stories for the Joy Luck Club. and devoted herself to being thoroughly American and dreaming of being a fiction writer. Turning to her life-long dream. the diameter of the fiber may be as small as 5 microns. in an exploration of the generational and cultural tensions experienced by many first-generation daughters of immigrants. Beneath the sea a long. and blood cells. the American-born daughter of Chinese immigrants. Aided by the cold Labrador current which is saturated with oxygen and minerals." and then a second. Meanwhile. including Chinese. well received by the critics and appearing on the New York Times bestseller list. "End game. The sound of the voice is electronically broken down into thousands of pulses per second. and they All form the basis of the "electronic superhighway" expected to crisscross the nation in the near future of the information age. to a depth of about 600 feet before dropping into the ocean's depth. Tan. gentle underwater slope formed. when their blooms carpet the ocean floor. "Waiting between the Trees. Optical fibers carry voice messages for telephone service. skin tissue. a trip that proved to be a turning point in her life and career. Ideal conditions for abundant marine life make the riches of the continental shelf unparalleled. It has been translated into 17 languages. Questions 7-14 Amy Tan. expecting Amy and her two brothers to think like Chinese but to speak perfect English. rebelled against her parents' expectations. they can transmit images. and was made into a movie in 1993. which in turn are food for the larger fish that are part of the legendary abundance of the Northeast's continental shelf. fjords. and stony debris moved seaward from the continent by the glaciers and carried by rivers. Tan. she wrote her first short story.

000 2. X homes and businesses of the future 4.006 3. The passage will most likely be followed by a discussion of 1. The shell is high-domed in all but a very few forms. It can be inferred from the passage that fiberscopes 1. The new federal system accommodated the 13 original state governments while establishing new bodies and powers designed to address national concerns. 1. X will decrease in importance as they become more common 5. on which the enlarged scales may be defensively augmented with still larger spines. :-) hard to reach 2. In their powers to amend the Constitution and to elect the president and members of the Senate. X impossible to climb 4. ? Lines 2-10 6.Questions 21-28 The United States Constitution established a political system comprising a national and federal government. the elbows meeting in the middle in front of it and the claws of the forelimbs overlapping the lower edge of the opening at the front. as in Aesop's fable of the hare and the tortoise. ? will play a major role in the information age 4. is found in the southern United States as far west as New Mexico. X have reached the peak of their development 2. Approximately how many fibers does a fiberscope contain? 1. 1. but the longest life of any tortoise of which there is an authentic record is of a great tortoise of the Seychelles Islands. The head can be entirely withdrawn. and burrowing owls. including the three gopher tortoises. How do optical fibers carry voice messages? 1. X additional uses of fiberscopes in industry 7. The principle of separation of powers was applied throughout the document. Questions 29 . X have more uses in industry than in medicine 3. X To analyze Amy Tan's literary works .34 Living on land. X 1. X Lines 21-266. ? Lines 18-20 2. Carefully measured checks and balances were inserted to prevent the acquisition or concentration of power in any one branch and also for the purpose of protecting minority rights from the potential rule of the majority. All tortoises share the ability to live to a great age. The Constitution. :-) By converting electrical signals to light pulses 4. of longevity. X 500. a veritable work of genius. They are primarily vegetarians. Where in the passage does the author discuss the uses of miniature probes in medicine? 1. The word inaccessible means 1. however. X By using cathode-ray tube devices 3. legislative and judicial. :-) Lines 12-13 4. Tortoises have become symbols of leisurely movement. X 25. What is the author's main purpose in this passage? 1. State officials were required to take an oath to support the Constitution. feeding on grass and leaves. is especially fond of prickly-pear cactus. Their limbs are covered with hard scales that often have a bony core.000 4. snakes.000. the states also gained a role in applying checks and balances. ? By fusing bundles of fiberscopes into a faceplate 2. The true tortoises come to water only to drink or bathe. ? the use of fiber optics in the electronic superhighway 3. greatly enhanced the power of central government but carefully divided its functions into three distinct branches—executive. whose age was known to be not less than 180 years. and they are adapted to walking on land by their club-shaped feet. and state courts were required to recognize the Constitution and the laws and treaties made under it as the supreme law. such as frogs. The hardscaled soles of the hind feet cover the openings at the rear. and of persistence. 3. ? By sending coordinated electrical pulses through optical fibers 2. of which there are approximately 40 different kinds. The openings at the front and rear of the shell are usually neatly closed by the retracted limbs. ? 750. Gopher tortoises are so called because they dig long burrows. ? difficult to find 3. The national government created by the union of states stood above the state governments in specific national matters while acknowledging the role of the states or sharing power with them in other areas. which may be nearly 50 feet long and provide a hone for many other animals. Berlandier's tortoise. Gopherus. a slow-moving inhabitant of the arid lands of southern Texas and Mexico. properly called tortoises.000 3. ? extremely smallhard to reach 4. X the structure of fiberscopes 2. Of these. are the land turtles.

:-) A cold current saturated with oxygen and minerals 2. X To criticize Amy Tan's rebellion against her parents 4. ? neurosurgeon 2. Amy Tan's visit to China 1. X The effect of the movement of ice sheets on the shape of the land 4. ? choosing an important profession It can be inferred from the passage that 1. X To show the devastating nature of glaciers 3. ? Spring The word "them" refers to 1. ? the states According to the passage. ? To support Amy Tan's decision to become a fiction writer According to the passage. :-) It took Tan a while to summon the courage to pursue her dreams 3. ? Earthquakes 4. :-) had a profound affect on her 4. :-) To present biographical information about Amy Tan 3. ? Ocean currents Why does the author use the phrase "in essence drowning the coast" to discuss the effects of melting glaciers? 1. 15. ? very difficult It can be concluded from this passage that 1. ? English teacher The expectations of Tan's parents included all of the following EXCEPT 1. :-) business writer 4. X speaking perfect English 2. 9. the greatest abundance? 1. X protect minority rights 4. 19. X state officials 3. ? support the Constitution 2. :-) highly respected 3. 12. 2. ? A 600-foot drop into the ocean's depth The word "unparalleled" means 1. 14. ? To describe how the rising sea level covered the coastal land 4. X Tan always knew she was Chinese foremost and American only in her imagination 2. ? stories Before becoming a fiction writer. X To support the notion that animal life was lost when the glaciers melted 2. X Tan did not use personal experience in her writing 4. :-) not equaled 3. ? Tan's parents understood her dilemma but wanted the best for her 4. ? Diatoms existing in the shallow water of the shelf 4. Amy Tan was a successful 1. X Parents don't know what's best for their children 3. ? Glaciers 2. ? Tan made the right decision when she closed her business With which of the following topics is the author primarily concerned? 1. ? Volcanic eruptions 3. :-) Summer 2. 17. :-) Joy Luck Club 2. ? The riches of the continental shelf Which of the following is NOT mentioned as having affected the creation of Maine's rocky coastline? 1. X Tan started writing fiction in order to make more money The word exalted means 1. at what time of year are diatoms ii. ? was not surprising in the least The words "the work" refer to 1. X Tan had always wanted to return to China 2. X publisher 3. state officials were required to take an oath to 1. 10. ? Winter 4. X national matters 4. ? imperceptible According to the passage. ? Blooms carpeting the ocean floor 3. ? The islands off the Maine coast 3. 20. 11. ? was disappointing 3. :-) The formation and characteristics of the Northeast coast 16.8. X was a trip she had always dreamed of taking 2. X excelling academically 4. 13. ? not original 2. ? common 4. X Commonwealth Club Gold Award 4. X rivaled 4. 2. X To indicate the importance of natural disasters What are the "ideal conditions" the author is referring to? 1. X national and federal government 2. 18. 21. X writing 3. X recognize the Constitution as a work of genius The word "amend" could best be replaced by . X share power with the federal government 3. :-) questioning tradition 3. 23. 22. X Autum 3. ? common 2.

25. 26. X The symbolism associated with tortoises. ? They have retracting limbs. X To mention the roles of state officials in government 3. ? burrowing animals 3. Early jazz musicians often used ragtime melodies as introductions to their improvisations. Ragtime piano music has a generally standard form. ? didn't believe that the state and federal branches of the government could work well together 4. :-) Line 16 2. ? Their head can be entirely withdrawn into the shell. X public housing 3. where each letter represents a melodic phrase. . About three minutes long. duple meter (2/4. :-) political science Where in the passage does the author describe the three branches of government? 1. X scales 2. :-) grass and leaves 4. ragtime songs. reaching millions on a national scale through sheet music. :-) change 2. ? disapproval 2. :-) commendation It can be concluded from the passage that the authors of Constitution 1. The word "their" refers to 1. is a style of jazz characterized by an elaborately syncopated rhythm in the melody and a steadily accented accompaniment. 29. "Maple Leaf Rag" is a classic example of ragtime. known as the "King of Ragtime. developed primarily by black pianists. ? snakes 33. With its syncopations. ? indifference 4. ? humor 3. ? owls Reading Test Questions 1-8 Ragtime. 4. X contained 4. X enhance 4. 31. features the typical ragtime right-hand syncopations. ? Line 14 3. X added 2. ? snails 4.24." whose most famous piano piece. while the left hand steadily maintains the beat with an "oom-pah" accompaniment. X balance 3. in march tempo. ? Line 21 4. ? enhanced 34. ? The life of spans of tortoises Which of the following not mentioned as a characteristics of tortoises? 1. ? construct The author of the passage is probably an expert in 1. steady beat." was published in 1899. 3. The forms of ragtime derive from European marches and dances. A ragtime piece usually consists of several similar melodies that take such forms as AA BB A CC DD or Introduction AA BB CC DD EE. :-) They are well adapted to water 2. 1. X limbs 3. it has the standard AA BB A CC DD form. The leading ragtime composer was Scott Joplin. ? tortoises 4. Ragtime quickly gained popularity after its first appearances. and arrangements for dance and marching bands. The pianist's right hand plays a highly syncopated melody. X prickly pear cactus 3. ragtime played an integral part in the jazz legacy. the same rich body of music that became a vital source of jazz. X provided the states with the most power to govern 3. X minority issues 2. ? To discuss one of the principal elements of the Constitution What is the main topic of the passage? 1. :-) wanted to avoid usurpation of power by any individual or body 2. and piano style. 11. ? social science 4. X To persuade the state legislators to support the Constitution 2. :-) The characteristics of land turtles 4. ? intended above all to preserve the unity of the states What is the author's main purpose in the passage? 1. The passage preceding this one is probably about 1. ? frogs 2. The opening melody. 30. "Maple Leaf Rag. ? Line 8 The author's attitude toward the Constitution is one of 1. X feet 32. ? They have long lives. is a style of composed piano music that was popular from the 1890s to about 1915. . but the rhythms are rooted in AfricanAmerican folk music. Gopher tortoises primarily eat 1. :-) water turtles 2. or two beats per measure) performed at a moderate march tempo. and each section is 16 bars in length. X To summarize the role of the Senate 4. X restricted 3. ? The difference between the 40 different kinds of land turtles 3. The word "augmented" could best be replaced try 1. 27. player pianos. 2. 28.

For threedimensional rendering of machine parts. The bison has a great tolerance to-cold. publishing. From the trees. Jupiter's less than 10-hour rotation period gives it the shortest day in the solar system insofar as the principal planets are concerned. and Medicine. aerospace. Architects can design a building layout. Questions 27-33 The Chumash people inhabited an area of southwestern California that included large portions of present-day Los Angeles. Computer art also has creative and commercial art applications. generally referred to as computer-aided design (CAD). and south onto the central plateau of Mexico. It has shown variations in both intensity and color. north is the edge of the Canadian forest. where it is used in advertising. government. They made great use of stone for milling and for making tools and weapons. and economic data.000 kilometers wide. There are no true seasons on Jupiter because the axial inclination to the perpendicular of the orbital plane is only just over 3°—less than that for any other planet. Questions 20-26 As computers have become powerful tools for the rapid and economic production of pictures. The most famous mark on Jupiter is the Great Red Spot. Large herds presently range on both government and private lands where they are protected. It is well placed for observation for several months in every year and on average is the brightest of the planets apart from Venus. Its longevity may well be due to its exceptional size. One of its greatest advantages is that designers can see how an object will look after construction and make changes freely and much more quickly than with hand drafting. with protection and careful breeding they have been brought back to the point where their numbers can be multiplied at will. spacecraft. Though the latitude of the Red Spot varies little. but there are signs that it is decreasing in size. and ultimately its greatest use. the plains bison and the woodland bison. the largest and most durable of which could hold up to twelve people and ply the open ocean. there were fewer than a thousand plains bison left. around 1900. charts. however. it drifts about in longitude. Although the Chumash were accomplished fishers and hunted a variety of animals. Several smaller red spots have been seen occasionally but have not lasted. statistical. but it always returns after a few years. create a three-dimensional model. engineers now rely on heavily on CAD. they used wood to make bowls. They took advantage of the rich resources of their homeland. It is used routinely in such diverse areas as business. though for relatively brief periods Mars may outshine it. Santa Barbara. so its surface area is greater than that of Earth. and even go for a simulated "walk" through the rooms or around the outside of the building. research. scientific.Questions 9-13 In North America there are two forms of bison. education. Over the past century the total longitudinal drift has amounted to approximately 1200°. Plant fiber was also used to weave baskets with beautiful. Business graphics is another rapidly growing area of computer graphics. and film productions. One of the initial uses of computer graphics. art. computer graphics can be used to create weather maps and cartographic materials. bison lower their heads and face directly into the storm. mathematical. In winter the vegetation on which these animals feed may be hidden beneath a deep blanket of snow. the Pioneer and Voyager results have refuted that idea and proven the Red Spot to be a phenomenon of Jovian meteorology.000 kilometers long and 14. has been as an aid to design. Questions 14-19 Jupiter is the largest and most massive planet and is fifth in order of distance from the sun. who reduced their population to the point at which. Bison are strong survivors and have few predators except for humans. However. Ventura. It was once thought that the Red Spot might be a solid or semisolid body floating in Jupiter's outer gas. intricate patterns that are regarded as being among the finest in the world. particularly for computer animation. and it may not be permanent. and several types of canoes. However. The plains bison once ranged from Pennsylvania and Georgia to the Rockies. including elk. and ship designers use CAD techniques to design vehicles and test their performance. and cost models to summarize financial. this does not present a problem. for the bison use their hooves and massive heads to clear away the snow and then feed on the grasses below. bows. . When blizzards rage across the North American prairie. At its greatest extent it may be 40. industry. Their large domed huts were framed by willow poles covered with mats made from twined bulrushes harvested from the marshlands. which is achieved by a sequential process. where it is used to create graphs. Automobile. computer graphics has emerged as one of the most rapidly growing fields in computer science. training. As an educational aid. Other endangered species need the same planning and protection. The latitude is generally very close to -22°. Building designs are also created with computer graphics systems. and San Luis Obispo counties as well as the Channel islands. and at times it has been invisible.

and bulbs. X melodic phrase 2. who bartered for Chumash hides. leather. ? sheet music 3. Which of the following is NOT. seeds. at least threefourths of their diet consisted of plant foods. leaves. ? Behind trees 4. roots. and canoes. X African-American history 2. deer. X never changing 2. fruit. X surround 4. X Left-hand accompaniment 4. X Social Studies 4. ? Ragtime was popular only with African-Americans. 2. 3. 13. rabbits. 9. ? oom-pah -accompaniment 3. Jupiter has the shortest day among the principal planets because 1. Ragtime reached people nationwide through all of the following EXCEPT 1. X Sixteen-bar sections 3. The Chumash were avid traders with other western tribes. 10. ? The bison population can be controlled. 11. who inhabited 75 to 100 villages. X the diversity of climates in America 3. grains. ? criticize the compositions of Scott Joplin 2. X cold-blooded animals of the Southwestern desert 2. ? Art History 6. :-) Music Appreciation 3. including flowers. ? it is on the average the brightest of all the planets . :-) discuss the origin and elements of ragtime 4. 4. 12. each with one or more granaries. The topic of the passage following this one would likely be about 1. :-) plains bison 4. The Chumash lived in villages that were connected by social. and squirrels. At its height the Chumash nation consisted of 20. The word "rooted" (bold) means 1. According to the passage. the letters A in AA and B in BB each represent 1.000 to 30. The word "their" (bold) refers to 1. a burial ground. ? the endangered grizzly of North . ? Highly syncopated melody 5. X player pianos 3. ? the axial inclination is only just over 3° 2. ? numbers 2. baskets. 3. X arrangements for marching bands 4.000 people. from which they made flour. nets. Their most important food source was the acorn. :-) compositions for orchestras 2. X national parks of North America 4. X Bison are more fragile than they appear. X cook on a stove 3. X attached to the ground 4. 14. A typical village consisted of several domed houses. ? ragtime 4. X drive a long distance 2. The word "it" (bold) refers to 8. ? march tempo 4. :-) Ragtime has an easily recognizable rhythm. ? In caves 2. This passage would be part of required reading in which of the following courses? 1.antelope. ? move about According to the passage. ? compare ragtime and jazz 3. 1. where would bison be found during a severe winter storm? 1. tools. X humans 3. headdresses. characteristic of ragtime? 1.America According to the passage. The author's main purpose in the passage is to 1. 2. 4. X Bison will eventually be extinct. utensils. and one or more sweatlodges. X Seeking shelter behind boulders 3. X show how ragtime is arranged 2. :-) a melodic phrase 4. :-) its rotation period is shorter than 10 hours 4. :-) "Maple Leaf Rag" 3. :-) In the open The word "range" (bold) means to 1. The Chumash even had a currency represented by a string of small white shell beads. X syncopated melody 2. :-) Fast march tempo 2. :-) derived from 3. X bison were native to a limited territory. a field for game playing. ? Ragtime is a completely different form of music than jazz. X predators The passage supports which of the following conclusions? 1. Plants were also used to make medicines. beads. X Ragtime music is complex and hard to identify. and economic ties. X each letter Which of the following conclusions can be made from this passage? 1. ? unmoving 7. 1. political. ? there is the interference of the Great Red Spot 3. a ceremonial dance ground.

? will continue expanding 19. X cost models 4. X wooden beads 4. X Lines 16-18 3. X creativity 4. X density 3. 26. :-) amateur astronomers 3. X were a localized tribe 3. The word” Intensity" could best be replaced with 1. ? Routine uses of computers 2. :-) Computer graphics applications 21. ? layers 27. ? argumentative 16. engineers use CAD for 1. :-) plant foods 3. ? tools 33. ? every several months 17. ? nutrition 2. :-) shells 3. X canoes 2. The author implies that the Chumash 1. ? less often than any other planet 4. :-) from time to time 2. ? computer graphics 4. :-) A description of Chumash life 28. ? lived very primitively 30. :-) willow poles 4. ? did not make the most of their natural resources 2.15. X fish 4. X currency and government 4. X inspect buildings 24. :-) computer animation 3. X flight training 2. X computer science 22. :-) Lines 7-9 25. ? visibility 2. ? were an industrious. ? antelope and rabbits 2. The word "it" (bold) refers to 1. X create graphs 2. X isolated themselves from other tribes 4. X The rapidly growing field of computer science 3. ? Lines 4-6 2. X An analysis of Chumash inventions 3. The passage was most probably written by a specialist in 1. ? geologists 2. The author's tone in this passage is 1. Where in the passage does the author discuss the greatest advantage of computer-aided design? 1. According to the passage. X Lines 12-14 4. X surface area 20. According to the passage. X is made of floating gases 4. X brilliance 4. The paragraph following this passage would most likely be about 1. With which of the following topics is the author primarily concerned? 1. ? create three-dimensional models 3. It can be inferred from the passage that the Chumash 1. ? a simulated "walk" through model rooms. :-) will one day vanish 2. It can be inferred from this passage that Jupiter's Great Red Spot 1. X fields 2. X making cost models 2. What does the passage mainly discuss? 1. The Chumash currency was represented by 1. :-) neutral 3. ? grains 2. X on a regular basis 3. X Computers as the architects of the future 4. :-) were a highly developed people 4. ? leather 31. ? fruit 3. The word "applications" in bold means 1. :-) rendering machine parts 4. architects use CAD to 1. This passage would be of most interest to 1. X advertising 3. According to the passage. ? mathematicians 18. ? enthusiastic 4. X computers 3. ? jobs 2. inventive people 29. :-) anthropology . X were not a seafaring people 3. ? The impact of the Chumash legacy 4. X ecological systems 3. ? students of anthropology 4. :-) uses 3. X make cartographic materials 4. ? Support for the Chumash nation 2. X were not artistic in nature 2. ? supportive 2. The author mentions all of the following goods the Chumash traded EXCEPT 1. X acorns 32. According to the passage. X will become brighter with time 3. ? applications of CAD in medicine 23. Mars outshines Jupiter 1. three-fourths of the Chumash diet consisted of 1.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful