Read the following passages and find the main idea of each one.

Question 1 Strictly speaking, cartography is the drawing or compiling of maps. The explorers and surveyors go out and make the measurements and gather the information from which the cartographers draw their maps. Sometimes the fieldwork and the creation of the map are done by the same person. But when the scope is broad and the sources of information many, maps are more often a compilation of that information. They represent the accumulated work of many people, brought together under the supervision of one person. the compiler. The value of the map depends, of course, on the expertise of the compiler, who must sift through available information, select the most accurate data, and come up with a thoughtful and accurate synthesis of the geographic knowledge of the region. Question 2 In the 1820s and 1830s American painting added a new chapter to the story of its development. Until the nineteenth century, portraiture and occasional historical pieces were the only concerns of American art, but throughout the 1800s some of America's most talented painters chose to depict landscapes and the daily activities of ordinary people. With the nation's declaration of independence had come prosperity and with it the opportunity and inclination for painters to contemplate their environment. As they traveled beyond the early settlements and left the nation's first cities, such as Boston and Philadelphia, they began to experience and appreciate the pristine beauty of the American scenery, which differed greatly from the European landscape, partly because in its unsettled state it appeared wild and primeval. Question 3 Speculation about the earth's crust has a special edge of urgency in California, which sits on the San Andreas fault, the world's most famous and respected fracture zone. Not surprisingly, it was a scientist at the California Institute of Technology, Charles F. Richter, who invented the Richter scale used to measure earthquakes. Seismic activity in California is being constantly monitored and mapped. Seismometers register many thousands of small earthquakes every year, and computers instantly calculate the location, depth, and magnitude of an earthquake. Laser distance-ranging networks can detect changes of length, indicating change in crustal stress, accurate to about half an inch in 20 miles. Satellite measurements of crustal blocks are improving, and California seismologists believe they may in time be precise enough to allow earthquake prediction.

Question 4 The first expedition down the Colorado River was made by John Wesley Powell and his party in 1869. Powell had made long trips down the Ohio and the Mississippi and its tributaries during his twenties, when his lifelong interest in natural history developed. In 1867 he led his first expedition to the Rockies, a collecting trip for the museum he had founded in Illinois. While on Pike's Peak, -near Colorado Springs, Powell conceived his great plan to explore the Colorado River. On May 24, 1869, he and his party set off down the upper Colorado and nothing was heard from them for 37 days. During that time Powell and party braved uncharted territory, encounters with the natives, fierce rapids, and 20-foot waterfalls, as they followed the Colorado through the Grand Canyon to the Gulf of California. Question 5 Innovations in transportation in the 1800s permitted space to be traversed more rapidly and were crucial to the industrial expansion of the North. The great spaces that separated producers from consumers made speed essential, especially in the movement of perishable freight. The development of the steampowered locomotive in the 1830s and the rapid extension of the railways in the 1840s and 1850s provided the answer to the need for faster transport and dramatically altered patterns of economic development throughout the United States. In 1830 there were 32 miles of rails in the country, in 1840 there were 2,818 miles, and by 1850 there were more than 9,000 miles. The rapid extension of rail mileage enabled the railroads significantly to reduce their costs for shipping freight and carrying passengers, thus enabling them to price their services more cheaply and competitively. The extension of trunk lines, into which short or local lines fed, further tightened the east-west flow of commerce and bound the Northeast and the old Northwest together with bands of steel. Question 6 The few places left on earth that have not been altered by humankind are almost invariably hostile to humans. One such place is the Alaskan Arctic, which is inhabited, where inhabited at all, by only a scattering of Eskimos, Native Americans, and whites. But while the Arctic is indeed a chill and inimical realm of snow, ice, and polar bears, it is also a region of great beauty and, above all, purity, where plants and animals still exist undisturbed in a state of natural balance. Nearly one-third of Alaska lies north of the Arctic Circle and consists of pristine land. The Brooks Range cuts across the region like a wall, making access difficult. Even today, in an age of jet travel, the number of persons, who have had firsthand experience in the Alaskan Arctic remains small, and countless valleys and mountains go unnamed and even unexplored.

building the tremendous coal and oil reserves so important today. 3. seed-bearing trees had evolved that shed their leaves in winter. 2. Settlers from the continental United States also brought their favorite recipes and in the spirit of aloha. or novel. corned beef. 4. Most likely. Japan. many kinds of forests occupy the earth today. 1. Calls are normally simple notes. and Korea were brought to Hawaii to work the sugar plantations. the Hawaiians have accepted each group's offerings and drawn the best from them. were like giant club mosses. Natty Bumppo and the Mohican guide Chingachgook confronted the environment of the American frontier. 3. The primitive forests of several hundred million years ago consisted of fewer kinds of trees. when plant life abundantly colonized marshy land. the essence of Hawaii and its many cultures.Question 7 In the first half of the nineteenth century. What is the main idea expressed in the passage? 1. X The compiler's task is more important than that of the explorers and surveyors. 2. pipkaula (jerked beef). and Indian and cornstarch puddings. bird watchers can learn to identify many birds by their sounds and to call them as well. 2. Question 8 Because different tree species adapted to different climates and soil types have evolved over millennia. 4. and vegetables and their ways of cooking them. lomi lumi salmon. What is the main idea of the passage? 1. offspring. By the time the dinosaurs roamed the earth some 180 million years ago. X Computers provide a variety of information about earthquakes. X An increase in travel in America led to an appreciation of the beauty of the American landscape. coconut. The theme of the individual confronting nature was further developed by Herman Melville in the classic novel Moby Dick (1851). the earliest "trees. who arrived in the islands in canoes laden with breadfruit. The romance. X Not all of the information initially compiled for maps is accurate. All songs and most calls are distinctive. The rise of an American tradition in literature paralleled the expansion of the nation. The Japanese brought sukiyaki and teriyaki. chronicling the advance of "civilization" and questioning the implications of its impact on the natural world. They lacked true roots and consisted of a tangle of specialized branches that clambered over rocky ground. The forerunners of modern conifers were on the scene 300 million years ago. Fifty million years later came the dense forests of tree ferns that prevailed in tropical climates of that era. and cooked. yams. 3. Songs are usually more complex than calls and are utilized primarily by adult males during the breeding season to establish territories or attract mates. X The definition of cartography is the drawing or compiling of maps. The Chinese brought rice. :-) Conditions ire the early 1800s were favorable to the emergence of the American landscape artist. Hawaiian food was eaten raw or wrapped in taro leaves. Question 10 Hawaii was originally settled by the natives of the South Pacific. ? In the early 1800s. during the Cretaceous period. seasoned with coconut. Nathaniel Hawthorne dealt with equally difficult questions of inner limits and the individual's responsibilities to society in The Scarlet Letter (1850) and The House of the Seven Gables (1851). ? America's declaration of independence brought prosperity to the nation and with it an appreciation of the outdoors. . Question 9 Birds have two basic types of sounds: songs and calls. provided a useful form for dealing with the Fenimore Cooper's The Pioneers (1823) and The Deerslayer (1841). taro. In the early 1800s. as American . the whalers and missionaries introduced stews.writers began to look within themselves and across their enlarged continental homeland for their subjects and themes. In fact. among many other foods. the first distinctly American culture took I—m. soybeans. chowders curries. ? Maps are the product of a group effort brought together usually by one person. Thus a Hawaiian feast is a gastronomic experience. dried beef. and haupia (coconut pudding) evolved during this period. vocalized by males and females in all seasons to express alarm or maintain contact with mates. pigs. or other birds of the same species. from these have sprung the angiosperms and our present deciduous forests. and chickens. landscapes were produced in preference to portraits and historical pieces. What is the main topic of the passage? 1. single or repeated. In the late nineteenth century immigrants from China. bananas. salt salmon. Supplementing these foods were over a hundred different edible fishes and 4C kinds of seaweed from the surrounding waters." which grew nearly 500 million years ago. and with concentrated study and practice.

X The Alaskan Arctic is a beautifully pristine realm of snow. X The predecessors of today's forests were giant club mosses and tree ferns. Text 1. 2. 6. ? The Alaskan Arctic is habitable only to arctic animals and a few hardy humans. women's basketball was added to the program. 4. ? A great deal of attention is paid to earthquake activity in California. winning gold in 1976. ? The natives of the South Pacific who first settled in Hawaii ate raw food. (2). X People were concerned when nothing was heard from Powell and his party for over a month. (8). 4.2 (1). the nation expanded. X Conifers are the oldest trees in today's forests. 1. What is the main idea of the passage? ? The variety of trees in today's forests area result of millions of years of evolution. whereas other immigrants cooked theirs. 2. 4. 3. What is the main theme in the passage? 1. and ideal liable. ? Remarkably. :-) Hawaiian food is a combination of the foods of many peoples and a reflection of Hawaii's history. (6). 3. 3. 10. X In their novels. X Powell was inspired to explore the Colorado while on Pike's Peak. . 3. novelists began writing about the American frontier. Melville and Hawthorne both addressed difficult questions facing Americans. X Railroads made the transportation of perishable freight possible. The winning team. 2. X Railroads provided an important link between the Northwest and the Northeast. ice. X Birds have their own language by which they maintain contact. 4. X The Richter scale was invented in California. ? Between 1830 and 185C over 8. 1988. who brought their native foods with them. 4. The USA won all the Olympic titles until 1972 when they were defeated by the Soviet Union. In 1936. What is the main idea of the passage? 1. X Climate affected the development of trees over millennia. ? Sugar plantations were worked by immigrants from Asia. In 1976. but the US women have now surpassed them. 3. 7. 4. was the Buffalo German club. ? Whalers and missionaries introduced new kinds of foods to the people of Hawaii. ? Bird songs are complicated and used mainly by males to attract mates. 4. basketball made its first appearance as a medal sport at the Olympics. and the sport has been included in every Olympic Games since. 1996 and 2000. incidentally. (3). hat is the primary topic of the passage? 1. X Powell was uniquely qualified to lead an expedition down the Colorado. 2. parts of the Alaskan Arctic still remain unexplored. 3. but the event was contested by only a few American club teams and actually served as the AAU (Amateur Athletic Union of the USA) Championship for that year. The Soviet women were originally the top team on the female side. X Earthquake prediction will be possible in the future. and polar bears. 5. (4). X Birdwatchers can identify many bird calls and their meanings and learn to mimic them as well. :-) The ruggedness of the Alaskan Arctic makes it one of the last few remaining pristine areas in the world. 2. :-) Bird calls and songs are distinctive. ? The first American literature took the form of novels that dealt with uniquely American themes. which was so dominant in those days that they were inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame as a team. 2. 2. 1980 and 1992. winning gold medals in 1984. (5). What is the main topic of the passage? 1. Basketball was on the Olympic program in 1904. 3. meaningful. ? Powell and his party faced daunting challenges on the first Colorado River expedition. 4. Question 1 . Thus the event is usually considered only an exhibition. 8. What is the main idea expressed in the passage? 1. What is the main subject of the passage? 1.000 miles of railroad track were laid. :-) Railroads had a profound effect on the economic development of the United States in the nineteenth century. 9. (7). X The individual versus nature was one of the main themes explored in early American literature.4. 3. 2. X At. The United States has many sport events for women.

…researchers have examined the responses of wildlife to pedestrians. although the appearance of the sculpture is archaic . As the execution of tribal masks was not often subject to canonical rules. knowing what's going on in the subcultures of the T-shirt industry indicate where the marketplace is headed next. to ascertain exactly all the original purposes of these masks. and have more recently converted to Hinduism. Aesthetic interest in the objects themselves or astonishment at their shape and their mysterious beauty provokes questions as to what they mean and how they originated. Supernatural forces are projected into a mask and the spectator gives it life and meaning. Although some masks can be very sophisticated. Owing to social. In many ways. or altering (14) …… behavior. even the launch of entirely new companies based on the success of a series of collections. . and they exhibit many different levels of technical ability. and in many cases. Question 3-4 T-shirts represent one of the highest grossing markets in youth culture fashion. and gives an idea of how Buddhism or Hinduism. with 43. such as cessation of foraging. two holes for the eyes. They can be reminiscent of Japanese jomon (cord pattern) terracotta masks dating from the second millennium BC.3 million persons participating at least once in 2000 (USDA Forest Service and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2000). in part because it is assumed to be more (12) …… for wildlife than hiking. marketing. such as boar mask from a Buddhist village. how spending patterns effect other categories. and several of the masks remain only as mute witnesses to a dead civilization. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Text 4. The ethnic groups that created the masks have undergone radical changes. Question 5-9 To focus attention on the so-called 'primitive' or tribal masks of the Himalayas is to adapt the eye to a completely different style than is generally expected in the West of Himalayan art. there is a lack of information on the responses of wildlife to mountain bikers. and sometimes they resemble those of Siberian shamans. one for the mouth. fleeing. T-shirts. Mountain biking in particular is one of the fastest-growing outdoor activities. healing. Indonesian or American counterparts. the Thakali of the upper KaliGandaki valley in western Nepal first converted from their shamanic religion to Buddhism. The immediate response of many animals to disturbance is a change in behavior. patina and carving their African. Currently. it is possible that there is more than just an aesthetic similarity. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Text 3.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Text 2. In some cases. mountain biking is (11) …… in all federal wilderness areas and on many other public lands. Despite this lack of knowledge. and where cultural shifts within youth culture globally may take shape. beliefs and visions of the people who created the masks. Question 10-14 Hiking and mountain biking are rapidly increasing in popularity as forms of outdoor recreation. often leading new directions for brands. which are often less expensive than other forms of apparel play many roles when it comes to individuals style. it can nevertheless be a Buddhist or Hindu image from a remote village or a small temple. distribution. In these last two cases. others may have very little embellishment. designs. Even when it was produced by a Buddhist or a Hindu. the function of various masks has altered and evolved so that an old mask has sometimes been given a new meaning. political and religious changes over the last two centuries. for example. the objects are the products of ingenuous freshness and instinctive expressionism. Himalayan tribal masks evoke by their shape. Some of the tribal masks represent vanished cults and deities that have been swept away by the conversion to another religion. the Middle Hills (with the exclusion of the Kathmandu valley) and the northern Himalayas. (10) …. or of central Indian tribes such as the Bhugas who wore masks for divination before hunting ceremonies. Disturbance from recreation may have both immediate and long-term effects on wildlife. after defeating the shamanic traditions. or are roughly carved with a few quick strokes. transformed and even incorporated many of these rites. It is therefore difficult. laying a curse or killing into Tibetan Buddhist Cham dances. but only patient comparative studies will be able to determine the depth to which such a comparison can be carried. It seems that making masks has its roots in prehistoric times. Inspiration for the masks often reflects the individual. It is a mode of expression that reveals specific characteristics of the original spirit. considering the number of existing ethnic groups.. which makes this marketplace one of the most vital components towards understanding trends and market opportunities in youth culture in general. The wearing of an animal mask or skin could originally have been used in magic rites for hunting. the artist being at liberty to express his fantasy. this art was in contact with shamanism. The masks discussed in this article were all produced in Nepal by the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Terai (the low plains of the south along the Indian border). it is not known (13) …… wildlife respond differently to these activities.

? prevailing 5. X The masks are still used for traditional ritual in Himalayan cultures. ? An announcement board 4. 1. :-) reproductive Reading Texts Questions 1-6 Fiberscopes are one of the most important outcomes of the science of fiber optics. :-) Nepal 5. 1. :-) T-shirt is getting cheaper and cheaper 3. ? The West of Himalayan Art 6. ? Kathmandu valley 4. ? The Origin of Himalayan Mask 5. ? rejected 4. X The masks are considered holly to the Himalayan people. ? Aesthetic of Primitive Mask of the Himalayas 2. ? The masks have been influenced by many religions and cultures. ? disturber 3. ? tedious 2. The irrelevant sentence in the above text is sentence number …. :-) The T-shirt industry and the market opportunity 3. :-) While 11. 1. ? disturbingly 4.1. :-) 6 3. 2. ? contemporary 4. ? T-shirt design is changing rapidly among the youth. ? An advertisement 5. The above text is probably found in …. :-) banned 5. X Since 2. X The masks are priceless to the Himalayan people. X reproducible 5. X The Olympic basketball program in 1904 was dominated by Amateur Athletic Union of the USA. 4. What is the topic of the text? 1. X Until 3. :-) Tribal masks of the Himalayas 3. ? A newspaper editorial. Fibers made of glass . ? The T-shirt industry and the changes of design 2. 1.. 1. ? Styles of the Primitive Mask of the Himalayas 4. ? 8 5. ? The T-shirt industries take advantage of the youth culture. ? disturb 2. X The Buffalo German club won the first medal sport on the Olympic for basketball. 2. ? until 2. ? reproducing 2. 3. 1. 5. ? Whenever 4. What is the best title for the above text? 1. 10. 3. What is the main idea of the above text? 1. ? That is why T-shirt is so popular among the youth. 3. ? The changes of T-shirt trends and design 4. ? Before 5. 2. 2.. ? The youth and the T-shirt design 5. :-) prehistoric 9. 1. only a few American clubs participated in the basketball Olympic program. ? disturb 5. :-) A journal article. ? Kali-Gandaki 3. ? A popular magazine. ? disturbance 2. 1. ? denied 12. X In 1904. ? although 14. 5. ? reproduce 4. X 7 3. ? blocked 3. ? The T-shirt industry and the youth subculture 4. :-) whether 3. 8. X The USA won all the Olympic medals until 1972 when they were defeated by the Soviet Union. 1. From the text we can conclude that …. ? that 4. 4. 1. The word archaic (in the first line of the last paragraph) can be best replaced by …. ? The first basketball program on the Olympic in 1904 was contested by only American club teams. ? cheap 3. ? 4 4.. 5. 4. The masks discussed in the text were made in …. ? 2 2. Which of the following is best for the last sentence of the paragraph? 1. 2. ? reproduction 3. :-) disturbing 13. ? Terai 2. ? Northern Himalayas 7. X The masks were made in the prehistoric times and were kept in temples.

physicians use fiberscopes to examine internal organs and as an aid in delicate surgeries. The most common fiberscopes contain about 750. in essence drowning the coast and forming thousands of islands.001 centimeter. expecting Amy and her two brothers to think like Chinese but to speak perfect English. Fiberscopes have also found varied uses in industry. was not satisfied despite her material success. and they All form the basis of the "electronic superhighway" expected to crisscross the nation in the near future of the information age. each 0. Optical fibers carry voice messages for telephone service. however. Diatoms are tiny plants that form the base of the oceanic food chain. in an exploration of the generational and cultural tensions experienced by many first-generation daughters of immigrants. scraping and chiseling the land's features as they passed on their way to the sea. like many immigrants. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions lifted and crumbled plains to form mountains that again rose and fell as molten materials welled up in huge bulges that solidified into the granitic rocks typical of the Northeast. This continental shelf falls gradually outward and downward. melting glaciers raised the sea level by 400 feet. In the shallow water of the shelf. Returning from China. on which was deposited the mud. Turning to her life-long dream. herring. Tan's parents. Miniature probes have also been developed to view muscle fiber. "Waiting between the Trees. the diameter of the fiber may be as small as 5 microns. In the medical field. It has been translated into 17 languages. At the receiving end." and then a second. "End game. the light pulses are converted to electrical signals and the voice message is reconstructed. Questions 15-20 Maine's jagged ribbon of rocky coastline wasfashioned over millennia by the violent forces of the inner earth. which included such exalted professions as neurosurgery. Light-wave communication systems can handle an immensely greater number of telephone calls and television programs than the current system. the shelf provides the perfect environment for diatoms. including Chinese. rebelled against her parents' expectations. The most far-reaching applications of fiber-optic technology are in communications. pressed down the entire land mass beneath. the American-born daughter of Chinese immigrants. she wrote her first short story. however. Huge glaciers also sculpted the coast. in diameter. these minute plants receive the sunlight they need for photosynthesis." In 1987 Tan visited her half-sisters in China with her mother. in some places for hundreds of miles. a trip that proved to be a turning point in her life and career. gentle underwater slope formed. the best selling Joy Luck Club. and blood cells. and stony debris moved seaward from the continent by the glaciers and carried by rivers. Meanwhile. and devoted herself to being thoroughly American and dreaming of being a fiction writer. had high expectations for their children and often set confusing standards. For certain uses. or 10 microns. Aided by the cold Labrador current which is saturated with oxygen and minerals. Tan. Tan obtained a bachelor's degree in English and linguistics and a master's degree in linguistics and eventually established herself as a highly successful business writer. are being used in the manufacture of television picture tubes and other cathode-ray tube devices. The sixteen interrelated stories that constitute the work alternate between the tales of four Chinese immigrant mothers and their Americanized daughters. especially on long summer days. they can transmit images. Tan felt a sense of completeness. It was a resounding success. to a depth of about 600 feet before dropping into the ocean's depth. The weight of the glaciers. . particularly to inspect or control operations in inaccessible areas. skin tissue. This immense quantity of food supports vast shoals of shrimp. received the Commonwealth Club Gold Award in 190'9 for her first work of fiction. Fiberscopes have a wide range of applications. well received by the critics and appearing on the New York Times bestseller list. Ideal conditions for abundant marine life make the riches of the continental shelf unparalleled.000 fibers. estimated to have been between one and two miles thick. and was made into a movie in 1993. and bays. fjords. excel academically. a bonding with the country and its culture that she had never expected.and transparent acrylic plastic are capable of conveying light energy. and take advantage of every circumstance that might lead to success. which causes a transmitting laser to send coordinated pulses of light through the optical fibers. Tan closed her business and wrote the remaining stories for the Joy Luck Club. when their blooms carpet the ocean floor. Tan. and when thousands of these fibers are combined in what is called a fiberscope. Beneath the sea a long. which in turn are food for the larger fish that are part of the legendary abundance of the Northeast's continental shelf. Questions 7-14 Amy Tan. called a faceplate. Bundles of fiberscopes fused together in a solid plate. The sound of the voice is electronically broken down into thousands of pulses per second. sand. and other small fish. Tan was surprised to learn that on the strength of her short stories she had received an advance from a publisher.

and burrowing owls. X 500. is found in the southern United States as far west as New Mexico. X impossible to climb 4. 1. Of these. It can be inferred from the passage that fiberscopes 1. The Constitution. a veritable work of genius. What is the author's main purpose in this passage? 1. of which there are approximately 40 different kinds. X 1. X 25.000 2. :-) By converting electrical signals to light pulses 4. Tortoises have become symbols of leisurely movement.Questions 21-28 The United States Constitution established a political system comprising a national and federal government. which may be nearly 50 feet long and provide a hone for many other animals. ? 750. Gopherus. greatly enhanced the power of central government but carefully divided its functions into three distinct branches—executive. and of persistence. The passage will most likely be followed by a discussion of 1. legislative and judicial. Gopher tortoises are so called because they dig long burrows. X To analyze Amy Tan's literary works . The principle of separation of powers was applied throughout the document. feeding on grass and leaves. including the three gopher tortoises. ? By fusing bundles of fiberscopes into a faceplate 2. X the structure of fiberscopes 2. a slow-moving inhabitant of the arid lands of southern Texas and Mexico. All tortoises share the ability to live to a great age. on which the enlarged scales may be defensively augmented with still larger spines. X additional uses of fiberscopes in industry 7. Their limbs are covered with hard scales that often have a bony core. of longevity. X will decrease in importance as they become more common 5. however. State officials were required to take an oath to support the Constitution. :-) hard to reach 2.34 Living on land. The national government created by the union of states stood above the state governments in specific national matters while acknowledging the role of the states or sharing power with them in other areas. Questions 29 . The openings at the front and rear of the shell are usually neatly closed by the retracted limbs. X Lines 21-266. as in Aesop's fable of the hare and the tortoise. X By using cathode-ray tube devices 3.000 3. How do optical fibers carry voice messages? 1. In their powers to amend the Constitution and to elect the president and members of the Senate. whose age was known to be not less than 180 years. ? By sending coordinated electrical pulses through optical fibers 2. They are primarily vegetarians.000. Berlandier's tortoise. The shell is high-domed in all but a very few forms. 3. Carefully measured checks and balances were inserted to prevent the acquisition or concentration of power in any one branch and also for the purpose of protecting minority rights from the potential rule of the majority. ? difficult to find 3. X have reached the peak of their development 2. Where in the passage does the author discuss the uses of miniature probes in medicine? 1. ? will play a major role in the information age 4. properly called tortoises. snakes. The head can be entirely withdrawn. is especially fond of prickly-pear cactus. the elbows meeting in the middle in front of it and the claws of the forelimbs overlapping the lower edge of the opening at the front. ? Lines 2-10 6. The hardscaled soles of the hind feet cover the openings at the rear.000 4. ? the use of fiber optics in the electronic superhighway 3. The true tortoises come to water only to drink or bathe.006 3. :-) Lines 12-13 4. The word inaccessible means 1. and state courts were required to recognize the Constitution and the laws and treaties made under it as the supreme law. X homes and businesses of the future 4. such as frogs. the states also gained a role in applying checks and balances. 1. The new federal system accommodated the 13 original state governments while establishing new bodies and powers designed to address national concerns. are the land turtles. Approximately how many fibers does a fiberscope contain? 1. X have more uses in industry than in medicine 3. ? Lines 18-20 2. and they are adapted to walking on land by their club-shaped feet. ? extremely smallhard to reach 4. but the longest life of any tortoise of which there is an authentic record is of a great tortoise of the Seychelles Islands.

? support the Constitution 2. 20. ? Earthquakes 4. 19. ? To support Amy Tan's decision to become a fiction writer According to the passage. ? Diatoms existing in the shallow water of the shelf 4. 17. ? stories Before becoming a fiction writer. :-) The formation and characteristics of the Northeast coast 16. X publisher 3. :-) questioning tradition 3. X Tan did not use personal experience in her writing 4.8. 23. 11. ? A 600-foot drop into the ocean's depth The word "unparalleled" means 1. ? The riches of the continental shelf Which of the following is NOT mentioned as having affected the creation of Maine's rocky coastline? 1. ? common 4. ? Tan made the right decision when she closed her business With which of the following topics is the author primarily concerned? 1. ? To describe how the rising sea level covered the coastal land 4. :-) Summer 2. ? English teacher The expectations of Tan's parents included all of the following EXCEPT 1. X rivaled 4. :-) highly respected 3. :-) Joy Luck Club 2. ? Winter 4. 12. 10. 15. X national matters 4. :-) business writer 4. X Tan always knew she was Chinese foremost and American only in her imagination 2. X excelling academically 4. ? Tan's parents understood her dilemma but wanted the best for her 4. X To criticize Amy Tan's rebellion against her parents 4. ? the states According to the passage. state officials were required to take an oath to 1. X writing 3. ? Spring The word "them" refers to 1. Amy Tan was a successful 1. X Tan had always wanted to return to China 2. the greatest abundance? 1. :-) A cold current saturated with oxygen and minerals 2. X share power with the federal government 3. Amy Tan's visit to China 1. X To show the devastating nature of glaciers 3. ? very difficult It can be concluded from this passage that 1. :-) It took Tan a while to summon the courage to pursue her dreams 3. 18. ? choosing an important profession It can be inferred from the passage that 1. X To indicate the importance of natural disasters What are the "ideal conditions" the author is referring to? 1. :-) not equaled 3. X national and federal government 2. X was a trip she had always dreamed of taking 2. :-) had a profound affect on her 4. X Autum 3. ? The islands off the Maine coast 3. 21. X To support the notion that animal life was lost when the glaciers melted 2. ? was not surprising in the least The words "the work" refer to 1. ? neurosurgeon 2. 14. 9. 22. 13. :-) To present biographical information about Amy Tan 3. X state officials 3. 2. X Commonwealth Club Gold Award 4. ? imperceptible According to the passage. X speaking perfect English 2. X Tan started writing fiction in order to make more money The word exalted means 1. ? not original 2. X The effect of the movement of ice sheets on the shape of the land 4. 2. ? common 2. ? Glaciers 2. at what time of year are diatoms ii. ? Ocean currents Why does the author use the phrase "in essence drowning the coast" to discuss the effects of melting glaciers? 1. ? was disappointing 3. X Parents don't know what's best for their children 3. ? Volcanic eruptions 3. X protect minority rights 4. ? Blooms carpeting the ocean floor 3. X recognize the Constitution as a work of genius The word "amend" could best be replaced by .

X added 2. ? The life of spans of tortoises Which of the following not mentioned as a characteristics of tortoises? 1. X To summarize the role of the Senate 4. ? snakes 33. it has the standard AA BB A CC DD form. in march tempo. "Maple Leaf Rag. "Maple Leaf Rag" is a classic example of ragtime. :-) wanted to avoid usurpation of power by any individual or body 2. ? To discuss one of the principal elements of the Constitution What is the main topic of the passage? 1. ? Line 14 3. and each section is 16 bars in length. X To mention the roles of state officials in government 3. developed primarily by black pianists. ? They have retracting limbs. X feet 32. X To persuade the state legislators to support the Constitution 2. 1. The word "augmented" could best be replaced try 1. With its syncopations. 11. :-) Line 16 2. ? social science 4. 25. 3. 27. The word "their" refers to 1. :-) They are well adapted to water 2." was published in 1899. X balance 3. ? indifference 4. ? snails 4. 29. ? The difference between the 40 different kinds of land turtles 3. . 28. About three minutes long. :-) change 2. 31. :-) commendation It can be concluded from the passage that the authors of Constitution 1. or two beats per measure) performed at a moderate march tempo. but the rhythms are rooted in AfricanAmerican folk music. X prickly pear cactus 3. :-) The characteristics of land turtles 4. the same rich body of music that became a vital source of jazz." whose most famous piano piece. ? enhanced 34. :-) grass and leaves 4. :-) political science Where in the passage does the author describe the three branches of government? 1. ? intended above all to preserve the unity of the states What is the author's main purpose in the passage? 1. ragtime played an integral part in the jazz legacy. Ragtime quickly gained popularity after its first appearances. ? humor 3. duple meter (2/4. ? burrowing animals 3. ? frogs 2. ragtime songs.24. A ragtime piece usually consists of several similar melodies that take such forms as AA BB A CC DD or Introduction AA BB CC DD EE. 30. The passage preceding this one is probably about 1. 4. X The symbolism associated with tortoises. The opening melody. ? tortoises 4. The pianist's right hand plays a highly syncopated melody. X scales 2. ? Their head can be entirely withdrawn into the shell. and arrangements for dance and marching bands. X public housing 3. while the left hand steadily maintains the beat with an "oom-pah" accompaniment. where each letter represents a melodic phrase. reaching millions on a national scale through sheet music. features the typical ragtime right-hand syncopations. ? owls Reading Test Questions 1-8 Ragtime. X minority issues 2. is a style of composed piano music that was popular from the 1890s to about 1915. X enhance 4. The leading ragtime composer was Scott Joplin. ? disapproval 2. Early jazz musicians often used ragtime melodies as introductions to their improvisations. ? Line 8 The author's attitude toward the Constitution is one of 1. ? Line 21 4. X restricted 3. Ragtime piano music has a generally standard form. X provided the states with the most power to govern 3. :-) water turtles 2. The forms of ragtime derive from European marches and dances. player pianos. 26. ? construct The author of the passage is probably an expert in 1. ? didn't believe that the state and federal branches of the government could work well together 4. Gopher tortoises primarily eat 1. ? They have long lives. is a style of jazz characterized by an elaborately syncopated rhythm in the melody and a steadily accented accompaniment. steady beat. . X contained 4. and piano style. known as the "King of Ragtime. 2. X limbs 3.

Computer art also has creative and commercial art applications. art. When blizzards rage across the North American prairie. scientific. north is the edge of the Canadian forest. computer graphics has emerged as one of the most rapidly growing fields in computer science. Business graphics is another rapidly growing area of computer graphics. so its surface area is greater than that of Earth. At its greatest extent it may be 40. where it is used in advertising. The plains bison once ranged from Pennsylvania and Georgia to the Rockies. industry. It is well placed for observation for several months in every year and on average is the brightest of the planets apart from Venus. spacecraft. bison lower their heads and face directly into the storm. around 1900. Questions 27-33 The Chumash people inhabited an area of southwestern California that included large portions of present-day Los Angeles. intricate patterns that are regarded as being among the finest in the world. and it may not be permanent. Its longevity may well be due to its exceptional size. it drifts about in longitude. Bison are strong survivors and have few predators except for humans. mathematical. There are no true seasons on Jupiter because the axial inclination to the perpendicular of the orbital plane is only just over 3°—less than that for any other planet. Ventura. and at times it has been invisible. Jupiter's less than 10-hour rotation period gives it the shortest day in the solar system insofar as the principal planets are concerned. It has shown variations in both intensity and color. and even go for a simulated "walk" through the rooms or around the outside of the building. Their large domed huts were framed by willow poles covered with mats made from twined bulrushes harvested from the marshlands. Although the Chumash were accomplished fishers and hunted a variety of animals. engineers now rely on heavily on CAD. has been as an aid to design. the Pioneer and Voyager results have refuted that idea and proven the Red Spot to be a phenomenon of Jovian meteorology. statistical. One of its greatest advantages is that designers can see how an object will look after construction and make changes freely and much more quickly than with hand drafting.000 kilometers wide. Plant fiber was also used to weave baskets with beautiful. It was once thought that the Red Spot might be a solid or semisolid body floating in Jupiter's outer gas. It is used routinely in such diverse areas as business. this does not present a problem. where it is used to create graphs. The bison has a great tolerance to-cold. however. the largest and most durable of which could hold up to twelve people and ply the open ocean. the plains bison and the woodland bison. but it always returns after a few years.Questions 9-13 In North America there are two forms of bison. there were fewer than a thousand plains bison left. As an educational aid. They made great use of stone for milling and for making tools and weapons. though for relatively brief periods Mars may outshine it. The latitude is generally very close to -22°. Building designs are also created with computer graphics systems. but there are signs that it is decreasing in size. Several smaller red spots have been seen occasionally but have not lasted. generally referred to as computer-aided design (CAD). publishing. Other endangered species need the same planning and protection. In winter the vegetation on which these animals feed may be hidden beneath a deep blanket of snow. computer graphics can be used to create weather maps and cartographic materials. Large herds presently range on both government and private lands where they are protected. and ultimately its greatest use. bows. for the bison use their hooves and massive heads to clear away the snow and then feed on the grasses below. create a three-dimensional model. Over the past century the total longitudinal drift has amounted to approximately 1200°. which is achieved by a sequential process. Questions 20-26 As computers have become powerful tools for the rapid and economic production of pictures. Santa Barbara. charts. and San Luis Obispo counties as well as the Channel islands.000 kilometers long and 14. research. For threedimensional rendering of machine parts. and Medicine. and film productions. aerospace. including elk. They took advantage of the rich resources of their homeland. with protection and careful breeding they have been brought back to the point where their numbers can be multiplied at will. and several types of canoes. However. . From the trees. they used wood to make bowls. The most famous mark on Jupiter is the Great Red Spot. and ship designers use CAD techniques to design vehicles and test their performance. and south onto the central plateau of Mexico. and cost models to summarize financial. However. particularly for computer animation. Though the latitude of the Red Spot varies little. One of the initial uses of computer graphics. training. Questions 14-19 Jupiter is the largest and most massive planet and is fifth in order of distance from the sun. who reduced their population to the point at which. Architects can design a building layout. education. government. and economic data. Automobile.

2. :-) Music Appreciation 3. including flowers. ? the endangered grizzly of North . and canoes. The word "their" (bold) refers to 1. 1. a ceremonial dance ground. the letters A in AA and B in BB each represent 1. roots. :-) plains bison 4. ? In caves 2. utensils. a burial ground. 2. ? compare ragtime and jazz 3. beads. X African-American history 2. :-) Fast march tempo 2. A typical village consisted of several domed houses. Plants were also used to make medicines. The author's main purpose in the passage is to 1. X surround 4.antelope. The Chumash lived in villages that were connected by social. :-) discuss the origin and elements of ragtime 4. ? numbers 2. who inhabited 75 to 100 villages. X Ragtime music is complex and hard to identify. X player pianos 3. 4. X humans 3. ? Ragtime is a completely different form of music than jazz. :-) Ragtime has an easily recognizable rhythm. and bulbs. 13. X each letter Which of the following conclusions can be made from this passage? 1. ? The bison population can be controlled. 11. political. X national parks of North America 4. where would bison be found during a severe winter storm? 1. X never changing 2. 4. ? sheet music 3. baskets. ? the axial inclination is only just over 3° 2. ? Behind trees 4. characteristic of ragtime? 1. headdresses. X Left-hand accompaniment 4. X show how ragtime is arranged 2. ? it is on the average the brightest of all the planets . 14. ? Art History 6. rabbits. ? march tempo 4. X Sixteen-bar sections 3. :-) its rotation period is shorter than 10 hours 4. ? criticize the compositions of Scott Joplin 2. and squirrels. X syncopated melody 2. X melodic phrase 2. Their most important food source was the acorn. :-) derived from 3. X cold-blooded animals of the Southwestern desert 2. a field for game playing. at least threefourths of their diet consisted of plant foods. deer. X Seeking shelter behind boulders 3. ? move about According to the passage. X arrangements for marching bands 4. 3. At its height the Chumash nation consisted of 20. from which they made flour. and economic ties. The word "rooted" (bold) means 1. 9. grains. Ragtime reached people nationwide through all of the following EXCEPT 1.America According to the passage. This passage would be part of required reading in which of the following courses? 1. ? ragtime 4. X Social Studies 4. fruit. :-) a melodic phrase 4. 12. each with one or more granaries. who bartered for Chumash hides. The Chumash were avid traders with other western tribes. and one or more sweatlodges. Which of the following is NOT. tools. X cook on a stove 3. ? oom-pah -accompaniment 3. seeds. ? unmoving 7. 3. X bison were native to a limited territory. X Bison will eventually be extinct. The Chumash even had a currency represented by a string of small white shell beads. ? Highly syncopated melody 5. The word "it" (bold) refers to 8. 10. ? Ragtime was popular only with African-Americans. leather. :-) In the open The word "range" (bold) means to 1. 1. :-) compositions for orchestras 2. X predators The passage supports which of the following conclusions? 1. The topic of the passage following this one would likely be about 1. X the diversity of climates in America 3. Jupiter has the shortest day among the principal planets because 1. X drive a long distance 2. X Bison are more fragile than they appear. According to the passage. X attached to the ground 4.000 to 30. ? there is the interference of the Great Red Spot 3. leaves.000 people. :-) "Maple Leaf Rag" 3. nets.

X cost models 4. :-) shells 3. The author's tone in this passage is 1. It can be inferred from the passage that the Chumash 1. X brilliance 4. X surface area 20.15. With which of the following topics is the author primarily concerned? 1. X Computers as the architects of the future 4. X Lines 16-18 3. ? antelope and rabbits 2. three-fourths of the Chumash diet consisted of 1. ? supportive 2. X The rapidly growing field of computer science 3. X wooden beads 4. engineers use CAD for 1. ? argumentative 16. :-) Computer graphics applications 21. :-) amateur astronomers 3. Mars outshines Jupiter 1. This passage would be of most interest to 1. :-) computer animation 3. According to the passage. X on a regular basis 3. inventive people 29. X will become brighter with time 3. X were a localized tribe 3. ? grains 2. X flight training 2. ? Lines 4-6 2. ? students of anthropology 4. :-) A description of Chumash life 28. X acorns 32. ? geologists 2. ? computer graphics 4. The word” Intensity" could best be replaced with 1. X An analysis of Chumash inventions 3. Where in the passage does the author discuss the greatest advantage of computer-aided design? 1. ? Routine uses of computers 2. ? applications of CAD in medicine 23. ? nutrition 2. ? leather 31. X were not artistic in nature 2. X make cartographic materials 4. According to the passage. X currency and government 4. The word "it" (bold) refers to 1. X computers 3. ? layers 27. X is made of floating gases 4. ? will continue expanding 19. architects use CAD to 1. :-) from time to time 2. ? every several months 17. The passage was most probably written by a specialist in 1. :-) plant foods 3. :-) uses 3. The author mentions all of the following goods the Chumash traded EXCEPT 1. X advertising 3. :-) anthropology . X isolated themselves from other tribes 4. ? were an industrious. The author implies that the Chumash 1. :-) will one day vanish 2. X creativity 4. X Lines 12-14 4. X making cost models 2. X fields 2. X canoes 2. :-) rendering machine parts 4. ? fruit 3. :-) were a highly developed people 4. ? lived very primitively 30. X fish 4. 26. The Chumash currency was represented by 1. ? jobs 2. :-) willow poles 4. ? did not make the most of their natural resources 2. What does the passage mainly discuss? 1. According to the passage. :-) neutral 3. It can be inferred from this passage that Jupiter's Great Red Spot 1. X create graphs 2. X ecological systems 3. The paragraph following this passage would most likely be about 1. ? The impact of the Chumash legacy 4. X inspect buildings 24. X density 3. X computer science 22. ? tools 33. ? visibility 2. ? enthusiastic 4. ? a simulated "walk" through model rooms. ? create three-dimensional models 3. The word "applications" in bold means 1. :-) Lines 7-9 25. ? less often than any other planet 4. X were not a seafaring people 3. According to the passage. ? mathematicians 18. ? Support for the Chumash nation 2.