Read the following passages and find the main idea of each one.

Question 1 Strictly speaking, cartography is the drawing or compiling of maps. The explorers and surveyors go out and make the measurements and gather the information from which the cartographers draw their maps. Sometimes the fieldwork and the creation of the map are done by the same person. But when the scope is broad and the sources of information many, maps are more often a compilation of that information. They represent the accumulated work of many people, brought together under the supervision of one person. the compiler. The value of the map depends, of course, on the expertise of the compiler, who must sift through available information, select the most accurate data, and come up with a thoughtful and accurate synthesis of the geographic knowledge of the region. Question 2 In the 1820s and 1830s American painting added a new chapter to the story of its development. Until the nineteenth century, portraiture and occasional historical pieces were the only concerns of American art, but throughout the 1800s some of America's most talented painters chose to depict landscapes and the daily activities of ordinary people. With the nation's declaration of independence had come prosperity and with it the opportunity and inclination for painters to contemplate their environment. As they traveled beyond the early settlements and left the nation's first cities, such as Boston and Philadelphia, they began to experience and appreciate the pristine beauty of the American scenery, which differed greatly from the European landscape, partly because in its unsettled state it appeared wild and primeval. Question 3 Speculation about the earth's crust has a special edge of urgency in California, which sits on the San Andreas fault, the world's most famous and respected fracture zone. Not surprisingly, it was a scientist at the California Institute of Technology, Charles F. Richter, who invented the Richter scale used to measure earthquakes. Seismic activity in California is being constantly monitored and mapped. Seismometers register many thousands of small earthquakes every year, and computers instantly calculate the location, depth, and magnitude of an earthquake. Laser distance-ranging networks can detect changes of length, indicating change in crustal stress, accurate to about half an inch in 20 miles. Satellite measurements of crustal blocks are improving, and California seismologists believe they may in time be precise enough to allow earthquake prediction.

Question 4 The first expedition down the Colorado River was made by John Wesley Powell and his party in 1869. Powell had made long trips down the Ohio and the Mississippi and its tributaries during his twenties, when his lifelong interest in natural history developed. In 1867 he led his first expedition to the Rockies, a collecting trip for the museum he had founded in Illinois. While on Pike's Peak, -near Colorado Springs, Powell conceived his great plan to explore the Colorado River. On May 24, 1869, he and his party set off down the upper Colorado and nothing was heard from them for 37 days. During that time Powell and party braved uncharted territory, encounters with the natives, fierce rapids, and 20-foot waterfalls, as they followed the Colorado through the Grand Canyon to the Gulf of California. Question 5 Innovations in transportation in the 1800s permitted space to be traversed more rapidly and were crucial to the industrial expansion of the North. The great spaces that separated producers from consumers made speed essential, especially in the movement of perishable freight. The development of the steampowered locomotive in the 1830s and the rapid extension of the railways in the 1840s and 1850s provided the answer to the need for faster transport and dramatically altered patterns of economic development throughout the United States. In 1830 there were 32 miles of rails in the country, in 1840 there were 2,818 miles, and by 1850 there were more than 9,000 miles. The rapid extension of rail mileage enabled the railroads significantly to reduce their costs for shipping freight and carrying passengers, thus enabling them to price their services more cheaply and competitively. The extension of trunk lines, into which short or local lines fed, further tightened the east-west flow of commerce and bound the Northeast and the old Northwest together with bands of steel. Question 6 The few places left on earth that have not been altered by humankind are almost invariably hostile to humans. One such place is the Alaskan Arctic, which is inhabited, where inhabited at all, by only a scattering of Eskimos, Native Americans, and whites. But while the Arctic is indeed a chill and inimical realm of snow, ice, and polar bears, it is also a region of great beauty and, above all, purity, where plants and animals still exist undisturbed in a state of natural balance. Nearly one-third of Alaska lies north of the Arctic Circle and consists of pristine land. The Brooks Range cuts across the region like a wall, making access difficult. Even today, in an age of jet travel, the number of persons, who have had firsthand experience in the Alaskan Arctic remains small, and countless valleys and mountains go unnamed and even unexplored.

Nathaniel Hawthorne dealt with equally difficult questions of inner limits and the individual's responsibilities to society in The Scarlet Letter (1850) and The House of the Seven Gables (1851). salt salmon. X The definition of cartography is the drawing or compiling of maps. :-) Conditions ire the early 1800s were favorable to the emergence of the American landscape artist. In the early 1800s. landscapes were produced in preference to portraits and historical pieces. the Hawaiians have accepted each group's offerings and drawn the best from them. The Japanese brought sukiyaki and teriyaki. Calls are normally simple notes. X The compiler's task is more important than that of the explorers and surveyors. or novel. or other birds of the same species. 4. 2. In fact. The theme of the individual confronting nature was further developed by Herman Melville in the classic novel Moby Dick (1851). and chickens. Most likely. The forerunners of modern conifers were on the scene 300 million years ago. corned beef. 3. seasoned with coconut. and Korea were brought to Hawaii to work the sugar plantations. 2. when plant life abundantly colonized marshy land. Thus a Hawaiian feast is a gastronomic experience. and with concentrated study and practice. Question 9 Birds have two basic types of sounds: songs and calls. The Chinese brought rice. Settlers from the continental United States also brought their favorite recipes and in the spirit of aloha. 2. By the time the dinosaurs roamed the earth some 180 million years ago. 3. taro. Supplementing these foods were over a hundred different edible fishes and 4C kinds of seaweed from the surrounding waters. In the late nineteenth century immigrants from China. among many other foods. All songs and most calls are distinctive. chronicling the advance of "civilization" and questioning the implications of its impact on the natural world. Songs are usually more complex than calls and are utilized primarily by adult males during the breeding season to establish territories or attract mates. the essence of Hawaii and its many cultures. What is the main topic of the passage? 1. the whalers and missionaries introduced stews. Question 10 Hawaii was originally settled by the natives of the South Pacific. coconut. single or repeated. yams. and cooked. bananas. Natty Bumppo and the Mohican guide Chingachgook confronted the environment of the American frontier. The rise of an American tradition in literature paralleled the expansion of the nation.writers began to look within themselves and across their enlarged continental homeland for their subjects and themes. the earliest "trees. building the tremendous coal and oil reserves so important today." which grew nearly 500 million years ago. soybeans. seed-bearing trees had evolved that shed their leaves in winter. the first distinctly American culture took I—m. who arrived in the islands in canoes laden with breadfruit. X Computers provide a variety of information about earthquakes. 1. Question 8 Because different tree species adapted to different climates and soil types have evolved over millennia.Question 7 In the first half of the nineteenth century. What is the main idea expressed in the passage? 1. The primitive forests of several hundred million years ago consisted of fewer kinds of trees. many kinds of forests occupy the earth today. ? Maps are the product of a group effort brought together usually by one person. provided a useful form for dealing with the Fenimore Cooper's The Pioneers (1823) and The Deerslayer (1841). during the Cretaceous period. vocalized by males and females in all seasons to express alarm or maintain contact with mates. Japan. chowders curries. and vegetables and their ways of cooking them. Fifty million years later came the dense forests of tree ferns that prevailed in tropical climates of that era. pipkaula (jerked beef). bird watchers can learn to identify many birds by their sounds and to call them as well. The romance. and haupia (coconut pudding) evolved during this period. Hawaiian food was eaten raw or wrapped in taro leaves. 3. ? In the early 1800s. as American . offspring. What is the main idea of the passage? 1. ? America's declaration of independence brought prosperity to the nation and with it an appreciation of the outdoors. from these have sprung the angiosperms and our present deciduous forests. and Indian and cornstarch puddings. X Not all of the information initially compiled for maps is accurate. were like giant club mosses. 4. dried beef. lomi lumi salmon. . pigs. They lacked true roots and consisted of a tangle of specialized branches that clambered over rocky ground. X An increase in travel in America led to an appreciation of the beauty of the American landscape.

The winning team. X People were concerned when nothing was heard from Powell and his party for over a month. Basketball was on the Olympic program in 1904. ? The Alaskan Arctic is habitable only to arctic animals and a few hardy humans. :-) Hawaiian food is a combination of the foods of many peoples and a reflection of Hawaii's history. 1988. (3). women's basketball was added to the program. winning gold in 1976. X Powell was inspired to explore the Colorado while on Pike's Peak. 3. X Birds have their own language by which they maintain contact. 6. hat is the primary topic of the passage? 1. What is the main subject of the passage? 1. was the Buffalo German club. . 4. but the US women have now surpassed them. The United States has many sport events for women. X Conifers are the oldest trees in today's forests. 3. which was so dominant in those days that they were inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame as a team. 4. X Railroads provided an important link between the Northwest and the Northeast. parts of the Alaskan Arctic still remain unexplored. What is the main topic of the passage? 1. 9. basketball made its first appearance as a medal sport at the Olympics. but the event was contested by only a few American club teams and actually served as the AAU (Amateur Athletic Union of the USA) Championship for that year. 5. Question 1 . 3. winning gold medals in 1984. The USA won all the Olympic titles until 1972 when they were defeated by the Soviet Union. X Earthquake prediction will be possible in the future. 4. 4. :-) Bird calls and songs are distinctive. X Powell was uniquely qualified to lead an expedition down the Colorado. What is the main theme in the passage? 1. What is the main idea of the passage? 1. 3. In 1936. X At. and the sport has been included in every Olympic Games since. 2. What is the main idea expressed in the passage? 1. ? Whalers and missionaries introduced new kinds of foods to the people of Hawaii. Text 1. the nation expanded. 1980 and 1992. X The predecessors of today's forests were giant club mosses and tree ferns. ? Bird songs are complicated and used mainly by males to attract mates. 7. 2. ? Between 1830 and 185C over 8. (7). ice. and polar bears. 4. 3. X Birdwatchers can identify many bird calls and their meanings and learn to mimic them as well. ? Powell and his party faced daunting challenges on the first Colorado River expedition. (4). 2.2 (1). 2. (6). Melville and Hawthorne both addressed difficult questions facing Americans. :-) Railroads had a profound effect on the economic development of the United States in the nineteenth century. X Climate affected the development of trees over millennia. (2). In 1976. 4. (8). 10. whereas other immigrants cooked theirs. novelists began writing about the American frontier. meaningful. incidentally. 4. X The individual versus nature was one of the main themes explored in early American literature. X In their novels. ? The first American literature took the form of novels that dealt with uniquely American themes. :-) The ruggedness of the Alaskan Arctic makes it one of the last few remaining pristine areas in the world. The Soviet women were originally the top team on the female side. 1996 and 2000. 4. 1. 2.4. X Railroads made the transportation of perishable freight possible. 2. Thus the event is usually considered only an exhibition. 3. ? Sugar plantations were worked by immigrants from Asia. ? The natives of the South Pacific who first settled in Hawaii ate raw food. who brought their native foods with them. ? A great deal of attention is paid to earthquake activity in California. (5).000 miles of railroad track were laid. X The Richter scale was invented in California. 3. 2. 3. 8. and ideal liable. 2. What is the main idea of the passage? ? The variety of trees in today's forests area result of millions of years of evolution. ? Remarkably. X The Alaskan Arctic is a beautifully pristine realm of snow.

Disturbance from recreation may have both immediate and long-term effects on wildlife. after defeating the shamanic traditions. the objects are the products of ingenuous freshness and instinctive expressionism. The wearing of an animal mask or skin could originally have been used in magic rites for hunting. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Text 4. Himalayan tribal masks evoke by their shape. the artist being at liberty to express his fantasy. political and religious changes over the last two centuries. the Thakali of the upper KaliGandaki valley in western Nepal first converted from their shamanic religion to Buddhism. one for the mouth. how spending patterns effect other categories. In many ways. considering the number of existing ethnic groups. Some of the tribal masks represent vanished cults and deities that have been swept away by the conversion to another religion. It is therefore difficult. knowing what's going on in the subcultures of the T-shirt industry indicate where the marketplace is headed next. or altering (14) …… behavior. transformed and even incorporated many of these rites. They can be reminiscent of Japanese jomon (cord pattern) terracotta masks dating from the second millennium BC. such as cessation of foraging. . with 43. Mountain biking in particular is one of the fastest-growing outdoor activities. for example. and they exhibit many different levels of technical ability. In some cases. Aesthetic interest in the objects themselves or astonishment at their shape and their mysterious beauty provokes questions as to what they mean and how they originated. which makes this marketplace one of the most vital components towards understanding trends and market opportunities in youth culture in general. the function of various masks has altered and evolved so that an old mask has sometimes been given a new meaning. Owing to social. The ethnic groups that created the masks have undergone radical changes. beliefs and visions of the people who created the masks. or are roughly carved with a few quick strokes. patina and carving their African. Question 5-9 To focus attention on the so-called 'primitive' or tribal masks of the Himalayas is to adapt the eye to a completely different style than is generally expected in the West of Himalayan art. Indonesian or American counterparts. and gives an idea of how Buddhism or Hinduism. and sometimes they resemble those of Siberian shamans.3 million persons participating at least once in 2000 (USDA Forest Service and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2000). Currently. Even when it was produced by a Buddhist or a Hindu. laying a curse or killing into Tibetan Buddhist Cham dances. such as boar mask from a Buddhist village. this art was in contact with shamanism. it is possible that there is more than just an aesthetic similarity. designs. although the appearance of the sculpture is archaic . or of central Indian tribes such as the Bhugas who wore masks for divination before hunting ceremonies. Despite this lack of knowledge. The masks discussed in this article were all produced in Nepal by the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Terai (the low plains of the south along the Indian border). but only patient comparative studies will be able to determine the depth to which such a comparison can be carried.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Text 2. distribution. As the execution of tribal masks was not often subject to canonical rules. Question 10-14 Hiking and mountain biking are rapidly increasing in popularity as forms of outdoor recreation. Inspiration for the masks often reflects the individual. fleeing. which are often less expensive than other forms of apparel play many roles when it comes to individuals style. marketing. and where cultural shifts within youth culture globally may take shape. and in many cases. Question 3-4 T-shirts represent one of the highest grossing markets in youth culture fashion. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Text 3. It seems that making masks has its roots in prehistoric times. Supernatural forces are projected into a mask and the spectator gives it life and meaning.. T-shirts. (10) …. It is a mode of expression that reveals specific characteristics of the original spirit. in part because it is assumed to be more (12) …… for wildlife than hiking. mountain biking is (11) …… in all federal wilderness areas and on many other public lands. others may have very little embellishment. and have more recently converted to Hinduism. The immediate response of many animals to disturbance is a change in behavior. it is not known (13) …… wildlife respond differently to these activities. …researchers have examined the responses of wildlife to pedestrians. Although some masks can be very sophisticated. two holes for the eyes. even the launch of entirely new companies based on the success of a series of collections. to ascertain exactly all the original purposes of these masks. there is a lack of information on the responses of wildlife to mountain bikers. and several of the masks remain only as mute witnesses to a dead civilization. In these last two cases. often leading new directions for brands. the Middle Hills (with the exclusion of the Kathmandu valley) and the northern Himalayas. it can nevertheless be a Buddhist or Hindu image from a remote village or a small temple. healing.

:-) prehistoric 9. 1. 1. ? The West of Himalayan Art 6. ? That is why T-shirt is so popular among the youth. The masks discussed in the text were made in …. 4. 2. 8. ? disturber 3. ? The youth and the T-shirt design 5. ? 8 5. X The masks are priceless to the Himalayan people. X reproducible 5. 4. 4. :-) Tribal masks of the Himalayas 3. ? reproduction 3. ? rejected 4. X The USA won all the Olympic medals until 1972 when they were defeated by the Soviet Union. :-) A journal article. ? The Origin of Himalayan Mask 5. X The Buffalo German club won the first medal sport on the Olympic for basketball. The irrelevant sentence in the above text is sentence number …. :-) banned 5. ? Aesthetic of Primitive Mask of the Himalayas 2. ? An announcement board 4. ? although 14.. 2. Fibers made of glass . 1. ? A popular magazine. 3. ? 4 4. ? The masks have been influenced by many religions and cultures. ? contemporary 4. X The masks are still used for traditional ritual in Himalayan cultures. X The masks were made in the prehistoric times and were kept in temples. X In 1904. :-) The T-shirt industry and the market opportunity 3. ? The T-shirt industry and the changes of design 2. ? until 2. :-) Nepal 5. ? An advertisement 5. What is the best title for the above text? 1. The word archaic (in the first line of the last paragraph) can be best replaced by …. ? cheap 3. What is the main idea of the above text? 1. ? The changes of T-shirt trends and design 4. 10. ? disturbingly 4. :-) While 11.1. ? Kali-Gandaki 3. 3. 5. 1. ? The T-shirt industries take advantage of the youth culture. :-) reproductive Reading Texts Questions 1-6 Fiberscopes are one of the most important outcomes of the science of fiber optics. 1. ? The first basketball program on the Olympic in 1904 was contested by only American club teams. ? disturb 5. 2. ? A newspaper editorial. ? The T-shirt industry and the youth subculture 4. ? Kathmandu valley 4. ? disturbance 2. :-) whether 3. ? denied 12. :-) disturbing 13. ? prevailing 5. X The Olympic basketball program in 1904 was dominated by Amateur Athletic Union of the USA. ? that 4. ? disturb 2. X 7 3. 1. ? Terai 2. 1. ? reproducing 2. 5. ? Northern Himalayas 7. ? 2 2. X Since 2. ? tedious 2. 3. :-) T-shirt is getting cheaper and cheaper 3. 2. 1. Which of the following is best for the last sentence of the paragraph? 1. 5.. 1. 2. X Until 3. ? T-shirt design is changing rapidly among the youth. only a few American clubs participated in the basketball Olympic program. ? Before 5. ? reproduce 4.. What is the topic of the text? 1. From the text we can conclude that …. 1. The above text is probably found in …. X The masks are considered holly to the Himalayan people. ? Whenever 4. ? Styles of the Primitive Mask of the Himalayas 4. ? blocked 3. :-) 6 3.

and blood cells. which causes a transmitting laser to send coordinated pulses of light through the optical fibers. Beneath the sea a long. sand. and when thousands of these fibers are combined in what is called a fiberscope. on which was deposited the mud. particularly to inspect or control operations in inaccessible areas. in diameter. Turning to her life-long dream. which included such exalted professions as neurosurgery. . in essence drowning the coast and forming thousands of islands. The most common fiberscopes contain about 750. pressed down the entire land mass beneath. the diameter of the fiber may be as small as 5 microns. Returning from China. and they All form the basis of the "electronic superhighway" expected to crisscross the nation in the near future of the information age. they can transmit images. This continental shelf falls gradually outward and downward. and was made into a movie in 1993. gentle underwater slope formed. It was a resounding success. the light pulses are converted to electrical signals and the voice message is reconstructed. The weight of the glaciers. these minute plants receive the sunlight they need for photosynthesis. a trip that proved to be a turning point in her life and career. "End game. and stony debris moved seaward from the continent by the glaciers and carried by rivers. skin tissue. Tan felt a sense of completeness. each 0. melting glaciers raised the sea level by 400 feet. At the receiving end.001 centimeter. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions lifted and crumbled plains to form mountains that again rose and fell as molten materials welled up in huge bulges that solidified into the granitic rocks typical of the Northeast. Aided by the cold Labrador current which is saturated with oxygen and minerals. This immense quantity of food supports vast shoals of shrimp. to a depth of about 600 feet before dropping into the ocean's depth. The sound of the voice is electronically broken down into thousands of pulses per second. and other small fish. It has been translated into 17 languages. Diatoms are tiny plants that form the base of the oceanic food chain. Tan. The sixteen interrelated stories that constitute the work alternate between the tales of four Chinese immigrant mothers and their Americanized daughters. and bays. Miniature probes have also been developed to view muscle fiber. had high expectations for their children and often set confusing standards. like many immigrants. excel academically. herring. especially on long summer days. Fiberscopes have also found varied uses in industry. the shelf provides the perfect environment for diatoms. or 10 microns.000 fibers. estimated to have been between one and two miles thick. which in turn are food for the larger fish that are part of the legendary abundance of the Northeast's continental shelf. Meanwhile. Huge glaciers also sculpted the coast. when their blooms carpet the ocean floor. the best selling Joy Luck Club. received the Commonwealth Club Gold Award in 190'9 for her first work of fiction. and devoted herself to being thoroughly American and dreaming of being a fiction writer. called a faceplate. she wrote her first short story. physicians use fiberscopes to examine internal organs and as an aid in delicate surgeries. expecting Amy and her two brothers to think like Chinese but to speak perfect English. was not satisfied despite her material success. are being used in the manufacture of television picture tubes and other cathode-ray tube devices. Tan's parents. Bundles of fiberscopes fused together in a solid plate. Questions 15-20 Maine's jagged ribbon of rocky coastline wasfashioned over millennia by the violent forces of the inner earth. Light-wave communication systems can handle an immensely greater number of telephone calls and television programs than the current system. a bonding with the country and its culture that she had never expected. however. Tan closed her business and wrote the remaining stories for the Joy Luck Club. In the shallow water of the shelf. Tan. "Waiting between the Trees.and transparent acrylic plastic are capable of conveying light energy. Optical fibers carry voice messages for telephone service. For certain uses." In 1987 Tan visited her half-sisters in China with her mother. scraping and chiseling the land's features as they passed on their way to the sea. well received by the critics and appearing on the New York Times bestseller list. Tan was surprised to learn that on the strength of her short stories she had received an advance from a publisher. Questions 7-14 Amy Tan. in some places for hundreds of miles. fjords. Fiberscopes have a wide range of applications. and take advantage of every circumstance that might lead to success. The most far-reaching applications of fiber-optic technology are in communications. In the medical field. rebelled against her parents' expectations. including Chinese." and then a second. in an exploration of the generational and cultural tensions experienced by many first-generation daughters of immigrants. Ideal conditions for abundant marine life make the riches of the continental shelf unparalleled. the American-born daughter of Chinese immigrants. Tan obtained a bachelor's degree in English and linguistics and a master's degree in linguistics and eventually established herself as a highly successful business writer. however.

X homes and businesses of the future 4. The true tortoises come to water only to drink or bathe. which may be nearly 50 feet long and provide a hone for many other animals.000. Questions 29 .000 2. ? Lines 18-20 2. The hardscaled soles of the hind feet cover the openings at the rear. ? extremely smallhard to reach 4. as in Aesop's fable of the hare and the tortoise. The word inaccessible means 1. however. of longevity. X will decrease in importance as they become more common 5. X 25. including the three gopher tortoises. the elbows meeting in the middle in front of it and the claws of the forelimbs overlapping the lower edge of the opening at the front. :-) Lines 12-13 4. :-) hard to reach 2. X To analyze Amy Tan's literary works . In their powers to amend the Constitution and to elect the president and members of the Senate. ? Lines 2-10 6. on which the enlarged scales may be defensively augmented with still larger spines. the states also gained a role in applying checks and balances. and burrowing owls. How do optical fibers carry voice messages? 1. X have reached the peak of their development 2. X 500. whose age was known to be not less than 180 years. The principle of separation of powers was applied throughout the document. legislative and judicial. The head can be entirely withdrawn. ? will play a major role in the information age 4. ? 750. The national government created by the union of states stood above the state governments in specific national matters while acknowledging the role of the states or sharing power with them in other areas. Gopherus. The passage will most likely be followed by a discussion of 1. X the structure of fiberscopes 2. They are primarily vegetarians.000 4. of which there are approximately 40 different kinds. The shell is high-domed in all but a very few forms. a veritable work of genius. X 1. is found in the southern United States as far west as New Mexico. Where in the passage does the author discuss the uses of miniature probes in medicine? 1. X additional uses of fiberscopes in industry 7.34 Living on land. Of these.Questions 21-28 The United States Constitution established a political system comprising a national and federal government. X Lines 21-266. X impossible to climb 4. Their limbs are covered with hard scales that often have a bony core. 3. 1. It can be inferred from the passage that fiberscopes 1. X have more uses in industry than in medicine 3.000 3. and they are adapted to walking on land by their club-shaped feet. 1. ? difficult to find 3. State officials were required to take an oath to support the Constitution. feeding on grass and leaves. but the longest life of any tortoise of which there is an authentic record is of a great tortoise of the Seychelles Islands. The Constitution. The new federal system accommodated the 13 original state governments while establishing new bodies and powers designed to address national concerns. Gopher tortoises are so called because they dig long burrows. properly called tortoises. a slow-moving inhabitant of the arid lands of southern Texas and Mexico. ? By sending coordinated electrical pulses through optical fibers 2. ? By fusing bundles of fiberscopes into a faceplate 2. What is the author's main purpose in this passage? 1. Berlandier's tortoise. X By using cathode-ray tube devices 3. greatly enhanced the power of central government but carefully divided its functions into three distinct branches—executive. and of persistence. All tortoises share the ability to live to a great age.006 3. :-) By converting electrical signals to light pulses 4. snakes. ? the use of fiber optics in the electronic superhighway 3. Carefully measured checks and balances were inserted to prevent the acquisition or concentration of power in any one branch and also for the purpose of protecting minority rights from the potential rule of the majority. are the land turtles. Tortoises have become symbols of leisurely movement. and state courts were required to recognize the Constitution and the laws and treaties made under it as the supreme law. Approximately how many fibers does a fiberscope contain? 1. such as frogs. is especially fond of prickly-pear cactus. The openings at the front and rear of the shell are usually neatly closed by the retracted limbs.

X To indicate the importance of natural disasters What are the "ideal conditions" the author is referring to? 1. 20. 11. at what time of year are diatoms ii. :-) had a profound affect on her 4. :-) It took Tan a while to summon the courage to pursue her dreams 3. X Tan started writing fiction in order to make more money The word exalted means 1. ? To support Amy Tan's decision to become a fiction writer According to the passage. X was a trip she had always dreamed of taking 2. X publisher 3. ? common 2. Amy Tan was a successful 1. 14. :-) questioning tradition 3. X national matters 4. ? support the Constitution 2. X Autum 3. ? Earthquakes 4. :-) business writer 4. ? stories Before becoming a fiction writer. ? not original 2. :-) not equaled 3. 2. 18. ? common 4. ? Glaciers 2. ? Diatoms existing in the shallow water of the shelf 4. ? Winter 4. ? Ocean currents Why does the author use the phrase "in essence drowning the coast" to discuss the effects of melting glaciers? 1. :-) Joy Luck Club 2. 17. 2. :-) The formation and characteristics of the Northeast coast 16. X writing 3. ? very difficult It can be concluded from this passage that 1. X state officials 3. 23. 19. ? English teacher The expectations of Tan's parents included all of the following EXCEPT 1. ? was disappointing 3. Amy Tan's visit to China 1. ? choosing an important profession It can be inferred from the passage that 1. X To support the notion that animal life was lost when the glaciers melted 2. ? The riches of the continental shelf Which of the following is NOT mentioned as having affected the creation of Maine's rocky coastline? 1. :-) A cold current saturated with oxygen and minerals 2. X Tan did not use personal experience in her writing 4. ? was not surprising in the least The words "the work" refer to 1. :-) To present biographical information about Amy Tan 3. 21. ? the states According to the passage. 22. X Tan always knew she was Chinese foremost and American only in her imagination 2. ? To describe how the rising sea level covered the coastal land 4. X The effect of the movement of ice sheets on the shape of the land 4. X recognize the Constitution as a work of genius The word "amend" could best be replaced by . X To show the devastating nature of glaciers 3. ? neurosurgeon 2. X speaking perfect English 2. X To criticize Amy Tan's rebellion against her parents 4. 9. X Tan had always wanted to return to China 2. 10. 13. :-) highly respected 3.8. ? Volcanic eruptions 3. :-) Summer 2. ? Tan made the right decision when she closed her business With which of the following topics is the author primarily concerned? 1. ? Tan's parents understood her dilemma but wanted the best for her 4. the greatest abundance? 1. ? imperceptible According to the passage. ? A 600-foot drop into the ocean's depth The word "unparalleled" means 1. X rivaled 4. X protect minority rights 4. X national and federal government 2. X excelling academically 4. 12. X Commonwealth Club Gold Award 4. 15. ? Blooms carpeting the ocean floor 3. ? Spring The word "them" refers to 1. X Parents don't know what's best for their children 3. state officials were required to take an oath to 1. X share power with the federal government 3. ? The islands off the Maine coast 3.

? construct The author of the passage is probably an expert in 1. and piano style. ? didn't believe that the state and federal branches of the government could work well together 4.24. The word "augmented" could best be replaced try 1. :-) The characteristics of land turtles 4. duple meter (2/4. X balance 3. The forms of ragtime derive from European marches and dances. known as the "King of Ragtime. . :-) Line 16 2. while the left hand steadily maintains the beat with an "oom-pah" accompaniment. player pianos. :-) political science Where in the passage does the author describe the three branches of government? 1. Ragtime quickly gained popularity after its first appearances. ? They have retracting limbs. The pianist's right hand plays a highly syncopated melody. ? enhanced 34. ? snails 4. ragtime played an integral part in the jazz legacy. X To mention the roles of state officials in government 3. X prickly pear cactus 3. ragtime songs. Ragtime piano music has a generally standard form. With its syncopations. steady beat. and arrangements for dance and marching bands. :-) commendation It can be concluded from the passage that the authors of Constitution 1. 28. 25. and each section is 16 bars in length. ? disapproval 2. X To summarize the role of the Senate 4. ? owls Reading Test Questions 1-8 Ragtime. reaching millions on a national scale through sheet music. X restricted 3. :-) wanted to avoid usurpation of power by any individual or body 2. where each letter represents a melodic phrase. X To persuade the state legislators to support the Constitution 2. is a style of jazz characterized by an elaborately syncopated rhythm in the melody and a steadily accented accompaniment. ? Line 21 4. developed primarily by black pianists. 29. ? They have long lives. 2. :-) water turtles 2. features the typical ragtime right-hand syncopations. in march tempo. X feet 32. Early jazz musicians often used ragtime melodies as introductions to their improvisations. 30. 11. ? frogs 2. or two beats per measure) performed at a moderate march tempo. X contained 4. ? social science 4. 4. ? The life of spans of tortoises Which of the following not mentioned as a characteristics of tortoises? 1. ? The difference between the 40 different kinds of land turtles 3. :-) grass and leaves 4. About three minutes long. X limbs 3. ? snakes 33. X provided the states with the most power to govern 3. 27. ? Line 14 3. X scales 2. it has the standard AA BB A CC DD form." was published in 1899. 1. X enhance 4. The passage preceding this one is probably about 1. "Maple Leaf Rag. X minority issues 2. 31. 3. ? Their head can be entirely withdrawn into the shell. Gopher tortoises primarily eat 1." whose most famous piano piece. :-) They are well adapted to water 2. 26. X added 2. A ragtime piece usually consists of several similar melodies that take such forms as AA BB A CC DD or Introduction AA BB CC DD EE. but the rhythms are rooted in AfricanAmerican folk music. ? tortoises 4. . is a style of composed piano music that was popular from the 1890s to about 1915. The leading ragtime composer was Scott Joplin. :-) change 2. ? To discuss one of the principal elements of the Constitution What is the main topic of the passage? 1. "Maple Leaf Rag" is a classic example of ragtime. ? burrowing animals 3. X public housing 3. X The symbolism associated with tortoises. ? humor 3. The opening melody. the same rich body of music that became a vital source of jazz. The word "their" refers to 1. ? indifference 4. ? intended above all to preserve the unity of the states What is the author's main purpose in the passage? 1. ? Line 8 The author's attitude toward the Constitution is one of 1.

However. As an educational aid. Jupiter's less than 10-hour rotation period gives it the shortest day in the solar system insofar as the principal planets are concerned. however. and San Luis Obispo counties as well as the Channel islands. computer graphics can be used to create weather maps and cartographic materials. For threedimensional rendering of machine parts. education. training. scientific. At its greatest extent it may be 40. who reduced their population to the point at which. create a three-dimensional model. In winter the vegetation on which these animals feed may be hidden beneath a deep blanket of snow. so its surface area is greater than that of Earth. this does not present a problem. intricate patterns that are regarded as being among the finest in the world.000 kilometers long and 14. They made great use of stone for milling and for making tools and weapons. generally referred to as computer-aided design (CAD). Over the past century the total longitudinal drift has amounted to approximately 1200°. but there are signs that it is decreasing in size. Its longevity may well be due to its exceptional size. Questions 27-33 The Chumash people inhabited an area of southwestern California that included large portions of present-day Los Angeles. Though the latitude of the Red Spot varies little. Their large domed huts were framed by willow poles covered with mats made from twined bulrushes harvested from the marshlands. One of the initial uses of computer graphics. Building designs are also created with computer graphics systems. research. art. Large herds presently range on both government and private lands where they are protected. publishing. Questions 20-26 As computers have become powerful tools for the rapid and economic production of pictures. which is achieved by a sequential process. the largest and most durable of which could hold up to twelve people and ply the open ocean. Architects can design a building layout. Although the Chumash were accomplished fishers and hunted a variety of animals. where it is used in advertising. and even go for a simulated "walk" through the rooms or around the outside of the building. The bison has a great tolerance to-cold. around 1900. One of its greatest advantages is that designers can see how an object will look after construction and make changes freely and much more quickly than with hand drafting. and film productions. mathematical. . with protection and careful breeding they have been brought back to the point where their numbers can be multiplied at will. the Pioneer and Voyager results have refuted that idea and proven the Red Spot to be a phenomenon of Jovian meteorology. However. The most famous mark on Jupiter is the Great Red Spot. From the trees. When blizzards rage across the North American prairie. There are no true seasons on Jupiter because the axial inclination to the perpendicular of the orbital plane is only just over 3°—less than that for any other planet. Santa Barbara. statistical. for the bison use their hooves and massive heads to clear away the snow and then feed on the grasses below. and it may not be permanent. The plains bison once ranged from Pennsylvania and Georgia to the Rockies. The latitude is generally very close to -22°. and Medicine. engineers now rely on heavily on CAD. Business graphics is another rapidly growing area of computer graphics. Ventura. north is the edge of the Canadian forest. aerospace. industry. It is used routinely in such diverse areas as business.000 kilometers wide. Plant fiber was also used to weave baskets with beautiful. particularly for computer animation. including elk. Several smaller red spots have been seen occasionally but have not lasted. but it always returns after a few years. It is well placed for observation for several months in every year and on average is the brightest of the planets apart from Venus. and ship designers use CAD techniques to design vehicles and test their performance. has been as an aid to design. Automobile. and ultimately its greatest use. bison lower their heads and face directly into the storm. It was once thought that the Red Spot might be a solid or semisolid body floating in Jupiter's outer gas. Questions 14-19 Jupiter is the largest and most massive planet and is fifth in order of distance from the sun. and several types of canoes. Bison are strong survivors and have few predators except for humans. and cost models to summarize financial. It has shown variations in both intensity and color. the plains bison and the woodland bison. though for relatively brief periods Mars may outshine it. They took advantage of the rich resources of their homeland. there were fewer than a thousand plains bison left. it drifts about in longitude. they used wood to make bowls. Computer art also has creative and commercial art applications. government. and at times it has been invisible.Questions 9-13 In North America there are two forms of bison. computer graphics has emerged as one of the most rapidly growing fields in computer science. charts. spacecraft. bows. and economic data. and south onto the central plateau of Mexico. where it is used to create graphs. Other endangered species need the same planning and protection.

who bartered for Chumash hides. and one or more sweatlodges. The Chumash even had a currency represented by a string of small white shell beads. X predators The passage supports which of the following conclusions? 1.antelope. According to the passage. a burial ground. political. ? march tempo 4. :-) discuss the origin and elements of ragtime 4. X cook on a stove 3. ? the axial inclination is only just over 3° 2. at least threefourths of their diet consisted of plant foods. from which they made flour. X cold-blooded animals of the Southwestern desert 2. characteristic of ragtime? 1. ? The bison population can be controlled. X show how ragtime is arranged 2. 10. ? In caves 2. ? numbers 2. The author's main purpose in the passage is to 1. beads. X never changing 2. ? criticize the compositions of Scott Joplin 2. 4. rabbits. ? Art History 6. nets. the letters A in AA and B in BB each represent 1. and bulbs. The word "it" (bold) refers to 8. ? the endangered grizzly of North . The Chumash were avid traders with other western tribes. leather. X syncopated melody 2. 2. X surround 4. The topic of the passage following this one would likely be about 1. including flowers. X national parks of North America 4. X melodic phrase 2. ? Ragtime was popular only with African-Americans.000 people. 3. ? ragtime 4. where would bison be found during a severe winter storm? 1. :-) Music Appreciation 3. The word "rooted" (bold) means 1. X attached to the ground 4. tools. :-) In the open The word "range" (bold) means to 1. Their most important food source was the acorn. :-) its rotation period is shorter than 10 hours 4. each with one or more granaries. X humans 3. 14. utensils.000 to 30. 1. ? unmoving 7. headdresses. :-) Fast march tempo 2. seeds. roots. deer. X African-American history 2. A typical village consisted of several domed houses.America According to the passage. X Left-hand accompaniment 4. 4. At its height the Chumash nation consisted of 20. :-) a melodic phrase 4. and squirrels. X bison were native to a limited territory. ? Behind trees 4. 12. and canoes. X each letter Which of the following conclusions can be made from this passage? 1. ? sheet music 3. X Seeking shelter behind boulders 3. 3. a ceremonial dance ground. who inhabited 75 to 100 villages. Plants were also used to make medicines. X Bison are more fragile than they appear. and economic ties. ? it is on the average the brightest of all the planets . :-) "Maple Leaf Rag" 3. 2. This passage would be part of required reading in which of the following courses? 1. Ragtime reached people nationwide through all of the following EXCEPT 1. 9. X the diversity of climates in America 3. baskets. X drive a long distance 2. Jupiter has the shortest day among the principal planets because 1. :-) Ragtime has an easily recognizable rhythm. ? compare ragtime and jazz 3. ? there is the interference of the Great Red Spot 3. 13. :-) plains bison 4. leaves. fruit. ? Highly syncopated melody 5. :-) compositions for orchestras 2. 11. X Bison will eventually be extinct. ? move about According to the passage. The word "their" (bold) refers to 1. ? Ragtime is a completely different form of music than jazz. ? oom-pah -accompaniment 3. X Sixteen-bar sections 3. :-) derived from 3. X Social Studies 4. The Chumash lived in villages that were connected by social. X player pianos 3. a field for game playing. grains. Which of the following is NOT. X Ragtime music is complex and hard to identify. X arrangements for marching bands 4. 1.

? less often than any other planet 4. The passage was most probably written by a specialist in 1. ? Lines 4-6 2. X computer science 22. :-) amateur astronomers 3. ? will continue expanding 19. X creativity 4. X wooden beads 4. X canoes 2. X is made of floating gases 4. ? supportive 2. engineers use CAD for 1. :-) Computer graphics applications 21. ? a simulated "walk" through model rooms. The word "it" (bold) refers to 1. :-) were a highly developed people 4. :-) plant foods 3. According to the passage. ? visibility 2. X brilliance 4. It can be inferred from the passage that the Chumash 1. The author implies that the Chumash 1. The word "applications" in bold means 1. X on a regular basis 3. The author's tone in this passage is 1. :-) anthropology . X flight training 2. X An analysis of Chumash inventions 3. X Computers as the architects of the future 4. ? leather 31. ? layers 27. According to the passage. :-) computer animation 3. X create graphs 2. inventive people 29. :-) uses 3. :-) shells 3. ? create three-dimensional models 3. ? enthusiastic 4. X ecological systems 3. ? Routine uses of computers 2. ? lived very primitively 30. Mars outshines Jupiter 1. X acorns 32. architects use CAD to 1.15. X will become brighter with time 3. ? students of anthropology 4. X were a localized tribe 3. The word” Intensity" could best be replaced with 1. X make cartographic materials 4. ? Support for the Chumash nation 2. X Lines 16-18 3. With which of the following topics is the author primarily concerned? 1. ? mathematicians 18. ? every several months 17. :-) will one day vanish 2. ? argumentative 16. ? were an industrious. ? geologists 2. According to the passage. :-) rendering machine parts 4. Where in the passage does the author discuss the greatest advantage of computer-aided design? 1. ? grains 2. ? computer graphics 4. X The rapidly growing field of computer science 3. X fish 4. According to the passage. It can be inferred from this passage that Jupiter's Great Red Spot 1. ? tools 33. The paragraph following this passage would most likely be about 1. ? antelope and rabbits 2. This passage would be of most interest to 1. X cost models 4. X currency and government 4. :-) willow poles 4. X making cost models 2. :-) Lines 7-9 25. X were not a seafaring people 3. X density 3. ? did not make the most of their natural resources 2. X Lines 12-14 4. X inspect buildings 24. ? applications of CAD in medicine 23. X isolated themselves from other tribes 4. ? The impact of the Chumash legacy 4. The author mentions all of the following goods the Chumash traded EXCEPT 1. X were not artistic in nature 2. The Chumash currency was represented by 1. three-fourths of the Chumash diet consisted of 1. ? nutrition 2. ? jobs 2. :-) neutral 3. :-) from time to time 2. :-) A description of Chumash life 28. X advertising 3. 26. ? fruit 3. X surface area 20. What does the passage mainly discuss? 1. X computers 3. X fields 2.

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