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Main Idea

Main Idea

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Published by: Syarif Hidayat Suita on Apr 22, 2012
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Read the following passages and find the main idea of each one.

Question 1 Strictly speaking, cartography is the drawing or compiling of maps. The explorers and surveyors go out and make the measurements and gather the information from which the cartographers draw their maps. Sometimes the fieldwork and the creation of the map are done by the same person. But when the scope is broad and the sources of information many, maps are more often a compilation of that information. They represent the accumulated work of many people, brought together under the supervision of one person. the compiler. The value of the map depends, of course, on the expertise of the compiler, who must sift through available information, select the most accurate data, and come up with a thoughtful and accurate synthesis of the geographic knowledge of the region. Question 2 In the 1820s and 1830s American painting added a new chapter to the story of its development. Until the nineteenth century, portraiture and occasional historical pieces were the only concerns of American art, but throughout the 1800s some of America's most talented painters chose to depict landscapes and the daily activities of ordinary people. With the nation's declaration of independence had come prosperity and with it the opportunity and inclination for painters to contemplate their environment. As they traveled beyond the early settlements and left the nation's first cities, such as Boston and Philadelphia, they began to experience and appreciate the pristine beauty of the American scenery, which differed greatly from the European landscape, partly because in its unsettled state it appeared wild and primeval. Question 3 Speculation about the earth's crust has a special edge of urgency in California, which sits on the San Andreas fault, the world's most famous and respected fracture zone. Not surprisingly, it was a scientist at the California Institute of Technology, Charles F. Richter, who invented the Richter scale used to measure earthquakes. Seismic activity in California is being constantly monitored and mapped. Seismometers register many thousands of small earthquakes every year, and computers instantly calculate the location, depth, and magnitude of an earthquake. Laser distance-ranging networks can detect changes of length, indicating change in crustal stress, accurate to about half an inch in 20 miles. Satellite measurements of crustal blocks are improving, and California seismologists believe they may in time be precise enough to allow earthquake prediction.

Question 4 The first expedition down the Colorado River was made by John Wesley Powell and his party in 1869. Powell had made long trips down the Ohio and the Mississippi and its tributaries during his twenties, when his lifelong interest in natural history developed. In 1867 he led his first expedition to the Rockies, a collecting trip for the museum he had founded in Illinois. While on Pike's Peak, -near Colorado Springs, Powell conceived his great plan to explore the Colorado River. On May 24, 1869, he and his party set off down the upper Colorado and nothing was heard from them for 37 days. During that time Powell and party braved uncharted territory, encounters with the natives, fierce rapids, and 20-foot waterfalls, as they followed the Colorado through the Grand Canyon to the Gulf of California. Question 5 Innovations in transportation in the 1800s permitted space to be traversed more rapidly and were crucial to the industrial expansion of the North. The great spaces that separated producers from consumers made speed essential, especially in the movement of perishable freight. The development of the steampowered locomotive in the 1830s and the rapid extension of the railways in the 1840s and 1850s provided the answer to the need for faster transport and dramatically altered patterns of economic development throughout the United States. In 1830 there were 32 miles of rails in the country, in 1840 there were 2,818 miles, and by 1850 there were more than 9,000 miles. The rapid extension of rail mileage enabled the railroads significantly to reduce their costs for shipping freight and carrying passengers, thus enabling them to price their services more cheaply and competitively. The extension of trunk lines, into which short or local lines fed, further tightened the east-west flow of commerce and bound the Northeast and the old Northwest together with bands of steel. Question 6 The few places left on earth that have not been altered by humankind are almost invariably hostile to humans. One such place is the Alaskan Arctic, which is inhabited, where inhabited at all, by only a scattering of Eskimos, Native Americans, and whites. But while the Arctic is indeed a chill and inimical realm of snow, ice, and polar bears, it is also a region of great beauty and, above all, purity, where plants and animals still exist undisturbed in a state of natural balance. Nearly one-third of Alaska lies north of the Arctic Circle and consists of pristine land. The Brooks Range cuts across the region like a wall, making access difficult. Even today, in an age of jet travel, the number of persons, who have had firsthand experience in the Alaskan Arctic remains small, and countless valleys and mountains go unnamed and even unexplored.

:-) Conditions ire the early 1800s were favorable to the emergence of the American landscape artist.writers began to look within themselves and across their enlarged continental homeland for their subjects and themes. ? Maps are the product of a group effort brought together usually by one person. 2. provided a useful form for dealing with the Fenimore Cooper's The Pioneers (1823) and The Deerslayer (1841). Thus a Hawaiian feast is a gastronomic experience. The Chinese brought rice. The forerunners of modern conifers were on the scene 300 million years ago. and Indian and cornstarch puddings. pigs. Question 10 Hawaii was originally settled by the natives of the South Pacific. Settlers from the continental United States also brought their favorite recipes and in the spirit of aloha. The romance. bird watchers can learn to identify many birds by their sounds and to call them as well. All songs and most calls are distinctive. . ? In the early 1800s. single or repeated. soybeans.Question 7 In the first half of the nineteenth century. lomi lumi salmon. The rise of an American tradition in literature paralleled the expansion of the nation. and Korea were brought to Hawaii to work the sugar plantations. and cooked. 4. X An increase in travel in America led to an appreciation of the beauty of the American landscape. Songs are usually more complex than calls and are utilized primarily by adult males during the breeding season to establish territories or attract mates. coconut. Japan. seasoned with coconut. the essence of Hawaii and its many cultures. What is the main idea of the passage? 1. 2. 3. Natty Bumppo and the Mohican guide Chingachgook confronted the environment of the American frontier. X Computers provide a variety of information about earthquakes. 4. offspring. chronicling the advance of "civilization" and questioning the implications of its impact on the natural world. corned beef. landscapes were produced in preference to portraits and historical pieces. and chickens. from these have sprung the angiosperms and our present deciduous forests. dried beef. What is the main idea expressed in the passage? 1. the earliest "trees. In the late nineteenth century immigrants from China. 1. the whalers and missionaries introduced stews. They lacked true roots and consisted of a tangle of specialized branches that clambered over rocky ground. 3. taro. What is the main topic of the passage? 1. In fact. or other birds of the same species. By the time the dinosaurs roamed the earth some 180 million years ago." which grew nearly 500 million years ago. and vegetables and their ways of cooking them. Question 8 Because different tree species adapted to different climates and soil types have evolved over millennia. bananas. and with concentrated study and practice. X The compiler's task is more important than that of the explorers and surveyors. Hawaiian food was eaten raw or wrapped in taro leaves. The primitive forests of several hundred million years ago consisted of fewer kinds of trees. when plant life abundantly colonized marshy land. Fifty million years later came the dense forests of tree ferns that prevailed in tropical climates of that era. as American . X The definition of cartography is the drawing or compiling of maps. vocalized by males and females in all seasons to express alarm or maintain contact with mates. In the early 1800s. the Hawaiians have accepted each group's offerings and drawn the best from them. The theme of the individual confronting nature was further developed by Herman Melville in the classic novel Moby Dick (1851). and haupia (coconut pudding) evolved during this period. chowders curries. Nathaniel Hawthorne dealt with equally difficult questions of inner limits and the individual's responsibilities to society in The Scarlet Letter (1850) and The House of the Seven Gables (1851). seed-bearing trees had evolved that shed their leaves in winter. among many other foods. Most likely. or novel. the first distinctly American culture took I—m. Calls are normally simple notes. salt salmon. pipkaula (jerked beef). during the Cretaceous period. were like giant club mosses. Supplementing these foods were over a hundred different edible fishes and 4C kinds of seaweed from the surrounding waters. yams. 2. X Not all of the information initially compiled for maps is accurate. building the tremendous coal and oil reserves so important today. many kinds of forests occupy the earth today. Question 9 Birds have two basic types of sounds: songs and calls. 3. ? America's declaration of independence brought prosperity to the nation and with it an appreciation of the outdoors. who arrived in the islands in canoes laden with breadfruit. The Japanese brought sukiyaki and teriyaki.

Text 1. X Birdwatchers can identify many bird calls and their meanings and learn to mimic them as well. 2. X People were concerned when nothing was heard from Powell and his party for over a month. 4. ? Powell and his party faced daunting challenges on the first Colorado River expedition. X Climate affected the development of trees over millennia. which was so dominant in those days that they were inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame as a team. 3. 1. X Powell was uniquely qualified to lead an expedition down the Colorado. X The Alaskan Arctic is a beautifully pristine realm of snow. The Soviet women were originally the top team on the female side. 4. Question 1 . 3. 2.4. :-) Railroads had a profound effect on the economic development of the United States in the nineteenth century. 6. 4. parts of the Alaskan Arctic still remain unexplored. 8. In 1976. Basketball was on the Olympic program in 1904. whereas other immigrants cooked theirs. X Railroads made the transportation of perishable freight possible. (3). 4. (6). 1980 and 1992. 2. ? The natives of the South Pacific who first settled in Hawaii ate raw food. women's basketball was added to the program. the nation expanded. 3. (2). X In their novels. Melville and Hawthorne both addressed difficult questions facing Americans. 2. What is the main idea of the passage? 1. Thus the event is usually considered only an exhibition. ice. :-) Bird calls and songs are distinctive. ? A great deal of attention is paid to earthquake activity in California. The USA won all the Olympic titles until 1972 when they were defeated by the Soviet Union. (5). basketball made its first appearance as a medal sport at the Olympics. 7. 1988. 5. X At. . :-) Hawaiian food is a combination of the foods of many peoples and a reflection of Hawaii's history. hat is the primary topic of the passage? 1. 4. What is the main topic of the passage? 1. 3. ? Between 1830 and 185C over 8.2 (1). 3. who brought their native foods with them. 1996 and 2000. 3. (4). (8). ? The Alaskan Arctic is habitable only to arctic animals and a few hardy humans. The winning team. 4. 2. X The Richter scale was invented in California. 4. ? The first American literature took the form of novels that dealt with uniquely American themes. incidentally. X The individual versus nature was one of the main themes explored in early American literature. X Powell was inspired to explore the Colorado while on Pike's Peak. 2. 2. but the event was contested by only a few American club teams and actually served as the AAU (Amateur Athletic Union of the USA) Championship for that year. :-) The ruggedness of the Alaskan Arctic makes it one of the last few remaining pristine areas in the world. ? Sugar plantations were worked by immigrants from Asia. and the sport has been included in every Olympic Games since. ? Bird songs are complicated and used mainly by males to attract mates. X Conifers are the oldest trees in today's forests.000 miles of railroad track were laid. What is the main idea expressed in the passage? 1. X The predecessors of today's forests were giant club mosses and tree ferns. novelists began writing about the American frontier. was the Buffalo German club. meaningful. X Railroads provided an important link between the Northwest and the Northeast. 2. What is the main idea of the passage? ? The variety of trees in today's forests area result of millions of years of evolution. and ideal liable. (7). winning gold medals in 1984. 3. In 1936. ? Whalers and missionaries introduced new kinds of foods to the people of Hawaii. The United States has many sport events for women. 4. What is the main subject of the passage? 1. but the US women have now surpassed them. 3. What is the main theme in the passage? 1. 10. 9. and polar bears. X Earthquake prediction will be possible in the future. winning gold in 1976. X Birds have their own language by which they maintain contact. ? Remarkably.

The wearing of an animal mask or skin could originally have been used in magic rites for hunting. to ascertain exactly all the original purposes of these masks. this art was in contact with shamanism. and several of the masks remain only as mute witnesses to a dead civilization. Although some masks can be very sophisticated. and have more recently converted to Hinduism. it can nevertheless be a Buddhist or Hindu image from a remote village or a small temple. in part because it is assumed to be more (12) …… for wildlife than hiking. the objects are the products of ingenuous freshness and instinctive expressionism. Mountain biking in particular is one of the fastest-growing outdoor activities. for example. distribution. Some of the tribal masks represent vanished cults and deities that have been swept away by the conversion to another religion. (10) …. designs. The masks discussed in this article were all produced in Nepal by the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Terai (the low plains of the south along the Indian border). or altering (14) …… behavior. the Middle Hills (with the exclusion of the Kathmandu valley) and the northern Himalayas. political and religious changes over the last two centuries. and gives an idea of how Buddhism or Hinduism. It is therefore difficult. In these last two cases. which makes this marketplace one of the most vital components towards understanding trends and market opportunities in youth culture in general. others may have very little embellishment. Disturbance from recreation may have both immediate and long-term effects on wildlife. and they exhibit many different levels of technical ability. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Text 3. often leading new directions for brands. They can be reminiscent of Japanese jomon (cord pattern) terracotta masks dating from the second millennium BC. after defeating the shamanic traditions. marketing. with 43. T-shirts. the function of various masks has altered and evolved so that an old mask has sometimes been given a new meaning. . patina and carving their African. Question 10-14 Hiking and mountain biking are rapidly increasing in popularity as forms of outdoor recreation. Currently. The immediate response of many animals to disturbance is a change in behavior. or of central Indian tribes such as the Bhugas who wore masks for divination before hunting ceremonies. mountain biking is (11) …… in all federal wilderness areas and on many other public lands. one for the mouth. …researchers have examined the responses of wildlife to pedestrians. Question 3-4 T-shirts represent one of the highest grossing markets in youth culture fashion. considering the number of existing ethnic groups. Himalayan tribal masks evoke by their shape. beliefs and visions of the people who created the masks. Despite this lack of knowledge. healing. it is possible that there is more than just an aesthetic similarity.. the Thakali of the upper KaliGandaki valley in western Nepal first converted from their shamanic religion to Buddhism. and in many cases. The ethnic groups that created the masks have undergone radical changes. fleeing. which are often less expensive than other forms of apparel play many roles when it comes to individuals style.3 million persons participating at least once in 2000 (USDA Forest Service and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2000). even the launch of entirely new companies based on the success of a series of collections. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Text 4. Inspiration for the masks often reflects the individual. there is a lack of information on the responses of wildlife to mountain bikers. laying a curse or killing into Tibetan Buddhist Cham dances. and sometimes they resemble those of Siberian shamans. how spending patterns effect other categories. It seems that making masks has its roots in prehistoric times.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Text 2. Owing to social. transformed and even incorporated many of these rites. Aesthetic interest in the objects themselves or astonishment at their shape and their mysterious beauty provokes questions as to what they mean and how they originated. the artist being at liberty to express his fantasy. knowing what's going on in the subcultures of the T-shirt industry indicate where the marketplace is headed next. In many ways. Indonesian or American counterparts. although the appearance of the sculpture is archaic . Supernatural forces are projected into a mask and the spectator gives it life and meaning. but only patient comparative studies will be able to determine the depth to which such a comparison can be carried. two holes for the eyes. It is a mode of expression that reveals specific characteristics of the original spirit. such as boar mask from a Buddhist village. and where cultural shifts within youth culture globally may take shape. it is not known (13) …… wildlife respond differently to these activities. In some cases. such as cessation of foraging. Question 5-9 To focus attention on the so-called 'primitive' or tribal masks of the Himalayas is to adapt the eye to a completely different style than is generally expected in the West of Himalayan art. or are roughly carved with a few quick strokes. As the execution of tribal masks was not often subject to canonical rules. Even when it was produced by a Buddhist or a Hindu.

X The masks were made in the prehistoric times and were kept in temples. What is the best title for the above text? 1. What is the topic of the text? 1. ? disturber 3. The masks discussed in the text were made in …. X 7 3. ? Whenever 4. X In 1904. ? The Origin of Himalayan Mask 5. Fibers made of glass . 1. ? Before 5. 4. 2. ? A popular magazine. 1. 3. :-) reproductive Reading Texts Questions 1-6 Fiberscopes are one of the most important outcomes of the science of fiber optics. X The masks are still used for traditional ritual in Himalayan cultures. only a few American clubs participated in the basketball Olympic program. ? prevailing 5. 1. ? contemporary 4. 2. ? The T-shirt industries take advantage of the youth culture. ? An advertisement 5. 1. ? The masks have been influenced by many religions and cultures. ? rejected 4. X The Olympic basketball program in 1904 was dominated by Amateur Athletic Union of the USA. ? Northern Himalayas 7. 4.. ? reproduce 4. What is the main idea of the above text? 1. ? disturb 2. :-) The T-shirt industry and the market opportunity 3.. ? reproducing 2. 5. ? blocked 3. From the text we can conclude that …. 2. X Since 2. X reproducible 5. ? Kali-Gandaki 3. ? Aesthetic of Primitive Mask of the Himalayas 2. :-) A journal article. ? The youth and the T-shirt design 5. 1. ? cheap 3. The word archaic (in the first line of the last paragraph) can be best replaced by …. ? The T-shirt industry and the youth subculture 4. 8. 1. :-) banned 5. 2.1. ? Styles of the Primitive Mask of the Himalayas 4. :-) prehistoric 9. The above text is probably found in …. ? 2 2. 1. ? tedious 2. ? Terai 2. 4. ? A newspaper editorial. 3. 1. X The Buffalo German club won the first medal sport on the Olympic for basketball. ? T-shirt design is changing rapidly among the youth. ? The first basketball program on the Olympic in 1904 was contested by only American club teams. :-) 6 3. ? 8 5. 2. ? disturbingly 4. ? 4 4. ? that 4. X The masks are priceless to the Himalayan people. ? An announcement board 4. :-) disturbing 13. :-) whether 3. :-) Tribal masks of the Himalayas 3. ? reproduction 3.. :-) T-shirt is getting cheaper and cheaper 3. ? That is why T-shirt is so popular among the youth. ? disturb 5. 10. Which of the following is best for the last sentence of the paragraph? 1. 1. :-) While 11. ? disturbance 2. 1. ? denied 12. ? The T-shirt industry and the changes of design 2. 5. X The masks are considered holly to the Himalayan people. 3. ? The changes of T-shirt trends and design 4. ? The West of Himalayan Art 6. ? Kathmandu valley 4. X Until 3. ? until 2. 5. The irrelevant sentence in the above text is sentence number …. :-) Nepal 5. X The USA won all the Olympic medals until 1972 when they were defeated by the Soviet Union. ? although 14.

or 10 microns. Tan obtained a bachelor's degree in English and linguistics and a master's degree in linguistics and eventually established herself as a highly successful business writer. each 0. excel academically. however.001 centimeter. including Chinese. Diatoms are tiny plants that form the base of the oceanic food chain. "End game. was not satisfied despite her material success. In the shallow water of the shelf. Tan. which included such exalted professions as neurosurgery. rebelled against her parents' expectations. and other small fish. the American-born daughter of Chinese immigrants. are being used in the manufacture of television picture tubes and other cathode-ray tube devices.000 fibers. expecting Amy and her two brothers to think like Chinese but to speak perfect English. Tan was surprised to learn that on the strength of her short stories she had received an advance from a publisher. Optical fibers carry voice messages for telephone service. and devoted herself to being thoroughly American and dreaming of being a fiction writer. Questions 7-14 Amy Tan. melting glaciers raised the sea level by 400 feet. the diameter of the fiber may be as small as 5 microns. Tan's parents. these minute plants receive the sunlight they need for photosynthesis. particularly to inspect or control operations in inaccessible areas. Ideal conditions for abundant marine life make the riches of the continental shelf unparalleled. The sixteen interrelated stories that constitute the work alternate between the tales of four Chinese immigrant mothers and their Americanized daughters. in some places for hundreds of miles. which causes a transmitting laser to send coordinated pulses of light through the optical fibers. Questions 15-20 Maine's jagged ribbon of rocky coastline wasfashioned over millennia by the violent forces of the inner earth. fjords. well received by the critics and appearing on the New York Times bestseller list. Light-wave communication systems can handle an immensely greater number of telephone calls and television programs than the current system. Tan felt a sense of completeness. The most common fiberscopes contain about 750. called a faceplate. This immense quantity of food supports vast shoals of shrimp. they can transmit images. and take advantage of every circumstance that might lead to success. skin tissue. and stony debris moved seaward from the continent by the glaciers and carried by rivers. Beneath the sea a long. in essence drowning the coast and forming thousands of islands. a bonding with the country and its culture that she had never expected. a trip that proved to be a turning point in her life and career. the light pulses are converted to electrical signals and the voice message is reconstructed. in diameter. pressed down the entire land mass beneath. however." and then a second. to a depth of about 600 feet before dropping into the ocean's depth. The weight of the glaciers. and they All form the basis of the "electronic superhighway" expected to crisscross the nation in the near future of the information age. It has been translated into 17 languages. and blood cells. In the medical field.and transparent acrylic plastic are capable of conveying light energy." In 1987 Tan visited her half-sisters in China with her mother. Miniature probes have also been developed to view muscle fiber. Meanwhile. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions lifted and crumbled plains to form mountains that again rose and fell as molten materials welled up in huge bulges that solidified into the granitic rocks typical of the Northeast. Fiberscopes have also found varied uses in industry. Tan. physicians use fiberscopes to examine internal organs and as an aid in delicate surgeries. The sound of the voice is electronically broken down into thousands of pulses per second. in an exploration of the generational and cultural tensions experienced by many first-generation daughters of immigrants. For certain uses. Returning from China. when their blooms carpet the ocean floor. the shelf provides the perfect environment for diatoms. especially on long summer days. the best selling Joy Luck Club. Turning to her life-long dream. and was made into a movie in 1993. sand. It was a resounding success. gentle underwater slope formed. Huge glaciers also sculpted the coast. Tan closed her business and wrote the remaining stories for the Joy Luck Club. she wrote her first short story. estimated to have been between one and two miles thick. herring. "Waiting between the Trees. This continental shelf falls gradually outward and downward. At the receiving end. which in turn are food for the larger fish that are part of the legendary abundance of the Northeast's continental shelf. Fiberscopes have a wide range of applications. The most far-reaching applications of fiber-optic technology are in communications. Aided by the cold Labrador current which is saturated with oxygen and minerals. on which was deposited the mud. received the Commonwealth Club Gold Award in 190'9 for her first work of fiction. Bundles of fiberscopes fused together in a solid plate. like many immigrants. and bays. had high expectations for their children and often set confusing standards. . and when thousands of these fibers are combined in what is called a fiberscope. scraping and chiseling the land's features as they passed on their way to the sea.

X 500. X will decrease in importance as they become more common 5. State officials were required to take an oath to support the Constitution. properly called tortoises. Gopher tortoises are so called because they dig long burrows. How do optical fibers carry voice messages? 1. ? extremely smallhard to reach 4. The hardscaled soles of the hind feet cover the openings at the rear. whose age was known to be not less than 180 years. and they are adapted to walking on land by their club-shaped feet. The shell is high-domed in all but a very few forms. :-) hard to reach 2. The passage will most likely be followed by a discussion of 1. ? difficult to find 3. The head can be entirely withdrawn. Berlandier's tortoise. Questions 29 . ? Lines 2-10 6. are the land turtles. :-) By converting electrical signals to light pulses 4. X impossible to climb 4. a veritable work of genius. Approximately how many fibers does a fiberscope contain? 1. X homes and businesses of the future 4. The Constitution. X have reached the peak of their development 2. the states also gained a role in applying checks and balances. :-) Lines 12-13 4. legislative and judicial. on which the enlarged scales may be defensively augmented with still larger spines. X the structure of fiberscopes 2. ? By fusing bundles of fiberscopes into a faceplate 2. and burrowing owls. of which there are approximately 40 different kinds. In their powers to amend the Constitution and to elect the president and members of the Senate. It can be inferred from the passage that fiberscopes 1. is found in the southern United States as far west as New Mexico. such as frogs.000 3. Of these. feeding on grass and leaves. including the three gopher tortoises. X additional uses of fiberscopes in industry 7. The principle of separation of powers was applied throughout the document. X By using cathode-ray tube devices 3. ? 750. 1. The openings at the front and rear of the shell are usually neatly closed by the retracted limbs. X Lines 21-266. Carefully measured checks and balances were inserted to prevent the acquisition or concentration of power in any one branch and also for the purpose of protecting minority rights from the potential rule of the majority. What is the author's main purpose in this passage? 1. ? Lines 18-20 2. but the longest life of any tortoise of which there is an authentic record is of a great tortoise of the Seychelles Islands. however. and state courts were required to recognize the Constitution and the laws and treaties made under it as the supreme law. They are primarily vegetarians.Questions 21-28 The United States Constitution established a political system comprising a national and federal government. Gopherus. which may be nearly 50 feet long and provide a hone for many other animals. ? will play a major role in the information age 4. ? the use of fiber optics in the electronic superhighway 3. Their limbs are covered with hard scales that often have a bony core. Where in the passage does the author discuss the uses of miniature probes in medicine? 1. and of persistence. X 25. All tortoises share the ability to live to a great age. is especially fond of prickly-pear cactus. as in Aesop's fable of the hare and the tortoise.000 2. The new federal system accommodated the 13 original state governments while establishing new bodies and powers designed to address national concerns. The word inaccessible means 1. The national government created by the union of states stood above the state governments in specific national matters while acknowledging the role of the states or sharing power with them in other areas.000 4. 3.006 3.34 Living on land. ? By sending coordinated electrical pulses through optical fibers 2. The true tortoises come to water only to drink or bathe. greatly enhanced the power of central government but carefully divided its functions into three distinct branches—executive. a slow-moving inhabitant of the arid lands of southern Texas and Mexico. the elbows meeting in the middle in front of it and the claws of the forelimbs overlapping the lower edge of the opening at the front. X 1. X To analyze Amy Tan's literary works . 1.000. Tortoises have become symbols of leisurely movement. X have more uses in industry than in medicine 3. snakes. of longevity.

? support the Constitution 2. ? neurosurgeon 2. :-) questioning tradition 3. :-) Summer 2. Amy Tan's visit to China 1. 13. :-) Joy Luck Club 2. :-) not equaled 3. ? To support Amy Tan's decision to become a fiction writer According to the passage. 20. ? Earthquakes 4. ? choosing an important profession It can be inferred from the passage that 1. 21. ? Spring The word "them" refers to 1. ? imperceptible According to the passage. ? Tan's parents understood her dilemma but wanted the best for her 4. ? To describe how the rising sea level covered the coastal land 4. X To support the notion that animal life was lost when the glaciers melted 2. ? the states According to the passage. 18. X Tan had always wanted to return to China 2. ? was not surprising in the least The words "the work" refer to 1. ? stories Before becoming a fiction writer. X share power with the federal government 3. 19. 17. ? common 2. X national and federal government 2. X writing 3. 2. :-) It took Tan a while to summon the courage to pursue her dreams 3. state officials were required to take an oath to 1. ? The islands off the Maine coast 3. X was a trip she had always dreamed of taking 2. :-) had a profound affect on her 4. ? Blooms carpeting the ocean floor 3. :-) A cold current saturated with oxygen and minerals 2. 15. X To criticize Amy Tan's rebellion against her parents 4. ? Volcanic eruptions 3. X national matters 4. ? Glaciers 2. :-) To present biographical information about Amy Tan 3. X Parents don't know what's best for their children 3. X Tan always knew she was Chinese foremost and American only in her imagination 2. X speaking perfect English 2. X state officials 3. :-) highly respected 3. X protect minority rights 4. ? common 4. ? very difficult It can be concluded from this passage that 1. ? Ocean currents Why does the author use the phrase "in essence drowning the coast" to discuss the effects of melting glaciers? 1. ? Diatoms existing in the shallow water of the shelf 4. ? A 600-foot drop into the ocean's depth The word "unparalleled" means 1. X Tan started writing fiction in order to make more money The word exalted means 1. X To show the devastating nature of glaciers 3. ? not original 2. 22. X Commonwealth Club Gold Award 4. at what time of year are diatoms ii. Amy Tan was a successful 1. 14. X To indicate the importance of natural disasters What are the "ideal conditions" the author is referring to? 1. X publisher 3. the greatest abundance? 1. X Tan did not use personal experience in her writing 4. :-) The formation and characteristics of the Northeast coast 16.8. X rivaled 4. 2. 23. X Autum 3. 9. 11. ? Tan made the right decision when she closed her business With which of the following topics is the author primarily concerned? 1. ? was disappointing 3. ? The riches of the continental shelf Which of the following is NOT mentioned as having affected the creation of Maine's rocky coastline? 1. 10. X excelling academically 4. X recognize the Constitution as a work of genius The word "amend" could best be replaced by . :-) business writer 4. ? Winter 4. ? English teacher The expectations of Tan's parents included all of the following EXCEPT 1. X The effect of the movement of ice sheets on the shape of the land 4. 12.

ragtime songs. "Maple Leaf Rag" is a classic example of ragtime. is a style of composed piano music that was popular from the 1890s to about 1915. X restricted 3. 4. The passage preceding this one is probably about 1. where each letter represents a melodic phrase. 28. Ragtime quickly gained popularity after its first appearances. is a style of jazz characterized by an elaborately syncopated rhythm in the melody and a steadily accented accompaniment. X public housing 3. while the left hand steadily maintains the beat with an "oom-pah" accompaniment. ? frogs 2. 2. ? construct The author of the passage is probably an expert in 1. 11. ? Line 21 4. :-) water turtles 2. ? disapproval 2. :-) Line 16 2." was published in 1899. ? didn't believe that the state and federal branches of the government could work well together 4. A ragtime piece usually consists of several similar melodies that take such forms as AA BB A CC DD or Introduction AA BB CC DD EE. it has the standard AA BB A CC DD form.24. ? They have long lives. ? tortoises 4. The word "augmented" could best be replaced try 1. . ? Their head can be entirely withdrawn into the shell. :-) They are well adapted to water 2. The pianist's right hand plays a highly syncopated melody. X provided the states with the most power to govern 3. and each section is 16 bars in length. :-) wanted to avoid usurpation of power by any individual or body 2. 29. reaching millions on a national scale through sheet music. . :-) grass and leaves 4. X balance 3. ? snails 4. :-) The characteristics of land turtles 4. X enhance 4. ragtime played an integral part in the jazz legacy. ? They have retracting limbs. ? humor 3. X To persuade the state legislators to support the Constitution 2. X To summarize the role of the Senate 4. 26. Early jazz musicians often used ragtime melodies as introductions to their improvisations. X scales 2. ? Line 14 3. and piano style. duple meter (2/4. Ragtime piano music has a generally standard form. 3. ? owls Reading Test Questions 1-8 Ragtime. ? The difference between the 40 different kinds of land turtles 3. or two beats per measure) performed at a moderate march tempo. player pianos. 1. 27. X feet 32. 30. :-) commendation It can be concluded from the passage that the authors of Constitution 1. About three minutes long. The leading ragtime composer was Scott Joplin. ? intended above all to preserve the unity of the states What is the author's main purpose in the passage? 1. ? social science 4. known as the "King of Ragtime. X contained 4. but the rhythms are rooted in AfricanAmerican folk music. :-) change 2. ? To discuss one of the principal elements of the Constitution What is the main topic of the passage? 1. and arrangements for dance and marching bands. developed primarily by black pianists. 31. 25. "Maple Leaf Rag. steady beat. ? enhanced 34. X limbs 3." whose most famous piano piece. X added 2. ? snakes 33. The word "their" refers to 1. features the typical ragtime right-hand syncopations. :-) political science Where in the passage does the author describe the three branches of government? 1. in march tempo. ? burrowing animals 3. the same rich body of music that became a vital source of jazz. ? The life of spans of tortoises Which of the following not mentioned as a characteristics of tortoises? 1. With its syncopations. X prickly pear cactus 3. Gopher tortoises primarily eat 1. ? Line 8 The author's attitude toward the Constitution is one of 1. The forms of ragtime derive from European marches and dances. X To mention the roles of state officials in government 3. The opening melody. X minority issues 2. ? indifference 4. X The symbolism associated with tortoises.

and south onto the central plateau of Mexico. The plains bison once ranged from Pennsylvania and Georgia to the Rockies. create a three-dimensional model. and ultimately its greatest use. When blizzards rage across the North American prairie. They made great use of stone for milling and for making tools and weapons. Questions 27-33 The Chumash people inhabited an area of southwestern California that included large portions of present-day Los Angeles. Their large domed huts were framed by willow poles covered with mats made from twined bulrushes harvested from the marshlands. Questions 20-26 As computers have become powerful tools for the rapid and economic production of pictures. research. One of the initial uses of computer graphics. so its surface area is greater than that of Earth. It was once thought that the Red Spot might be a solid or semisolid body floating in Jupiter's outer gas. Over the past century the total longitudinal drift has amounted to approximately 1200°. Computer art also has creative and commercial art applications. for the bison use their hooves and massive heads to clear away the snow and then feed on the grasses below. generally referred to as computer-aided design (CAD). From the trees. training. and at times it has been invisible. has been as an aid to design. It is well placed for observation for several months in every year and on average is the brightest of the planets apart from Venus. computer graphics has emerged as one of the most rapidly growing fields in computer science. and cost models to summarize financial. . this does not present a problem. It has shown variations in both intensity and color. However. however. charts.000 kilometers wide. spacecraft. Bison are strong survivors and have few predators except for humans. and several types of canoes. and it may not be permanent. who reduced their population to the point at which. bows. The latitude is generally very close to -22°. and even go for a simulated "walk" through the rooms or around the outside of the building. and film productions. Other endangered species need the same planning and protection. There are no true seasons on Jupiter because the axial inclination to the perpendicular of the orbital plane is only just over 3°—less than that for any other planet. the Pioneer and Voyager results have refuted that idea and proven the Red Spot to be a phenomenon of Jovian meteorology. there were fewer than a thousand plains bison left. where it is used in advertising. and Medicine.000 kilometers long and 14. They took advantage of the rich resources of their homeland. Although the Chumash were accomplished fishers and hunted a variety of animals. scientific. Its longevity may well be due to its exceptional size. For threedimensional rendering of machine parts. the plains bison and the woodland bison. Architects can design a building layout. In winter the vegetation on which these animals feed may be hidden beneath a deep blanket of snow. and economic data. north is the edge of the Canadian forest. particularly for computer animation. At its greatest extent it may be 40. including elk. Ventura. However. mathematical. One of its greatest advantages is that designers can see how an object will look after construction and make changes freely and much more quickly than with hand drafting. the largest and most durable of which could hold up to twelve people and ply the open ocean. Plant fiber was also used to weave baskets with beautiful. around 1900. As an educational aid. and San Luis Obispo counties as well as the Channel islands. bison lower their heads and face directly into the storm. engineers now rely on heavily on CAD. with protection and careful breeding they have been brought back to the point where their numbers can be multiplied at will. Though the latitude of the Red Spot varies little. and ship designers use CAD techniques to design vehicles and test their performance. aerospace. It is used routinely in such diverse areas as business. The bison has a great tolerance to-cold. intricate patterns that are regarded as being among the finest in the world. Large herds presently range on both government and private lands where they are protected. but there are signs that it is decreasing in size. which is achieved by a sequential process. statistical. education. where it is used to create graphs. computer graphics can be used to create weather maps and cartographic materials.Questions 9-13 In North America there are two forms of bison. it drifts about in longitude. Jupiter's less than 10-hour rotation period gives it the shortest day in the solar system insofar as the principal planets are concerned. Business graphics is another rapidly growing area of computer graphics. Santa Barbara. Building designs are also created with computer graphics systems. though for relatively brief periods Mars may outshine it. they used wood to make bowls. industry. Questions 14-19 Jupiter is the largest and most massive planet and is fifth in order of distance from the sun. Several smaller red spots have been seen occasionally but have not lasted. government. art. but it always returns after a few years. Automobile. publishing. The most famous mark on Jupiter is the Great Red Spot.

at least threefourths of their diet consisted of plant foods. X Seeking shelter behind boulders 3. A typical village consisted of several domed houses. ? numbers 2. roots. Which of the following is NOT. and bulbs. X show how ragtime is arranged 2. The Chumash lived in villages that were connected by social. X arrangements for marching bands 4. X national parks of North America 4. 9. tools. nets. The word "it" (bold) refers to 8. :-) Ragtime has an easily recognizable rhythm. ? the axial inclination is only just over 3° 2. X Bison are more fragile than they appear. :-) In the open The word "range" (bold) means to 1. and one or more sweatlodges. ? Ragtime is a completely different form of music than jazz. X player pianos 3. Plants were also used to make medicines. a field for game playing. seeds. At its height the Chumash nation consisted of 20. 3. X never changing 2. X Ragtime music is complex and hard to identify. The author's main purpose in the passage is to 1. X syncopated melody 2. ? criticize the compositions of Scott Joplin 2. ? Behind trees 4. 10. 12. X each letter Which of the following conclusions can be made from this passage? 1. including flowers. The Chumash were avid traders with other western tribes. leather. :-) a melodic phrase 4. from which they made flour. rabbits. ? unmoving 7. each with one or more granaries. ? In caves 2. ? Highly syncopated melody 5. :-) compositions for orchestras 2. X humans 3. 1.000 people. X Bison will eventually be extinct. X cold-blooded animals of the Southwestern desert 2. and economic ties. X predators The passage supports which of the following conclusions? 1. utensils. 1. Jupiter has the shortest day among the principal planets because 1. X Sixteen-bar sections 3. According to the passage.America According to the passage. ? the endangered grizzly of North .000 to 30. X melodic phrase 2. X attached to the ground 4. :-) "Maple Leaf Rag" 3. a ceremonial dance ground. ? Art History 6. X surround 4. Ragtime reached people nationwide through all of the following EXCEPT 1. who inhabited 75 to 100 villages. X drive a long distance 2. X Left-hand accompaniment 4. :-) discuss the origin and elements of ragtime 4. ? move about According to the passage. ? there is the interference of the Great Red Spot 3. 4. X the diversity of climates in America 3.antelope. headdresses. grains. The word "rooted" (bold) means 1. 3. ? ragtime 4. beads. ? compare ragtime and jazz 3. ? it is on the average the brightest of all the planets . 4. The topic of the passage following this one would likely be about 1. a burial ground. :-) Music Appreciation 3. :-) its rotation period is shorter than 10 hours 4. X bison were native to a limited territory. X Social Studies 4. characteristic of ragtime? 1. Their most important food source was the acorn. who bartered for Chumash hides. 2. :-) derived from 3. :-) plains bison 4. and squirrels. The word "their" (bold) refers to 1. the letters A in AA and B in BB each represent 1. fruit. ? march tempo 4. :-) Fast march tempo 2. 14. This passage would be part of required reading in which of the following courses? 1. ? sheet music 3. deer. leaves. The Chumash even had a currency represented by a string of small white shell beads. 2. where would bison be found during a severe winter storm? 1. baskets. 13. 11. X African-American history 2. and canoes. X cook on a stove 3. ? Ragtime was popular only with African-Americans. ? oom-pah -accompaniment 3. ? The bison population can be controlled. political.

? applications of CAD in medicine 23. ? Routine uses of computers 2. ? jobs 2. ? argumentative 16. :-) computer animation 3. ? leather 31. ? were an industrious. ? The impact of the Chumash legacy 4. :-) A description of Chumash life 28. Mars outshines Jupiter 1. According to the passage. According to the passage. With which of the following topics is the author primarily concerned? 1. What does the passage mainly discuss? 1. X inspect buildings 24. :-) rendering machine parts 4. X cost models 4. The Chumash currency was represented by 1. ? a simulated "walk" through model rooms. ? did not make the most of their natural resources 2. ? every several months 17. ? students of anthropology 4. X Lines 12-14 4. It can be inferred from this passage that Jupiter's Great Red Spot 1. X brilliance 4. X wooden beads 4. X acorns 32. X creativity 4. :-) from time to time 2. X computers 3. X make cartographic materials 4. X on a regular basis 3. The author mentions all of the following goods the Chumash traded EXCEPT 1. 26. :-) were a highly developed people 4. X Computers as the architects of the future 4. ? computer graphics 4. X will become brighter with time 3. The word "applications" in bold means 1. X ecological systems 3. ? create three-dimensional models 3. :-) willow poles 4. X currency and government 4. According to the passage. :-) will one day vanish 2. X create graphs 2. :-) Lines 7-9 25. The author's tone in this passage is 1. X is made of floating gases 4. :-) plant foods 3. Where in the passage does the author discuss the greatest advantage of computer-aided design? 1. ? will continue expanding 19. X canoes 2.15. X computer science 22. ? grains 2. architects use CAD to 1. X The rapidly growing field of computer science 3. The word” Intensity" could best be replaced with 1. :-) neutral 3. The word "it" (bold) refers to 1. ? tools 33. This passage would be of most interest to 1. X fish 4. inventive people 29. X were not artistic in nature 2. ? antelope and rabbits 2. :-) anthropology . ? lived very primitively 30. X surface area 20. The passage was most probably written by a specialist in 1. ? Support for the Chumash nation 2. three-fourths of the Chumash diet consisted of 1. X An analysis of Chumash inventions 3. X Lines 16-18 3. X isolated themselves from other tribes 4. engineers use CAD for 1. X flight training 2. ? layers 27. X density 3. ? fruit 3. The author implies that the Chumash 1. ? nutrition 2. The paragraph following this passage would most likely be about 1. ? supportive 2. ? visibility 2. It can be inferred from the passage that the Chumash 1. X were not a seafaring people 3. ? mathematicians 18. ? Lines 4-6 2. X fields 2. :-) Computer graphics applications 21. ? enthusiastic 4. X advertising 3. X making cost models 2. ? less often than any other planet 4. According to the passage. ? geologists 2. :-) shells 3. :-) amateur astronomers 3. X were a localized tribe 3. :-) uses 3.

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