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Phn I: Gii thiu

PHN I: GII THIU

Phn I: Gii thiu

I. T VN : Trong thi i cng nghip ha hin nay, ngi ph n ngoi vic ni tr cn phi lm vic ngoi x hi. Do vy, qu thi gian dnh cho vic ni tr b thu hp li rt nhiu. Hiu c iu ny, xu hng mi hin nay trong cc nh sn xut thc phm l sn xut ra cc loi thc phm tin li nh: thc phm ng hp, thc ung ng chai, tht ngui ch bin sn Bn cnh , gia v cng ng mt vai tr quan trng trong ch bin thc phm, v ang c cc nh sn xut thc phm quan tm u t sn xut. in hnh trn th trng l cc loi bt ngt, bt canh, mui tiu, mui t, tiu s, tiu xay v mt sn phm mi xut hin trong nhng nm gn y c ngi tiu dng rt quan tm l ht nm. Ht nm l mt sn phm c tng hp t nhiu loi gia v khc nhau nh mui, ng, bt ngt, tiu, hnh v hng v chit t ng vt nh xng heo, tht g, tm. Nhn chung, hu ht cc sn phm ht nm hin nay u ch b sung ngun m t ng vt. Trong khi y ngun m t thc vt cng rt phong ph v c cht lng tng ng, v nm rm l mt in hnh trong s y. Vy t i sao chng ta khng th sn xut ht nm t ngun nguyn liu l thc vt tn dng ngun m thc vt a dng ny. T cc suy ngh trn, chng ti quyt nh tin hnh thc hin ti: Nghin cu quy trnh sn xut ht nm t nm rm a dng ha sn phm ht nm, ng thi nng cao gi tr s dng ca nm rm.

II. MC TIU TI: Nghin cu b sung dch nm vo thnh phn nguyn liu sn xut ht nm nm c mi, v nm c trng, cng nh cu trc ht, mu sc, v hi ha v c ngi tiu dng yu thch. T nng cao gi tr kinh t ca nm rm, a dng ha sn phm, to sn phm mi trn th trng.

Phn I: Gii thiu

III. NI DUNG NGHIN CU: - Kho st qu trnh x l nguyn liu thu c dch nm rm. - Kho st hm lng dch nm rm cho vo. - Kho st hm lng cc loi ph gia: du n, protein u nnh, tinh bt bp v hm lng cc loi gia v.

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu

PHN II: TNG QUAN TI LIU

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


CHNG I: TNG QUAN V NM RM A. TNG QUAN V NM N Cng dng ca nm rt a dng, cng ngy ngi ta cng quan tm c bit n nm. Nm rt giu dinh dng cn thit cho i sng con ngi. Nm c nh gi l mt th rau sch, trong cha nhiu protein v cc loi acid amin: khng gy x cng ng mch, khng lm tng lng cholesterol trong mu Ngoi ra, nm cn cha nhiu loi vitamin nh: B1, B2, C v cc cht Calci, St, Kali, Magie, Phospho, Lu hunh I. Cu to: [1] 1.1. Nm n (Agaricus): thuc ngnh Basidiomycota. Phn ln sng hoi sinh. Bo t ca Agaricus l n bi v ny mm sinh ra h si pht trin di t. S kt hp ca si nm t cc dng kt i khc nhau to nn h si song nhn, ri pht trin rng khng c s kt hp nhn v cui cng cho ra mt hoc mt s th mang bo t c gi l cy nm (basidiocarp). Cy nm gm hai phn chnh: - Phn th qu mc trn mt t m ta thng thy v th si ca nm mc xung di khng nhn thy. - Phn th qu bao gm m nm v cung nm, di m nm c phin nm, ni cha cc bo t c quan sinh sn. Cung nm hay chn nm, phn trn c vng mng dng mng gi l vng nm, v phn di ca cung c b phn bao quanh gc gi l bao gc.
m nm

phin vng nm cung nm

Hnh 1: Cu to ca phn th qu

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu m nm


1.2. Nm c: l nm c c t, khng n c. C loi cha c t gy cht ngi (Amatina phalloides, Averna, Entoloma...), ch cn n 50g nm ti c th gy t vong cho mt ngi khe mnh m khng thuc no cha c. Mt s nm cn gy nhiu bnh v tiu ha, gan thn thn kinh... C mt s nm tit c t ra mi
phi n-

trng sinh trng nh t, nc... 1.3. Cch phn bit nm c v nm n: Khng n nhng loi nm c mu sc sc s, c mi thm hp dn v chng thng l nm c. Khng n cc loi nm khi cn non v lc chng r t ging nhau nn kh phn bit; khng n loi nm khi ct c chy cht trng nh sa. Cng c nhng nm c rt ging nm n nn chng ta phi quan st k th thy c bao gc, m phin, cung, vng. Nm c thng c cc b phn trn. B phn c ca nm nm th qu nm.

vngn m

cung nm

Hnh 2: So snh s khc bit gia nm n v nm c II. VAI TR CA NM N TRONG I SNG: [2] Nm c xem l mt loi rau, nhng l loi rau cao cp. Hm lng m (protein) ca nm thp hn tht, c nhng li cao hn bt k mt loi rau qu no khc. c bit c s hin din ca gn nh cc loi acid amin khng thay th, trong c 9 loi acid amin cn thit cho con ngi. Nm giu leucine v lysine l 2 loi acid amin t c trong ng cc. Do xt v cht l ng th

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


m nm khng thua g m ng vt. Thng lng m trong nm cng thay i ty theo loi. Vic b sung m trong nguyn liu trng nm c th lm bin i lng acid amin, nhng gn nh khng lm thay i hm lng m trong nm. Nm cha t cht ng, vi hm lng thay i t 328% trng lng ti. nm rm, lng ng tng ln trong giai on pht trin t dng nt sang dng ko di, nhng li gim khi trng thnh. c bit nm c ngun ng d tr di dng glycogen tng t nh ng vt (thay v tinh bt thc vt). Nm cha rt nhiu loi vitamin nh vitamin B, C, K, A, D, E, trong nhiu nht l vitamin B, nh B1, B2, B3 (acid nicotinic). Nu so vi rau rt ngho sinh t B12, th ch cn n 3g nm ti l cung cp lng sinh t B12 cho nhu cu mi ngy. Tng t nh hu ht cc loi rau qu, nm l ngun khong rt tt. Nm rm c ghi nhn l giu K, Na, Ca, P v Mg. Chng chim t 5670% lng tro tng cng. Phospho v st thng hin din phin v m nm. qu th trng thnh, lng Na v P gim, trong khi K, Ca v Mg gi nguyn. n nm b sung c y nhu cu v khong mi ngy. Nh vy, ngoi vic cung cp m v ng, nm cn gp phn bi dng c th nh vo s di do v khong v vitamin. Lng Na trong nm cng thp, ph hp cho ngi b bnh thn. Nm c cha lng retine cao m cht ny l yu t lm chm s pht trin nhanh ca t bo ung th. Nm cn dng iu tr nhiu bnh nh ri lon tiu ha, ri lon tim mch, cao huyt p, tiu ng, b xng, chng vim nhim. B. GII THIU CHUNG V NM RM I. NGUN GC V PHN LOI NM RM: [4] 1.1. Ngun gc: Nm rm thng mc trn nguyn liu ph bin l rm, nn c tn chung l nm rm (Straw mushroom). Loi nm c trng ph bin c tn khoa hc l VOLVARIELLA VOLVACEA.

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


Nm rm thuc : Ngnh B Phn h Chi Loi 1.2. Phn loi: Nm rm l nm nhit i v cn nhit i. Theo Shaffer, d kin c 100 loi, trong c 20 loi c ghi nhn v m t, c loi mu xm trng, xm, xm en, kch thc ng knh cy nm ln nh ty thuc tng loi. 1. V. volvacea (Bull.) Sacc. (*) 2. V. microspora Heinem 3. V. palmicola (Beeli) Heinem 4. V. diplasia (Berk & Br.) (*) 5. V. castanea Masse. 6. V. delicatula Berk & Br. 7. V. terastrius (Berk & Br.) 8. V. media (shum.) Fr. 9. V. liliputiana P. Henn 10. V. woodrowiana Masse 11. V. thwaitesii Hooker 12. V. bombycina (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Sing. 13. V. acystidiata Pathak. 14. V. pusilla (Pers. ex Fr.) Sing. 15. V. congolensis Pathak. : Basidimyrota (m khun) : Agaricales (ph nm tn) : Pluteaceae : Volvariella : Volvace

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


16. V. striata Pathak. 17. V. mammosa Pathak. 18. V. esculenta Masse (*) 19. V. bakeri (Murr.) Shaffer (*) 20. V. parvispora Heinem (*) c th cng loi. V. esculenta v V. diplasia c s phn bit khng r rt lm. Loi nm rm la bc V. bombycina (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Sing. thng gp trn g mc. M nm ca loi ny c mu trng v nhiu lp vy sng lp lnh nn gi l nm bc (Silver mushroom), tai nm giai on ko di (elongation) cng di hn nm rm V. volvacea gn gp i. II. CC C IM CA NM RM: [3, 4] 2.1. c im hnh thi: Mi cy nm rm gm : Bao gc (volva): di v cao, lc nh bao ly tai nm. Khi tai nm trng thnh, n ch cn li phn trm ly phn gc chn cung. Bao nm l h si t nm cha sc t melanin to ra mu en bao gc. Mu bao gc m nht ty thuc vo nh sng. nh sng cng nhiu th bao gc cng en. Bao gc gi chc nng: - Chng tia t ngoi ca mt tri. - Ngn cn s ph hoi ca mi trng. - Gi nc v ngn cn s thot hi nc ca cc c quan bn trong. Do ng vai tr bo v nn thnh phn dinh dng ca bao gc rt t. Cung nm: l b h si xp, xp theo kiu vng trn ng tm. Khi cn non th mm v gin, nhng khi gi th x cng li v kh b gy. Nhim v c a cung nm l: - a m nm ln cao pht tn bo t i xa.

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


- Vn chuyn cht dinh dng cung cp cho m nm. Khi bo t chn th vai tr vn chuyn dinh dng khng cn na. M nm: hnh nn, cng c melanin, nhng nht dn t trung tm ra ra mp. Bn di c 280-300 phin. Xp theo dng tia kiu vng trn ng tm. Mi phin c khong 2.500.000 bo t. M nm cng l h si t an cho vo nhau, rt giu dinh dng d tr, gi vai tr sinh sn. Ngoi ra, nm rm cn c c im chung ging nhau l cc bo t di m nm c mu hng tht. l c im ring ca nm rm m cc loi nm khc khng c.

Hnh 3: Qu trnh pht trin ca nm rm.

1. Giai on inh ghim 2. Giai on hnh trng 3. Giai on trng thnh

a. M nm b. Phin nm c. Cung d. V bao e. Si nm

2.2. c im sinh hc: Nhit thch hp nm rm sinh trng v pht trin l 3235 oC. m nguyn liu (c cht) l 6570%, m khng kh 80%, pH=7, a thong kh, nm rm s dng cellulose trc tip. cc vng nhit i nh Trung Quc, Hng Kng, i Loan, Vit Nam c nhiu iu kin ph hp cho nm rm pht trin. Trng nm, nht l nm r m, s gp phn rt ln cho vic ci thin i sng nng thn, nht l khi gi ca nm rm

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Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


khng thua mt loi nng sn no (hn hn cc loi nng sn nh go, bp, khoai). 2.3. c im sinh sn v chu trnh sng: Chu trnh sng ca nm rm bt u t m bo t (basidiospore). m bo t hnh trng, bn ngoi c bao bng lp v dy. Lc cn non c mu trng, sau chuyn sang mu nu bng. Khi chn c tm thm cetin c mu hng tht. V vy khi nm gi, di m nm ta thy cc phin c mu hng tht. Pha u ca m bo t c mt l nh, l ni ng mm chui ra. Bn trong cha nguyn sinh cht, nhn v mt s git du. m bo t ch cha c mt na s nhim sc th (n) so vi cc t bo khc ca cy nm (2n). m bo t khi ny mm to ra t s cp c t bo cha n nhim sc th (haploide). Cc si t s cp c th t kt hp vi nhau to thnh cc si t th cp vi t bo c 2n nhim sc th (diploide). T th cp tng trng dn n to thnh qu th. T th cp c th to thnh b bo t (chlamydospore; cn gi l hu bo t hay bo t vch dy). B bo t l bo t sinh sn v tnh c 2n nhim sc th. B bo t c s c ch u ng cao vi cc iu kin bt li ca mi trng v cao hn so vi cc s i t mm. Chng s c to thnh nhiu, khi cc si t th cp gi hoc mi trng km dinh dng. Cc b bo t ny mm vn cho t th cp 2n.

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Phn II: Tng quan ti liu

To mng ni Ny mm

Khi s to ho th

B bo t

u inh ghim qu mm Hnh nt nh

nh bo t To bo t

M nm N xo

Din bin ca nhn trong m bo t

Chn nm

Hnh nt

Hnh trng

Ko di hay hnh chung

Hnh 4: Chu trnh sng ca nm rm Qu trnh to qu th nm rm gm 5 giai on: - Giai on u hnh inh ghim (pinhead: n nm) - Giai on hnh nt (button) - Giai on hnh trng (egg) - Giai on hnh chung (elongation: ko di) - Giai on trng thnh (mature: n xe) Chu k sinh trng v pht trin ca nm rm rt nhanh chng. T lc trng n khi thu hoch ch sau 1012 ngy. Nhng ngy u chng nh nh ht tm c mu trng (giai on ghim), 23 ngy sau ln rt nhanh bng ht ng, qu to, qu trng (giai on hnh trng), lc trng thnh (giai on pht tn bo t) trng ging nh mt chic d, c cu to cc thnh phn hon chnh . Hu ht cc ph thi ca ngnh nng nghip giu cht cellulose u c th l nguyn liu trng nm rm. nc ta, cc tnh min Nam (t Nng tr vo)

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Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


trng nm rm hu nh quanh nm. Cc tnh min Bc bt u trng t 15/4 n 15/10 dng lch l thun li. Nguyn liu ch yu trng nm rm l rm, r, bng thi, b ma III. GI TR DINH DNG CA NM RM: [3] Bng 1: Thnh phn dinh dng ca nm rm Thnh phn dinh dng m Protein Lipit Carbohydrat X Tro Nng lng Vitamin B1 Vitamin B2 Vitamin PP Vitamin C St Phospho Natri Kali G G G G G G Kcal mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg n v

100g cht kh 90.1 21.1 10.1 38.6 11.1 10.1 369 1.2 3.3 91.9 20.2 17.1 677 374 3455

Thnh phn dinh dng

n v

100g cht kh

Lysin Histidin Arginin Threonin Valin Metinonin Isoleucin Leucin Acid nicotinic Riboflavin Thiamin Acid ascorbic

mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg

384 187 366 375 607 80 491 312 91.1 3.3 1.2 20.2

Bng 2: Thnh phn phn tch ca nm rm

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Phn II: Tng quan ti liu

Mu phn tch

m ban u (%)

Protein th (%)

Bo (%)

Hydrate cacbon (%)

Si (%)

Tro (%)

Nng lng cung cp (Kcal)

Ngun tham kho

Ti

90.1

21.1

10.1

58.6

11.1

10.1

369

ng hp

89.6

22.1

1.0

65.4

11.5

11.5

323 FAO (1972)

Kh

8.3

21.9

13.3

54.8

5.5

10.0

406

Kh lm m li (% tnh trn trng lng kh, nng lng = Kcal/100g trng lng kh). IV. BO QUN NM RM SAU THU HOCH: [5] 4.1. Nhng bin i ca nm rm sau thu hoch: So vi rau qu, thi gian bo qun ca nm rm nhit thng ngn hn nhiu, c bit khi cht ng hoc chng ln nhau trong thng hoc cn x. Nm rm s nhanh chng mt nc v kh ho nu phi trn hoc thi ng nu chng ng. Sau thu hoch, nm rm c th tip tc pht trin t dng bp chuyn sang dng d v dng trng thnh trong iu kin khng c cung cp cht dinh dng lm gim cht lng v khng c ngi tiu dng a chung. 86.4 28.7 14.7 47.8 11.8 8.8 389

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Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


Nhng bin i ca nm rm sau thu hi gm: 4.1.1. Mt nc: Nm rm cha n 90% nc. Lng nc ny mt nhanh do h hp v bay hi v sau khi thu hi nm rm vn tip tc qu trnh sng. Nc mt nhanh khi tai nm n v phin nm pht trin hon chnh. Nc cng bc hi nhanh khi ni c gi v khng kh nng kh. 4.1.2. S ha nu: nm rm c h enzyme polyphenoloxydase xc tc qu trnh chuyn phenolic thnh quinon, v sau cc quinon ngng t thnh cc cht mu n nu . Cc quinon cn kt hp vi cc acid amin thnh phc mu nu sm. Phn ng xy ra vi s hin din ca oxy. Hin tng ha nu khc khng cn s hin din ca enzyme xc tc lin quan n phn ng gia ng kh v cc acid amin (phn ng Maillard, to melanoidine). Tuy nhin, qu trnh ny xy ra rt chm khi cc t bo cn sng. Nm ha nu s lm gim gi tr thng phm. 4.1.3. S thi nhn: Thng gp khi nm rm ti c m cao hay lm kh khng trit ( m ln hn 12%) hoc nm rm b ht m tr li. Khi , vi sinh vt hot ng mnh. Trng hp ny nm rm s b thi nhn, hi . Nu nhim mc, ngoi lm bin cht sn phm, cn c th tch ly c t (mycotocine). 4.1.4. S bin cht: Nm ti sau 4 ngy bo qun, polysaccharide trong nm (thng trn 10%, theo Hammond, 1979) c th gim xung di 5%, trong khi , chitine vch t bo li tng ln 50% lm tai nm cng b bin i. Cc acid bo khng no b oxy ha lm nm b tr mi, thm ch gy c cho ngi tiu dng.

4.2. Bo qun nm rm sau thu hoch:

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Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


Nm rm n rt mau, d l khi hi dng bp, nhng ba bn gi sau nu khng bo qun trong lnh cn thit th n s n bung m nm ra. Khi nm n th mi v cng km ngon, do bn khng c gi bng nm bp. Chnh v vy, khi hi th phi hi nm cn bp v sau phi c tm ni tiu th cho nhanh l mi li nhiu. Trng hp b ng th c cch bo qun di dng kh hay mui, n dn hay bn dn 4.2.1. Bo qun nm rm ti:

Hnh 5: Nm rm ti Sau khi thu hoch a nm rm n tay ngi tiu th cn mt thi gian bo qun thch hp. Nm rm rt d bin i v h hng nhanh nht so vi cc loi nm trng khc. Do vic bo qun nm rm ti cn nhiu kh khn. C 2 cch bo qun: Phng php ca Trung Quc: dng cc thng c 3 ngn, nhit xp vo ngn gia, 2 ngn cn li b gi lnh. Phng php i Loan, Thi Lan: nhit cho vo cc cn x, gia y gi c t ng thng kh, trn mt gi t cc bc giy ng lnh . Mt vi nhit khi bo qun nm rm ti: - Nhit nh hn 0oC: nm c th gi trn 2 tun, nhng khi lm m li d chy ra v h hng nhanh. - Nhit t 46oC: nm h hng nhanh.

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Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


- Nhit t 1015oC: nm cho vo ti PVC c l nh, c th gi nhit 4 ngy vi m mt khong 10%. Ring nm bo qun 15 oC: v cht lng c du hiu hn hn 10oC. - Nhit 20oC: thi gian bo qun lu hn 46 oC, nhng ngn hn 1015oC. - Nhit 30oC: nm chy ra sau 1 m v c du hiu nhim khun. Kt qu trn cng cho thy nm dng bp d bo qun hn cc dng khc. 25oC t l nm n tng t dng trng nhanh chng chuyn sang dng trng thnh. Ngc li, tai nm s chm n nu 15oC trong 4 gi trc . Ngoi ra ngi ta cn c th bo qun nm rm bng bc x ion ha, hoc bng cc loi ha cht khc nhau, k c cc cht chng oxy ha nhng thng t c hiu qu v nht l khng kinh t. 4.2.2. Bo qun nm rm kh: Nm rm c th c lm kh bng hai cch: phi nng v sy (dng hi nng). Do nm rm ti cha gn 90% nc nn phi hay sy rt chm kh. nm mau kh, ngi ta phi ch bp nm ra lm i hoc thi nm thnh lt mng v ri u phi nng n khi nm kh gin, m bo m cn li 13%, nm s c mu vng rt p. Sau cho vo ti nylon, but kn bo qun c lu. Gp ngy nng tt, tri mng ra nong, ra nia phi hai ngy l kh. Nu phi ngy u cha t th trt ht vo thng ct, hm sau ch nng ln dn tri ra phi tip. Nm rm l loi nm tht mng nc, nhy cm vi nhit . Do s y kh nm rm bo qun bng thit b sy chuyn dng th phi ch n ch k thut, ch sy vi nhit t 4043oC l va v sau tm gi mi c kt qu. Nm rm phi nng khng gi c mi v v mu sc tt bng nm rm sy kh. 4.2.3. Bo qun nm rm theo cch mui:

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Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


Cn bo qun nm rm theo cch mui th lm nh sau: ngm nm vo nc si khong mi pht, vt ra ri ngm ngay vo nc lnh khong nm pht, li vt ra r cho ro nc. Dng chai keo hay lu khp sch (nu mui vi s lng nm nhiu) ngm nm vo nc mui c nng 22%, thm mt cht acid citric, sao cho nm va ngp trong nc mui l c. Trong thi gian ngm mui nh vy nu thy c hin tng b mc, nc b c th nn thay nc mui c bng nc mui mi. Vi cch bo qun nh vy, thi gian bo qun ca nm kh c th c su thng hn v nm mui cng c vi thng. V. THC PHM CH BIN T NM RM: Trong ch bin th cng, ngi ta dng nm rm xo, kho, nu cho, nu canh, nu lu dng cho ngi n chay. i vi ngi n mn c th dng nm rm kt hp vi tht heo, g ch bin cc mn trn nhm to thm hng v m , b dng cho ba n. Trong cng nghip thc phm, mt s sn phm tiu biu phi k n: + Nm rm ng hp:

Hnh 6: Sn phm nm rm ng hp [16]

+ Nm rm ng lnh: l mt mt hng c gi tr xut khu v thnh phm sau khi tan gi (cho li nhit bnh thng) vn gi c mu sc, hng v, trng thi v hm lng dinh dng ban u ca nm rm. Vn cn lu l bao b tt chng oxy ha trong qu trnh bo qun v nhit bo qun n nh gi phm cht n nh. Phn ln vi sinh vt, c bit l vi sinh vt dng a bo, bo t b nh ch nhit thp (nhit ng lnh)

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Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


nhng nu a chng quay v nhit bnh thng, th sau mt thi gian ngn, chng li hot ng nh thng, c bit trn cc mi trng giu dinh dng nh nm rm. V vy nm rm ng lnh phi c x l v sinh trc khi ch bin l nh, yu cu v sinh cao hn nm rm dng sn xut hp v sy. [5, 16] + Nm rm mui: [5, 16] Sn phm nm rm mui c xut khu vi s lng ln v d lm, trnh c vn chuyn nm rm ti i xa, trnh lm bm dp, h hng nguyn liu, ct gi c lu. C th ch bin nm rm mui ngay ti ni trng nm rm, khng cn n thit b phc tp. + Nm rm sy: [5, 16]

Hnh 7: Sn phm nm rm sy kh [16] Cng ngh ch bin nm rm sy cng tng t nh ch bin cc loi rau sy khc, ch cn ch nm rm l loi rau rt nhy cm vi nhit , do ph i ht sc lu n ch k thut. Vn cn quan tm khi sy nm rm l chng bin mu, chng chy, chng tn tht. chng bin mu cn chn nm trc khi sy, tt nht l dng hi nc chn nm 100oC, trong 3 pht. Sau lm ngui nhanh qua nc sch hoc gi mt ri xp vo khay sy c mc li dy lm bng thp khng r. Lp nm dy khng qu 3cm, nhit sy nm khng vt qu 70oC. Qu trnh sy kh tin hnh 30oC, ko di 24 gi. Nhit c th bt u 40oC v sau nng dn ln 45oC, ko di trong 8 gi.

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Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


Ngoi ra c th sy kh 60oC trong 8 gi hoc khi u 70oC trong 2 gi, tip theo 65oC trong 2 gi v 5560oC trong 4 gi na. Hm m ca nm kh thnh phm l 5%, lc ny ht m ca nm kh rt cao nn cn phi bao gi kp thi. Bao b ca nm phi dy chng m, thng ng gi c 200500g cho tiu th l v c 2025kg lm nguyn liu cho cc dy chuyn ch bin thc phm khc. Sn phm nm kh c th chia lm ba loi theo hnh thc: loi nguyn vn, loi gy v v loi bt. Nh vy mc tn dng rt cao. Yu cu cht lng quan trng nht ca nm rm kh l: m phi m bo di 7%, mu sng, khng chy, khng ln tp cht.

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Phn II: Tng quan ti liu

CHNG II: TNG QUAN V HT NM I. TNH HNH TIU TH HT NM TRN TH TRNG HIN NAY: Vit Nam hin nay, th trng ht nm ang rt a dng v phong ph vi nhiu mu m, hng v n thng hiu. Ht nm c v nh mt loi gia v khng th thiu trong bp n ca cc ch ni tr, bi tnh tin dng v hng v m , ph hp cho hu ht cc mn n. Theo kho st ca trung tm dinh dng TP.HCM ti 96 phng, x ca 24 qun huyn trong thnh ph nm 2006 cho thy, t l dn dng bt nm nu n chim gn 60%. [16] Chnh v vy, nm bt c th hiu ngi tiu dng m cc nh sn xut ua nhau ci tin v lin tc cho ra hng lot sn phm mi, t ht nm v tht heo, th t b, cho n ht nm v tm, c. Theo mt bi phng vn thc t: B Hng Mai, 54 tui, qun 3, TP.HCM cho bit, gia nh b dng ht nm t my nm nay. B thng mua 2-3kg mt lc v nh vy s c khuyn mi nhiu. Ch L Th Ngc Hin, 27 tui, th x Th Du Mt, tnh Bnh Dng, mi ln n TP.HCM u gh siu th mua khong 6-7kg ht nm dng trong 2-3 thng. Cng nh b Mai, gia nh ch Hin ch yu dng ht nm trong nu nng, rt t khi dng mui, nht l vi mn xo v canh, ch cng ch dng duy nht ht nm. [16] Da vo bi bo trn ta thy, ngi dn gn nh xem ht nm l th gia v c tn trong ch bin m khng cn dng thm mui, mm hay gia v khc na. ng gc nh sn xut, ng nhin l iu ng mng v sn phm , ang v s ngy mt tip cn ngi tiu dng hn na. Tuy nhin, vic m bo cht lng v a dng ha hng v s l yu t quyt nh s tn ti ca cc sn phm ht nm trn th trng trong tng lai. II. GI TR DINH DNG CA HT NM: [16]

21

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


Thc t trong i sng hng ngy, ngi ta n thun ch ngh ht nm l mt th gia v nu nng, m chng ai quan tm hay n gi tr dinh dng ca n, mc d ht nm cng mang li cho c th mt nng lng nht nh. Cc cht dinh dng ch yu c trong ht nm: a. Cht m (protit) Theo tiu chun quy nh, thnh phn protid l 17.4%. Trong sn xut ht nm, ngi ta b sung thm cc thnh phn m thc vt tng gi tr protit cho sn phm nh protein u nnh, b nm men

b. Cht bo (lipit)
Cht bo trong ht nm vo khong 2.26% v c a vo trong ht nm thng qua thnh phn du thc vt v nguyn liu chnh.

c. Carbohydrat
Ch tiu ny o c theo tiu chun l 25.4%. III. GII THIU VI SN PHM HT NM TRN TH TRNG: [16] 3.1. Ht nm Maggi:

Maggi xng hm

Maggi ngon ngon v g

Hnh 8: Sn phm ht nm Maggi 3.2. Ht nm Aji ngon:

22

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


Aji-ngon tht heo Aji-ngon xng hm v tht Hnh 9: Sn phm ht nm Aji-ngon Aji-ngon tm bin

3.3. Ht nm Knorr:

Hnh 10: Sn phm ht nm Knorr t tht IV. SN XUT HT NM: [17] 4.1. Mt s quy trnh sn xut ht nm trn th trng:

23

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu

4.1.1. Ht nm tm:

Nguyn liu MSG(sss),GMP+IMP, Mui bt, ng bt, Bt sucinate, Lactose, m thc vt, Caramel s 5000, phm vng, cao nm men, Shrimp powder VS83301, Seafood BK 440091, Bt hnh, Tinh bt ng, Bt tiu trng, Ht nm tn dng, nc.

Phi trn

To ht toC: 70-75oC Sy kh

Sng lc

Nghin ht khng t cht lng

ng gi

V thng

Thnh phm

24

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu

4.1.2. Ht nm tht heo:

Nguyn liu MSG(sss),GMP+IMP, Mui bt, ng bt, Bt sucinate, Lactose, m thc vt, phm vng, cao nm men, pork powder CF40304-2, meat flavour, Bt hnh, Tinh bt ng, Bt tiu trng, Ht nm tn dng, nc.

Phi trn

To ht toC: 70-75oC Sy kh

Sng lc

Nghin ht khng t cht lng

ng gi

V thng

Thnh phm

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Phn II: Tng quan ti liu

4.2. Thuyt minh tng qut: 4.2.1. Chun b nguyn liu: Hng ngy cn c vo k hoch sn xut ca xng, t trng c trch nhim vit phiu ngh lnh nguyn vt liu trnh ngi qun l phn xng, sau a cho th kho thc hin lnh nguyn vt liu v giao cho t sn xut. Ch : trong qu trnh giao nhn phi kim tra chnh xc s lng ca tng chng loi nguyn vt liu. Ty theo k hoch sn xut ca xng, ngi phi trn tin hnh chia nguyn liu thnh tng m theo bng Checklist thun tin cho qu trnh phi trn. 4.2.2. Vn hnh my trn: a. Trc khi khi ng my - Kim tra ngun in. - Kim tra thng trn c sch s khng. - Kim tra mc an ton trc vn hnh. b. Vn hnh my - Cho nguyn liu MSG (sss) v mui it vo thng trn. - ng cu dao, bt cng tc v v tr ON, khi hn hp MSG v mui c trn u ta bt cng tc v v tr OFF. - Cho cc gia v cn li vo thng tip tc trn cho u, sau ti p t c cho nc sch vo v trn n khi u (thi gian trn khong 10 15 pht). - M val x y cho tt c nguyn liu trn vo x nha hoc bao PE chun b cho qu trnh tip theo. - Kt thc qu trnh trn, bt cng tc v v tr OFF, cp cu dao in. 4.2.3. Vn hnh my to ht:

26

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


a. Trc khi khi ng my - Kim tra ngun in. - Kim tra silo v li to ht c sch khng. - Kim tra mc an ton trc khi vn hnh. b. Vn hnh my - ng cu dao in cp ngun cho my. - n nt POWER, ci t tc cho my (khong 30 - 40 vng trn pht). - Cho hn hp nguyn liu trn t t vo silo. - n nt ON cho my chy, qu trnh to ht bt u, nguyn liu c p n qua li v c hng u vo khay (b dy t 1 2 cm) chun b cho qu trnh sy (khay phi sch s v c lt giy trnh ht b chy). - Ch trong qu trnh vn hnh my thng xuyn theo di kch thc ht ta hiu chnh tc my cho ph hp. - Kt thc qu trnh to ht, n nt OFF, cp cu dao in. 4.2.4. Vn hnh my sy (DRYING OVEN): a. Trc khi khi ng my - Kim tra ngun in. - Kim tra ng h o nhit . - Kim tra val dn kh vo v ra. - Kim tra ngn sy c sch s khng. - Kim tra cht ca c kn khng. - Kim tra mc an ton trc khi vn hnh. b. Vn hnh my - Cho tt c cc khay cha ht nguyn liu vo 2 ngn ca my. - ng cht ca my sy.

27

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


- ng cu dao cp ngun in cho my. - Ci t nhit sy (700C 750C), thi gian sy (3h - 4h). - M hon ton val x kh, m 50% val ht kh. - Bt cng tc v v tr ON. - n nt iu khin qut (Fan Start) v ngun nhit (Hearter) v v tr ON. - Khi nhit trong ngn sy t ti nhit ci t th m hon ton val ht kh. - Khi ht thi gian ci t my sy t ng ngt, m t kim tra xem nguyn liu kh cha. + Nu cha kh, qu trnh sy tip tc. + Nu kh m bo, qu trnh sy kt thc, n nt OFF, cp cu dao in 4.2.5. Vn hnh my sng: a. Trc khi khi ng my - Kim tra ngun in. - Kim tra tt c cc li sng, v sinh c sch s khng. - Kim tra mc an ton trc khi vn hnh. b. Vn hnh my - ng cu dao in, n nt ON khi ng sng. - Cho nguyn liu t t vo phu hng liu, kim tra cht lng sn phm sau khi sng khng ch lng vo ra cho ph hp. - Sn phm sau khi sng c cha trong x nha hoc trong bao chun b cho qu trnh ng gi. - Sn phm sau khi qua sng khng t v cht lng v kch thc s cho vo my nghin v b sung vo qu trnh trn ca m k tip. - Kt thc qu trnh sng, n nt OFF, cp cu dao in.

28

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


4.2.6. ng gi (bng tay): a. Chun b ti, thng carton - Nhn y cc chng loi ti, cc loi thng carton: 100g, 150g, 200g, 300g, 500g theo k hoch. - Sp xp cc loi ti vo cc gi ng cho gn gng, m bo v sinh an ton thc phm. b. In ti - Kim tra v lp bng than vo my in, in ngy thng nm theo t sn xut cho ph hp. - t nhit cho my in, ch cho nhit t, dng chn dp ln bn p dp in ngy thng vo ch cn in trn bao b theo ng v tr v ng chiu, u, r rng. Tin hnh in hng lot s lng ty thuc vo s t v sn lng. - Trong khi tin hnh in, ngi vn hnh phi lun tp trung theo di kp thi x l nhng sai st nh: b nhe, b b nt hoc sai v tr th c th dng gi nhng cn lau i in li cho ng. - Trong qu trnh in ngi vn hnh phi kim tra khong cch gia cc s in bng than iu chnh in sao cho tit kim, m bo cht lng. c. In thng carton - In ngy thng sn xut trn thng ph hp vi ngy thng sn xut trn ti, dng du nhng vo mc va v in ln v tr ca thng theo qui nh. d. Bao gi - Chun b thng cha sch cha sn phm, y np, chuyn ti v tr ng gi. - Dng go mc sn phm vo phu. - Dng ti hng lng sn phm sau mi ln cp. - t ti ln bn cn in t 5kg, nu d th bt ra, thiu th cho thm vo. - Dung sai cho php ca mi chng loi trng lng cho php.

29

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


Sau khi cn xong, ti c dn li. Nhit ca my dn t t 100 0C 1250C. B rng ca mp dn 5mm 12mm. Yu cu mp dn phi nhit kt dnh, phng, khng c bt kh bn trong. - Chi, lau thanh dn bng bn chi cc hoc st c thm nc. C khong 50 ln dn th lau v sinh 1 ln. e. V thng - Xp gi sn phm vo thng ng chng loi c ng du loi sn phm v in s t, ngy thng sn xut, sau dn kn bng bng keo. Sn phm c bit xut cho siu th hoc khuyn mi s c ng du hoc dn tem nhn bit theo qui nh. - Xp thng gn gng thnh tng chng trn balet ph hp vi chiu cao ca kho. - Dng xe nng tay ko balet vo kho thnh phm, t ng ni qui nh. - t balet thnh phm vo kho theo nguyn tt nhp trc xut trc, nhp sau xut sau. 4.2.7. ng gi t ng: theo hng dn quy trnh ng gi t ng.

30

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


CHNG III: GII THIU V MT S PH GIA S DNG TRONG SN XUT HT NM [6]

I. MUI: Mui NaCl c vai tr quan trng i vi sc khe con ngi. Trung bnh c th cn 10-15 gam mui NaCl/ngy, trong thc n t nhin c sn 35 gam, phn cn li c b sung vo thc n hng ngy. Mui NaCl khng c c tnh nn c th s dng theo lng ty thch, tuy nhin do v mn nn ngi ta ch s dng sao cho thc n c v va phi. Mui lm tng tnh kt dnh ca actin v miosin trong tht do to p sut th m thu. Mui lm nhim v trung ha m, lm cho chng c kh nng gi cht bo v nc lin kt, ha tan protein. Mui c tnh st khun nh c th ngn s pht trin ca mt s vi khun gy bnh, gim s oxy ha, lm c ch cc vi sinh vt hiu kh v mui lm O2 t ha tan trong mi trng.

31

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


Bng 3: Tiu chun ca mui n MUI TINH-TCVN(3973-1984) Tn ch tiu Mu sc Mi V Trng, trong Khng c mi Dung dch mui 5% c v mn thun khit, khng c v l Dng bn ngoi C ht Kh ro, ti u, trng sch 115mm Yu cu

Hm lng NaCl theo % khi > 97% lng kh Hm lng cht khng tan < 25% trong nc tnh theo % khi lng cht kh

II. BT NGT (M CHNH): Cng thc ha hc ca bt ngt l: C5H8NO4Na.H20 Bt ngt l mui ca acid glutamic vi natri, trng thi kt tinh c v ngt du trong nc gn ging nh v ca tht, ng vai tr quan trng i vi i sng con ngi v c s dng ph bin trn th gii. N l cht iu v trong ch bin thc phm, lm gia v cho cc mn n nh: cho, m n lin, tht nhn to, cc loi hp tht c, nh m sn phm tr nn hp dn hn v khi bt ngt c a vo c th lm tng kh nng lao ng tr c v chn tay ca con ngi. Ti M, bt ngt c xem nh mt thnh phn thc phm ph bin nh mui, bt ni v tiu. C quan qun l thc phm v dc phm M (FDA) xp bt ngt vo danh sch cc cht c xem l an ton. Vit Nam, my chc nm qua bt ngt l mt ph gia lm tng v thc phm mt cch an ton. Vic s dng

32

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


bt ngt khng c gii hn, tuy nhin ty theo khu v m s dng hm l ng bt ngt thch hp cho tng loi sn phm. Bt ngt l loi bt trng hay tinh th hnh kim ng nh, kch thc ty theo iu kin khng ch khi kt tinh. Bt ngt thun khit 99%, tinh th hnh khi 12mm, mu trong sut, d ha tan trong nc v khng tan trong cn, thm, ngon, kch thch v gic. Bt ngt c mt s hng s vt l nh sau: + Trng lng phn t: 187 + Nhit nng chy: 195oC + pH thch hp: 6.8 7.2 + ha tan: tan nhiu trong nc v ph thuc vo nhit Di tc dng nhit cao (>350oC) v pH, bt ngt s b phn hy rt nhiu. S bin i ca n cn ph thuc vo cc yu t khc nh: cc acid amin khc, cc sn phm phn hy ca ng, sn phm phn hy ca cht bo, cc gc hydroxyl.

33

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


Bng 4: Tiu chun ca bt ngt BT NGT-TCVN(1459-1974) Tn ch tiu Trng thi Yu cu Bt mn, khng vn cc, d tan trong nc, s lng im en trong 10cm2 < 2 Mu sc Mi Trng Thm khng ln chua, khng tanh, khng c mi l khc V Hm lng nc pH ca dung dch Ngt c trng ca bt ngt < 0.14% 6.5 7.0

Hm lng natri glutamat > 80% Hm lng NaCl St Gc sunfat (SO42-) < 18% < 0.05% < 0.002%

III. NG: ng c tc dng to v ngt cho sn phm, lm du v mui, lm mm tht. Ngoi ra, ng cn l cht ph gia lm gim hot tnh ca nc. ng cn kt hp vi mui lm tng p sut thm thu, km hm hot ng ca mt s vi sinh vt khi bo qun. ng c kh nng lin kt vi nc bng lin kt hydro, bin nc t do thnh nc lin kt gp phn lm gim hot tnh ca nc, c ch s pht trin ca vi sinh vt. Bng 5: Tiu chun ca ng NG TINH LUYN-TCVN(1695-1987)

34

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


Cc ch tiu Hnh dng Yu cu Dng tinh th tng i u, ti kh, khng vn Mi v Tinh th cng nh dung dch ng trong nc ct c v ngt, khng c mi v l Mu sc Tt c tinh th u trng ng nh. Khi pha trong dung dch nc ct th thu c dch trong sut. IV. TIU: Tiu c s dng lm gia v trong cc mn n, trong cng nghip ch bin to cho mn n c hng v hp dn. Ngoi ra, tiu cn c tc dng kh mi tanh ca cc loi thc phm gim protein nh: c, tht rng, cua, Trong y dc, vi s hin din ca piperin, tinh du nha, cc v cay, nng c tc dng lm m bng c dng vi hnh trong cho gii cm.

Hnh 11: Hp cht piperin trong tiu Bng 6: Tiu chun ca bt tiu Tn ch tiu Trng thi Yu cu Ti, mn, kh, khng ln tp cht, c ht nh hn 0,2mm Mu sc Mu xm

35

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


Mi v Cay nng t nhin, mi thm c trng Nm mc, su mt Hm lng m Khng c < 13%

Cht khng bay hi chit c (% khi 6% lng cht kh) Tinh du bay hi (ml/100g khi lng 1 kh) Hm lng piperin (% khi lng kh) Tro tng s (% khi lng kh) 4% < 6%

Tro khng tan trong axit (% khi lng < 1.2% kh)

V. HNH: Hnh c trng ph bin nc ta, l mt gia v khng th thiu trong cc mn n, hnh cng c hp cht allixin ging trong thnh phn ca ti. Ngoi ra, hnh cn cha cc hp cht caroten, cc vitamin B1, B2 v vitamin C. Ngoi hnh ta, hin nay nc ta trng nhiu hnh ty Allium cepa L. lm thc phm v xut khu. Trong hnh ty c nhiu hp cht bay hi cha lu hunh c tc dng st khun mnh. Trong 100g hnh c cha: 18 3mg vitamin C, 50mg vitamin B2, 4mg caroten; ngoi ra cn c vitamin E, acid citric, acid tartric, ng glucose, fructose v cc flavonoid. Cc hp cht cha trong thnh phn ca hnh c tc dng kch thch tiu ha, iu tr nhu ng rut km, tr x va ng mch v vim hng. VI. TI: Ti l mt gia v c s dng ph bin trong cc ba n hng ngy, c ngun gc t min ty Chu c trng cch y 2000 nm. Trong 100kg ti c cha 60

36

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


200g tinh du, thnh phn ch yu ca tinh du l allixin (3-Hydroxy-5methoxy6methyl-2pentyl-4H-pyran-4-on). Cht allixin c tc dng dit khun rt mnh v c tc dng chng oxy ha, v th cc sn phm c b sung bt ti thng c thi gian bo qun lu hn. Thnh phn quan trng c quan tm nhiu nht trong ti l glycozid alliin, vitamin C, cc vitamin nhm B, phytosterol, inulin.

Hnh 12: Cc hp cht trong ti Bn cnh , ti cn l mt v thuc ph bin hin nay, c tc dng ko di tui th, chng lo ha, chng x va ng mch v c tc dng iu tr ho. Nhiu lo i dc phm c bo ch v s dng rng ri nc c tc dng nh: lm tan cc huyt khi, h quyt p, gim cholesterol, iu chnh nhp tim, ngn nga ung th phi v cc khi u khc. VII. LACTOSE: Lactose cn gi l ng sa l sn phm tng hp t tuyn v. Sa b cha 43-48g/kg. Lactose tan trong nc khng nhanh v khng ngt nh glucose. Lactose cha mt phn t -glucose lin kt vi mt phn t -galactose qua lin kt -(1-4). Lactose b ln men mt cch nhanh chng do vi sinh vt, ch yu l Streptococcus lactic. Nhm vi sinh vt ny lm chua sa do bin lactose thnh axit lactic (CH3.CHOH.COOH). nhit 1500C lactose chuyn thnh mu vng, 1750C thnh mu nu, gi l lactocaramel.

37

Phn II: Tng quan ti liu


Hnh 13: Cng thc cu to ca lactose VIII. PROTEIN U NNH: Protein u nnh l mt sn phm c ch bin bng cch trch ly protein t u nnh vi hm lng protein cao (> 90%), cung cp cho cc nh ch bin cc sn phm tht l ch yu. Protein u nnh c tnh nng ci thin cu trc hay to cu trc trong cc dng sn phm khc nhau (dng gel, nh tng...), c kh nng gi nc, lin kt cc thnh phn cht bo, protein... nhanh chng nn c a vo trc tip trong qu trnh to nh tng. IX. TINH BT BP: Trong ch bin cc sn phm t tht, tinh bt thng dng l tinh bt bp. Tinh bt to ra c, do, dai, dnh, xp.

38

Phn III: Nguyn liu v phng php nghin cu

PHN III: NGUYN LIU V PHNG PHP NGHIN CU

39

Phn III: Nguyn liu v phng php nghin cu


I. PHNG TIN NGHIN CU: 1.1. a im: - Xng thc phm khoa CN ha hc v thc phm, trng H S phm K thut TP.HCM - Phng th nghim ha sinh khoa CN ha hc v thc phm, trng H S phm K thut TP.HCM 1.2. Nguyn liu: 1.2.1. Nm rm: tin hnh nghin cu sn xut ht nm t nm rm, chng ti mua nm nguyn liu t trang tri nm Nam Khnh Vn, p Rch Gi, x nh Thnh, huyn Du Ting, tnh Bnh Dng. 1.2.2. Ph gia v gia v: Chng ti s dng: - ng ca cng ty c phn ng Bin Ha. - Bt ngt ca cng ty CPHH VEDAN Vit Nam. - Mui sy tinh iot ca cng ty TNHH Quang Thi. - Tiu trng, du n mua ti ch Th c - Lactose, tinh bt bp, protein u nnh mua ti ca hng ha cht s 11A ng T Hin Thnh, qun 10, Tp.HCM. - Hng nm, siu bt ngt, bt hnh, bt ti mua ti ch Kim Bin, qun 5, Tp.HCM. 1.3. Thit b: - My c quay chn khng - My sy i lu - My sy hng ngoi - My xay sinh t - Cn in t - Bp gas, ni - Cng cc dng c thng thng khc.

40

II. PHNG PHP NGHIN CU: 2.1. S quy trnh cng ngh ch bin ht nm nm rm: Da vo quy trnh cng ngh v cng thc phi trn ht nm tht heo ca cng ty MIWON Vit Nam, chi nhnh Linh Trung 2 - Th c - Tp.HCM, chng ti a ra quy trnh sn xut ht nm t nm rm d kin nh sau:
Mui bt , ng bt , bt ngt, siu bt ngt, lactose, tiu, bt ti, bt hnh

Protein u nnh, tinh bt bp

Dch nm, du n, nc

Phi trn

To ht toC: 80oC Sy kh

Sng lc Hng nm ng gi

Nghin ht khng ng nht

Thnh phm

Hnh 14: S quy trnh ch bin ht nm nm rm d kin Thuyt minh quy trnh cng ngh: Cc nguyn liu trc khi tin hnh phi trn phi c xay nhuyn thnh dng bt d dng trong qu trnh tin hnh phi trn. Khng nn cc nguyn liu kch thc tng i ln phi trn v kh to hnh, to ht, gim ha tan ca ht nm. Kch thc ht sau khi xay khong 0.2mm. Phi trn: Mui bt v bt ngt xay nhuyn cho vo trn trc cho u, sau cho cc nguyn liu khc vo tip tc trn cho tht k, du n cho vo cui cng.

To ht:
y l qu trnh rt quan trng quyt nh n tnh cht cm quan ca sn phm. Ht to thnh c hnh tr, kch thc: 1.5mm x 3mm. Ht to nn phi ng u, chc. Trong sn xut ngi ta tin hnh to ht bng thit b to ht c h thng p n, v c cu iu chnh kch thc ca ht to thnh c kch thc ng u.

Sy:
Ht nm c sy bng phng php i lu 800C, trong 20-25 pht.

Sng lc:
Sau qu trnh sy, ht nm tr nn cng, vng chc s qua sng c kch thc tng ng kch thc ht. Nhng ht trn sng s tip tc i qua khu ng gi, nhng ht kch thc nm di sn s c nghin mn v em tr l i phi trn cng nguyn liu mi sn xut m sau.

Phun hng:
Kt thc qu trnh sng lc, ht nm c trn mm hoc khay, sau ta tin hnh phun hng u khp. Qu trnh phun hng nn din ra trong mi trng mt, nhm gim s tht thot hng v gip cho hng thm vo ht nm tt hn.

ng gi: Ht nm c ng gi trong bao PP, khi lng tnh l 100g. 2.2. S nghin cu:

Tng quan ti liu

Phn tch thnh phn nguyn liu

Nghin cu phng php x l nguyn liu nm thu dch nm

Kho st t l protein u nnh:tinh bt bp nh hng n cu trc ht nm Kho st t l dch nm nh hng n cht lng ca sn phm

Kho st t l du n nh hng n mu sc ca ht nm

Xc nh hm lng cc gia v cho vo to v cho sn phm

Xc nh cc ch tiu cht lng ca ht nm nm rm

Tnh ton gi thnh sn phm

Hnh 14: S tin hnh nghin cu

2.3. Cc phng php nghin cu: 2.3.1. Phng php phn tch vt l ha hc: [11] 2.3.1.1. Xc nh m (s dng my sy hng ngoi) Nguyn l: S dng nng lng ca tia hng ngoi lm bc hi nc trong nguyn liu. Tin hnh: - Chun b khong 1-2g nguyn liu. - Bt nt khi ng my. - iu chnh n nhit 105oC, cn thi gian sy th ch t ng, my s sy n khi no ht lng m cn xc nh trong mu. - Nhn Enter ghi nhn s la chn ch ny. - M np my, cho mu chun b sn vo, tri mu u trn b mt a nhm. - y np my, my s t ng ghi nhn v hin th kt qu ln mn hnh. - Ghi nhn kt qu khi my c 2 ting bp v hin ch Ready. - Sau khi c kt qu, ly mu ra, v sinh my sch s. 2.3.1.2. Xc nh hm lng protit (phng php Kjeldal) Nguyn l: V c ha thc phm bng H2SO4 m c v cht xc tc. Dng mt kim mnh (NaOH hoc KOH) y NH3 t mui (NH4)2SO4 hnh thnh ra th t do. nh lng NH3 bng mt acid. Tin hnh: Cn tht chnh xc 0.5g mu cho vo bnh Kjeldahl vi 1015ml H2SO4 m c v khong 5g cht xc tc K2SO4/CuSO4. nghing bnh Kjeldahl trn bp v un t t cho n khi dung dch trong sut v c mu xanh l ca CuSO4, ngui. Chuyn dung dch v c ha vo bnh cu, trng bnh Kjeldahl hai ln bng

nc ct. Trung ha bng NaOH 40% vi phenoltalein lm ch th mu. Chun b dung dch bnh hng: Cho vo bnh hng 20ml H2SO4 0.1N v 3 git metyl hn hp. Ct ko hi nc v nh lng trc tip NH3 bay sang ha tan trong bnh hng. Lng H2SO4 cn tha trong bnh hng c chun bng NaOH 0.1N. Tnh kt qu: %N = 14 * (Vo Vt) * X * 10-4 * 100 /m Vo: Tr s trung bnh ca 2 ln th khng (ml) Vt: Tr s trung bnh ca 3 ln th tht (ml) X: H s hiu chnh m: Khi lng mu (g) 2.3.1.3. Xc nh hm lng lipid (phng php Soxlet) Nguyn l: Dng dung mi nng ha tan cht bo trong thc phm. Cn cht bo cn li v tnh ra hm lng lipid c trong 100g thc phm. Tin hnh: Cn chnh xc khong 15g mu nghin nh v gi vo giy lc, em sy cho n khi trng lng khng i. Cho gi giy vo ng chit (sao cho u trn ca gi giy thp hn u trn ca ng xiphng). Lp bnh cu trc sy kh v cn. Cho dung mi vo khong 2/3 th tch bnh cu. M nc cho chy qua ng sinh hn. un t t bnh o cu trn bp (khng qu 50 C). Chit trong khong 812 gi v chit cho n ht cht bo (th). Khi chit xong, ly bnh cu ra, lp ng sinh hn vo v ct ly ete. Sy bnh cu c cha o lipid n khi lng khng i (100105 C), ngui ri em cn.

Tnh kt qu:

X = (P P) / G * 100 (%) X: Hm lng lipid (%) P: Khi lng bnh cu c cha lipid sau khi sy (g) P: Khi lng bnh cu lc u (g) G: Khi lng mu (g) 2.3.2. Cc phng php nh gi cm quan: [13] nh gi cc tnh cht cm quan ca ht nm nh mu, mi, v cng nh cu trc trong qu trnh kho st nh hng ca t l cc loi nguyn liu phi trn, chng ti tin hnh nh gi cm quan theo phng php cho im v so hng. 2.3.3. Phng php x l thng k:[12] X l thng k kt qu bng phng php ANOVA (chng trnh stagraphic 7.0) cho mt yu t, vi s kim tra mc khc bit c ngha ca cc cp nghim thc qua kim nh LSD.

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun

PHN IV: KT QU NGHIN CU V BN LUN

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun

I. Nghin cu qu trnh x l nguyn liu sn xut ht nm: Ht nm thnh phm khi s dng yu cu phi kh ro, cc thnh phn trn u li vi nhau. Khi cho ht nm vo nc phi c ha tan nhanh v hon ton. Nguyn liu s dng sn xut phi c mn, ha tan cao, ng thi phi t cc ch tiu cht lng nh nu phn tng quan. Mt nguyn liu quan trng nhng c tnh cht hon ton khc vi cc nguyn liu cn li dng trong sn xut ht nm nm rm chnh l nm rm. Vic nghin cu s dng nguyn liu nm rm th no hp l nht v mt k thut ln kinh t l mt nhim v ht sc quan trng. Chng ti tin hnh th nghim x l nm rm cc hnh thc khc nhau nh: nm ti, nm sy kh v dch nm c c. Sau tin hnh lm ht nm vi cc hnh thc nm rm c x l nh trn, ng thi nh gi cm quan s b sn phm, chng ti rt ra c nhng nhn xt sau:

Khi s dng nm ti, nht thit phi xay nhuyn nm ra th mi tin


hnh phi trn c. Nm c hm lng cht x kh cao, do vy d xay nhuyn th khi phi trn vn c ln cn nhng ht nm mu en, lm cho ht nm c hnh dng bn ngoi khng p. Mt khc, khi ha tan ht nm vo nc dng s lm cho nc dng b c, khng hp dn. Nu ta tin hnh lc ly nc nm, b b nm th s hn ch c khuyt im trn, nhng lm nh vy th ta s lng ph mt lng ln cht ha tan nm trong b nm. s dng c dch nm ny, chng ti cng phi tin hnh un si dch nm tng thi gian bo qun. V lng cht ha tan trong dch nm khng cao s gy kh khn cho vic bo qun trong thi gian di, mt khc s dng dch nm ny b sung vo sn phm t to mi v thm ngon ca nm. Chnh v th, xt v hiu qu kinh t v s dng, chng ti quyt nh khng s dng nm ti hoc dch nm ti b sung vo nguyn liu.

Vy nu s dng nm kh th kt qu s ra sao? Nm rm kh c thi


gian bo qun rt lu, do vy gip cho qu trnh sn xut c linh hot, n nh

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun


hn khi dng nguyn liu ti. Nhng gi thnh nm rm sy kh hin nay l tng i cao do vy s lm gi thnh sn phm tng ln, mt khc, nm sy kh bng phng php i lu thng thng (gi thnh thp nht) s khng cn v ngt v mi thm nh nm ti. Do , chng ti quyt nh ch s dng nm rm kh khi thiu ngun nm ti do mt nguyn nhn no nh thi tit hay tri ma, su bnh, cn trong iu kin thng thng khng nn s dng nm kh.

Mt phng n s dng nm ti cui cng chng ti a ra l nm c


nu ly dch, sau em i c c ti nng Brix tng i cao, ri s dng dch nm ny lm ht nm. Phng php ny c u im l s tn dng c mi nguyn liu nm t ln n nh, cc loi nm loi 2, c hnh dng khng p nhng cht lng vn tt s dng, do s lm gim ng k chi ph ca nguyn liu. Bn cnh , nm c un nu trong mt khong thi gian s trch ly c hu ht cc cht ha tan trong nm. Nc nm em i c c n nng Brix l 20% s lm tng thi gian bo qun ca dch nm v tng nng cht kh ca dch, c bit l hm l ng protein. T nhng l do trn, chng ti quyt nh chn hnh thc b sung nm vo nguyn liu l dch nm c c. Nm ti sau khi x l s b s c ct nh rt ngn thi gian trch ly, tin hnh nu dch nm nhit v thi gian thch hp trch ly c hu ht cht kh trong nm ti, sau tin hnh c c dch nm thu c dch c c, tin hnh phi trn vi cc nguyn liu khc sn xut ht nm. y l hnh thc n gin, d thc hin, tit kim chi ph sn xut, t n dng ti a cc ngun nguyn liu, ng thi ht nm sn xut ra t c cc ch tiu nu ra phn trn. II. Kho st nh hng nhit v thi gian c c n mu sc ca dch nm: Nguyn liu nm ti sau khi mua v s c x l theo quy trnh cng ngh di y:

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun

Nm ti

X l s b

Ra sch

Ct lt mng

Nc

Nu

p, lc

Dch nm

Lc

C c chn khng

Dch nm c c

Hnh 16: Quy trnh x l nguyn liu thu dch nm Nm rm ti sau khi mua v, gt b chn nm, ra sch, ct lt mng ri cho vo ni nu. Qua nhiu th nghim, chng ti quyt nh nu nm vi cc thng s: + T l 1 nm/ 10 nc. + Thi gian: 2h.

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun


+ Nhit : 800C. Sau p ly nc nm bng vi mng. Nc nm thu c c mu nu nht v hm lng cht kh rt thp v rt thm mi nm. Theo thc nghim, chng ti nhn thy nhit nu nh hng khng ng k n mu ca dch. lm trong dch nm ta tin hnh lc bng vi lc loi phn b mn cn li. Dch nm thu c em i phn tch 1 s ch tiu ha hc v nh gi cm quan s b: Bng 7: Mt s ch tiu cht lng ca dch nm trc c c STT 1 2 3 4 5 Ch tiu Nng cht kh Mu sc trong Mi V 1.6% Nu nht Trong sut Thm mi nm Ngt nm Gi tr

Qua bng phn tch trn, dch nm thu c c nng cht kh rt thp v mu kh nht. iu ny l v hm lng nc trong nm ti cao, ng thi lng nc cho vo trch ly dch nm cng tng i nhiu c th l y c ti a lng cht kh t nm. Nu dng dung dch ny lm ht nm th hm l ng protein trong sn phm thu c s rt thp. Mun cho hm lng ny cao th ta phi dng mt lng nm tng i ln, nh vy s nh hng n cu trc ca sn phm (sn phm s b nho, chy s, khng nh hnh c). Mt khc hm lng cht kh thp s lm cho sn phm t c mi v c trng ca nm. T nhng nhn xt trn, chng ti quyt nh tin hnh c c chn khng dch nm nng cao hm lng cht kh. Qua nhiu th nghim, chng ti quyt nh chn mc nng cht kh ca dch nm l 20 0Brix. V khi lm th nghim th sn phm nm rm lm ra nng ny c mu p, gi thnh hp l. Nu nng

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun


dch qu cao th dch s kh c lm cho qu trnh thu hi khng trit , ng thi tng thi gian v chi ph c c. Dch nm trn em tin hnh c c n 200 Brix theo s sau: Dch nm

C c

A1

A2

A3

Sn phm Hnh 17: S b tr th nghim nhit v thi gian c c Th nghim c b tr ngu nhin, 1 yu t, 3 nghim thc vi 2 ln lp li. Nghim thc A l nhit v thi gian c c, v chng ti c nh nng cht kh cui cng, do vy vi cc thng s khc khng i, mi nhit s c mt thi gian c c tng ng. Bng 8: Nhit v thi gian kho st khi c c dch nm Mu Nhit c c (0C) A1 A2 A3 45 60 75 Thi gian c c (pht) 60 36 25

Tin hnh c c chn khng dch nm, c nh mt s yu t sau: - Nng cht kh trc c c ca dch nm: 1.60Brix. - Nng cht kh cui cng sau c c: 200Brix. - Dch nm em c c: 150ml.

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun


- S vng quay: 110 vng/pht. Cc mu dch nm thu c c nh gi cm quan v mu sc, mi nm v v ngt nm, sau la chn ra mu dch nm tt nht, t rt ra ch c c thch hp nht. Kt qu nh gi cm quan cc mu dch nm c th hin bng di y: Bng 9: Kt qu nh gi cm quan cc mu dch nm c c Mu A1 A2 A3 Mu Nu en Nu en Nu en Mi nm Thm nh Thm nh Mt mi V ngt nm Ngt nh Ngt nh Ngt nh

Qua cc kt qu trn, chng ti c nhng nhn xt sau: - Mu A1: nhit c c thp (450) nn dch nm thu c vn cn gi c mi thm v v ngt nm c trng. Tuy nhin v nhit thp nn thi gian c c kh di. - Mu A2: nhit c trung bnh (600C), dch nm vn gi c mi v v ngt nm, thi gian c c rt ngn li ch bng mt na so vi 45 0C, do vy nhit ny mi nm vn kh r, s khc bit gia mu A2 v mu A1 l khng ng k. - Mu A3: nhit c tng i cao (750C) lm cho cc cu t to hng bay hi mnh nn dch mt mi.

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun


T nhng nhn xt trn, chng ti quyt nh chn nhit c c chn khng dch nm l 600C thu c dch nm c nng cht kh l 200Brix.

A2

A3

A1

Hnh 18: Cc mu dch nm c c III. Kho st nh hng ca t l tinh bt bp v protein u nnh n trng thi cu trc ca sn phm: Trng thi, cu trc sn phm l mt trong nhng ch tiu quan trng ca sn phm, quyt nh n cht lng ca ht nm. Ht nm t cht lng phi c dng ht kh ro, cng, chc, gi c hnh dng trong qu trnh bo qun v s dng. Ngoi ra kch thc ht phi ng u, nh, p mt, c ngi tiu dng a thch. Protein u nnh v tinh bt bp khi ha tan vo nc s trng n v to nn dnh, do dai, gip lin kt cc thnh phn khc trong nguyn liu vi nhau. nhit thng, protein b hydrat ha to nn trng n, kt dnh rt tt, bn cnh khi b sung thm protein thc vt vo cn nhm mc ch tng hm lng protein cho sn phm. Cn kh nng trng n ca tinh bt nhit ny khng cao, v to nn trng thi h ha tinh bt cn nhit cao khong 50-60 0C, nhng gi thnh ca tinh bt bp thp hn protein u nnh kh nhiu. Do vy chng ti kt hp 2 cht ny vi nhau va gp phn to cu trc cho sn phm tt nht, va gim gi thnh cho sn phm.

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun


Chng ti tin hnh thc hin nhiu th nghim vi t l protein u nnh v tinh bt bp thay i t thp n cao, nhng cc nguyn liu khc c gi c nh. Da vo cng thc sn xut ht nm ca cng ty MIWON Vit Nam v mt s ti liu c c chng ti a ra cng thc sn xut ht nm nh sau: Bng 10: Cng thc sn xut ht nm nm STT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Nguyn liu Mui ng Bt ngt Siu bt ngt ng lactose Du n Bt ti Bt hnh Tiu Dch nm Nc Hng nm Ht nm tn dng Khi lng (g) 38 4.3 33 0.2 3 1 0.3 0.4 0.3 5 4-6 0.5 0-2

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun

B tr th nghim: Gia v Tinh bt bp v protein u nnh

B1

B2

B3

B4

Phi trn Sn phm

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun

Hnh 19: S b tr th nghim t l protein u nnh : tinh bt bp Th nghim b tr hon ton ngu nhin 1 yu t, 4 nghim thc vi 2 ln l p li. Nghim thc B: t l % protein u nnh v tinh bt bp trn tng khi l ng nguyn liu: B1: 1% protein u nnh : 7% tinh bt bp B2: 2% protein u nnh : 6% tinh bt bp B3: 4% protein u nnh : 4% tinh bt bp B4: 6% protein u nnh : 2% tinh bt bp. Cc sn phm c em cm quan bng phng php so hng theo s yu thch vi 9 ngi th v 4 ln lp li. Sn phm yu thch nht c xp v tr s 1, t yu thch nht v tr s 4, v tr so hng ca sn phm c quy i thnh im.

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun


Bng 11: Bng quy i t hng sang im Nghim thc B1 S ln lp 1 2 3 4 -2.96 -3.69 -3.69 -4.42 3.69 3.69 2.96 3.69 -5.75 -5.02 -5.02 -4.29 5.75 5.02 5.75 5.02 B2 B3 B4

Da trn kt qu nh gi cm quan trng thi, cu trc cc mu, chng ti c nhng nhn xt sau: - Mu B1 v B3 c kt qu quy thnh im thp nht nh vy vi lng protein u nnh qu thp (1% v 2%) th ht nm c trng thi khng tt, kt dnh khng t, ht b ri rc, nhiu ht b v vn, kch thc ht khng u. - Mu B2 vi hm lng protein l 4% v lng tinh bt bp l 4%, ht t trng thi tng i tt, ht cng, kh ro, nhng hi xp, kch thc ht ng

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun


u, b mt t trn nhn, ht gi c trng thi trong vng 1 thng, kt qu quy ra im ca mu B2 l ng v tr th 3 trong 4 mu, trong khong c th chp nhn c. - Mu B3 vi t l protein u nnh v tinh bt bp l 6 : 2, c kt qu quy ra im cao nht, c trng thi cu trc m chng ti mong mun. Ht nm c a mu ny c dng ht ng u, cng, kh ro, b mt trn nhn, gi c hnh dng trong vng 1 thng. Kt hp vi phng php x l thng k cc s liu thu c kim chng xem s khc bit gia cc mu c ngha v mt thng k khng, chng ti thu c kt qu sau: - Qua kt qu ANOVA (ph lc A) chng ti nhn thy: trng thi v cu trc ca sn phm khc bit rt c ngha vi p < 0.05 (mc ngha). - Sau s dng trc nghim LSD (ph lc A) so snh c im gia cc nghim thc. Kt qu cho thy tng cp nghim thc u c s khc bit nhau c ngha, trong mu B4 c im trung bnh cao nht, mu B1 c im trung bnh thp nht. Do vy chng ti quyt nh chn t l protein u nnh v tinh bt bp cho vo sn phm l 6 : 2. IV. Kho st nh hng ca lng dch nm n cht lng ca sn phm: Trong bi nghin cu ny chng ti s dng hng nm rm to mi nm cho sn phm, nhng khng s dng phm mu to mu. Trong thnh phn nguyn liu c 2 yu t nh hng n mu sc ca ht nm l dch nm v du n. V khng c iu kin nn chng ti khng th nghin cu s tng tc gia 2 yu t ny, m ch c th tin hnh th nghim kho st nh hng ca tng yu t, sau ly kt qu ca th nghim trc ng dng vo th nghim sau. th nghim ny chng ti s dng dch nm c c n Brix l 20% phi trn trc tip vi cc nguyn liu khc. Chng ti mong mun sn phm c mu vng rm c trng cho mu nm rm ti, hng v t nhin ca nm rm, tha

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun


mn nhu cu ca ngi tiu dng khi mun tm mt hng v mi cho mn n ca mnh. V chng ti c nh lng hng nm l 0.5%, do vy hng nm ca ht nm s nh hng bi lng hng b sung ny l ch yu, nhng bn cnh , dch nm c c cng c nh hng phn no n mi hng ca ht nm. Dch nm c c c n 200Brix, do vy c v ngt nm rt c trng. Khi b sung vo ht nm, s gip cho ht nm to c v ngt nm cho thc n. Bn cnh , dch nm c mu vng nu kh m, do vy khi phi trn vi cc nguyn liu khc s gp phn to mu cho ht nm. Nu lng dch nm cho vo qu t, ht nm nm rm s khng c v ngt nm, khng c mu sc v hng thm nm c trng. Nu lng dch nm cho vo qu nhiu th s to v ngt v hng nm nhiu hn, nhng s lm cho sn phm c mu qu m. Mt khc, khi b sung dch nm qu nhiu, lng nc trong nm s nh hng n trng thi, cu trc ca sn phm, lm cho sn phm b chy, khng to hnh c, ng thi lm tng chi ph sn xut. Do , chng ti cn phi xc nh mt hm lng dch nm cho vo thch hp va m bo cht lng cho ht nm nm rm, va tit kim c chi ph cho nguyn liu sn xut. tin hnh phn nghin cu ny, chng ti s dng t l protein u nnh v tinh bt bp c xc nh t th nghim trn. Thnh phn cc nguyn liu khc nh bng 10. Hm lng dch nm s c thay i cc mc 4%, 5%, 6%, 7% v 8% (theo tng khi lng cc nguyn liu). Gia v B tr th nghim: Dch nm

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

Phi trn Sn phm

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun

Hnh 20 : S b tr th nghim b sung hm lng dch nm Th nghim b tr ngu nhin 1 yu t, 5 nghim thc, 2 ln lp li. Nghim thc C: % dch nm theo tng khi lng nguyn liu: C1: 4% C2: 5% C3: 6% C4: 7% C5: 8% Cc mu ht nm sau khi sy s c em i nh gi cm quan v mu sc, mi, v nm ca ht nm. Nhng ngi th s nh gi cc ch tiu ny trc tip trn ht nm v qua sn phm trung gian l canh rau ngt. C 9 ngi th, 1 l n l p l i, chng ti dng php th cho im theo thang 5 im 6 bc cho trc. Kt qu c th hin trn bng sau:

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun


Bng 12: im nh gi cm quan mu sc, mi, v nm ca cc mu ht nm Hm lng Mu dch nm (%) C1 Mi nm C2 C3 C4 C5 C1 V ngt nm C2 C3 C4 C5 C1 Mu sc C2 C3 C4 C5 4 5 6 7 8 4 5 6 7 8 4 5 6 7 8 3 4 4 4 4 2 3 3 4 5 4 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 5 3 3 2 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 5 3 2 1 4 3 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 3 4 2 3 1 3 4 4 3 4 2 3 3 4 5 2 3 2 1 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 5 4 5 5 3 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 2 1 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 5 2 2 1 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 3.44 3.78 3.89 3.78 3.89 2.33 3.56 3.78 4.00 4.22 3.44 4.22 2.78 2.11 1.67 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 im ca cc thnh vin im trung bnh

Tnh cht cm quan

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun


Bng 13: im trung bnh cc tnh cht cm quan ca tng mu theo hm lng dch nm cho vo im trung bnh Mi nm 3.44 3.78 3.89 3.78 3.89 V ngt nm 2.33 3.56 3.78 4.00 4.22 Mu sc 3.44 4.22 2.78 2.11 1.67

Mu C1 C2 C3 C4 C5

5 im trung bnh 4 3 2 1 0 C1 C2 C3 Mu C4 C5
MI NM V NGT NM MU SC

Hnh 21: th biu din im cm quan trung bnh v mi, v ngt nm v mu sc ca cc mu T kt qu trn, chng ti c nhng nhn xt sau y: - Cng mu, mi v v nm tng theo hm lng dch nm b sung vo. - im gia cc mu v hng khng c s chnh lch ln v u vt qu im 3, l ngng trung bnh chp nhn c. Do vy c th thy rng s tc ng ca dch nm n hng ca sn phm khng ng k, do vy ta c th chn lng nm t hn tit kim chi ph.

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun


- V v ngt nm, mu C1 c im trung bnh di 3, mu C2, C3 v C4 c im trung bnh trn 3. V ngt nm tng theo hm lng dch nm cho vo. Quan st trn th ta thy, s chnh lch im gia 3 mu C2, C3, C4 l khng nhiu, trong mu C4 l c im cao nht, mu C2 v tr th 3. - V mu sc, mu sc l mt ch tiu cm quan ht sc quan trng ca ht nm, c s khc bit rt r rng gia cc mu. Mu C4, C5 vi hm lng dch nm l 7% v 8% lm cho sn phm c mu rt m, im trung bnh thp hn 3. Mu C3 c im va trn 3, mu vn hi m hn so vi yu cu, do vy vi hm lng dch nm l 6% vn cha t yu cu v mu sc. Mu C1 v C2 c mu gn tng ng nhau, trong mu C1 c mu nht hn v im thp hn so v i mu C2. Mu C2 c mu vng rm p nht trong cc mu. T cc nhn xt trn, chng ti thy vi hm lng dch nm b sung vo l 5% (mu C2), sn phm tuy c v ngt nm khng bng cc mu khc, nhng s khc bit ny khng ln lm, c th chp nhn c. Mu sc ht nm ca mu ny r t tt, hn hn cc mu khc. Do vy, chng ti quyt nh chn mu C2 vi hm lng dch nm b sung l 5% l mu ti u. Nh vy vi hm lng dch nm b sung vo l 5% tng khi lng cc nguyn liu to cho sn phm ht nm nm rm c mu sc, hng v nm c trng, p ng nhu cu ca ngi tiu dng.

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

Hnh 22: Cc mu ht nm nh hng bi hm lng dch nm

V. Kho st nh hng ca lng du n n mu sc ca ht nm:

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun


Du n cho vo sn phm nhm tng gi tr cm quan v gi tr dinh dng ca ht nm. Khi b sung du n vo nguyn liu, gip cho ht nm thnh phm c mu vng p, ng thi lm cho ht nm c trn bng, c s yu thch ca ngi tiu dng. V du thc vt c mu vng c trng, do vy khi b sung vo s gp phn gip ht nm c mu vng p. Nu lng du t hoc khng c sn phm s c mu vng nht ti trng khng hp dn. Nhng nu lng du qu nhiu s lm cho sn phm c mu vng m n rt m, khng thu ht ngi s dng. Mt khc, du n qu nhiu s lm cho sn phm d b oxy ha, kh bo qun v sau. Do vy, vic xc nh lng du n b sung vo to cho sn phm c mu sc p, tha mn th hiu ca ngi tiu dng, ng thi tng thi gian bo qun cho sn phm l mt th nghim cn thit. th nghim ny chng ti s dng kt qu ca cc th nghim trc, thnh phn nguyn liu vn nh bng 10. Hm lng du n c thay i cc mc sau: 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% (theo tng khi lng nguyn liu). Tng t th nghim trc, mu ht nm thnh phm c em nh gi cm quan bng phng php cho im theo thang 5 im 6 bc , vi 9 ngi cm quan, 3 ln lp. Kt qu c x l thng k. B tr th nghim: Gia v

Du n

D1

D2

D3

D4

Phi trn Sn phm Hnh 23 : S b tr th nghim b sung hm lng du n Th nghim b tr ngu nhin 1 yu t, 4 nghim thc, 2 ln lp li.

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun


Nghim thc D: % du n theo tng khi lng nguyn liu: D1: 1% du n D2: 2% du n D3: 3% du n D4: 4% du n Cc mu ht nm sau khi sy, c em i nh gi cm quan v mu sc bng phng php cho im. Kt qu trung bnh nh gi cm quan c trnh by bng sau: Bng 14: im trung bnh nh gi mu sc ca ht nm nh hng bi hm lng du n Mu Ln 1 Ln 2 Ln 3 D1 3.44 3.33 3.44 D2 4.67 4.56 4.44 D3 2.33 2.11 2.33 D4 1.44 1.56 1.56

Qua kt qu nh gi cm quan trn chng ti c nhng nhn xt sau: - Mu D3 v D4 c im trung bnh thp hn mc im chp nhn c (3 im), mu m n rt m, do vy vi hm lng du n l 3% v 4%, s n phm c mu m hn so vi yu cu, tc ng ca du n n mu sc c a s n phm l rt ng k. - Mu D1 v D2 c im trung bnh cao hn 3, do vy mu sc ca 2 mu ny l c th chp nhn c. Trong , mu D2 c im cao hn, mu sc p nht. Bng php x l thng k vi ANOVA (ph lc B), chng ti nhn thy mu sc ca sn phm cc lng du n khc nhau l khc nhau c ngha. Sau s dng trc nghim LSD (ph lc B) so snh c im gia cc nghim thc. Chng ti nhn thy tng cp nghim thc u c s khc bit c

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun


ngha, trong mu D2 c im trung bnh cao nht, mu D4 c im trung bnh thp nht. T nhng nhn xt trn, chng ti quyt nh chn lng du n b sung vo nguyn liu l 2% l thch hp nht. Do vy vi lng dch nm l 5% cng vi 2% du n s to cho ht nm nm rm c mu sc c yu thch nht ng thi tit kim chi ph nht.

D3

D4

D1

D2

Hnh 24: Cc mu ht nm nh hng bi hm lng du n VI. Kho st nh hng t l gia v n v ca ht nm nm: Ht nm l mt gia v tng hp t nhiu loi gia v khc nhau, khi s dng ngi dng ch cn s dng ht nm gia v cho thc n m khng cn phi s dng thm bt c gia v no khc na. Do v ca ht nm l rt quan trng, quyt nh n cht lng ca sn phm. Ht nm khi nm vo thc n yu cu phi lm cho thc n c mi thm ngon, v hi ha, m , hp dn ngi dng. Mc ch ca th nghim l tm ra t l thch hp nht gia cc gia v gip cho ht nm c hng v c ngi tiu dng yu thch. Chng ti tin hnh th nghim vi t l khi lng cc gia v thay i nh bng 10, cc nguyn liu khc c xc nh t kt qu ca cc th nghim trc.

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun


Th nghim c b tr theo s sau: Nguyn liu Mui, ng, bt ngt, siu bt ngt, ng lactose, tiu, bt hnh, bt ti

E1

E2

E3

Phi trn

Sn phm Hnh 25: S b tr th nghim t l gia v phi trn Th nghim c b tr ngu nhin 1 yu t, 3 nghim thc, 2 ln lp li. Nghim thc E: % t l cc gia v theo tng khi lng nguyn liu: Bng 15: Phn trm t l cc gia v theo tng khi lng nguyn liu (%) Thnh phn Mu i Cng thc E1 E2 E3 32 35 38.5 32 28 25 6.5 8 8 4 3 3 Bt ngt n g Lactose Siu bt ngt 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.6 Tiu

Bt hnh 0.6 0.6 0.7

Bt ti 0.7 0.7 0.5

Ht nm sau khi sy c em nh gi cm quan v v. Phng php nh gi: v ht nm khng th nh gi v trc tip trn sn phm, do vy phi tin hnh nh gi cm quan v ht nm thng qua sn phm trung gian l canh rau ngt. Chng ti tin hnh nu canh vi cng mt lng rau, mt lng nc v sau nm cng mt lng ht nm, ri tin hnh nh gi v

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun


ca canh, t suy ra v ca ht nm. C 9 ngi th, 3 ln lp l i, kt qu thu c em x l thng k bng Stagraphic 7.0 Bng im trung bnh kt qu thu c nh sau: Bng 16: im trung bnh nh gi cm quan v ca ht nm

Mu Ln 1 Ln 2 Ln 3

E1 2.56 2.44 3.56

E2 3.22 3.11 3.22

E3 4.11 4.11 4.22

Qua bng im cm quan, chng ti c mt s nhn xt sau nh sau: - Mu E1 v E2 c v hi nht, c im trung bnh tng i thp. - Mu E3 c v hi ha v c im trung bnh cao nht. Bng php x l thng k vi ANOVA (ph lc C), chng ti nhn thy v ca sn phm cc t l gia v khc nhau l khc nhau c ngha. Sau s dng trc nghim LSD (ph lc C) so snh c im gia cc nghim thc. Chng ti nhn thy s khc nhau gia cc cp nghim thc l c ngha. Chnh v vy, chng ti quyt nh chn cng thc E3 lm cng thc gia v cho sn phm.

Phn IV: Kt qu nghin cu v bn lun

Phn V: Kt lun v kin ngh

PHN V: KT LUN V KIN NGH

Phn V: Kt lun v kin ngh


I. KT LUN: T cc kt qu th nghim chng ti rt ra kt lun sau:

Nhit c c dch nm: 600C. nhit ny, dch nm thu c c mu


sc p v mi v t nht, ng thi c thi gian c c kinh t nht. S dng t l khi lng 6% protein u nnh v 2% tinh bt bp to cho sn phm c cu trc p nht.

Dch nm b sung l 5% to sn phm c mu sc, hng v nm c


trng. T l du n l 2% to cho sn phm c mu p nht.

Cng thc gia v: to cho ht nm c v m : Bot ngo t 25 Sieu Lactose bot ngot 3 0.2 Bot Bo han h 0.7 t toi 0.5

Thanh phan T l

Muo i 38.5

n g 8

Tie u 0.6

Bng 17: % t l nguyn liu so vi tng khi lng

Cng thc sn xut ht nm nm cho 1000g nguyn liu: Mui: 385g Bt ngt: 250g ng: 80g ng lactose: 30g Siu bt ngt:2g Tiu: 6g Bt hnh: 7g Bt ti: 5g Tinh bt bp: 20g Protein u nnh: 60g Du n: 20g Dch nm: 50g Nc: 50g Hng nm: 5g

Phn V: Kt lun v kin ngh


Ch tiu cht lng chnh ca sn phm ht nm nm rm: - m: 4.5% - Hm lng protid: 18% - Hm lng lipid: 2% - Cacbohydrat: 20% - Nng lng (Kcal/100g sn phm): 170 Sn phm ht nm nm rm:

Hnh 26: Ht nm nm rm II. KIN NGH: Do thi hn lm ti c hn v cc thit b phc v th nghim cn hn ch, nn chng ti vn cha th kho st c ht tt c cc yu t nh hng n cht lng ca sn phm. Do vy, chng ti ngh nghin cu tip nhng vn sau: Nghin cu nh hng ca nhit sy n cht lng sn phm. Nghin cu s dng bt nm rm thay th dch nm c c. Nghin cu th hiu ca ngi tiu dng i vi sn phm ht nm nm. Nghin cu sn xut ht nm t nm rm m khng s dng bt ngt.