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APPENDIKS A

HASIL EKSPERIMEN DAN VALIDASI


Hasil Eksperimen
pw 1,5 cm dw=1 mm
panjang tube=45 cm
rate: 0,002 kg/s
titik tes
elemen ke
T (celcius)
1
1
43
2
34
41
3
66
40
4
99
39
5
132
38
6
166
37
7
198
37
8
231
36
9
242
36
10 Tout
35

jumlah tube =10


rate: 0,0025 kg/s
titik tes
elemen ke
T (celcius)
1
1
47
2
34
46
3
66
46
4
99
45
5
132
45
6
166
44
7
198
44
8
231
43
9
242
41
10 Tout
40

Validasi
pw 1,5 cm
dw=1 mm
panjang tube=45 cm
rate: 0,002 kg/s
elemen
T
ke
T percobaan
Perhitungan
1
43
43.34
34
41
42.26
66
40
41.27
99
39
40.33
132
38
39.46
166
37
38.62
198
37
37.83
231
36
37.12
242
36
36.91
Tout
35
35.53

jumlah tube =10


rate: 0,0025 kg/s
elemen
T
ke
T percobaan Perhitungan
1
47
45.18
34
46
44.08
66
46
43.09
99
45
42.12
132
45
41.22
166
44
40.35
198
44
39.53
231
43
38.79
242
41
38.56
Tout
40
38.37

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APPENDIKS B
LISTING PROGRAM MATLAB 6.5
UNTUK MENCARI Qtot DAN OPTIMASI FREF
Mencari Qtotal
clc;clear
Qtot=0;
pw = input ('pw=');
dw = input ('dw=');
panjangtube=.57;
n=panjangtube/(pw+dw);%jumlah wire
Tliqin = input ('Tliqin=');
Tliq = Tliqin;
Tt = Tliq-0.5;
kw = 45;
dt = .0071;
pt = .05;
Tamb = 298;
H = .45;
g = 9.8;
fi = 5.67/10^8;
eapp = 1; %asumsi benda hitam.
for l=1:10
for z=1:n
ku = .0000747748*(Tt+Tamb)/2+.003745;
cp = .0756756757*(Tt+Tamb)/2+981.2648649;
rho = -.003117117*(Tt+Tamb)/2+2.106423423;
miu = .000000045*(Tt+Tamb)/2+.000004991;
if pw <= dw %jika fin berupa plate
for s=1:5
b = 1/Tt;
Ra = (b*rho*cp/miu/ku)*g*(Tt-Tamb)*H^3;
Nu =.68+.67*(Ra*(1+(.492/(cp*miu/ku))^(9/16))^-(16/9))^.25;
hc = Nu*ku/H;
hr = eapp*fi*(Tt^4-Tamb^4)/(Tt-Tamb);
ho = hc+hr;
Aex =(dw+pw)*2*pt;
Ao = dt*2*(dw+pw);
R1=1/ho/Aex;
R2=dw/ku/Ao;

Qele =(Tliq-Tamb)/(R1+R2);
Tto = Tliq-Qele*dw/(ku*Ao);
if abs(Tto-Tt)<=.05
Tt=Tt;
else
Tt=Tto;
end
end
else
for j=1:3
for s=1:5%menghitung harga ho
hw=6.1;
m = sqrt((4*hw)/(kw*dw));
nw = (tanh(m*pt/2))/(m*pt/2);
GP = 2*pt*dw/dt/pw;
Tex = (Tt + GP*nw*(Tt-Tamb)+GP*Tamb)/(1+GP);
b = 1/Tt;
Ra = (b*rho*cp/miu/ku)*g*(Tt-Tamb)*H^3;
st = pt/dt-1; sw = pw/dw-1;
psi = (28.2/H)^0.4*sw^0.9/st+(28.2/H)^0.8*(264/(Tt-Tamb))^0.5/sw^1.5/st^0.5;
Nu = 0.66*(Ra*H/dt)^0.25*(1-(1-0.45*(dt/H)^0.25)*exp(-sw/psi));
hc = Nu*ku/H;
hr = eapp*fi*(Tex^4-Tamb^4)/(Tex-Tamb);
ho = hc+hr;
if abs(ho-hw)<0.01
ho=ho;
else
hw=ho;
end
end %menghitung Q tiap elemen
ro = .5*dt;
ri = ro-.0005;
Ao = pi*dt*pw+2*pi*dw*pt;
Ro = 1/ho/Ao;
Rt = log(ro/ri)/(2*pi*kw*pw);
Ri = .09*Ro;
UAele = 1/(Ro+Ri+Rt)
Qele = UAele*(Tliq-Tamb);
Tto = Tliq-Qele*(Ri+Rt);
if abs(Tto-Tt)<.05
Tt=Tt;
else

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Tt=Tto;
end
end
end
l
z
ho;
Tt;
Qele;
cpliq=2400;
massrate=.001;
Tliq = Tliq-Qele/(massrate*cpliq);
Tliq;
Tt=Tliq-.5;
Qtot=Qtot+Qele;
Qtot;
end
for t=1:5 %menghitung Q pada sisi vertikal tube
hc=1.37*((Tt-Tamb)/pt)^.25;
hr = eapp*fi*(Tt^4-Tamb^4)/(Tt-Tamb);
ho = hc+hr;
ro = .5*dt;
ri = ro-.0005;
Ao = pi*dt*pw+2*pi*dw*pt;
Ro = 1/ho/Ao;
Rt = log(ro/ri)/(2*pi*kw*pw);
Ri = .09*Ro;
UAele = 1/(Ro+Ri+Rt);
Qele = UAele*(Tliq-Tamb);
Tliqout = Tliq-Qele/(massrate*cpliq);
Tliq = (Tliqout + Tliq)/2;
Tto = Tliq-Qele*(Ri+Rt);
if abs(Tto-Tt)<.05
Tt=Tt;
else
Tt=Tto;
end
end
ho
Qtot=Qtot+Qele;
Tliq=Tliqout;
Tt=Tliq-.5;

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Qtot
end
Tliq
rhokawat=7801;
Vkawat=2*pi*dw^2/4*n*.45;
f=Qtot/(rhokawat*Vkawat+2);
f;
Qkoreksi=massrate*cpliq*(Tliqin-Tliq);
m=rhokawat*Vkawat;
fref=f/15.7899;
fref;
Qref=Qtot/48.7591;
Qref;
n;
Mencari Fref maksimal
%optimasi f ref
%hooke jeeves method dengan batasan
clc;clear
dwopt = input ('harga awal dw=');
pwopt = input ('harga awal pw=');
deldw = input ('delta dw=');
delpw = input ('delta pw=');
toldw = input ('toleransi dw=');
tolpw = input ('toleransi pw=');
ratio = input ('ratio delta baru dan lama=');
dw=dwopt ; pw=pwopt ; funckill2; Fopt=fref;
Fopt
for p=1:10000
tanda1 = 0; tanda2 = 0;
dw=dwopt+deldw; pw=pwopt; funckill2; fref;
if dw<.0008
dw=.0008;
else
dw=dw;
end
if pw<.002
pw=.002;
else
pw=pw;
end

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if fref <= Fopt


dw=dwopt-deldw; funckill2; fref;
if dw<.0008
dw=.0008;
else
dw=dw;
end
if pw<.002
pw=.002;
else
pw=pw;
end
if fref <= Fopt
dw=dwopt; pw=pwopt+delpw; funckill2; fref;
else
Fopt=fref; dwopt=dw; tanda1=-1;
dw=dwopt; pw=pwopt+delpw; funckill2; fref;
end
else
Fopt=fref; dwopt=dw; tanda1=1;Fopt;
dw=dwopt; pw=pwopt+delpw; funckill2; fref;
end
if fref <= Fopt
pw=pwopt-delpw; funckill2; fref;
if dw<.0008
dw=.0008;
else
dw=dw;
end
if pw<.002
pw=.002
else
pw=pw;
end
if fref <= Fopt
fref=fref; fref;
else
Fopt=fref; pwopt=pw; tanda2=-1; Fopt;
end
else
Fopt=fref; pwopt=pw; tanda2=1; Fopt;
end

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if abs(tanda1)>.2
for t=1:100
dw=dwopt+deldw*tanda1; pw=pwopt+delpw*tanda2;
if dw<.0008
dw=.0008;
else
dw=dw;
end
if pw<.002
pw=.002;
else
pw=pw;
end
funckill2;fref;
if fref<=Fopt
tanda1 = 0 ; tanda2 = 0;
dw=dwopt+deldw; pw=pwopt; funckill2;fref;
break
else
dwopt=dw;
pwopt=pw;
Fopt=fref;
end
end
elseif abs(tanda2)>.2
for c=1:100
dw=dwopt+deldw*tanda1; pw=pwopt+delpw*tanda2;
funckill2;fref;
if dw<.0008
dw=.0008;
else
dw=dw;
end
if pw<.002
pw=.002;
else
pw=pw;
end
if fref<=Fopt
tanda1 = 0 ; tanda2 = 0;
dw=dwopt+deldw; pw=pwopt; funckill2;fref;
break

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else
dwopt=dw;
pwopt=pw;
Fopt=fref;
end
end
elseif deldw<toldw; delpw<tolpw;
dw=dwopt; pw=pwopt; funckill2;
dw
pw
fref
break
else
deldw=deldw*ratio; delpw=delpw*ratio;
end
end
Fungsi funckill2
Qtot=0;
panjangtube=.57;
n=panjangtube/(pw+dw);%jumlah wire
Tliqin = 323;
Tliq = Tliqin;
Tt = Tliq-0.5;
kw = 45;
dt = .0071;
pt = .05;
Tamb = 298;
H = .45;
g = 9.8;
fi = 5.67/10^8;
eapp = 1; %asumsi benda hitam
for l=1:10
for z=1:n
ku = .0000747748*(Tt+Tamb)/2+.003745;
cp = .0756756757*(Tt+Tamb)/2+981.2648649;
rho = -.003117117*(Tt+Tamb)/2+2.106423423;
miu = .000000045*(Tt+Tamb)/2+.000004991;
if pw <= dw %jika fin berupa plate
for s=1:5
b = 1/Tt;

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Ra = (b*rho*cp/miu/ku)*g*(Tt-Tamb)*H^3;
Nu =.68+.67*(Ra*(1+(.492/(cp*miu/ku))^(9/16))^-(16/9))^.25;
hc = Nu*ku/H;
hr = eapp*fi*(Tt^4-Tamb^4)/(Tt-Tamb);
ho = hc+hr;
Aex =(dw+pw)*2*pt;
Ao = dt*2*(dw+pw);
R1=1/ho/Aex;
R2=dw/ku/Ao;
Qele =(Tliq-Tamb)/(R1+R2);
Tto = Tliq-Qele*dw/(ku*Ao);
if abs(Tto-Tt)<=.05
Tt=Tt;
else
Tt=Tto;
end
end
else
for j=1:3
for s=1:5%menghitung harga ho
hw=6.1;
m = sqrt((4*hw)/(kw*dw));
nw = (tanh(m*pt/2))/(m*pt/2);
GP = 2*pt*dw/dt/pw;
Tex = (Tt + GP*nw*(Tt-Tamb)+GP*Tamb)/(1+GP);
b = 1/Tt;
Ra = (b*rho*cp/miu/ku)*g*(Tt-Tamb)*H^3;
st = pt/dt-1; sw = pw/dw-1;
psi = (28.2/H)^0.4*sw^0.9/st+(28.2/H)^0.8*(264/(Tt-Tamb))^0.5/sw^1.5/st^0.5;
Nu = 0.66*(Ra*H/dt)^0.25*(1-(1-0.45*(dt/H)^0.25)*exp(-sw/psi));
hc = Nu*ku/H;
hr = eapp*fi*(Tex^4-Tamb^4)/(Tex-Tamb);
ho = hc+hr;
if abs(ho-hw)<0.01
ho=ho;
else
hw=ho;
end
end %menghitung Q tiap elemen
ro = .5*dt;
ri = ro-.0005;
Ao = pi*dt*pw+2*pi*dw*pt;

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Ro = 1/ho/Ao;
Rt = log(ro/ri)/(2*pi*kw*pw);
Ri = .09*Ro;
UAele = 1/(Ro+Ri+Rt);
Qele = UAele*(Tliq-Tamb);
Tto = Tliq-Qele*(Ri+Rt);
if abs(Tto-Tt)<.05
Tt=Tt;
else
Tt=Tto;
end
end
end
ho;
Tt;
Qele;
cpliq=2400;%
massrate=.001;%dalam kg/s
Tliq = Tliq-Qele/(massrate*cpliq);
Tliq;
Tt=Tliq-.5;
Qtot=Qtot+Qele;
Qtot;
end
for t=1:5 %menghitung Q pada sisi vertikal tube
hc=1.37*((Tt-Tamb)/pt)^.25;
hr = eapp*fi*(Tt^4-Tamb^4)/(Tt-Tamb);
ho = hc+hr;
ro = .5*dt;
ri = ro-.0005;
Ao = pi*dt*pw+2*pi*dw*pt;
Ro = 1/ho/Ao;
Rt = log(ro/ri)/(2*pi*kw*pw);
Ri = .09*Ro;
UAele = 1/(Ro+Ri+Rt);
Qele = UAele*(Tliq-Tamb);
Tliqout = Tliq-Qele/(massrate*cpliq);
Tliq = (Tliqout + Tliq)/2;
Tto = Tliq-Qele*(Ri+Rt);
if abs(Tto-Tt)<.05
Tt=Tt;
else

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Tt=Tto;
end
end
ho;
Qtot=Qtot+Qele;
Tliq=Tliqout;
Tt=Tliq-.5;
Qtot;
end
Qtot;
Tliq;
rhokawat=7801;
Vkawat=2*pi*dw^2/4*n*.45;
f=Qtot/(rhokawat*Vkawat+2);
f;
Qkoreksi=massrate*cpliq*(Tliqin-Tliq);
m=rhokawat*Vkawat;
fref=f/15.7899;
fref;
Qref=Qtot/48.7591;
Qref;
n;

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APPENDIKS C
HASIL LISTING PROGRAM MATLAB 6.5
UNTUK MENCARI Qtot DAN OPTIMASI FREF
Qtotal per tube dan Qtotal wire and tube.
Qtot = 10.8730
Qtot = 19.4046
Qtot =26.1821
Qtot =31.6229
Qtot =36.0299
Qtot =39.6276
Qtot = 42.5846
Qtot = 45.0301
Qtot =47.0618
Qtot =48.7591
Qtot =48.7591
Tliq =302.1537
n =87.6923
fref maksimal
harga awal dw=.0015
harga awal pw=.005
delta dw=.0001
delta pw=.001
toleransi dw=.00001
toleransi pw=.00001
ratio delta baru dan lama=.1
Fopt = 1.0000
fref =0.9652
fref =1.0401
fref =1.0767
fref = 1.2523
fref =1.2523

fref =1.2678
fref =1.2555
fref =1.2723

xx

fref =1.2748
fref =1.2748
fref =1.3126
fref = 1.2888
fref =1.2910
fref =1.2910
fref =1.2748
fref =1.2748
fref =1.3126
fref =1.2888
fref =1.2910
fref =1.2910
fref =1.2896
fref =1.2988
fref =1.2969
fref = 1.2980
fref =1.2980
fref =1.2975
fref =1.2977
fref =1.2915
fref = 1.2970
fref =1.2970
dw =8.0000e-004
pw =0.0070
fref =1.2976

xxi