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History I (1 Handout)

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Definitions of History: a record of past that cant be altered but it can be manipulated study of the past to understand the present and to predict or anticipate the future it repeats itself The only thing man learns from history is that man never learns from history. Written by the victors According to Francis Fukuyama History ended when the Berlin Wall fell. For him, history is a chronicle of mans progress and the highest progress that man can attain is achieving freedom and democracy. Written record of the past; preHistory- unwritten It also has different layers Importance and Uses of History (from the Philippine History Coursebook by ASCU): 1) History provides a source of personal and social identity. 2) It helps us understand the problems of the present. 3) good history- corrects misleading analogies and lessons of the past. 4) Can help one develop tolerance and open-mindedness. 5) Helps us better understand all human behaviours and all aspects of the human condition. 6) Provides the basic background for many other disciplines. 7) A source of entertainment. 8) When studied, can teach many critical skills. Is History a Construction or Reconstruction? This will depend on the period involved If there is a lack/dearth in document, it will be both Problem: mindset/view of the reader and even the historian Roots of Historical Tradition: West History, Historya/ia and Istorya Philippines Kasaysayan Kasaysayan sanaysay na may saysay sa mga taong pinagsasaysayan -makabuluhang paglalarawan sa nakaraang salinlahi -like history, it recognizes non-written sources of historal fact or knowledge like oral tradition, artifacts, etc. Historya/ia introduced in the Philippines in 1565 -documents or documented events are the ones that are recognized in this historical tradition -a reaction to the tradition of Istorya Istorya fiction, novels Different Sources of Historical Fact/Knowledge: Written documents Non Written artifacts, relics/remains, art works, oral tradition and structures Evaluating Historical Materials: -authors background -time when it was written -where it was written Main Theory: Theory of Challenge and Response by Arnold Toynbee failure to respond to a certain challenge, will mean the death of a culture or community

2 Kinds of Progress that man experienced: Homonization biological development or evolution Humanization 1st stage is the development of survival skills; 2 nd stage knowledge in agriculture and the highest stage for Fukuyama and Teodoro Agoncillo achieving democracy, freedom and equality Kinds of History (scope): Individual history Local National World Tarsila genealogy of Muslim families that are related to Mohammad - Earliest record found in the country dates back to the 13 th century or 1280 - Legalizes a familys claim to leadership Filipino Perspectives: Pangkaming pananaw written in English because the target audience are Westerners -the writer had to adjust to the mindset and culture of the audience/reader -goal: to introduce Filipino culture and history to other countries Pantayong pananaw pioneer: Zeus Salazar -also known as Bagong Kasaysayan (BaKas) -a reaction to pangkaming pananaw: written in Filipino for the Filipinos -goal: to correct the misconceptions about our people and country Theories and Beliefs on the Origins of Man: Biblical Creation Theory (Adam and Eve) Scientific Evolution or Darwins Theory Myths/Legends almost all ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines have their own myth or legend on the origins of man Races in the World: according to Johann Blumenbach, there are 5 races in the world black, white, yellow, red and brown Biological Development of Man: -Africa is the cradle of life, it is where the first hominid appeared Australopithecus found in Africa and the first remains found was called Lucy -3.5 feet, brain size is 1/3 of the size of the modern human brain Homo habilis handy human Homo erectus upright human; first group to leave Africa- reached Europe and Asia (Java, Peking and Philippines) *in the Philippines, it was called Homo erectus philippinensis. It was found in Cagayan Valley but there is no remains found Neanderthals existed alongside Homo sapiens; the first remains are found in Neander Valley in Germany; their brain is almost the same size as the that of a modern human but their features is nearer to that of an ape Homo sapiens the oldest remains in the Philippines was found in Tabon, Palawan - Left cave paintings - Cro Magnons in France _____________________________________________________________________________________ Theories and Beliefs on the Origins of Filipinos: Waves of Migration Theory the ancestors of Filipinos came in 3 waves: Negrito, Indones and Malay Inland Push Theory the newly arrived group pushed the older groups to the interior Malayan Origin Malays peopled the islands of South East Asia

Document of Maragtas peopling of Panay; story of the 10 Bornean datu; maragtas is a Sanskrit or Kinaray-a term for history; written and compiled by Pedro Monteclaro Myths and Legends Peopling of the Philippines: *After the Tabon man the next group to enter the country are the Austronesians Tasaday a stone age group of people, but it was just a hoax Experts in Philippine PreHistory: HO Beyer popularized Waves of Migration and Inland Push -also created the theory that Filipinos have 6 ancestors: 1) primitive man, 2)Australoid Sakai, 3) Indonesian A, 4) Indonesian B, 5) Terrace building group from Central Asia, 6) Malay FL Jocano disproved the two theories of Beyer J Montano gave the physical characteristics of the 3 waves of migrants WH Scott he proved that the Code of Kalantiao is a hoax and the Maragtas Document is a collection of legends and myths due to the presence of anachronisms, inconsistencies and discrepancies Geography and History: *can affect a countrys history and politics *in the case of the Philippines, it became an advantage and at the same time a disadvantage on the part of the people and the colonizers Formation of the Philippines: -Pangaea Theory - faulting and folding of the earths crust, volcanic eruption and soil erosion -Philippines was once connected to Formosa, Borneo and Papua New Guinea Philippine Geography: -it is an archipelago 7,107 islands -part of the Pacific Ring of Fire -its coastline is larger than that of USA, and most have fine harbours Early Names of the Country: Ma-I, Liu-sung, San-tao, Chin-san, Maniolas, Islas de San Lazaro and Felipinas Philippine Territory: defined in the Article 1 of the Philippine Constitution -Philippine archipelago with all the islands and waters embraced therein -territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty and jurisdiction -terrestial, fluvial and aerial domains including the territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, insular shelves and other submarine areas -internal waters -during the time of Marcos additional territory was added to country

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