Harvard Style of Referencing Extracted from Anglia Ruskin University Available at: http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.

htm During the course of writing an essay, report or other assignment it is usual to support arguments by reference to other published work. These references may be from work presented in journal or newspaper articles, government reports, books or specific chapters of books, research dissertations or these, material from the internet etc. Citation is the practice of referring to the work of other authors in the text of your own piece of work. Such works are cited to show evidence that both of the background reading that has been done to support the content and conclusions. Each citation requires a reference at the end of the work, this gives the full details of the source item and should enable it to be traced. Referring accurately to such source materials is part of sound academic practice and a skill that should be mastered. Other reasons for accurate citation and referencing are:  To give credit to the concepts and ideas of other authors  To provide the reader (often the marker/examiner of the assignment) with evidence of the breadth and depth of your reading. To enable those who read your work to locate the cited references easily. REMEMBER to note that the details of all documents you read. The following pages gives you detailed guidance for various types of publication as there are major differences between books, journal articles and websites. Plagiarism is passing off the work of others as your own. And this constitutes academic theft and is taken as a very serious matter for which you will be penalised in assignment marking.


(2002) The Bretton Woods Proposal: an in depth look.g.M. Full Title of the Journal. Boughton. J. 564-78. Redman. JOURNAL ARTICLES Author Surname.. Only difference is when used more than once in your assignment you can write et al for the other authors 2. Initials of First Name.. Fishman. R. E.CITING REFERENCES IN TEXT using the HARVARD SYSTEM This format should go in your bibliography 1. Initial of First Name. (Year) Title of the Book [Type of Medium] Publisher: Place of Publication Avalilable at: include e-book source and website address and routing details if needed [Accessed Date] E..uk/E-books [Accessed 05 June 2008] 3. (Year) Title of the Book: sub Title (Edition) Publisher/Publishing House: Place of Publication E. E. Volume number (Issue/Part Number).ac.BOOKS Author Surname. 42(6)... pp.g. (2006) Good Essay Writing: A Social Sciences Guide (3rd Edition) Open University: London *If there are more than one author follow the same as above. Political Science Quarterly.. Page Numbers. 2 . Initial of First Name. (Year) Title of the article.g. (2005) The rise and fall of suburbia [e-book] Castle Press: Chester Available at: University Library http://libweb.anglia. BOOKS Author Suranme. P.

M.L.g..uk/printfiendly/0. 42(6) Available at: Blackwell Science Synergy http://www. Page numbers if available Available at: include web site address and additional details of access [Accessed date] E. Boughton. [Internet] 1 June Available at: http://www. WEBSITES Authorship or Source (Year) Title of web document or web page [Medium] (date of update) 3 . NEWSPAPER ARTICLES Author Surname.4b 6... Political Science Quarterly. (2002) The Bretton Woods Proposal: an in depth look.co.g. 3Sep.. Chittenden. First Name Initials.. M.. Times Online. (Year) Title of the document. J. ONLINE NEWSPAPER ARTICLES Author Surname. Full title of the Journal. Day and month before page number and column line E. (2005) Corporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers. (Year) Title of the article. (2003) Focus: About the NHS.html [Accessed 17 march 2005] 7.4. Slapper. initial of First Name.D.upenn/artilces [Accessed 12 June 2008] 5. Name of the newspaper. JOURNAL ARTICLES from an ELECTRONIC SOURCE Author Surname. & Smith.pol.. [type of medium] Available at: include web site address and additional details of access [Accessed date] E. First Name Initials. The Times. G. Rogers. Full Title of the Newspaper. [Type of medium] Volume number (Issue/Part number).g. (Year) Title of the article. [Online].timesonline.11-1506. P..

Available at: include web site address and additional details [Accessed date] E.g. Or indirectly: Earlier research (Smith. (Lawrence.d. B. 124) Or indirectly.d. then the references should be cited in chronological order (i..e. Marketing Strategy (Anon. Several Works by one Author in Different Years If more than one publication from an author illustrates the same point and the works are published in different years.nhs. 1966. This is particularly important for quotations and for paraphrasing specific paragraphs in the texts: E..uk. OTHERS A. E. p.124) D.g. Smith (n. No Author If author cannot be identified use ‘Anonymous’ or ‘Anon’ and the title of the work and date of publication.) demonstrated that..g. Page Numbers Including the page numbers of a reference will help readers trace your sources. No Date The abbreviation n. earliest first): 4 .hth. is to be used to denote this.d.. Lawrence (1966..walking [Accessed 10 April 2005] This format should be followed for your assignment not bibliography 8. n... 2007) C.) has written and demonstrated. National electronic library for health (2003) Can walking make you slimmer and healthier? [Online] (Updated 16 Jan 2006) Available at: http://www. p.

.. b) has stated on more than one occasion that....but later research suggested again by smith (1993b) that.. Bloggs (1993a.. E.g.... Earlier research by Smith (1993a) found that . 1994)....E.... If several works published in the same year are referred to on a single occasion or an author has made the same point in several publications they can all be referred to by using lower case letters as above: E... they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter after the year for each item: E.. 5 .g.. (Bloggs 1992..... as suggested by Bloggs (1992.. Several Works by one Author in the Same Year If you are quoting several works published by the same author in the same year....g. 1994) Or indirectly.