You are on page 1of 78

A Pathway to teaching: HSC Course (2007) Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post-1945 Overview

Aboriginal Spirituality and Kinship Aboriginality and Ceremonial Life Aboriginal Spirituality and the Land European Impact on Aboriginal Culture and Spirituality Mabo, Native Title and Wik Overview of Christianity in Australia 1945 to Present The Changing Face of Religion Today Distribution of Religions in Australia Impact of Immigration Impact of Immigration Today Denominational Switching New Age Religions Secularism Ecumenical Movements Interfaith Dialogue and Initiatives

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945

Towards Reconciliation Aboriginal Spirituality and Christianity

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945

The focus of this study is religious expression in Australias multicultural and multifaith society since 1945. The study includes an appreciation of Aboriginal spiritualities and their contribution to an understanding of religious beliefs and religious expression in Australia today.

Outcomes: A student:
H1 H2 explains aspects of religion and belief systems. describes and analyses the influence of religion and belief systems on individuals and society. examines the influence of religion and belief systems on individuals and society. describes and analyses how aspects of religious traditions are expressed by their adherents. evaluates the influence of religious traditions in the life of adherents. organises, analyses and synthesises relevant information about religion from a variety of sources, considering usefulness, validity and bias. applies appropriate terminology and concepts related to religion and belief systems. coherently and effectively communicates complex information, ideas and issues using appropriate written, oral and graphic forms.

H3

H4

H5 H6

H8

H9

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945 CONTENT Students learn about: Students learn to:
Teaching/ Lear ning Strat egie s

Contemporary Aboriginal Spiritualities

Aboriginal spirituality as determined by the Dreaming

discuss how Aboriginal spirituality is determined by the Dreaming - kinship - ceremonial life - obligations to the land and people discuss the continuing effect of dispossession on Aboriginal spiritualities in relation to: - separation from the land - separation from kinship groups - the Stolen Generations outline the importance of the following for the Land Rights movement: - Native Title - Mabo - Wik analyse the importance of the Dreaming for the Land Rights movement

Lessons 1,2,3

issues for Aboriginal spiritualities in relation to: - the effect of dispossession - the Land Rights movement

Lessons 4,5,6

Lesson 7

Religious expression in Australia 1945 to the present

Lessons 8,9,10,11

the religious landscape from 1945 tothe present in relation to: - changing patterns of religious adherence - the current religious landscape

outline changing patterns of religious adherence from 1945 to the present using census data account for the present religious landscape in Australia in relation to: - Christianity as the major religious tradition - immigration

Lessons 12,13,14,15, 16

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945 - denominational switching - rise of New Age religions - secularism

religious dialogue in multi-faith Australia

- ecumenical movements within


Christianity

describe the impact of Christian ecumenical movements in Australia - The National Council of Churches - NSW Ecumenical Council evaluate the importance of interfaith dialogue in multifaith Australia examine the relationship between Aboriginal spiritualities and religious traditions in the process of Reconciliation

Lessons 17,18 Lesson 19 Lesson 20,21

- Interfaith dialogue - The relationship between


Aboriginal spiritualities and religious traditions in the process of Reconciliation

Note: This series of lessons complements the Studies of Religion Stage 6 - 2005 Syllabus To teach this unit you will need to refer to the syllabus documents. Permission is given to photocopy and duplicate worksheets and overheads for classroom use only, not for resale or other distribution. Every effort has been made to trace and acknowledge all materials used, in some cases material has proved untraceable. Should any infringement have occurred in copyright, I apologise and invite copyright owners to contact me. Yours in Teaching Trish Bartlett Phone: (02) 42846927 Fax: (02) 42846883 E-mail: trish@tbresources.com.au

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945

References:
1. Adam E, Hughes P, Religious Community Profiles: The Buddhists in Australia, Australian Government Publishing Services, 1996. 2. Association for Studies of Religion, Intersections, Volume 4, No.1, June 1998. 3. Ballis P. H, Bouma G D, Religion in an Age of Change, Christian Research Association, Australia, 1999. 4. Beck M, Tatz P etc, Exploring Religion, Second Edition, Oxford Press Australia, 1997. 5. Bentley P, Hughes P.J, A Directory of Australian Religious Organisations 1999, Christian Research Association, 1999. 6. Bentley P, Hughes P.J, Australian Life and the Christian Faith Facts and Figures, Christian Research Association, 1998. 7. Bentley P, Hughes P.J, A Yearbook of Australian Religious Organisations, Christian Research Association, 1997. 8. Bentley P, Hughes P.J, Religious Community Profiles: The Uniting Church in Australia, Bureau of Immigration Multicultural and Population Research, 1996, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. 9. Blombery T, Hughes P, Faith Alive, Christian Research Association, 1993. 10. Blombery T, Religious Community Profiles: The Anglicans in Australia , Bureau of Immigration Multicultural and Population Research, 1996, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. 11. Bouma, Gary D, Many Religions, All Australian: Religious Settlement, Identity and Cultural Diversity, Christian Research Association, 1996. 12. Breward I, A History of the Australian Churches, Allen & Unwin, 1993. 13. Burke D, Hughes P.J, Religious Community Profiles: The Presbyterians in Australia, Bureau of Immigration Multicultural and Population Research, 1996, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. 14. Cameron R, Karingal; A Search for Australian Spirituality , St Pauls, 1995. 15. Carey H, Believing in Australia: A Cultural History of Religions , Allen & Unwin, 1996. 16. Dixon Robert E, Religious Community Profiles: The Catholics in Australia, Bureau of Immigration Multicultural and Population Research, 1996, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. 17. Enroth R, A Guide to Cults and New Religions, InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, Illinois, 1983. 18. Ethnic Buddhists in NSW - a paper by Graeme Lyall (Originally published in Abe Wade Ata (Ed) Religion and Ethnic Identity - An Australian Study Vol.3, 1990, Richmond, Vic., Spectrum Press.) 19. Hayward P, Christianity in Australia and the Traditions which have Shaped it, Anembo Books, 1998. 20. Hendriks J (Co-editor), A Spirituality of Catholic Aborigines and the Struggle for Justice, JT Press, 1993. 21. Hughes P J, Religious Community Profiles: The Baptists in Australia , Bureau of Immigration Multicultural and Population Research, 1996, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945 22. Hughes P J, Religious Community Profiles: The Pentecostals in Australia, Bureau of Immigration Multicultural and Population Research, 1996, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. 23. Hughes P J. Religion in Australia: Facts and Figures, Christian Research Association, 1997. 24. Hughes P J, Thompson C, Pryor R, Bouma G, Believe It or Not: Australian Spirituality and the Churches in the 90s , Christian Research Association, 1995. 25. Kaldor P, Bellamy J, Powell R, Castle K, Hughes B , Build My Church: Trends and Possibilities for Australian Churches, Openbook Publishers, 1999. 26. Lovat T, McGrath J (Ed), New Studies in Religion, Social Science Press, 1999. 27. Lovat T, McGrath J, Fletcher E, Follers J, Studies of Religion, Thomson -Social Science Press, 2006. 28. McClish B, The Australian Church Story, Harper Collins Religious, 1999. 29. McDowell J, Stewart D, Understanding the Cults, Heres Life Publishers, 1982. 30. Mudge P, Taylor A, Morrissey J, Living Religion, 3rdEdition, Pearson Education Australia, 2005. 31. National Centre for Religious Studies, Understanding Faith, Australian Edition, New Zealand, Book 32, Origins and Growth of an Australian Catholic Identity. 32. National Centre for Religious Studies, Understanding Faith, Australian Edition, New Zealand, Book 34, Sects, Cults and New Religious Movements. 33. National Centre for Religious Studies, Understanding Faith, Australian Edition, New Zealand, Book 22, Ecumenism and Catholic Identity. 34. National Centre for Religious Studies, Understanding Faith, Australian Edition, New Zealand, Book 7, The Catholic Church in Australia Aboriginal Heritage. 35. Omar W, Allen K, Religious Community Profiles: The Muslims in Australia, Australia Government Publishing Services, 1996. 36. Rainbow Spirit Elders, Rainbow Spirit Theology: Towards an Australian Aboriginal Theology, HarperCollins Religious, 1997. 37. Rubinstein W.D, Religious Community Profiles: Judaism in Australia, Australia Government Publishing Services, 1995. 38. Thompson Roger C, Religion in Australia: A History, Oxford University Press.

Useful Web Sites:


Indigenous Australia: http://www.dreamtime.net.au/index.cfm Buddhism in Australia:www.buddhistcouncil.org/news.htm Islam in Australia: www.icnsw.org.au/ Judaism in Australia: www.join.org.au Uniting Church in Australia : www.uca.org.au Aboriginal Australia - Areas of Interest - The Dreaming and Spirituality http://www.aboriginalaustralia.com/areas/spirit.cfm Aboriginal Catholic Ministry - Aboriginal Awareness Program

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945 http://home.vicnet.net.au/~acmm/awareness.htm Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation http://www.reconciliation.org.au/ Koori connections http://www.kooriconnections.com.au/index.htm Links and Resources http://www.marymount.qld.edu.au/religion/abresource.htm Aboriginal Art and Culture Centre http://www.aboriginalart.com.au/didgeridoo/ Jinta Desert Art, Aboriginal Art Dealers http://www.jintaart.com.au/index1.htm Aboriginal Art of Australia http://www.aaia.com.au/ Compass http://www.abc.net.au/compass/

Videos:

The Spirit of Oz Produced by: Albert Street Productions.1991 Duration: 42 mins Content: A documentary about religion in Australia. How Australians express their spirituality. Looks at multiculturalism, new age philosophies, traditional religion. People searching for answers and expressing questions. Includes suggested focus questions.

Videos:
NOTE:

Some of the most useful video material for this topic is current documentaries, which can be found on the ABC and SBS - it is essential to keep an eye on what is broadcast throughout the year. Each year brings a fresher approach to the topic and more current information. Note: The Website Compass (refer to above) gives an update of past shows and future shows coming to TV. Well worth visiting this site on a regular basis.
Living the Dreaming - Episode 5 of Aboriginal Studies Windows on Indigenous Australia. Produced by: Open Learning, 1994 Duration: 30 mins Content: Looks at aspects of the Dreaming. Rating: Good

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945 Mission Accomplished Produced by: SBS - The Cutting Edge Duration: 52 mins Content: Missionary contact with - Lutheran, Catholic, Uniting, Baptist and Pentecostal Churches. Based in Northern Territory. Rating: Good Babakiveria, 1986 Produced by: ABC Production Duration: 30 mins Content: Satire on Aboriginal Invasion of White Australian Culture. Still relevant to today. Rating: Good After Mabo, 25/11/97 Produced by: SBS- The Cutting Edge Duration: 1hr 20mins Content: Looks at events following the WIK decision. Rating: Good Voice of the Land Produced by: Catholic Audio Visual Centre Ph 02 9760459 Duration: Contents: Rating: 7 mins A video montage. The Holy Spirit speaks and is present to us in Australia. An excellent production. Can produce good discussion for the reconciliation process. Also can be linked to differences between understanding of the land. A booklet is provided with good information and activities.

Ngurunderi - A Ngarrindjeri Dreaming Produced by: South Australian Film Corporation Duration: 8 mins Contents: Ngurunderi is the shaper of land, laws and creatures. A Dreamtime story of the creation of the lower reaches of the Murray River and South Australias Coorong. Rating: Excellent Dream Time Stories There is a range of stories: The Monsoon Frog The Creation The Evil One The Stolen Canoe

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945 Pariki and the Flying Foxes Produced by: Australian Broadcasting Corporation Duration: approx. 14 mins Contents: Although these episodes are directed at Upper Primary level, I feel they have merit and would be useful in senior studies. Each of the series looks at Aboriginal Legends and how they reflect their Society, Laws and Customs. Rating: Excellent

The following four videos I have not previewed but I have read about them in a newsletter from the Internet site Aboriginal Catholic Ministry http://www.acc.asn.au/ . I have included the written notes.
The Stolen Generation Produced by: Video Education Australia Available from: Freepost 73, VEA - Att: Shayne, 111A Mitchell St, Bendigo Vic 3550, Australia Duration: 40 mins Contents: Important statements are displayed on the screen as well as spoken. The video takes you through the steps of the enquiry as well as sequencing episodes from the convention and subsequent parliamentary sittings and interviews. Good footage is also provided from many other events held over the past two years. - $89.95. Rating: A well produced documentary type video, packaged specially for middle to upper secondary level classes. The notes are extensive and contain worksheets. Interest areas might be: justice issues, legal studies, economics, and history. The co-operation of the ABC has resulted in the good use of current affairs and news reporting. Any bias would probably only be in the eye of the beholder. Editing is excellent.

Understanding WIK: Produced by: Video Education Australia Available from: Freepost 73, VEA - Att: Shayne, 111A Mitchell St, Bendigo Vic 3550, Australia Duration: 28 mins Contents: The video opens with short interviews with native title claimants and pastoralists. All speakers could be classed as moderate and the standard of comment informative. The major aspect of this video is an extended interview taken from current affairs programs featuring Noel Pearson and Donald McGauchie. Good use is made of cuts to the areas of the country in question, which makes the video more poignant in its treatment. - $69.95 .

10

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945 Rating: A well produced documentary type video, packaged specially for middle to upper secondary level classes. The notes are extensive and contain worksheets. Interest areas might be: justice issues, legal studies, economics, history. The co-operation of the ABC has resulted in the good use of current affairs and news reporting. Any bias would probably only be in the eye of the beholder. Editing is excellent.

WIK The Battle for Hearts and Minds. Produced by: Video Education Australia Available from: Freepost 73, VEA - Att: Shayne, 111A Mitchell St, Bendigo Vic 3550, Australia Duration: 20 mins Contents: The major focus of this video is the key Address to the Nation by John Howard, and this is followed by the equally significant response of Kim Beazley, as well as some of the more pointed questions and answers in Parliament. No judgement is made by the presentation and one is left to make one's own conclusions. - $69.95 Rating: A well produced documentary type video, packaged specially for middle to upper secondary level classes. The notes are extensive and contain worksheets. Interest areas might be: justice issues, legal studies, economics, history. The co-operation of the ABC has resulted in the good use of current affairs and news reporting. Any bias would probably only be in the eye of the beholder. Editing is excellent.

Talking Native Title. Produced by: Video Education Australia Available from: Freepost 73, VEA - Att: Shayne, 111A Mitchell St, Bendigo Vic 3550, Australia Duration: 42 mins Contents: In this video fundamental issues are canvassed through the medium of various prominent speakers including Noel Pearson, Lois O'Donoghue, Lola Forester, Professor Henry Reynolds, Fr Frank Brennan and Bob Ellis. A stimulating and challenging experience for white Australians. - $69.95 Rating: A well produced documentary type video, packaged specially for middle to upper secondary level classes. The notes are extensive and contain worksheets. Interest areas might be: justice issues, legal studies, economics, history. The co-operation of the ABC has resulted in the good use of current affairs and news reporting. Any bias would probably only be in the eye of the beholder. Editing is excellent.

11

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945

Lesson 1

Aboriginal Spirituality and Kinship

Have students complete Worksheet 1. Discuss. Have students research kinship refer to Worksheet 2. Discuss.

Support material:
Living Religion, 3rd Ed, pages 244-245 -30 Studies of Religion, pages123-126 -27 Indigenous Australia: http://indigenousaustralia.frogandtoad.com.au/social3.html Dreaming online: http://www.dreamtime.net.au/indigenous/family.cfm

Lesson 2

Aboriginal Spirituality and Ceremonial Life

Show OHP 1(or refer to PowerPoint Ceremonial Life) Discuss. Have students complete Worksheet 3. Discuss.

Support material:

Living Religion, 3rd Ed, pages 244-245 Studies of Religion, pages123-126

-30 -27

http://www.aboriginalartshop.com/aboriginal-art-aboriginal-ceromonies.html http://www.jimboombss..eq.edu.au/CultureTrail/rituals.htm

Lesson 3

Aboriginal Spirituality and the Land

Show OHP 2 (or refer to PowerPoint Aboriginal View of the Land) Discuss. Have students complete Worksheet 4. Discuss. Activity

Have students use web site:


http://www.dreamtime.net.au/indigenous/land.cfm

Complete Worksheet 5. In the bubbles give a brief description of each of the uses of the land. Discuss. Support material:
Living Religion, 3rd Ed, pages 244-245 Studies of Religion, pages123-126 -30 -27

12

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945

Lesson 4

European Impact on Aboriginal Culture and Spirituality

Show OHPs 3, 4 and 5 (or refer to PowerPoint Aboriginal Culture


and Spirituality)

Discuss.
Dispossession Show OHP 6 (or refer to PowerPoint Aboriginal Culture and Spirituality) Discuss the impact of these laws. What were some of the effects during this time? What lasting effects are still felt today because of these laws? What effect did these laws have on: o families? o culture? o kinship? o spirituality?

Support material:
Living Religion, 3rd Ed, pages 249-253 -30 Studies of Religion, pages127-129 -27 http://www.liswa.wa.gov.au/wepon/settlement/html/dispossession.html http://www.abc.net.au/civics/democracy/struggle.htm

Lesson 5

European Impact on Aboriginal Culture and Spirituality

European settlement had a major impact on Aboriginal belief systems which had previously been self-contained. Christianity and other religions have affected Aboriginal belief systems and societies in different ways. The cultural and historical context in which the interaction occurred did not promote an understanding of and regard for Aboriginal belief systems. Where missions respected Aboriginal beliefs and cultures the impact was less damaging.
From Studies of Religion Syllabus notes

Start the lesson by reading some extracts from My Place by Sally


Morgan e.g. Chapter: Cure-alls (near the end of this chapter last page.) Nans interest There was so much about Nan I didnt understand. This section gives a hint that Nan is indeed Aboriginal. How? (They dont know they are Aboriginal at this stage.) Chapter: A Black Grandmother (approx. three pages into this chapter.) Towards the end of the school yearBesides, what can I say? (Sally discovers she is Aboriginal.)

13

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945

What lasting effect do you think this experience might have on


Aboriginal people today?

View the documentary Mission Accomplished or something similar. Complete Worksheet 6


Some solutions to Worksheet 6 Lutheran, Catholic, Uniting, Baptist and Pentecostal Lutheran Learnt the language, understood songs and stories. Within the school system, however, they tended to ignore their culture. Catholic Ceremonies used Christian ideas linked with Aboriginal stories. Developed an Aboriginal/Christian Spirituality. Aboriginal custom - Catholic ritual. Schooling system incorporated western skills with traditional Aboriginal culture and the Christian religion. UnitingChurch service was traditional although there was an Aboriginal minister. Lutheran College - western in dress, games, Christian religion - ignored their culture. They agreed that this is what they were doing. Aboriginal Priests - celibacy issue. Purpose was to save souls. Pentecostals - not prepared to adapt, see the Aboriginal culture as pagan.

Lesson 6

European Impact on Aboriginal Culture and Spirituality

Protection View the Video The Stolen Generation or something similar. Discuss. Or View the first 5 minutes of the Video Rabbit Proof Fence (In the first 5 minutes there is a discussion on the reason for taking the children away from their parents.) Discuss. Have students complete Worksheet 7. Discuss

Support material:

Living Religion, 3rd Ed, pages 244-245 -30 Family: http://www.dreamtime.net.au/indigenous/family.cfm

14

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945

Lesson 7

Mabo, Native Title and Wik

Show OHPs 7, 8 and 9(or refer to PowerPoint Land rights) Discuss. Have students complete Worksheet 8. Discuss. Support material:

Living Religion, 3rd Ed, pages 255-256 -30 Studies of Religion, pages131-132 -27 Native title myths: http://www.glc.com.au/nt_xx/nt_my.htm The Land: native land rights: http://www.dreamtime.net.au/indigenous/land.cfm Native Title Resource Guide: http://ntru.aiatsis.gov.au/research/resourceguide/index.html Resources: http://www.trinity.wa.edu.au/plduffyrc/indig/rights.htm Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation: http://www.antar.org.au/ Land and Sea Rights: http://www.nlc.org.au/html/land_native_amend.html

Lesson 8

Overview of Christianity in Australia 1945 to Present

Complete Worksheet 9 Post-War Era 1945 1960. Students to read. Discuss. Have students complete the activities.

Complete Worksheet 10 Post-Christian Society 1961-1990. Students to read. Discuss. Have students complete the activities. OR Use PowerPoint on the above.

Homework activity: Have the students ask their parents or guardians how the expression of Christianity has changed from when they were teenagers to today?

Support material:
Origins and growth of an Australian Catholic Identity, pages 21,22 ,26,27 Australian Catholics in the 1960s. Changes in Australian Society. Many Religions, All Australian, pages 17-24 New Studies in Religion, pages 133-135 -31 -11 -26

15

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945

Lesson 9

Overview of Christianity in Australia 1945 to Present

Religion in the Nineties is based on a series of articles from the Sydney Morning Herald dated July 12-16th, 1993. Refer to Worksheets 11-20.

Lesson 10

The Changing Face of Religion Today

Discuss with the students: How Christianity is different in todays society


compared to when their parents were their age?

Discuss the answers the students received from their parents (i.e.
homework activity). Make a list of the changes perceived by their parents. Discuss. Show Worksheet 21. Discuss. Have students do the activity. (You may need to refer to Support material below for some ideas and thoughts.) Discuss responses.

Homework activity: Have students complete Worksheet 22 Solutions to Worksheet 22 Technical Word Everyday phrase
Religious Pluralism Secularism Mixed marriages Immigrant Assimilation policy Globalisation Interdenominational talks Christian denominations distinctive religious groups present and tolerated within a society. the tendency of modern societies to lesson the influence of religion in worldly affairs. Characterised by widespread lack of interest in religious ideas or practices. marriages between partners belonging to different religions. a person who comes from one country and settles in another. expectation that migrants and minority groups take on the same culture as the nations majority group. is the process of increasing the economic and social connections between cultures. It results in more and more people being drawn into a single world. discussions between two or more different denominations. groups within Christianity having a distinct interpretation of the Christian faith and usually their own organisation.

Support material:
Religion in an Age of Change, pages 15-22 Many Religions, All Australian, pages 17-24 New Studies in Religion, pages 133-135 Christianity in its Australian environment -3 -11 -26

16

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945

Lesson 11

Distribution of Religions in Australia

Students to view OHP 10 Statistics (or refer to PowerPoint - Religious


Adherence). Discuss the following questions: 1. Explain why the Uniting Church has no figure before 1981. 2. Which Christian denomination is the largest today? Explain why. 3. Why do you think there has been a dramatic increase in No religion since 1961- 1996? Give reasons. 4. Why do you think there has been a decline in numbers responding to No religion in the 2001 census? 5. Give reasons why people would not state their religion or gave a nonreligion response. 6. From the above information would you say that Australia is a Christian country? Explain, giving reasons.

View OHP 11. (or refer to PowerPoint - Religious Adherence). Discuss the following questions:
1. Give reasons for the rapid growth of Muslims since the 1960s. 2. Why has there been a decline in people identifying as Anglicans since 1991? 3. What are some of the reasons for the large increase in Buddhists between 1981-1996? 4. From where are most of these Buddhists coming? 5. Explain the rapid increase of Buddhism from 1996 to 2001. Are the reasons the same as the increase from 1981 1996?

Support material:
Intersections -2 New Studies in Religion, page 144, 148-150 -26 Faith Alive pages 4-7 -9 Religion in Australia Australian Life and Christian Faith, page 10 -6 Religion in Australia -38 A Directory of Australian Religious Organisations, pages 95-115 -5 Religious Community Profiles 8,10,13,16,21,22,35,37 (an excellent resource giving a brief overview of the main Religious groups) Many Religions, All Australian, pages 29-50 -11 Statistics on Religion- Australian Bureau of Statistics: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/web+pages/statistics? opendocument

17

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945

Lesson 12

Impact of Immigration

Ask the students: What is Religious Pluralism?


Note: Religious Pluralism is where you have distinctive religious groups present and tolerated within a society. Discuss in relation to OHPs 10 and 11 (or refer to PowerPoint - Religious Adherence Immigration after World War II and the White Australia Policy. Have students complete Worksheet 23. Discuss. Show OHPs 12 and 13. (or refer to PowerPoint White Australia Policy) Discuss. Have students complete Worksheet 24. Discuss. Have students devise a time line from 1900 until the present showing the major events in history and the main influx of nationalities. Use the support material below to help complete the work above.

Support material:
Intersections, pages What is Religious Pluralism? Studies in Religion in a Pluralist Society New Studies in Religion pages, 144-146 Development of Religious Plurality The Australian Church Story, pages 120- 127 Immigration Assimilation difficulties Maintaining the old ways Community support Orthodoxy Ancient Eastern Churches Protestants and migrants Believing in Australia, pages 143-171 World Religions in Australia Living Religion, 3rd Ed, pages 261-263 -2 -26 -28

-15 -30

Lesson 13

Impact of Immigration Today

Have students reflect on the current landscape of Australia today. Use Worksheet 25 as a way of reflecting on how immigration today is
affecting the current landscape of Australian Religions.

Support material:
Living Religion, 3rd Ed, pages 261-265 -30

18

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945

Lesson 14

Denominational Switching

Have students discuss the following:


Why do people shop around? What do people look for in church? Etc. Note: People who shop around are generally looking for personal spiritual fulfilment. Have students work through Worksheet 26. (Note: material on the website can also be found in Build my Church Chapter 7.) Discuss.

Support material:

Living Religion, 3rd Ed, pages 263-265 Build my Church, Chapters 5 and 7 Studies of Religion, pages138-142 http://www.ncls.org.au/default.aspx?sitemapid=134 http://www.cra.org.au/pages/00000182.cgi

-30 -25 -27

Lesson 15

New Age Religions

Show OHPs 14 and 15. (or refer to PowerPoint New Age Religions) Discuss.
Note: It is worth making a statement to the students regarding New Age Religions, for example: There seems little doubt that the promise of enlightenment offered by cults could sometimes come at the price of gross personal violation.

Have students discuss this statement. Use examples from the media.
Have students research a New Age Religion / New Age Spirituality. Refer to Worksheet 27. Students could work in groups looking at a different religion. Students to present to the class. Discuss the following with the students: What element/s did you find common among the New Age Spiritualities in Australia? What conclusions can be drawn? Any insights?

19

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945

Support material:
The Australian Church Story, page 135-136 Believing in Australia, pages 177-186 Religion in an Age of Change, pages 154-165 A Guide to Cults and New Religions Understanding the Cults Believe It or Not, pages 12-20 Sects, Cults and New Religious Movements, pages 31-34 Sects, Cults and New Religious Movements, Teachers Guide, pages 47-50 New Studies in Religion pages, 155-158 Many Religions: All Australian, pages 149-162 Cults and the New Age in Australia Living Religion, 3rd Ed, pages 265-266 Studies of Religion, pages144- 145 -28 -15 -3 -17 -29 -24 -32 -32 -26 -11 -30 -27

http://www.religioustolerance.org/newage.htm http://www.ucalgary.ca/~nurelweb/books/ucnr/ucnr-intro.html Index of cults and religions: http://www.watchman.org/cat95.htm http://dir.yahoo.com/society_and_culture/religion_and_spirituality/faiths_a nd_practices/new_age/ Some Examples of New Age Religions/ Spiritualities in Australia. Eckankar: http://www.eckankar.org.au/ The New Age of Ascension: http://www.newage.com.au/

Lesson 16

Secularism

Refer to support material below.

Support material:
Living Religion, 3rd Ed, pages 265-266 Studies of Religion, pages144- 145 -30 -27

20

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945

Lesson 17

Ecumenical Movements

Discuss with the students the meaning and purpose of the World Council of
Churches. (refer to support material below) The World Council of Churches was formed in Amsterdam in 1948. The aim of the Council is to bring Christians together to promote unity, to work together for mission, service and prophetic witness to the world. NCCA - The National Council of Churches in Australia Discuss with the students the objectives of the NCCA (The National Council of Churches in Australia) Refer to OHP 16.(or refer to PowerPoint NCCA)

Divide the class into 6 groups.


They are to imagine that they are members of the NCCA, which is holding its conference this year. Each group represents a different Church. The issues for discussion at this conference are: 1. How unity can be expressed between the Churches in Australia. 2. To seek out what an Australian Spirituality is and to write a definition. 3. To form a statement that speaks out against the racist nature of recent debates in Australian politics. Research: Each group is to research their particular Religion in relation to the issues. They are to decide, within their group, how they would address the above issues. Conference: When students have completed their research they are to meet together and hold a mock conference, with each delegation choosing a spokesperson. Each group has the opportunity to speak at the conference. By the end of the conference, there must be a statement written for each of the issues. Make sure a secretary is selected to record the minutes of the conference. Have the statements written on cardboard and display around the room. Debriefing: What did you find difficult about this activity? Examples of Member What did you find easy about this activity? Was it easy to come to a common statement? Churches Catholic What difficulties do you think different Churches of Christ Churches might encounter at these types Greek Orthodox of conferences? Salvation Army General discussion. Anglican Uniting Church of Australia

21

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945

Support material:
Ecumenism and Catholic Identity pages 24-28 World Council of Churches The Catholic Church and the Ecumenical Movement Ecumenism in Australia Today The National Council of Churches in Australia New Studies in Religion, pages 158-161 Ecumenical developments Interfaith dialogue and initiatives Many Religions: All Australian, pages 193- 204 Responses to Religious Plurality in Australia Living Religion, 3rd Ed, pages 267-268 Studies of Religion, pages145-147 -33

-26 -11 -30 -27

National Council of Churches in Australia: http://www.ncca.org.au/

Lesson 18

Ecumenical Movements

NSW Ecumenical Council Have students complete Worksheet 28.

Support material:
Living Religion, 3rd Ed, pages 267-268 -30 Studies of Religion, pages145-147 -27 NSW Ecumenical Council: http://www.nswec.org.au/

Lesson 19

Interfaith Dialogue and Initiatives

Discuss with the students the term interfaith dialogue. Brainstorm the advantages of interfaith dialogue. Have student research the different levels of interfaith dialogue and
initiatives in the following areas: Local State National (The support material below will be useful.)

In groups have students look at the types of activities that they could
promote in their local area towards interfaith relationships.

22

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945

Support material:
Many Religions: All Australian, pages 193- 204 Responses to Religious Plurality in Australia Living Religion, 3rd Ed, pages 269-271 Studies of Religion, pages147-149 -11 -30 -27

Article: Regional Inter-faith Co-operation for Peace, Development and Dignity in Cebu, Philippines from 14-16 March 2006 Hindu Council of Australia: http://www.hinducouncil.com.au/rif.html The Council of Christian and Jews: http://wgcjr.unitingchurch.org.au/2004JewishChristianReporttoSynod.htm http://www.nswjbd.org/MintDigital.NET/NSWJBD.aspx? XmlNode=/MainNav/Judaism/Interfaith+Relations The Columban Centre for Christian-Muslim Dialogue: http://www.columban.org.au/default.asp?MID=200510192345 The Affinity Intercultural Foundation: http://www.affinity.org.au/

Lesson 20

Towards Reconciliation

Have students read the Declaration towards Reconciliation


This can be found at the website: Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation http://www.reconciliation.org.au/ click on: Students and Teachers click on: resources click on: reconciliation archives (declaration can be found in the popular resources on the left of the screen) Discuss. What are the implications of this statement for future generations and us?

Ask the students to define Reconciliation according to their


understanding. Discuss. Ask the students to use the web site to answer the following: What is reconciliation? Briefly outline the history in Australia of Reconciliation. Have students click on: 2004 Reconciliation Report. (found under Student and Teachers) Read the article by Natalie Walker on page 18 of the report.

23

2006 HSC Course: Religion in Australia post-1945

What is Natalies concern about the term reconciliation as it is used


today? How would she like it to be defined? Note: the site contains a wealth of information concerning reconciliation. Choose recent events and speeches and discuss their implication with the students. View the video Voice of the Land. A booklet provided has great activities to complete. Ask the students the following questions: What is the Land / Spirit mentioned in the poem? What phrases and expressions does the poem use to suggest a need for reconciliation? What steps do we need to take to lead us to reconciliation? Has enough been done, up to the present, for reconciliation? Etc.

Support material:
Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation http://www.reconciliation.org.au/

Lesson 21

Aboriginal Spirituality and Christianity

Show OHPs 17 and 18. (or refer to PowerPoint Aboriginal


Spirituality) Discuss. Use support material below for extra information. Use excerpts from Rainbow Spirit Theology or view audio/visual material Rainbow Spirit Theology.

Support material:
Exploring Religion, pages 194- 195 A Spirituality of Catholic Aborigines and the Struggle for Justice New Studies in Religion, pages 126-127 Rainbow Spirit Theology Karingal: A Search for Australian Spirituality The Catholic Church in Australia Aboriginal Heritage, pages 16-24 Living Religion, 3rd Ed, pages 271-275 Studies of Religion, pages149-153 -4 -20 -26 -36 -14 -34 -30 -27

24

OHP 1

Ceremonial Life
Ceremonial Rituals play an important role for the Australian Aboriginal People. The Rituals differ:
in

content style and reason Ceremonies are performed for many different occasions. They incorporate: special sacred sites song dance body painting

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

OHP 2

Law
within each tribe (different from tribe to tribe) based on The Dreaming elders made decisions

Aboriginal View of the Land Culture


based on the Land Dreaming important sharing changed themselves to suit the environment

Land
mother spiritual connections sacred respected and nurtured they belong to the land

Religion
based on the Dreaming they came from the Land way of life worshipped and protected the Land spiritual beings in the Land ancestral beings nature based verbal many spirits

Afterlife
spirit returns to the earth no concept of salvation before European settlement no need of concept of salvation - this is it!

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

OHP 3

Historical Overview of European impact on Aboriginal culture and spirituality


THE SETTLEMENT PERIOD 1788 Culture Contact Europeans brought a new dimension to the World of the Aboriginal people. They saw Europeans as reincarnations of the dead from the spirit world. Governor Phillip attempted to foster good relations and to place Aboriginal people under the protection of British Law. Settlers showed no interest in trying to understand the Aboriginal people. They believed them to be primitive, with no system of law or beliefs. Life for the Aboriginal Australians would never be the same again. Many misunderstandings due to cultural differences would be carried through to today. The Aboriginal people started to resist by fighting a guerrilla-type warfare. During this time, around Sydney and Brisbane, many Aboriginal groups lost their independence and many became drifters. Many experienced malnutrition and starvation. Alcohol was already a major problem. Many groups died out. Miscegenation or mixing of races was occurring in the settled areas.

1789 Culture Conflict

1820s The Beginning of Transitional Aboriginal Society

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

OHP 4

1830s Dispossession of Land

Aboriginal tribal/language groups, and the social bands which belonged to them, had lost great tracts of land due to the crossing of the Blue Mountains. This caused spiritual, social and economic disintegration.

This was a period of Pacification by Force. 1840s to 1880 It wasnt until 1870 that there was an Pacification by Force increased awareness of the plight of the Aboriginal people, especially by anthropologists, who showed the intricacy of Aboriginal social and religious organisation. Policies were introduced in the different states during this time. A result of the Protection Policies was the establishment of reserves. Aboriginal people lived in poverty with poor education and few employment opportunities. They became dependent on Governments, and on reserve and mission superintendents and administrators. Aborigines had no citizenship rights during this period.

1880-1911 Protection Policies

The European view was that the only 1940s and 50s future for the Aboriginal people was to be Assimilation in Action Europeanised. The policy, if effective, would mean the eventual disappearance of traditional Aboriginal lifestyle.
Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

OHP 5

1970s Traditional life strongholds and outstation movement

This movement was working towards the strengthening of traditional life strongholds. There was also the development of the outstation movement in the north with Aboriginal people leaving larger settlements on reserves in favour of smaller centres. This homeland movement occurred in Arnhem Land, the Western Desert, and the north of Western Australia. There is a contemporary cultural revival in Aboriginal Australia including the revival of Aboriginal languages.

To the Future

(Excerpts from Aboriginal Australians: A Preliminary Chronology, Support Document No. 3, Aboriginal Education Unit, 1982.)

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

OHP 6

Dispossession
Laws introduced in 1900 in Western Australia concerning Aboriginal People, were similar to other parts of the country.

These laws denied Aboriginal People:


the right to work where they wished the same conditions and entitlements as white Australians the right to spend money they earned as they saw fit the right to raise their families in an Aboriginal culture the right to health care the right to enter public places, e.g. hotels the right to live where they wanted the right to own land

These laws led to the deprivation of: independence culture language / ceremony oppression spiritual world
Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

OHP 7

This eventually led to Aboriginal People lacking an identity and self-esteem.


ISSUE: LAND RIGHTS
Flag symbolism
Black (top half) - the people Red (bottom half) - the land Yellow (circle) - Life-giving sun and bond between the people and the land.

The flag is the symbol of the Aboriginal link to the land. It reminds them that they belong to the land. From it they were created and in it their spiritual ancestors still dwell. The land is their culture, their identity.
Views of the land
European view Disregard Used and cultivated it Private ownership Visible boundaries (fences) legal title Land for individual gain Real estate, leasehold growth, materialism. Aboriginal view Mother Community ownership (land for community welfare) Spiritual connections Sacred Title deeds: rituals, stories, songs and sacred objects. Respected and nurtured the land Belonged to land and lived in harmony with the land.

What do Australians think about land rights?


1976 1981 90% of Australians voted in a Referendum, giving the Federal Government power concurrent with the State Government, to make special laws for the Aboriginal people. In a Nation wide Gallup Poll, 2010 Australians were asked the question: Do you think the Federal and State Government are, between them, doing - too much for the Aboriginal people? - or not enough? - or about the right amount? Response: 50% - not enough 1985 18% - too much 25% - just right.

Australian National Opinion Poll survey on the attitudes to land rights. 1 in 5 Australians supported land rights. In conclusion to the poll: It would be easy to despair at the ignorance, intolerance and misunderstanding uncovered by our research towards Aborigines generally and land rights specially

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

OHP 8 (National Times April 1986)

What are the views of Australians today?


In general, do Australians support land rights? Why? / Why not?

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

OHP 9

Government Policy on Land Rights.


1983: The Aboriginal Land Rights Act.
Three levels of land Councils to be established (State,

local and regional level)


The councils receive 7 % of annual tax revenue. This

money can be used to buy private land.


Can claim unused Crown land, which is not needed for

public use in future.


Can claim Aboriginal reserves.

Before 1993: Terra Nullius a legal term used to define ownership of land to native peoples (land owned by no one). 1993: The high court rejected the doctrine of terra nullius. (i.e. Mabo decision). The court held that native title is defined according to the traditional laws and customs of people having the relationship with the land. Native title may be held by a community, group or individual depending on the content of traditional laws and customs. 1996: The Wik decision The Wik decision established the concept of co-existence that a pastoral lease and native title could exist side by side. Aboriginal communities argued that this was the way it had been for over 150 years. Pastoralists carried out their work and Aboriginal communities used the land for traditional purposes. Wik gave certainty to pastoralists by determining that where native title interests were in conflict with the operation of the pastoral lease, then the pastoral lease would prevail.
Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

OHP 10

1998: In response to the Wik decision the Howard Government in its Native Title Amendment Act 1998 changed significant aspects of the Native Title Act. This was presented as the Ten Point Plan. Research the Ten Point Plan.
Overview of the Ten Point Plan: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/1997/4/7.html

2005: Attorney-General Philip Ruddock announced a plan for practical reform to improve the performance of the native title system. The Australian Government is committed to achieving better outcomes for all parties involved in native title and we want to put in place measures that will ensure native title processes work more effectively and efficiently. (Philip Ruddock)
Read more: http://www.ag.gov.au/agd/WWW/MinisterRuddockHome.nsf/AllDocs/75 298785CC03B8B8CA257075001E522A?OpenDocument

What were these reforms that the government intended to instigate? 2006: Tony Abbott put forward a proposal for a new paternalism to replace self determination in Indigenous Affairs.
Read more: http://www.antar.org.au/

Describe this new paternalism. How was this received by indigenous groups? Today: Where do we stand as far as Government policy is concerned?

United Nations Statement


All people have the right of self determination, by virtue of the right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development
(Article 1, part 2, Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights)
Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

OHP 11

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

OHP 12

Changing Patterns of Religious Adherence


1901 1921 1947 1961 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 40 23 11 13 0.03 2 2 1.7 44 22 12 12 0.1 1 2 1.5 39 21 10 12 0.2 1 2 1.4 35 25 9 10 2 2 1 1.5 26 26 5 4 3 3 1 1 2.4 24 26 8 4 3 1 1 1 24 27 8 4 3 1.5 2 4.5 22 27 7.5 4 3 1.5 2 4.5 20.5 26.6 6.7 3.4 3 1.3 1.6 4.1 18.7 25.8 5.7 3.0 2.9 1.3 1.6 4.8

Christian
Anglican Catholic Uniting Church Presbyterian Methodists Orthodox Lutheran Baptist Other Christian groups Non- Christian Islam Judaism Buddhism Hinduism No religion Not Stated

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.6

0.5 0.4

0.6 0.4

0.9 0.4 0.8 0.3

1.1 0.5 1.1 0.4

1.5 0.4 1.9 0.5

1.7 0.5 2.1 0.8 18.7 11.9

0.2

0.4

0.4

0.4

11

13

13 16.6 15.5 10.2 8.7 11.7

Approximate figures in % Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics. (Updated 2008) http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/7d12b0f6763c78caca257061001cc588/636 F496B2B943F12CA2573D200109DA9?opendocument

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

OHP 13

Changing Patterns of Religious Adherence

Religion Christian Anglican Catholic Uniting Church Presbyterian Orthodox Lutheran Baptist Churches of Christ
Jehovahs Witnesses

1911 1933 1947 1961 1971 1981 1991 1996 2001 2006

Pentecostals Non- Christian Buddhism Hinduism Judaism Islam No Religion


Not Stated/ inadequately described

1.710 2.570 2.960 3.670 3.950 3.580 4.000 1.000 1.300 1.590 2.620 3.440 3.790 4.610 0.710 1.390 0.560 0.710 0.740 0.980 1.020 0.640 0.730 0.003 0.012 0.017 0.150 0.340 0.420 0.470 0.072 0.061 0.076 0.160 0.200 0.200 0.250 0.970 0.110 0.110 0.150 0.180 0.190 0.280 0.039 0.055 0.072 0.096 0.097 0.089 0.078 0.036 0.052 0.075 0.017 0.041 0.072 0.150

3.910 4.800 1.330 0.680 0.470 0.250 0.300 0.075 0.083 0.170

3.881 5.001 1.248 0.637 0.529 0.250 0.309 0.061 0.081 0.194

3.718 5.126 1.135 0.596 0.576 0.251 0.316 0.054 0.080 0.219

0.0030 0.0004 0.0170 0.0039

0.0007 0.0002 0.0240 0.0019

0.0004 N/A N/A 0.0350 0.1400 0.2000 0.357 0.0002 N/A N/A N/A 0.0440 0.0670 0.095 0.0320 0.0590 0.0620 0.0620 0.0740 0.0800 0.084 0.0027 N/A 0.0220 0.0870 0.1500 0.2000 0.281

0.418 0.148 0.088 0.340

0.0380 0.8600 1.5800 2.1800 2.9500 2.906 3.706 1.1000 0.7800 1.6000 1.7100 1.6000 2.187 2.357

Note: The numbers represent the people identifying with the above religions x 1,000,000 Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics. (Updated 2008) http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/7d12b0f6763c78caca257061001cc588/636F496B 2B943F12CA2573D200109DA9?opendocument

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

OHP 14

WHITE AUSTRALIA POLICY


was accepted at Federation 1901

This policy stated that after 1901, nonwhites could only enter Australia on a temporary basis under a permit. The immediate post-war orientation was assimilation. The immigrant was to settle into the pre-existing culture and society without causing any noticeable change. The immigrant did all the changing; the society did none. The immigrant was expected to learn English, acquire an Australian accent, eat Australian-style cuisine, go to Australian schools i.e. blend in. Only those immigrants who could be absorbed without changing the colour composition of Australian society, i.e. who were white, or who would not challenge the essentially British/European orientation of Australian culture, were allowed in.
Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

OHP 15

The White Australia Policy was gradually dismantled between 1952 (when Japanese wives of Australian servicemen were admitted under 5 year permits) and 1972/73 and replaced with multiculturalism. After 1972, the Whitlam Labor Government had a commitment to nondiscrimination on racial grounds and so removed race and country of origin from the selection criteria. They also recognised the trade, political and diplomatic interests of Australia in the Asian region, which necessitated the removal of the White Australia policy.

Race and Racism in Australia

-27

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

OHP 16

New Age Religions


From the 1970s onwards there has been an increase in New Age Religions in Australia. This has been due to a failure of the established churches to meet the needs of the times. People have lost confidence in the capacity of the established churches to provide an answer to their spiritual needs. New Age Religions tended to be adopted by those who rejected the affluent society created after the post-war generation. New Age Religions tend to emphasise the individual rather than the
group give a great deal of freedom in how to practise their belief stress universal consciousness stress ecological millennialism occasionally express feminist themes

New Age Religions are difficult to define because of their number and diversity.
Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

OHP 17

Examples of what they may deal with: magic witch craft spirit communication reincarnation astrology OR ANY crystals COMBINATION meditation/yoga chanting dancing psychic power self awareness philosophy Some examples of New Age Religions: Hare Krishna Scientology Theosophy Rosicrucians Inner Peace Movement Spiritualism Children of God
The Australian Church Story, page 135-136 Believing in Australia, pages 177-186 Religion in an Age of Change, pages 154-165 Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au -28 -15 -3

OHP 18

The objectives of the NCCA are: to encourage and enable the member churches
to develop their existing relationships by:

o raising awareness among their people of Christ's gift


of unity and of his call to express that unity through prayer, dialogue and shared engagement in mission; and

o coming to know each other better in all respects,


including the areas of spirituality, liturgy, theology, history, sociology and culture;

to encourage and enable the member


churches in the light of the Gospel to give prophetic leadership to each other and the community by

o developing a deeper understanding of evangelism/


evangelisation in Australia's cultural context; o addressing moral issues;

o speaking out on behalf of oppressed people; o acting in solidarity with Aboriginal and Islander
people; and o responding to human need and acting on issues of justice, peace and creation;

to promote relationships o with non-member churches, state ecumenical bodies


within Australia, regional and national ecumenical bodies in Asia and the Pacific, and the World Council of Churches; and
Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

OHP 19

o with people of other living faiths; and o to undertake joint initiatives as determined from time
to time by the National Forum at the request of member churches.
Excerpt from NCCA: http://www.ncca.org.au/about_us/how_we_work/constitution

Aboriginal Spirituality and Christianity


Religion today for the Aboriginal people. The two extremes: Denounce their traditional beliefs and become white Christians. OR Reject Christianity and retain traditional beliefs. However, Christianity and Traditional beliefs seem to fall into one of the three categories below:
two laws approach two ways of life and traditions are maintained. Christianity and traditional ways are separated.

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

OHP 20

Fusion approach

both ways are welded together, but both tend to lose their identity. reshaped and fitted together so that neither loses its identity.

Alliance approach

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

OHP 21

Aboriginal Way

European Way

Separate spirits Remember, re-create

Supreme being Remember, re-enact Salvation

Ritual Domain

Ceremonial ground Sacred sites

Church

What has happened? Revival of Aboriginal spirituality Pentecostal Christians have had a large
impact

Adoption of certain Christian ideals and


modification of them

Living tradition reinventing their traditions

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 1

Rights and obligations

Complex network of relationships

Dreaming is the basis of all aspects of life and is expressed through

land

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 2

Kinship
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have a complex system of family relations, where each person knows their kin and their land. These extended family relationships are the core of Indigenous kinship systems that are central to the way culture is passed on and society is organised.
http://www.dreamtime.net.au/indigenous/family.cfm

Describe the kinship system within Aboriginal societies. How does the kinship system help define a person and their relationship to
the community?

Each system brings with it certain roles and responsibilities. Give


examples of the roles and responsibilities that are required.

With kinship comes certain obligations which form part of Aboriginal Law.
Give examples of the type of obligations that are required.

Give examples of the influences that the kinship system has on aspects of
everyday life.

What are avoidance rules? How do these apply? What are some of the important aspects of kinship behaviour? How are the bonds of kinship reinforced in Australian Society? Why is kinship seen as the fabric of Aboriginal Society?

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 3

Investigate the many different activities, rites, ceremonies and rituals which form a part of the rich tradition of the ceremonial life of Australian Aboriginal peoples. Make a list of these in the boxes below. Choose one and investigate further. Discuss how this relates to the dreaming.

CEREMONIAL LIFE

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 4

The Land
Make a list of the obligations associated with the land.
mother people

changed themselves to suit the environment

Land

kinship

sacred trust

respected and nurtured

spiritual connections

Spiritual beings

Obligations:
Ancestral beings

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 5

Indigenous land use

marking of the land

sea

Dreaming tracks

Land usage

hunting

toas

bush food and medicine

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 6

Which Christian denominations are shown in the video?

Describe how each denomination has integrated with Aboriginal practices.

What do you notice about the Lutheran College? The Catholic Religion and Aboriginal Culture have adapted well in all aspects except one. What is this and why?

What is the purpose of the Pentecostals?

Which Christian denomination do you see as being least prepared to adapt? Why?

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 7

Protection Policy
They just came down and say, "We taking these kids". They just take you out of your mothers arms. That's what they done to me. I was still at my mother's breast when they took me. (Alex Kruger, 1995)
http://www.dreamtime.net.au/indigenous/family.cfm

The forced separation of Indigenous Australians from their families came to be known as the stolen generation.

Who were the stolen generation? When did this occur? What was the aim of the governments policy to separate Aboriginal children from their parents? Was this policy justifiable? Explain. Separation took three different forms. Name these. Research one government institution designed for Aboriginal children.

o What was its purpose? o What were conditions like for these children?
What legacy has been left for todays generation from this period of the stolen generation?

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 8

Land Rights
Define the following terms: Native title Terra nullius Integration Land rights Self-determination

Europeans claimed Australia as their own under the ruling terra nullius. What justifications did they use to claim this land?

The fight for land rights has been ongoing since Europeans first colonised Australia.
The following events have had a marked influence on this fight.

Aboriginal Tent Embassy Uluru Wreck Bay

Wave Hill

Noonkanbah

Describe the event, its purpose, the outcome, anything interesting about this event.

How have these events shaped the future direction of Land


Rights in Australia?

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Second World War / Post War Era


1950 was a boom time for Australian Catholics, numbers increased and the community had grown into a thriving Church based on the Irish model. 1960-1970s brought an enormous social change due to huge post-war influx of non-English speaking immigrants including more than one million Catholics from Italy, Malta, The Netherlands, Germany, Croatia, Hungary and other places. These Catholics had a different view of Church which didnt fit the Irish mould.

1945-1960

Worksheet 9

What views of Church did the European Catholics bring to Australia that were so different to the Irish? Did this cause conflict? Explain.

What Religions enriched Australia during this time?

Catholic and Protestant communities were still separated socially. Protestants still clung to their conservative political and moral values. Changes in approach to Aborigines were still influenced by paternalism.
Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Immigration after the Second World War affected the religious makeup of the Australian Population. The Australian religious landscape has been enriched by: - European - Middle Eastern - Asian immigration.

Post-Christian Society
Protestant Churches lost their previous political power. Catholic Church completed its divorce with the Labor party because of state aid to schools. Majority of Australians had ceased attending Church. Many weddings were conducted outside of the Church. Even funerals were deserting the Churches for Crematorium Chapels. A significant percentage of Australians claimed no religion. At the same time there were many indications of dissatisfaction with material values and searching for a spiritual dimension.

1961 -1990

Worksheet 10

The Australian Churches took up Social Justice issues: e.g. Aboriginal social / political rights land rights, unemployment, poverty, while continuing with practical outreach services.

Sectarian divisions that separated Catholics, Protestants and Orthodox believers began to break down.

What was Vatican II?

Give some examples of the types of things people turned to in their search for a spiritual dimension to their life.
Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Name some of the changes that Vatican II instigated.


Religious Community profiles Religion in Australia -40 The Australian Church Story, page 138-154 -26 Believing in Australia, pages 172-195 -14

Vatican II brought about changes so rapid and extensive that many Catholics were left confused and disoriented. Many of the wounds suffered have not yet fully healed.

Religion in the Nineties

In Search of God

Worksheet 11

The movement away from religion has stalled, and people are once again turning to spiritual exploration. In the first of a Herald series on religious beliefs in the 1990s, HELEN SIGNY writes that as people renew their search for faith, the country's religious leaders are trying to adapt. Sydney Morning Herald, Monday July 12th 1993 (Permission has been granted for the use of this material)
The drift from God has stopped. Australians, swayed by the sexual revolution of the 1960s, the materialism of the 1980s and the recession of the 1990s, have embarked on a spiritual quest. Contrary to popular belief, religion is not on the decline in the 1990s. One in four Australians goes to worship once a month or more - and 75 per cent of the population believe in some form of God. But Australia's religions are currently being forced to adapt to changes in the way people select forms of worship in 1993. In the latest edition of Monash University's People and Place, a sociologist, Professor Gary Bouma, notes there has been more change in the religious composition of Australia in the decade from 1981 to 1991 than in any other decade since the arrival of the First Fleet. Among the significant trends: But even the boost to numbers received from the influx of religious immigrants in recent years does not account for the trend to spirituality in the general population. And there are some areas - such as the charismatic movement- which have enjoyed pronounced growth. Meanwhile, the country's religious leaders are trying to adapt to many peoples renewed search for faith. One result is an increasing polarisation between fundamentalist, conservative movements and radical progressives with both sides seeking the common goal of spreading their message to a population in the midst of a recessionenhanced identity crisis. Multiculturalism and the growth of the welfare state have meant religious institutions have less impact on political and social life. At the same time, religious tolerance to a vast array of faiths has increased, and the Christian Church has lost much of its influence. Professor Bouma summed up: As the proportions of the Australian population that are Muslim, Buddhist, Hindu and Pentecostal continue to grow, there will be much more apparent variety in the institutional structures which are designed to help people make their lives meaningful. Anglicans and Catholics have been learning to share with other groups in ways neither had previously envisioned. But Professor Bouma warns: As Muslims, Buddhists and others erect their places of worship, the landscape will change as more and different religious symbols are raised for all to see. And the fact that Australians are not as tolerant, broad-minded or multicultural as they often like to present themselves to the rest of the world, is made, evident, time and again, as city councils deny building permits to some religious groups while granting them to others. Australians are obviously more ready to be ecumenical about cuisine than they are to be multicultural about religion. The majority of Australians are still Christian. In the first national Census in 1911, 96 per cent of the respondents stated they were Christian. By 1976 Christian adherence had dipped below 80 per cent for the first time - and by 1991, it stood at 74 per cent or about 12.5 million people. Christianity in Australia is now going through a rapid change. From its earliest days, Australia was a predominantly Anglican country. In the 1920s, the Anglican Church claimed 44 per cent of the population - compared to only 23.9 per cent today. The Catholics outstripped the Anglicans for the first time in 1986 - and by 1991 outnumbered them by 600,000 people (largely due to immigration). At the same time, there is now a marked shift towards conservatism in the Christian Church. Movements between the 1986 Census and 1991 Census reveal a substantial growth in the Baptist and Pentecostal churches, which have both seen their numbers rise by more than 40 per cent However, at the same time the conservative Presbyterian and Reformed churches have also gained a small amount of ground; and the Anglican, Jewish and Mormon faiths have increased at the same rate as the general population. Growing at a slower rate than the general population are the Brethren Churches of Christ, Salvation Army and Seventh Day Adventists. But the most significant growth is in the non-Christian religions. In the early 70s, less than 1 per cent of the population said they were non-Christians.
Recent immigration has now seen that rise to 2.6 per cent - or nearly half a million people.

The decades-long movement away from religion has stalled while the number of people who said they had no religion increased from 7 per cent in 1971 to 12.7 per cent in 1986, it has now stabilised at 12.9 per cent. The 1991 Census reveals a dramatic increase in the number of Australians who identify with a religion between 1986 and 1991, 1.1 million more people identified themselves with a Christian group (540,000 with Catholicism) 27 per cent of the population now have Catholic backgrounds including the Prime Minister, Paul Keating, the NSW Premier Nick Greiner, the NSW Chief Justice, Murray Gleeson, and six of the seven judges on the High Court of Australia. The Pentecostal churches have mushroomed by more than 40 per cent in recent years. Immigration has triggered a dramatic surge in other religions Buddhism has increased by 76 per cent since 1986, Hinduism has more than doubled in the same period, and Islam is up by

The latest official statistics reveal increasing pluralism in Australia's religious profile - which now includes faiths as diverse as Hinduism, Sikhism, Islam, Bahai, Aboriginal traditional religions, Druze, Caodaism and Humanism.

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 12
35 per cent.

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 13

Tolerance of new religions is generally high, although not all recently arrived faiths have been universally accepted. Reverend David Gill, General Secretary of the Australian Council of Churches, says traditional Australian religions will have to adapt to the pluralist outlook. Certainly the churches are having to come to terms with religious pluralism in this country thats a very big change for us. He said. We still have to work out of our system those old instincts: that say while we tolerate the other religions, we are the first-class travellers and they are the economy class. But I think Australia will be a majority Christian country for a very long time. The rate of change - while it is sinking - is still not going to change the basic balance of the religious presence in the country. The other challenge facing the traditional churches is to attract their flock back to the traditional weekend services. Church attendance peaked after World War II and during the baby boom - people with children are more likely to go to church than single people - and gradually declined over the last 30 years. But religious leaders insist this does not mean people have lost their religion. Rather, they argue, their challenge is to counter the reality that, for many of their former adherents, traditional religion has been perceived during the '60s and '70s as out of touch with the realities of modem living. "We are facing secularism and that particular facet of Western society which has had a certain antagonism to religion, admits the Archbishop of Sydney, the Most Reverend Harry Goodhew. Reverend Gill agrees: I think the whole of the Western world is passing through a time of strong secularisation - which leaves religious groups feeling a bit marginal and passed by in popular attitudes and government decisionmaking.

As a result, the traditional Australian churches have lost much of their clout in political and social life - with the Government now dictating policy on social welfare, health and education. Legislation on marriage, divorce, abortion and anti- discrimination often conflicts with religious teaching, and Christian doctrine can no longer be applied in many cases to Australia's multicultural society. Decisions are now left mainly to the individual. But on a private level, church leaders argue, citizens have not lost their need for spiritual fulfilment. In fact, disaffection with the direction in which society is moving has meant that religion - in its broadest sense - is on the increase. I think the '80s saw a lot of turnaround in people's attitudes,' says Dr Mark Hutchinson, the director of the Centre for the Study of Australian Christianity. The children of the '60s had, by the '80s, been pretty burnt out in their original ideals. So there was a lot of swing back to Christianity of all sorts. And as the State begins to take over the role of Godfather in society, there is a big vacuum in the middle because people cannot really associate with an impersonal force like the State. Even though, at the public level, religion starts to drop out, at the private level religion starts to rise again. People then turn back to intermediary bodies like the churches to overcome their alienation. There has been a fragmentation of private worlds, Dr Hutchinson says. You can move entirely in a world where you don't meet anybody who is religious- yet 25 per cent of the population go to church. A social researcher at the Christian Research Association, Ms Tricia Blombery, says the constant striving of individuals to find a sense of meaning in their life has also meant increasing numbers have turned to New Age practices, the green movement and even the republican debate as forms of quasi-religion.

She says the problem is that mainline church institutions still inhibit participation by groups of individuals particularly women and young people. As Australia is moving into a postmodernist age, we really haven't picked up another system which can work to replace bureaucracy, she added. In some ways, the institutional church is still working in an administrative mode which doesn't give the space for contemplating the philosophy. But as Australian society faces profound changes into the next century, it would be a mistake to interpret changing patterns of worship as undermining the importance of religion to national identity. The fundamental questions of human existence are still with us, says Reverend Gill questions of meaning and value: What does my life mean? What is worth living for or dying for? Whether you call yourself religious or not, you are stuck with these feelings. However secular the Western world becomes these feelings are not going to go away.

Is religion on the decline in Australia? Why? Name some significant trends in Religion in Australia in the 90s. What factors have lessened the impact that religious institutions have had on political and social life? What religion does the majority of Australians follow? Christianity in Australia is going through a rapid change. Explain. How, if at all, has

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Religion in the Nineties

CATHOLICISM What women want

Worksheet 14

The Catholic Church may be good at God, but its bad at dealing with women. According to the critics, women and their demands for a role within the Church constitute one of the biggest problems it faces today. Helen Signy and Chris McGillion report.
Sydney Morning Herald, Tuesday July 13th 1993 (Permission has been granted for the use of this material) The Catholic Church lives in every dropped dramatically. irrelevant,' She says. suburb, on almost every corner. I would say the Church is bleeding As a result, the Catholic Church is More than one quarter of Australians becoming increasingly pluralistic, in two vital spots: one is the women are Catholic, and they stay that way. who are leaving in frustration, or with a widening schism between As a rule Catholics who lapse don't traditionalist elements, such as Opus staying for their kids and getting very little sustenance for themselves and switch churches. (One in eight Dei, and reform-minded the young who are leaving in Protestants has switched progressives who, especially in the denominations during the past five West, are demanding more freedom, droves. years.) And Catholics are more likely social justice and opportunity for Society is moving and seeing them than Protestants to name their faith [women] as equal people, and how individual expression. in census questionnaires. They get significant and how important it is to I all the symptoms of confusion are married in the Catholic Church and have women in leadership positions there,' says Father Michael Kelly, the baptise their children as Catholics, because they bring in a whole director of Jesuit Publications. You even if they no longer take notice of different dimension, and the Church have everything from rat-bag the bishops or attend church is missing out fundamentalists to limp-wristed regularly. liberals.' He believes the most grave Ms Trish Gillard, the spokeswoman The Catholic Church has become for Women of the New Covenant, a oversight made by the Catholic highly influential in Australian Catholic women's group. goes even Church has been to ignore the society. It is the largest nonfurther, and is petitioning the Pope to forces of feminism. government provider of welfare scrap gender and marital bias in the One of the great developments of services in Australia. As well as its the last quarter of the 20th century is ordination of priests. It is essential extensive hospital and school that women - and married people be the revolution in the status of system it runs two universities, allowed the same status as celibate, women, he says. I see little including the Australian Catholic ordained men for the Church to evidence that the Catholic Church at University in Sydney, and the largest move away from its hierarchical an official level recognises the private welfare organisation in structure and become more significance of that - it's close to the country, the St Vincent de Paul way in which, in the 19th century, the wholistic, she says. Society. For some reason they have this rather authoritarian leaders of the It educates one third of our mental block about having women Catholic Church completely misread schoolchildren and employs more as priests and I think it's the growth of democracy and people than any organisation outside liberalism, and of the significance of impoverishing the Church: the the Government. seminaries are empty, yet our industrial civilisation. Yet despite its huge network, the The problem is of a leadership that's theological colleges are overflowing political profile of the Catholic male, elderly and celibate ... Its plain with women, she says. Church has diminished. We don't actually have a say on to anybody who has any part in the A distinctive Catholic politics arose practical ministry of the Church and issues such as contraception. We after World War II when Catholic are told, 'Look, you're a woman; this anyone who is involved in the late social activists, again encouraged by 20th century that the Church has to is how you must think, how you must at least some of their senior clergy, act and how you must be.' It's so wake up to the role of women. organised to rid the union movement frustrating, and it's painful too. The State co-ordinator of Women and the Labor Party of communists. and the Australian Church (WATAC), What we are saying is we want the But this experience almost divided Ms Bernice Moore, says women Church to be whole, to be inclusive. the Church and it provided a salutary members and young people are We are not dividing the Church; what lesson for the bishops about deserting Catholicism due to we are trying to do is unite the avoiding involving the Church in frustration with its lack of relevance Church. One of the main things is to controversial issues of national to their lives. present before the congregation, politics in future. Although most women today do not who mainly are women, that this It no longer has close traditional ties face the agonising decision, forced feminist face is God. with the Labor Party (which arose upon their mothers about, whether to Catholicism has traditionally seen from the strong involvement of Irishoppose the Church' teaching on the woman as the moral guardian of Australian working class), and some contraception - most Catholic the family, but now says a marriage State ALP branches are antagonistic women now follow their consciences should be an equal partnership. towards the Church. when it comes to family planning Women who choose to remain at they still feel The Australian Church is home with the children should not he they are excluded from decision overwhelmed by the problems that devalued, says the spokesman for making roles, she says. Catholicism is experiencing the Catholic Archdiocese of Sydney. 'You have got to be there, where worldwide. The past 20 years have Father Brian Lucas. seen rapid reform in Catholic thought people are, otherwise you have got The Church has not officially entered this thing of the Church becoming and practice introduced by the into the debate on the, ordination of more and more Second Vatican Council, which women priests. ended in 1965, while the numbers of priests and nuns in training have
Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 15
But Father Lucas points out that it has done much for the advancement of women - nuns were running schools and hospitals in Australia long before secular women were able to contemplate holding jobs of similar status. Feminism, like all isms is a mix of what's good and what's not good, he says. "We are now discovering the shallowness of the sexual revolution of the '60s. We are finding lots of people who are hurt, abandoned, left alone in their relationships and left exploited and then we have the terrible tragedy of AIDS . . . 90s morality is not something you necessarily want to be in touch with. The ordination of women is a complex issue but it's not one that will be resolved in terms of sociology - it's fundamentally a theological question. It has to be resolved in the terms of the Church's understanding of God's revelation, which is scripture and tradition. That's a matter of discernment that ultimately is reserved to the Church - it's not something reserved to sociological or general debate. Not only does the Church have to deal with tough social issues, it must confront the problems of its own organisation. One reason for the Church's passivity is its organisation. Nominally at least, its bishops (there are 40 odd) are equal and sovereign within their own diocese. The price of unity is often weak leadership. The collective management model s even further complicated by the number of large religious orders - for instance the Jesuits and the Sisters of St Joseph - who are outside diocesan control and report directly to superiors in Rome. Actually, as distinct from nominally, there is a ranking among the bishops: the archbishops in each State and those of their fellow bishops who have been educated in Rome carry much more weight than the others. The various working committees set up under the auspices of the Australian Bishops Conference are also dominated by the club of Rome among the bishops. But this only contributes to the absence of a strong local leadership. For all the Irish trimmings long associated with Catholics in Australia, theirs is a Church in the Roman mould. It was established and nurtured under the watchful eye of Church authorities in Rome. Until 1976 the Australian Church remained under the oversight of the Propaganda - or

Missions - office of the Vatican. And Rome, particularly under the current Pope, believes that all roads should lead straight to it and not detour at the level of a national church. In a 1987 Age poll only 59 per cent of Catholics interviewed said they believed in the Trinity; only 69 per cent said they believed that Jesus rose bodily from the dead. Both are fundamental doctrines of belief within the Catholic Church. Questions are being raised about the relevance of the Church's teaching to its members in the 90s. Questions about how the Church can run the most prominent AIDS program in Australia, at St Vincent's Hospital in Sydney, and at the same time prohibit the use of condoms. How the Pope continues to forbid contraception in the light of mass poverty throughout the Third World due to overpopulation. People are asking why the Catholic Church appears to have ignored feminism, and how it is that the Church, whose clerics are supposed to be celibate, has taken out an insurance policy against its clergy sexually abusing children. These days, no safe assumptions about what Catholics do and don't believe can be made on the basis of what the Pope or the bishops have to say.

The New face of the Church


For any Catholic born during the baby boom or before, the chances are that he or she will have been educated by nuns or priests in a Catholic school. In Australia, for many years, the face of the Catholic Church has been its clerics. But the past 20 years have seen radical change. Seminaries and convents which were once flooded with new recruits every year are now accepting a mere handful of applicants, and the majority of nuns are in there 60s. As a result of the decline in the number of priests the onus has fallen on the Catholic lay members to help to run the churches as never before. Theological colleges are bursting with laity eager to contribute to the parish life of their Church. Nearly all the staff in Catholic schools and hospitals are lay. For Keith Newstead, a 36-yew- old from North Ryde, the opportunity to serve within the Catholic Church has changed his life.

Although he had been attending church since he married Laura, 14 years ago, it was not until last year that he finally converted to Catholicism. Before he joined the Church, he was unemployed. Now he works as a clerk at the Catholic Adult Education Centre in Revesby, is a member of a Catholic employment support group, and last month became an acolyte, who assists the priest. In changing to become a catholic, I have got a lot of faith back in myself, he says. My beliefs have become stronger. I feel much better inside - I wasn't sure of myself, but now I have got a lot of confidence inside of me and my life's changed. The Church encourages the strengthening of its laity. The official spokesperson for the Sydney Diocese, Father Brian Lucas, sees the power of the clerics over the past 150 years as something of an aberration - there were no nuns and monks for the first 1,800 years of church - but now a better balance is being achieved. Some people now say the laity run everything. That's wrong. As history unfolds we come to a right balance between the proper role of the Clergy - to be servants through leadership - and of the proper role of the laity, who are involved in the world and activities of the world and seek to bring the message of Christianity to the world. Times are changing and Catholics are finding new ways of being engaged in the activities of the Church. Our schools that were once filled with nuns are filled with very committed, highly- skilled and very dedicated lay teachers The activity of education continues but in a different way.

Is the Catholic Church influential in Australian Society today? Why? / Why not? What are some of the issues facing the Catholic Church today? Does this differ to the early 90s?

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Religion in the Nineties

The Loss of Loyalty Protestants under siege

Worksheet 16

In search of new forms of Worship, many Australians are veering away from the mainstream Protestant Churches and towards the charismatic movement or more conservative faiths, writes Helen Signy.
Sydney Morning Herald, Wednesday July 14th 1993 (Permission has been granted for the use of this material) Protestants are in crisis. More than I think the mainline Protestant the Bible, but can be forgiven and churches are entering into a new adherents to any other faith, they healed. Most adherents consider era. Once it was presumed even if have lost their loyalty to individual abortion, to be sinful. people weren't involved, they would denominations. One in eight has The basis would be a fairly literal normally belong to a group. Now switched denomination within the understanding of the scriptures. If they are saying, where are the past five years, while threethe Bible says it, then thats it, effective denominations?

quarters do not see themselves as belonging exclusively to one denomination.

For nearly 200 years, Anglicanism was the predominant religion in Australia, seen largely as the faith of authority.
Now it is losing its hold. People are searching for new forms of worship and veering towards more conservative churches and the charismatic movement - which now claims 18 per cent Protestant attendance. The Church Life Survey (CLS), a study of 305,000 Protestants conducted in 1991, reveals tremendous movement within the faith as its members seek the worship best suited to their individual needs. All denominations have been successful in attracting new blood, with 8 per cent of the congregation on any given Sunday having joined in the past five years. The continuing influx into the Church has meant its numbers have kept pace with the general population. Communities which were traditionally centred on the church have become more mobile, meaning people are more likely to move to new areas and swap churches. The fact they are also seeking new forms of worship has deeper significance, according to Rev Dean Drayton, the general secretary of the Uniting Churchs board of mission. There is quite a new context emerging here, and in most of the West, where finally democracy has hit religion, he says.

One of the most significant results of this is the growth of the charismatic movement. The movement is epitomised by the Pentecostal Church, in the form, for example, of the Assemblies of God, Church of the Four Square Gospel, Christian Revival Crusade and the Apostolic Church. Just as large are the sizeable charismatic groups found within the mainline denominations. According to the CLS, the membership of The Assemblies of God - the largest Pentecostal church - has increased from 6,000 members in 1965 to nearly 90,000 today. It is growing by an estimated 6 per cent every year. The movement focuses on a belief in the physical demonstration of the supernatural Holy Spirit. It manifests itself by its members speaking in tongues, or a spiritual experience that causes people to talk in non-earthly language that they have not learned. Others are able to interpret for the congregation. Speaking in tongues is supposed to be a way of receiving messages from God, praising God ad receiving comfort. Members of the congregation are encouraged to participate in services, for example by singing or playing music, rather than passively listening to a preacher. The movement is conservative, offers cut-and-dried answers to modem questions, and interprets the Bible more literally than most of the mainline religions. For instance, it is vehemently against homosexuality, which it says is a sin according to

says Mr Michael Chant, the registrar of Tabor College in Sydney. He claims adherents to the charismatic movement now make up the largest religious group in the world. It is certainly gaining strength in Australia within the mainline churches -it is possible to have Anglican, Uniting and Catholic charismatic churches. The CLS found 37 per cent of an Protestant church attenders approved of Christian speaking in tongues. The over 50s were more likely to disapprove, and take a literal view of the Bible while onethird of those 20 to 29 spoke in tongues themselves. Yet Mr Chant says the charismatic movement in Australia has still not been fully accepted. A lot of [charismatic groups within mainline churches] are having difficulties - a lot of ministers are leaving the traditional church structure or finding maintaining the two in balance isn't working well, he says. Sure we have them there ... but whether a charismatic minister would go to a position of authority is another matter altogether While the church leadership says its fine and we have charismatic groups within their denomination, the practice is that they are still shunted to the background and not allowed to promulgate their views. The Movement towards the Pentecostal Church is balanced by a reverse drift, mainly by older members of the congregation, back to the mainline denominations. But these are now grappling with their own fundamental problems.

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 17

The Anglican Church lost its first-place ranking (in membership) to the Catholics for the first time in the 1986 census, and by 1991, were trailing with 23.9 per cent of the population, compared with the Catholics 27.4 per cent. Coupled with the psychological impact this has had on the Anglicans, the Church is deeply divided over the ordination of women priests and the structure of its hierarchy. The issues have prompted media speculation on the possibility of a split. The Sydney diocese, seen as the most conservative and evangelical in Australia, offers charismatic services in some of its churches. But a clampdown on the movement in the late '70s saw significant defections to the Pentecostal Church. The Archbishop of Sydney, the Most Rev Harry Goodhew, says the Anglican Church can learn from the charismatic movement's contemporary form of expression, but acknowledges the need to cater to more traditional members of the congregation. I think the less charismatic churches need to be able to communicate the same sense of relevance and vitality and empowerment within their own structures, he says. Our wisdom is to be able to offer for those who are looking for the order and stability that's been part of our church life that opportunity, and people looking for something more contemporary. The Anglican Church also offers extensive welfare services, with its Home Mission Society spending $32 million a year. Australias other mainline Protestant church, the Uniting Church, is also facing unprecedented challenges. In 1977, the Uniting Church was formed out of an amalgamation of the Methodist, Congregational and Presbyterian churches, with an agenda of becoming a truly

But a recently released survey of its members reveals a general consensus that the Uniting Church has spent too much energy over the past 15 years in working out its structure, rather than developing its spiritual resources. It has shown itself to be remarkably progressive, for instance by appointing an Asian Moderator, the Rev Dr Tony Chi, (the next moderator will be a woman, The Rev Shirley Maddox) and by declaring, in NSW, that the woman is the key decision maker when it comes to abortion. But Dr Mark Hutchinson, the director of the Centre for the Study of Australian Christianity at Robert Menzies College, says the Uniting Church is perceived by many to be responsive to fringe groups rather than successful in developing its own theology. The Uniting Church's national director for mission, the Rev Dr Dorothy McRae -McMahon, says the church has an exceptional record in addressing issues of concern in the community, such as Aboriginal affairs, unemployment, the environment and welfare services. We see our role very much as a church which is trying to authentically participate in the life of the Australian community and to respect other people in their perceptions of what the community should be like, including people of other faiths, she says. We are always working on a theology of mission, but in terms of the theology which forms our ministry, that's been laid down for a long time. The charismatic movement now forms a significant group within the Uniting Church, which Dr McRae-McMahon says is well respected. Often the charismatic renewal movement is bringing a challenge to be more confident in its praying and more celebratory in its life.

They can also lead to conflict because sometimes they think it's the only way to have spirituality. But we are happy it's another form of life and spirituality in the Church. After the formation of the Uniting Church, factions of the Presbyterian and Congregational churches, which were opposed to the merger, continued to operate alone. The census reveals that these conservative elements, along with the Reformed and Baptist churches, have seen extremely strong growth over the past five years. The general secretary of the Baptist Union, the Rev Bruce Thornton, says Australians are rejecting spiritual intellectualism in favour of faiths, which are more relevant to their personal experience. Now people have moved toward a faith, which has biblical content, but it also has an emotional element in it, he says. It takes it out of being simple assent to a set of intellectual propositions, and is more a personal relationship with a God that's real The Protestant faiths could see a radical change of structure in the next century. Dr Hutchinson sees the Anglicans eventually splitting and forming a variety of churches, while fringe groups will become more accepted. After the mainlining of the charismatic Protestant movement, then what you would see is a rise of alternative forms of Christianity, he says. All are being driven by a search for relevance, for dealing with the personal and alienated in people, so people have an ability to fit into structures and feel they are not only part of it, but have a sense of control. Why were Australians veering away from the mainstream Protestant churches? What were people moving towards?

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Religion in the Nineties


Australian church.

Worksheet 18

The Fading Star of David

While some Jews have retreated inside the high walls of ultra-orthodoxy, the more tolerant ideals of modern Judaism have resulted in a weaking of the faith, writes Helen Signy.
Sydney Morning Herald, Thursday July 15th 1993 (Permission has been granted for the use of this material)

After 2,000 years of persecution, the Jews have found their place in the sun. Since the end of the World War II, following the horrors of the Holocaust and the establishment of Israel, the Jewish community throughout most of the Western world has been accepted and left in peace for the first time in centuries. For Australias estimated 100,000 Jews, multiculturalism has meant they are no longer stigmatised as the countrys only exotic European community - as they were perceived before the war but are able to merge into the new, pluralistic society with as much case as any other migrant group. But tolerance and peace are taking their own toll on the Jewish community. Its members are no longer strongly bound by a united struggle against atrocity or the fight for an independent Jewish State. The barriers between races, ethnic groups and religions are being broken down as never before. Intermarriage is gaining increasing acceptance. And, as a consequence, there is a very real fear that Judaism will simply fizzle out. I think the real challenge which is facing the Jewish community throughout the world today is the ability to sustain a meaningful Jewish identity and create among the young people a desire to maintain Jewish continuity, says Mr Isi Leibler, the president of the Executive Council of Australian Jewry. On the one hand we like [the tolerance] enormously - it means the breakdown of prejudice and we have found our place in the sun in the Western world. But, as a consequence, in an

through internal resources. The past 20 years have seen a dramatic increase world-wide of acculturation and intermarriage, which has resulted in more than 60 per cent of Jews in the United States marrying non-Jews in the, and only 5 per cent of the children of these mixed marriages maintaining their Jewish identity. Acculturation is happening more slowly in Australia, where, unlike in the US, many of the current generation are the children and grandchildren of Holocaust survivors and therefore more likely to hold onto their Jewish tradition. But Mr Leibler fears the next 20 or 30 may see successive generations letting their identity slip. The worst-case scenario would be that the Jewish community were ultimately left as just a few ultraorthodox enclaves living in selfimposed ghettos, he says. Judaism is not just a religion - it can also be seen as an ethnicity, a race and a culture. Mr Leibler believes that up to 80 per cent of Jews in Australia are nonpractising, apart from occasional visits to the synagogue during festivals and to mark family events. I think that without religion, ultimately Jewishness begins to disappear - to rely on Jewish life purely on a secular or ethnic basis is a very, very weak reed, he says. Partly as a reaction to the crisis of identity, the Jewish religion - like most of the other faiths in Australia - is becoming increasingly polarised. On one hand, liberal movements are gaining strength as they try to modernise the faith and attract more people. At the other end of the scale, ultra-orthodox denominations are becoming more popular as their members cling fiercely to their religious principles

cent of Jews adhere to the liberal, or progressive faith, and about 5 to 7 per cent to ultra-orthodoxy. But both are gaining strength. Progressive Judaism - also called liberal or reform Judaism - was founded 200 years ago. It attempts to adapt Judaism to the modem world while maintaining its essence from the past, according to Rabbi Brian Fox, the senior rabbi at the Temple Emanuel in Woollahra. As a result, men and women are allowed to sit together in the synagogue. Women rabbis can be ordained, and modem language and poetry are permitted. Orthodoxy has been very resistant to reform. The difference is that for orthodoxy, the threat of assimilation and of the disappearance of the Jewish community is so great that they feel they have to keep the walls of Judaism very high and strong to stop the Jews escaping. We feel that 200 years ago, with the emancipation of the Jewish people, the walls were taken away. Jews can go to university, go into the modem world, many inside the faith and marry outside the faith. We feel we have to do everything we can to attract people back into Judaism Orthodox Judaism is also growing. Not only are orthodox Jews likely to have more children, due to the emphasis the faith places on the family, but a return to strict Jewish observance is being promoted as a way of protecting Jewish identity. Rabbi Moshe Gutnick. the rabbi of Mizrachi Synagogue, Bondi, and the vice-president of the Rabbinical Council of NSW, says that throughout the shades of orthodoxy- from the isolationist ultra-orthodox Jews to the more tolerant centrist orthodox - people are becoming stricter in the practice of their faith.

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 19 environment where there are no bridges, we have to be much more confident of our ability to maintain continuity and erect barriers against the threats outside. Mr Leibler estimates about 20 per

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 20

The move to the right shouldn't be seen to be a form of ghettoism, but a return to roots and commitment to religious principles, he says. Observance and orthodoxy are becoming stronger by the day. Its happening because of a recognition that the principle behind reform - that this way you will save more Jews from assimilation - has fallen flat. Progressive Judaism differs from orthodoxy in several key areas, the most fundamental of which is their interpretation of religious laws. The orthodox Jews believe the laws of God handed down to Moses on Mount Sinai are unequivocal and unalterable, while the progressive movement says they are man-made and are subject to change. Being Jewish isn't just an ethnicity; it's a commitment to a religious idea and a people which ultimately has its origins in Mount Sinai, says Rabbi Gutnick. The rejection of reform ideology is in no way to be seen or taken as a rejection of reform Jews as Jews. But the two faiths do differ in their definition of a Jew. While orthodox Judaism holds that Jewishness can be passed on only by a mother or conversion in accordance with orthodox law, the progressive Jews believe somebody can be a Jew if either one of their parents is Jewish and he or she is brought up in the faith. The tension between the progressive and orthodox movements is increasing. For instance, orthodoxy refuses to recognise marriages solemnised by progressive, and will not remarry people who did not have an orthodox religious divorce. The role of women is also causing friction. There is now a handful of women rabbis in Australia, but orthodoxy, although it acknowledges women as spiritual leaders, does not recognise any rabbis ordained into the progressive faith.

Yet, for the majority of Australian Jews, their religion is firmly planted in the traditional middleof-the-road, centrist orthodox movement. However rarely they observe their faith, if they need a synagogue for a marriage ceremony, or a rabbi to confirm their child, it is to traditional Judaism that they will turn. Rabbi Raymond Apple, the senior rabbi at the Great Synagogue in Sydney, says orthodox Judaism can be tolerant to the demands and experiences of the 2oth century. He says Jews are bound both by their fate and their faith. They are united by their history and experiences and share an obsession with the Holocaust because it represents a watershed in both Jewish and human history. But as far as their religion is concerned, Judaism does not insist on the acceptance of any set creed, he says. Most Jews believe in God and human life: These affirmations are more or less shared by every Jew, but everyone's approach to spiritual affirmation is dictated by their own experience. The search for identity may in itself be what saves the Jews. The executive vice-resident of the Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Mr Jeremy Jones, says the drive to keep people within the faith is creating a dynamism of its own. There are going to be people who opt out of the Jewish community and people who opt in, he says. It creates more energy to look at projects such as Jewish education, exposure to Jewish culture, welfare institutions, to encourage as many people as possible to see the positive side of Judaism. If people feel comfortable with any part of their identity, they are generally going to want to take that into the next generation.

A Balance between faith and community


While not necessarily keeping kosher homes or identifying with religious details, all of the Jewish people who gathered for the Herald valued the sense of community that came with being Jewish. There was also a strong sense of the responsibility that they felt for passing their culture on to subsequent generations. The young people questioned some Jewish practices but at the same time they felt challenged to incorporate their faith and culture into a modern Australian lifestyle. They offered the Herald some views on the future of Judaism n Sydney:

The Hon Sydney Einfeld, AO, former MP and prominent member of the Jewish community: I do think Judaism is a living religion ... more and more younger Jews these days are finding solace and satisfaction within the religion. I don't want Judaism to lost its adherence to faith in any way because I believe it's vital. As to the future of Sydney's Jewish community, he is not necessarily confident or positive, but hopeful. Rabbi Raymond Apple, the Senior Rabbi at the Great Synagogue in Sydney: I am very optimistic ... the Australian environment has been very hospitable to minority groups, including minority religions. Judaism has been able to take advantage of this multiculturalism, and in regard to young people, I think it is stronger than ever.

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

What has multiculturalism in Australia meant to the Jewish people? What is the real challenge facing the Jewish community? Judaism is not just a religion,

Worksheet 21

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Religion in the Nineties

Strangers in the Suburbs


But in February 1991 the council reversed itself and allowed the Hindu temple to go ahead. Today, after a decade of conflict, the temple at Minto is under way, and Should be completed by early 1994. Prem Misra an Indian builder and Campbelltown resident for 20 years, said of the initial antitemple mood: It was mainly the fear of the unknown the Australians did not know what the temple was. Most Hindus in Australia are migrants ... if there is a temple, they can relate to it culturally. The temple now being built has an unusual design. It is being constructed entirely underground, the ancient caves orginally used for worship in India. An artificial cave has another advantage in Australian suburbia. As Mr Misra points out, there can be no complaints about noise or disturbance to the areas scenic amenity. The Other major congregation in the Campbelltown row, the Suburban Islamic. Society, finally chose as its house of worship not the grand $1 million Mosque they had once wanted to build but a recycled Protestant church at Leumeah. Dr Abdul Ghaffar Khan, the mosque's president, says the current president, says the current premises are a temporary solution.His group will soon need a larger site to build a contemporary mosque. Given the current flux in the Protestant churches, some nonChristian groups see recycling redundant Christian church properties as a short cut to a viable congregation. The converted church scenario is most interesting, said Mr Pino Migliorino, a former Ethnic Affairs Commission staffer involved in a major review of how local

Worksheet 22

For years the not-in-my-backyard attitude meant many immigrants had nowhere to worship. But the barriers are crumbling, write Warren Osmond and Louise Williams.
Sydney Morning Herald, Friday July 16th 1993 (Permission has been granted for the use of this material)

Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism are major world religions which influence the lives of hundreds of millions of people, but when they arrived in Australia their adherents frequently found themselves unhappily reduced to a suburban nuisance. Their efforts to build new places of worship often drew protests from their new, nominally Christian neighbours. They were deemed too noisy or too numerous. Often they were ignorant of the rules on parking, noise, run-off, setback - the rites of planning, Australian-style. In this learning process the new religious long-term problem ensuring the continuity of religious faith through their next, Australian-born generations was often neglected.. Earlier this year the 1991 census results showed that Islam and Buddhism are our fastest growing religions. With nearly 150,000 Muslims and nearly 140,000 Buddhists, these two groups alone have replaced Judaism as Australia's best-represented non-Christian religion. And some of Australia's Muslims, Buddhists and Hindus have now won the battles to erect major mosques and temples. Many Sydney local councils have generated controversies over what planners now call new religious development. But in recent years media coverage turned the city of Campbelltown in Sydney's south-western outskirts into the major battle-ground for the new, immigrant religions. On the same day in September 1990, Campbelltown Council rejected development applications for a Hindu temple and a mosque for the local Suburban Islamic society.

government handles potentially controversial new mosques and temples. Existing church properties already have planning approval and dont need to be rezoned, he said. In 1990 Mr Migliorino chaired an interdepartmental committee including the departments of Local Government and Planning, the Local Government and Shires associations, the Local Government Planners Association, and the NSW AntDiscrimination Board. Its report published in September 1990 at the height of the Campbelltown furore, led to new Department of Planning guidelines in August 1991. Councils were urged to make early contact with religious groups seeking new places of worship, and to anticipate potential objections. A flexible and merit-based approach was needed, the report said. Campbelltown was a bit of a watershed, Mr Migliorino says. But Muslim leaders say they remain to he convinced that prejudice in the guise of local council politics and planning policies is a thing of the past. Whenever there is a development application from an Islamic Society to build a mosque or place of worship or centre or school, we know there will be some opposition, Mr Ali Roude, the chairman of the Islamic Council of New South Wales, told the Herald last week. We still don't know whether things have really changed. Besides local government, what most worries Australian Muslim leaders is the bad image of Islam often created by media reports from the Middle East and other Islamic regions - especially during the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf crisis.

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 23 Buddhist and Hindu leaders, while declining to be quoted on the point, believe Muslims face deeper prejudice here than they do. But they, too, have had municipal start-up problems. The issue of the once sacred Australian backyard came to a head in 1988 in Homebush West when a Chinese Buddhist community applied for permission to construct a temple at the back of a suburban house. Outraged residents raised technical planning objections, and Strathfield Council rejected the development application. But the Land and Environment Court upheld an appeal by the Hwa Tsang Monastery. Graeme Lyall, the chairman of the Buddhist Council of NSW, says the residents' case faltered when they admitted they would not have been as strongly opposed to a Christian church on the same site. Don Smith, the chief town planner at Strathrield Council, said: The community tends to think of 'us' and 'them' and believes that Western worshipping practices are the only ones that are acceptable. Michael Wong, the vice-president of the Hwa Tsang Monastery, is not insensitive to the strong feelings newly-arrived religions can arouse. Here comes a bunch of people buying a property in a traditional Australian environment, he said. We did expect opposition in the first place and it took a lot of effort to convince the neighbours that we are here to stay and that we are a peaceful religious group. The monastery now runs afterschool classes in the major high school subjects, open to all, regardless of background. For another major Buddhist sect, the answer to more than a decade of worshipping in suburban garages was to build a new $3 million temple surrounded by factories and gum trees, and guarded by two huge concrete dragons. The Chua Phuoc Hue (Wisdom) temple in Wetherill Park, serving the Vietnamese Buddhist community, has no immediate neighbours; the site used to house a disused school. Since arriving in Australia as a refugee in 1980, the communitys leader, the Most Venerable Thich Phuoc Hue, went from one rented suburban house to another. Keeping Buddha behind the Rolla-Door was difficult, he said. Master Thich said it was only with the completion of the temple that Australia's Vietnamese Buddhists could reassess the state of their faith. A great deal of spirituality was lost, he said, in the early years of Vietnamese settlement here. The young people who have grown up in this country have adapted very well to materialism. At the beginning the Vietnamese were so busy working they didnt have time to educate their children. Now they are established, they can start to look at their customs and how to revive them. For all newly-arrived faiths, the issue of the commitment of the second generation of followers is now becoming urgent. Muslims say they have embarked on a similar transition. Five years ago Fahmi Hussain, a Sydney solicitor and prominent Muslim community leader wrote in the Australian Minaret that Muslim leaders had lost touch with their youth. Our leaders ... are continually emphasising and directing their efforts towards areas involving the building of mosques and the setting up of institutions, but most of all in petty bickering coupled with nationalism and self-pride, he said. If Muslim leaders did not come to terms with their Australian-born youth, Australias newest Muslim communities would become the Afghan camel traders of the future, Mr Hussain warned. Today, Mr Hussain says priorities have decisively changed. The Persian Gulf crisis deeply affected our young people and got a lot of our leaders thinking, he said this week. Local mosques are now established and the community has turned to the needs of youth, women and the aged. Ali Roude, of the Islamic Council of NSW, said: Australians have a good spirit. Every barrier can be overcome here.

What are some of the barriers that Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism face in Australian society today?

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

The changing face of Religion today

Worksheet 21

Today we live in a time of rapid socio-cultural change. As societies change, we change in theological imagery. For example some images of God cease to make sense and to appeal, therefore, new images appear.

Some of the major socio-cultural changes that are reshaping our world today: migration cultural diversity globalisation economic transformation / decay / collapse / change shifts in power allegiances /bases rise of the post-family society rise of post modernity

How do the changes listed affect Christian Australians belief or image of God? Discuss.

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 22

Getting Technical
Place the everyday phrase with the correct technical word.

Everyday phrase

Technical Word
Religious Pluralism

Secularism Mixed marriages Immigrant Assimilation policy Globalisation Interdenominational talks Christian denomination

the tendency of modern societies to lesson the influence of religion in worldly affairs. Characterised by widespread lack of interest in religious ideas or practices. is the process of increasing the economic and social connections between cultures. It results in more and more people being drawn into a single world. expectation that migrants and minority groups take on the same culture as the nations majority group.

distinctive religious groups present and tolerated within a society. marriages between partners belonging to different religions. a person who comes from one country and settles in another. discussions between two or more different denominations.

groups within Christianity having a distinct interpretation of the Christian Influence of Christianity onorganisation. Education in Australian Society. faith and usually their own

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Immigration after World War II


Note: Between 1945 and 1989 more than 4 million migrants from 120 countries settled in Australia.

Worksheet 23

Indicate on the map the countries from which people immigrated to Australia after World War II until the present. Present a key showing the different periods of time particular groups came to Australia. Indicate the events that were behind the immigration of the particular groups.
Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 24

Immigration after World War II and the White Australia Policy


What were the reasons the Australian Government gave for dramatically increasing immigration after the Second World War? Up until the 1970s British immigrants were given preference over other immigrants. What changed in Government policy to affect this? Give reasons. How has the White Australia Policy affected the composition of Religions in Australia today? With the recent race debates in Australia are we heading back to a White Australia Policy? How will this affect Australia in the future?

Out of all the Christian denominations, the influx of migrants after World War II most affected Catholicism.
Why? What was the nature of the Australian Catholic Church before World War II? From where did the majority of migrant Catholics come? What conflicts occurred? What solutions were tried?

With European Catholics came Catholics from Lebanon and Middle Eastern countries.
To what Rite did these Catholics belong? This brought other problems. What were they? How did this group differ from Irish Australian Catholics? How did they cope with the Roman Rite? What was their solution? What were some of the differences between the Roman Rite and the other Eastern Rites? Name the Eastern Rites in Australia now. How does the Australian Catholic Church see itself today?

With Christian groups came an influx of non - Christian groups.


For Example Jews Buddhists Muslims Hindus From where did the majority of these groups migrate? What event in history led to this immigration?
Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 25

Immigration and the current religious landscape

Religious affiliations

Religious affiliations

from

from

immigration
from from

from

Religious affiliations

Religious affiliations

Religious affiliations

From which countries are people immigrating to Australia today? What are their reasons for immigrating? How has this affected the religious landscape of Australia? What are some of the conflicts that are occurring? Give reasons. Could you still describe Australia as a Christian Country? Explain.

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 26

Denominational Switching
Define the term switchers. People often give the following reasons for changing denominations. Their reasons are frequently linked with a lifestyle change, for example: leaving home commencing tertiary study establishing a career marriage Reasons for changing: moving got married disagreed with the teaching too much conflict style of worship / programme unhappy with the minister no longer felt they belonged

The main denomination switching occurs between the Protestant churches. Very little movement occurs with switching into the Catholic Church. LUTHERAN UNITING

ANGLICAN PRESBYTERIAN OTHERS

Activity: Log onto: http://www.ncls.org.au/default.aspx?sitemapid=134 Look at the overall inflow and outflow 1991 -1996. Look at the distribution throughout each of the denominational churches. Draw up a table showing the comparisons between: Anglican, Baptist, Churches of Christ, Lutheran, Pentecostal and Uniting churches.
Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 27

Summaries your findings.

New Age Religions


Research a New Age Religion operating in Australia. Answer the following questions:
What are their beliefs? What is their spiritual practice? How is the group structured? Is its focus on the individual or the group? How would Christianity view this Religion? Does this religion have a big following in

Australia?
What attracts people to this religion?

Present your information in an interesting way.

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 28

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Worksheet 29

NSW Ecumenical Council


Research the NSW Ecumenical Council. Log onto: http://www.nswec.org.au/ Questions to consider: When was it established? What was the reason for its establishment? What is the NSW Ecumenical Council? What are the Councils aims? What are the Councils objectives? The Council exists to do what? How many Churches are included in the Council? Name these. What does the Council do?

Present your findings in the form of a brochure to promote the work of the Council in your local area.

Trish Bartlett 2006 HSC Course: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post -1945. This sheet may be copied for non-commercial class room use. http://www.tbresources.com.au

Other material available from Trish Bartlett Resources.


Modules of Work
Years 7 to 12
Each module contains Lesson plans Worksheets Overheads Assessment Tasks Permission is given to copy worksheets and overheads for non-commercial classroom use only. Each module is available as a booklet, on CD Rom, in PDF format.

KITS

Survival Kits A great resource for the REC: the Kit is comprised of a series of worksheets for the unforeseen absences. Lenten/Easter Kit The Lenten/Easter Kit is a series of modules linked from Year 7 to Year 10. Each module looks at a different aspect of the Lenten / Easter Season thus avoiding repetition over the four years. By Year 10, students will have a more enriched and varied understanding of this season of the Churchs calendar. Advent/Christmas Kit The Advent/Christmas Kit is a series of modules linked from Year 7 to Year 10. Each module looks at a different aspect of the Advent / Christmas Season thus avoiding repetition over the four years. By Year 10, students will have a more enriched and varied understanding of this season of the Churchs calendar. A Journey to the Sacred A Journey to the Sacred is a five part series delving into the places of worship of each of the five main Religious Traditions.

Modules of work that complement the

NSW Studies of Religion

Preliminary and HSC Course (2006 / 2007)

A subscription service is available.

As a subscriber, you will receive a range of products and benefits, including automatic access to all updated worksheets and data shows as soon as they become available. Find out how subscription will save you money and keep you up-to-date. For more information, log onto www.tbresources.com.au Contact information: E-mail: trish@tbresources.com.au Phone: 02 42846927