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Optimization Case Study Pipeline Transmission System This example is taken from Engineering Optimization, Methods and Applications

s by G.V. Reklaitis, A Ravindran, and K. M. Ragsdell, published in 1983 by John Wiley & Sons. A natural gas pipeline transmission system is required to pump 100 MMSCF/day of natural gas through a distance of 600 miles. Compressor stations are to be placed at equal distances. The design variables are the pipe diameter D, compressor discharge and inlet pressures P1 and P2, and length between stations L. The optimum design should be such that the total cost of the pipeline facility is minimized. Here are the equations.
R = 1.987 P1 r= P2 X= r 0.219 -1

hp = 27168 X 4.5E6 7.08E8 Cfixed = + L L Cfuel = Cmain= Clabor = 5.82E8 L 0.58E8 L X X

8.64E6 1.96E8 + L L

Pinstall= 73800 D D P1 t= 50000 Pmatl= 15.68 D -1 3 f = 0.008 D 2 2 P1 - P2 Q = 3.39 f L 5 2 P1

T = Pmatl+ 9E5 + Pinstall + Cfixed + Cfuel + Cmain+ Clabor

Here is a summary of the variables, with descriptions and solution values.

St Input 1,405,790 88.2048 14.9774 471.382

Name Q L D t P1 P2 r hp Cfixed Cfuel Cmain Clabor Pinstall Pmatl T

Output

0.141202 396.087 1.1901 1,055.46 362,853 256,339 25,545.8 184,281 1,105,340 1,658,040 4,492,390

Unit SCF/hr mi in in psia psia hp $ $ $ $ $ $ $

Comment Volumetric flow Length of pipe between compressors Pipe diameter Pipe thickness Compressor discharge pressure Compressor inlet pressure P1/P2 Horsepower of each compressor Annual fixed cost of all compressors Annual fuel cost Annual maintenance cost Annual labor cost Pipe installation cost Annual cost of pipe material Total annual cost of operation

The TK Solver Optimizer is concisely configured as follows.

Here is a TK table containing the optimal solutions for a range of flow rates.
Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Q 10,000,000 9,000,000 8,000,000 7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 L 35.6628 37.4409 39.5325 42.0454 45.1458 49.1369 54.4442 62.1849 74.9624 103.22 D 37.0435 35.2846 33.4177 31.4203 29.2622 26.8952 24.2651 21.2467 17.624 12.799 P1 190.584 200.092 211.269 224.7 241.275 262.609 291.021 332.413 400.602 551.595 T 9,784,880 9,363,160 8,915,380 8,436,300 7,918,750 7,352,300 6,720,860 5,997,100 5,127,170 3,969,820

The table was created in a few simple steps. First, each of the variables in the table was assigned the List status on the variable sheet. The flow rate was input and the Optimizer run. The results were then placed into lists using TKs Put in Lists Command. These steps were repeated for each of the desired flow rates. The lists can also be plotted, as shown below.
Minimum Cost vs. Flow Rate 10000000

5000000 Total Cost, $

3000000 2000000

1000000 1000000

2000000

3000000

5000000

10000000

Volumetric Flow Rate [SCF/hr]

Compressor Interval vs. Flow Rate Minimum Cost Condition 110 100 Compressor Interval [miles] 90 80 70 60 50 40 2000000 3000000 5000000 10000000

30 1000000

Volumetric Flow Rate [SCF/hr]