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Online Instructor's Manual

to accompany

Teaching Young Children: An Introduction


Fourth Edition Prepared by Wanda LeTendre Morehead State University

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Columbus, Ohio

______________________________________________________________________________
Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Pearson is a registered trademark of Pearson plc Merrill is a registered trademark of Pearson Education, Inc. Instructors of classes using Henniger, Teaching Young Children: An Introduction, Fourth Edition, may reproduce material from the instructor's manual for classroom use. 9 ISBN-13: 978-0-13-513747-5 ISBN-10: 0-13-513747-0 ii 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Chapter 1 Overview of the Profession


This chapter emphasizes:
Understanding the essentials of early childhood education. The types of programs for young children. Funding sources for early childhood programs. The roles, responsibilities, and skills needed for teachers of young children. Current training of teachers in early childhood education Resources for professional development available to earlychildhood educators.

Essential content
1. 2. Five foundational components are all essential to quality early childhood programs. Understanding child development Play Guidance Working with parents, families, and communities Diversity issues Program types provide a way of categorizing early childhood options. Infant/toddler programs Preschool education Child care programs (family home child care; child care centers; school-based child care; corporate child care; before-and-after school care) Programs for children with special needs (integrated programs; early intervention programs) Kindergarten education Primary education (multi-age classrooms; looping; integrated curriculum; classroom centers)

3. Funding sources for early childhood programs include the public (through local, state, or federal funds) and the families of young children. Programs run for profit Cooperative programs Federally-funded programs
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State and locally-funded programs Corporate child care College and university-supported programs

4. Roles of the early childhood teacher are far more challenging and rewarding than most people think. Facilitator of learning Counselor Janitor Cook Educational specialist Parent substitute

5. Responsibilities of those in early education are broad. Advocate for children and families Continuing education Engage in ethical conduct

6. Three broad categories of skills are needed to teach young children. Interacting with children Preparing the environment Working with other adults

7. Making a decision about teaching requires careful reflection. Observe early childhood teachers at work Spend time with young children Ask for feedback from others Self-analysis

8. Teacher preparation options vary, but generally fall into three categories. CDA credential Two-year college programs Four-year college/university degrees

9. Resources are available to help teachers continue their professional development. Professional organizations (NAEYC, ACEI) Journals Reference materials (books, ERIC, web sites)
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Teaching strategies
10. Discussion starters Do you think it is easier or more difficult to teach when you begin with an understanding of children and their development? Give a rationale for your response. Teachers of young children often must convince parents and others of the importance of play in the classroom. Why? Being an advocate for children and families may be frightening to some people. What might be some simple advocacy tasks that would be less stressful to begin with? Why is preparing the environment such an important part of the work of the early childhood teacher? Many educators take exception to the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act on grounds that there is too heavy an emphasis on standardized tests that are not in the best interest of many children. Other teachers claim that because every classroom is required to have a qualified teacher, children are receiving a quality education. What is your opinion of NCLB? Discuss the benefits to children as a result of Act? What are the disadvantages?

11. Small-group tasks In groups of three, discuss the interrelationships between the five foundational elements of early childhood education. For example, how does an understanding of child development influence your work with families? Can you identify one or two guidance strategies that would influence childrens play? After discussing these issues, combine with another small group and share your thoughts. In groups of three or four, discuss who should pay for early childhood programs. Should families be responsible for the costs? Government? Business? Ask small groups to make a case for the position you assign them (families responsible, government pays, business supports) and then have groups present their thoughts to the class. Then have the small groups discuss the problems associated with having either families, government, or business responsible for the costs of early education. In small groups, have students identify two or three specific ways in which teachers of young children serve as counselors or family substitutes. Share these thoughts with the rest of the class. In small groups, have each student describe his or her favorite teacher. Following this discussion, have students construct a list of characteristics of excellent teachers. Use the same procedure to construct a list of characteristics common to poor teachers. Discuss these lists as a large group. For Discussion and Action Talk to an early childhood teacher about the five essential elements of early education presented in this chapter. Does the teacher feel they are all necessary for good teaching at this level? Are there others that he or she would add? Discuss this with your classmates. See if you can find examples of the different types of early childhood programs within your community. Are there infant/toddler options? Preschools? Family child-care homes? Child- care centers? Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Character Education and read the article Parents as Partners. Because each generation must socialize the next generation in order for society to endure, recall how your own parents formed your character. From the above article and personal
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experiences, identify the moral anatomy of people you consider to be of good character. How do we as educators foster character growth in our students and help parents to foster such growth at home? Spend some time thoughtfully creating two separate lists, one identifying your personal strengths and the second listing your weaknesses. Compare those lists with the roles of early childhood teachers and the skills needed to be successful. What do you think? Is there a good match? Why or why not? What are the requirements for early childhood teachers in your state? Compare and contrast programs available at the community college and university levels. Handouts (see Appendix A) Handout 1.1 - Ethical Conduct in the Early Childhood Classroom Handout 1.2 - Making a Decision about Teaching Power Point Slides are provided in a separate file in the Instructors Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com.

Evaluating learning
14. 15. Test bank

Other assessment ideas Project - Videotape yourself working with young children. Make sure you have permission to include children in the tape. Do a self-critique of the tape, comparing your interactions with the roles, responsibilities, and skills needed to be a teacher in the early childhood classroom. What does this tell you about your potential effectiveness as an early educator? Project - Spend some quality time in an early childhood setting that is new to you. For example, if you havent had experience in an infant/toddler program, volunteer several hours in that setting. After spending time in this new setting, write one or two pages reflecting upon the experience. What did you learn? What else would you like to know? Project - Talk to a teacher or administrator in a corporate-sponsored child-care facility. What are this persons thoughts about the strengths and problems of businesses funding quality early childhood programs? Journal Response - What do you see as your greatest strength as a person? How could you use this strength in your teaching of young children? Identify your area of greatest weakness and write about how that might influence your work with children. Journal Response - A parent has just told you that she is getting a divorce and that things are very stormy at home. What feelings would you probably have after this kind of communication? How do you think this conversation would affect your relationship with that parent? How do you think you would react to future conversations with this parent?

Additional resources
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References

NEW TO THIS EDITION: MyEducationLab is a website containing articles and videos. References to this site are contained in the book margins. Go to www.MyEducationLab.com to register and log in to the course. Instructions for registering are available online. Coontz, S. (1995). The American family and the nostalgia trap. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(7), K1-20. Fuerst, J., & Petty, R. (1996). The best use of federal funds for early childhood education. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(10), 676-78. National Association of Early Childhood Educators. (1995). Professionalism in early childhood teacher education. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 16(3), 5-19. Wolfgang, C. (1997). Preschool teaching. First day and lasting impressions! Phi Delta Kappan, 78(5), 409-10. Videos 18. Career Encounters: Early Childhood Education (28 min.; National Association for the Education of Young Children; $39; 800-424-2460) Children Come First (13 min.; Community Playthings; FREE; 800-777-4244) Building Your Personal Library Jalongo, M., & Isenberg, J. (1995). Teachers stories: From personal narrative to professional insight. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Using stories from early childhood teachers, this book discusses issues relating to advocacy and professionalism. The teacher narratives describe how others have dealt with these important issues. Jensen, M., & Hannibal, M. (2000). Issues, advocacy, and leadership in early education (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. This book is a collection of current articles from professional journals. It begins with information on advocacy and leadership in early childhood and then provides separate chapters with articles on gender issues, media and television, child health, abuse and neglect, and diversity concerns. Paciorek, K., & Munro, J. (2003). Annual editions: Early childhood education. Sluice Dock, CT: Duskin/McGraw-Hill. This book is an edited collection of interesting articles on early childhood education. It is a good overview of many of the issues in the field. The book is updated each year with new articles.

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Chapter 2 Historical Contexts


This chapter emphasizes:
The early European influences on early childhood education. The beginnings of early education in the United States. Historical events that have impacted the direction of early childhood education.

Essential content
1. Many historical figures have influenced early education. European contributors: Martin Luther John Amos Comenius Jean Jacques Rousseau Johann Pestalozzi Friedrich Froebel Maria Montessori Margaret McMillan Lev Vygotsky Sigmund Freud Jean Piaget American influences: John Dewey Erik Erikson Abraham Maslow J. McVicker Hunt Benjamin Bloom Jerome Bruner Arnold Gesell Patty Smith Hill Lucy Sprague Mitchell Abigail Eliot

2. A number of historical events also have influenced early education.


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Child Study Movement The Great Depression World War II The launching of Sputnik The War on Poverty Federal mandates (No Child Left Behind Act)

Teaching strategies
3. Discussion starters In general, how have theorists influenced the field of early childhood education? Compare the theorists contributions with those of historical early childhood practitioners. Rousseau believed in negative education- the absence of formal instruction until age twelve. Can you identify both strengths and limitations of this concept? Pestalozzi emphasized the importance of teacher-student relationships. Do you agree they are important? What do you see as the benefits of strong relationships with students? Are there weaknesses? Froebel was the first to use circle time as an educational tool in teaching young children. Why is this grouping of children so effective as a management and teaching tool? Dewey felt that true education only occurs in social situations. Do you agree or disagree? Can you give some specific examples that either support or refute this concept? What are the basic principles of the NCBL Act? Are these good or bad for children? For teachers? For society? List pros and cons.

4. Small-group tasks Martin Luther championed the idea of fostering all aspects of the childs development. This concept is considered very important in early childhood classrooms today. In small groups, choose an age within early childhood (0- 8), discuss and then list examples of teacher interactions, materials, or activities that you have seen or read about that are designed to stimulate these different aspects of child development (intellectual, social, emotional, language, physical).
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Comenius was one of the first to suggest that the first years of life are crucial to overall human development. In small groups (four or eight groups is best), you will be assigned an age range to focus on (infant/toddler, preschool, kindergarten, or primary). For the level assigned, assume you are being asked to present a rationale to parents for the importance of these years to overall development. Generate a list of examples that could be shared. Once these lists are generated, share your thoughts with another small group that was assigned a different age range. Rousseau and Montessori both emphasized the importance of learning through sensory experiences. Spend some time individually thinking about a time from your past when a sensory experience led to quality learning. In small groups, share your memories. Discuss the importance of sensory learning for young children. Froebel felt that singing was an important tool for learning in the early childhood classroom and in the home. Spend a few moments in a small group remembering jingles from TV commercials that you remember from your childhood. Does this tell you anything about the power of singing as an instructional tool? How could you use singing as a learning strategy in the early childhood classroom?

5. For Discussion and Action Think back to your own early childhood education. What do you remember about your early experiences? To which of these historical theorists are you indebted for your own early education? Explain how your education would have been different and perhaps lacking without the cutting edge thinking of these early theorists. Read a portion of a text by one of the historical figures mentioned in this chapter. What did you learn about this person from this task? Share your findings with others. Investigate one of the historical events discussed in this chapter in more detail. What did you learn? Share your findings with others. In Head Start, compensatory education programs, and Project Follow Through, all attempts at improving IQ scores were basically unsuccessful. Why do you think this was the case? Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Curriculum/Program Models and view the video Reggio Emilia. What makes this program so different from models with which you are more familiar? Are academics neglected when the emphasis is on projects? Discuss advantages and disadvantages of this program. 6. Handouts (There are no handouts for this chapter.) Power Point Slides are provided in a separate file in the Instructors Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com.

Evaluating learning
7. Test bank
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8. Other assessment ideas Project - Read some of Froebels original writing describing his kindergarten program. Compare and contrast his program with todays kindergarten classrooms. Reflect on and write about the reasons for the differences you discovered. Project - Read Hymes (1978) account of the Kaiser Shipyard Child Care program during World War II. Compare that description with the child care programs of today. If you are unfamiliar with current options, call or visit a program and discuss the Kaiser program with them. What are the similarities and differences? Journal response - Pestalozzi felt that it was very important for teachers to recognize the potential in each child. While this is an admirable goal, it is often difficult to implement. Do you remember an adult who was able to recognize your potential during your childhood? What did this person do or say that indicated this recognition? If you cant remember a specific person who recognized your potential, write about how you can begin this process of recognizing the potential in each of your future students. Journal response - In Montessoris day, children with special needs were often labeled as defective or as idiot children. Words like these create cruel images of the potential of children with special needs. While we dont use these terms today, unthinking adults often cause children (special needs and otherwise) stress through their words or actions. Describe any remembered situations from your own schooling where teachers used inappropriate language or actions in interacting with children and the impact it had. If you dont remember such situations, write about language or actions that you plan to avoid in your work with children.

Additional resources
9. References Eliot, A. (1978). Americas first nursery schools. In J. Hymes (Ed.), Living history interviews. (Book 1). Carmel, CA: Hacienda Press. Heinig, C. (1978). The emergency nursery schools and the wartime child care centers: 1933-46. In J. Hymes (Ed.), Living history interviews. (Book 3). Carmel, CA: Hacienda Press. Osborn, K. (1978). The early days of Head Start. In J. Hymes (Ed.), Living history interviews. (Book 3). Carmel, CA: Hacienda Press. Taylor, K. (1978). Parent cooperative nursery schools. In J. Hymes (Ed.), Living history interviews. (Book 1). Carmel, CA: Hacienda Press.

10. Videos Johann Pestalozzi: The First of the New Educators (Insight Media, 800-233-9910; 20 min.; $149) Piagets Developmental Theory: An Overview (Davidson Films, 888-437-4200, 25 min.; $250)

11. Building Your Personal Library Braun, S., & Edwards, E. (1972). History and theory of early childhood education. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. This is probably the best text to overview historical people and events that have influenced early childhood education. It includes extensive excerpts from the works of famous early childhood theorists and practitioners. Weber, E. (1984). Ideas influencing early childhood education. New York: Teachers College Press. This scholarly text is an excellent resource, describing many of the historical people and events discussed in this chapter and presenting others for further study. Wortham, S. (1992). Childhood 18921992. Wheaton, MD: Association for Childhood Education International. An interesting look at the history of childhood over approximately the last hundred years. The book provides important insights into changes that have occurred during that time.

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Chapter 3 Types of Programs


This chapter emphasizes:
The program models associated with early education An investigation of the Montessori model for early education. The High/Scope Curriculum as used in preschool and primary classrooms. The behaviorist approach and its application to young children. The Bank Street model for early education. The elements of the Reggio Emilia program and its applications in the United States.

Essential content
1. The Montessori Program. Montessoris work experiences Characteristics of the Montessori classroom Materials Classroom organization Role of the teacher Children Served

2. The elements of the High/Scope curriculum. Theoretical basis The Plan-Do-Review sequence The curriculum Structure of the classroom day The teachers role Research on the High/Scope Model Children Served

3. The behaviorist approach. Theoretical perspectives Implications for teaching


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Relationship to developmentally appropriate practice

4. The Bank Street model for early education. Theoretical underpinnings Program goals Governing principles Curriculum and materials Children Served

5. The Reggio Emilia program from Italy and its applications in the U.S. The environment Children, parents, and teachers Cooperation, collaboration, and organization The atelierista The importance of documentation Projects Children Served

Teaching strategies
6. Discussion starters What do you see as the differences between the work experiences of Montessori and more traditional play options? Are there similarities? Can you give some specific examples to highlight the points you make? The Plan-Do-Review sequence is an important part of the High/Scope program. Give some creative ideas for how you might help children complete the planning portion of the sequence. The Bank Street model for early education emphasizes the importance of developing each childs individuality. What are the strengths of this approach? What would you do to encourage individuality? Are there also potential problems associated with promoting individuality? The project approach is one cornerstone of the Reggio Emilia program. What do you see as the strengths of using projects? Are there potential problems? Identify a possible project for preschool children. What might some options be for a class of second graders?

7. Small-group tasks
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Montessori programs can be found for students 6 to 9 and even for students in their middle and high school years. Can you identify older students who have participated in Montessori schools? What would be the advantages of such classrooms for students in the 6 to 9 age range? the middle school years? the high school years? Identify advantages in Montessori classrooms common to preschool, primary, intermediate, middle school and high school. Assume you are working with a group of four-year-olds and want to help them learn the concept of fiveness. Brainstorm what the children would need to know to understand fiveness. Then discuss how you would help them develop these understandings using a play-oriented approach. Your group of first grade students has shown an interest in learning about birds. Discuss how you would integrate mathematics, social studies, reading, writing, science, art, and music experiences into a study of birds. For each of the following activities, discuss several options for students documenting their learnings: a study of spiders, gardening activities, cooking activities, block building.

8. For Discussion and Action Read further about one of the models discussed in this chapter. Share your findings with a classmate/small group/write it up in a paper. Choose one idea from Montessoris approach that you like, and describe how this concept would influence the way in which you would teach young children. Brainstorm with your classmates three or four examples of how children construct knowledge of the world around them. What are the strengths of integrating the curriculum across disciplines? Are any weaknesses associated with this approach? Check out your community to see if any early childhood programs follow one of the five models presented in this chapter. If so, take time to observe in that program, and share your insights with your class. If not, talk to an early childhood teacher, and see which models she is familiar with and how these models influence teaching and learning in that classroom. Share results with your class.

9. Handouts (see Appendix A) Handout 3.1 - The Plan-Do-Review Sequence Handout 3.2 - Comparing the Approaches Power Point Slides are provided in a separate file in the Instructors Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com.

Evaluating learning
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10. Test bank 11. Other assessment ideas Project - Choose your favorite early childhood education model from the five presented and talk to an early childhood teacher about this models key features. The teacher doesnt need to be teaching using your preferred approach. Find out from this teacher which of the key elements s (he) likes and dislikes. Does the teacher implement any of these same approaches in their classroom? Describe. Project - Try to find one of the five model programs in your community or general area and spend some time observing in it. Discuss how the program observed compared to the model description found in your text. If there were differences, what were they and why do you think they existed? Journal Response - Describe several characteristics of the teacher you want to be. Given these characteristics, which of the four models best fits the educator you plan to be. Journal Response - Identify a child in the early childhood years that you personally know (own child, nieces and nephews, neighbor, etc.). For that particular child, which of the four program models do you think best fits that child? Describe why you feel that way.

Additional resources
12. References Chattin-McNichols, J. (1992). The Montessori controversy. Albany, N.Y.: Delmar. Elliott. M. (1998). Great moments of learning in project work. Young Children, 53(4), 55-59. Helm, J., Beneke, S., & Steinheimer, K. (1998). Windows on learning: Documenting young childrens work. N.Y.: Teachers College Press. Schweinhart, L., Weikart, D., & Larner, B. (1986). Consequences of three preschool curriculum models through age 15. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 1(1), 15-45.

13. Videos The High/Scope Curriculum: The Daily Routine. (17 min.; High/Scope Press; 800-40-PRESS; $30.95) The High/Scope Curriculum: The Plan-Do-Review Process. (20 min; High/Scope Press; 800-40-PRESS; $30.95) An Amusement Park for Birds: Documentation of a Long-Term Project from Reggio Emilia. (90 min; Learning Materials Workshop; 800-693-7164; $59)
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The Long Jump: A Video Analysis of Early Education in Reggio Emilia, Italy (120 min; Learning Materials Workshop; 800-693-7164; $45)

14. Building Your Personal Library Epstein, A., Schweinhart, L., & McAdoo, L. (1996). Models of early childhood education. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press. This book presents six models of early education and discusses the curriculum, training, and research materials of each. Hendrick, J. (Ed.). (2004). Next steps toward teaching the Reggio way (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. This recent book is an excellent overview of the Reggio Emilia approach to early education. In addition to describing the key elements of this model, several educators discuss the implications of Reggio Emilia for American early education. Hohmann, M., & Weikart, D. (1995). Educating young children: Active learning practices for preschool and child care programs. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press. This is the most recent book by High/Scope to describe its program. It follows two earlier texts (Weikart, Rogers, Adcock, & McClelland, 1971; Hohmann, Banet, & Weikart, 1979) that also provide valuable information on this program. Lillard, P. (1996). Montessori today. A comprehensive approach to education from birth through adulthood. New York: Schocken Books. This book is an update of a classic that has been in use for nearly thirty years (Lillard, 1972). It provides an excellent overview of the theory and practices associated with the Montessori method. Mitchell, A., & David, J. (Eds.). (1992). Explorations with young children. Mt. Rainier, MD: Gryphon House. This text describes the Bank Street approach to early education. Although it is designed as a curriculum guide for Bank Street classrooms, it does not provide specific lessons or activities to use; rather, it identifies the processes teachers use in order to develop materials and activities for early childhood classrooms.

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Chapter 4 Understanding How a Child Develops and Learns


This chapter emphasizes:
A discussion of developmentally appropriate practice. Insight into the relationship between child development, learning and teaching. Differing perspectives on development. Characteristics of children at different ages and stages. Strategies for learning about children and their development.

Essential content
1. Developmentally appropriate practice is essential in early childhood classrooms. Age appropriateness Individual appropriateness Learning is viewed as an active process Considers all aspects of the childs development Family involvement is critical Multicultural, nonsexist materials and experiences are essential

2. Key perspectives on learning and development add to our understanding of children. John Bowlby - attachment Abraham Maslow - hierarchy of needs Howard Gardner- theory of multiple intelligences (linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic) Arnold Gesell- gradients of growth Maria Montessori- sensitive periods; unity of the mental and physical, absorbent mind Lev Vygotsky - relationships between language and thought; zone of proximal development
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Erik Erikson - stages of psychosocial development (first four of eight: trust vs mistrust; autonomy vs shame and doubt; initiative vs guilt; industry vs inferiority) Jean Piaget - schemas; assimilation; accommodation; stages of intellectual development (sensorimotor; preoperational; concrete operations; formal operations) Jerome Bruner - discovery learning; three stages of cognitive development (enactive, iconic, symbolic) Urie Bronfenbrenner - ecological model of human development; four systems that influence child development (microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem)

3. Child development similarities and differences help caregivers understand and teach young children. Infants and toddlers Children from three to five (preschool age) The primary school years Children with special needs- children with disabilities; children at risk; gifted children

4. Learning about children is necessary for effective teaching. Studying development and learning Observation: tool for understanding Communicating with parents Development and health assessments

Teaching strategies
5. Discussion starters Developmentally appropriate practice sounds like such a reasonable approach to teaching and learning. Yet, many public school teachers at the primary level dont practice it. Why do you think this is the case? What takes its place and why is that approach more popular? Attachment is viewed as critical for healthy social and emotional development. What are some implications of attachment for the early childhood teacher? How should knowing about attachment influence caregivers working with infants and toddlers? Maslows hierarchy of needs has many implications for teachers. First of all, where do you think teaching/learning fits in this hierarchy? What are the implications of placement? What role should/do teachers play in meeting student needs? Implications?
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Vygotsky describes some interesting relationships between language and thought. Give specific examples of the following situations: language without thought; thought without language; linguistic thought.

6. Small-group tasks Developmentally appropriate practice requires children to be active learners. Discuss in small groups what being active means with regard to cognitive development. Apply the results of this discussion to the following situation: you are teaching second grade and want to include active learning your mathematics, social studies, and science curricula. List examples of ways in which you could do this for each area. Assume you have a kindergarten child who you determine to have bodilykinesthetic intelligence. How will you take advantage of this knowledge as you teach and work with this child? Divide the class into four small groups and assign each small group one of Eriksons first four stages of psychosocial development. For each group identify ideas for helping children positively resolve the psychosocial crisis for that stage. After each group has brainstormed several ideas, pair up small groups and have a time of sharing ideas. You have a four-year-old in your class that is bright and considered gifted by her family. The family is coming in for a conference this afternoon. Discuss in small groups what you will say to the family about their childs giftedness. Assume the family convinces you they are correct in their assessment. How will that influence the way in which you teach/interact with that child?

7. For Discussion and Action Does the concept of developmentally appropriate practice make sense? Would you be comfortable promoting it with parents? Discuss your questions, likes, and dislikes regarding developmentally appropriate practice with your peers. Divide the class into 5 groups. Assign each group one of the needs identified by Maslow, namely physiological needs, safety and security needs, belongingness and affection needs, self-respect needs, and self-actualization needs. Have students identify a time in their own lives when that need was not met. What were the effects in their lives? How did students manage to get that need met. As teachers, how would these future teachers assure that each need was fulfilled in the lives of their students? Come together as a class and share in the large group each of the groups findings. Pick an aspect of development (such as the development of sex role identity), and discuss the influences of heredity and environment on the process. Spend time observing a child in the early childhood years. Look for evidence of how this child constructs knowledge from playing with people and things. Discuss your insights with classmates.
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Each of the theorists outlined in this chapter (such as Eriksons psychosocial theory) has significant implications for the ways in which you teach in an early childhood classroom. Choose one theory, and discuss specific ways in which it would affect your teaching. Interview a special education teacher. Without using names, ask the teacher to describe for you one child with special needs included in the regular classroom. Find out why the child has been classified as having special needs, what behaviors the child displays, and how the special education teacher works with the child during the regular school days.

8. Handouts (see Appendix A) Handout 4.1 - Piaget on Education Handout 4.2 - Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development Power Point Slides are provided in a separate file in the Instructors Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com.

Evaluating learning
9.Test bank 10. Other assessment ideas Project - Observe in an early childhood classroom. Choose one activity children engage in and critique the developmental appropriateness of the activity based on the characteristics presented in your text. Project - Based on your readings in the text, create a list of questions about the attachment process that you could ask a parent, family member, or primary caregiver to gain further insights into this important bonding process. Then interview the parent or other primary caregiver of a preschool child using the questions you created. Journal Response - Who had primary responsibility for raising you during your childhood years? Describe the relationship you had and now have with that person or persons. What does this tell you about the attachment relationship? Journal Response - You are preparing to be a new parent and are expecting to have a baby to care for in three months. You just found out today that your child has special needs. Describe the feelings you experience.

Additional resources
11. References Dunn, L., & Kontos, S. (1997). What have we learned about developmentally appropriate practice? Young Children, 52(5), 4-13.
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Gardner, H. (1991). The unschooled mind: How children think and how schools should teach. New York: Basic Books. Katz, L. (1993). Child-sensitive curriculum and teachers. Young Children, 48(6), 2. Kostelnik, M. (1993). Recognizing the essentials of developmentally appropriate practice. Child Care Information Exchange (March), pp. 73-77.

12. Videos Theories of Development (29 min.; Insight Media; 800-233-9910; $139) How Young Children Learn to Think: Piagets Theory (19 min.; National Association for the Education of Young Children; 800-424-2460; $39)

13. Building Your Personal Library Schickedanz, J., Schickedanz, D., Forsyth, P., & Forsyth, G. (2001). Understanding children and adolescents (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. This book provides much good additional information on child growth and development during the early childhood years. It provides much more detail than was possible in this chapter. Berk, L. (1999). Infants and children: Prenatal through middle childhood (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Another excellent book describing child growth and development throughout the early childhood years. Gesell, A., & Ilg, F. (1949). Child development: An introduction to the study of human growth. New York: Harper & Brothers. This classic book presents a wealth of information collected on childrens developmental patterns. The normative data provided here are still very much in use to describe typical development of children. Hallahan, D., & Kauffman, J. (2003). Exceptional children: Introduction to special education (9th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. This text describes the field of special education and what it is like to teach children with special needs. It details the types of children with special needs and ways to work with them.

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Chapter 5 Play in Childhood


This chapter emphasizes:
Definitions of childhood play. Major theories explaining why children play. A discussion of social and cognitive play types. The benefits of play to all aspects of child development. The adults role in facilitating childhood play.

Essential content
1. Defining play is a difficult task. Characteristics of play- active; child selected; process oriented; suspension of reality. Descriptors of play: Froebel Dewey Erikson Bruner Vygotsky Elkind

2. Theories of play help us understand why children engage in this important activity. Classical theories: Surplus energy Relaxation theory Preexercise theory Contemporary theories Psychoanalytic theory Play as arousal seeking Cognitive structures theory

3. Cognitive play types describe cognitive changes that occur in play as children mature.
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Functional play Construction play Dramatic play


Games with rules

4. Social play types identify changes in social interactions during play as children mature. Solitary play Parallel play Associative play Cooperative play Cooperative-competitive play

5. Benefits of play are many. Intellectual growth- multisensory experiences; play and problem solving; mastering abstract symbolism Building social skillslearn social roles; decrease egocentrism; understand the rules of social interaction. Language and literacy development Physical development Emotional development Play and creativity

6. The adult must do several things to facilitate childhood play. Prepare the play environments Create a climate for play Promote the importance of play Adult involvement in play- parallel playing; co-playing; play tutoring

Teaching strategies
7. Discussion starters Why is play such a difficult concept to define? Is it important to do so? Does it matter to you as a teacher of young children or to children themselves?
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The surplus energy theory is being used when families suggest that children go outside and play to get rid of all that extra energy. It makes sense as a rationale for why children play. Describe what you see to be the strengths and weaknesses of this theory. Most families and teachers would probably say that children today play less (and less creatively) than they did even a few short years ago. Describe why this, in fact, may be happening. Why are many children playing less today? Your text discusses communication skills of primary children and how the imagination can be stimulated. Go to MyEductionLab and select the topic Emergent Literacy and Language Arts then read the strategy Storytelling. This strategy offers advice to teachers about how to stimulate childrens imaginations regarding storytelling. Would you be comfortable using this technique? Can you think of other ways to encourage storytelling in primary children?

8. Small-group tasks In small groups, review all the definitions presented in your text for play. Spend some time creating your own definition of this elusive concept. Share your thinking with the large group. In pairs, identify three or four specific examples of benefits that primary children can get from play experiences in the classroom. Share your thinking with another pair. Read the section on Play and Creativity, pp. 140-141. In groups of 5 or 6, select a recorder for your group. List as many games using marbles as you can think of, then brainstorm to create as many new marble games as possible. Share your ideas with the whole classroom. Display the expanded list in a prominent place in the classroom. In small groups, equipped with enough play dough for each member, assign one person the role of teacher and role-play parallel playing, co-playing, and play tutoring. Discuss the strengths and limitations of each intervention strategy.

9. For Discussion and Action Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Child Development, then watch the video Physical Development and watch two preschool children playing outdoors. Compare the more advanced physical development of Acadia to the development of Cody. In each activity, compare and contrast the developmental levels of Acadia and Cody. Discuss what you as a teacher could do to assure that each child reaches maximum competency for each level of development. Choose a theory of play that is most helpful to you in explaining why children play. Make a case to your classmates for the values of this theory.
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Play a game designed for young children (like Candy Land) with a child five or younger. Describe the way in which the child played. Does this tell you anything about games with rules and young children? A parent wants to know why you are encouraging play in your classroom. What will you tell the parent? Talk to a teacher who includes play in an early childhood classroom. What does this teacher do to facilitate quality play?

10. Handouts (see Appendix A) Handout 5.1 - Favorite Play Experience Handout 5.2 - Recipe for Preserving Children Power Point Slides are provided in a separate file in the Instructors Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com.

Evaluating learning
11. Test bank 12. Other assessment ideas Project- Interview a family with a child in the early childhood years about play. Find out what the child likes to do in play, how much time each day is spent in play, and any concerns/comments the family has about play. Project- Spend some time observing in an early childhood classroom that encourages children to play. Specifically focus on the kinds of learning that is taking place as children play. If you have difficulty identifying the learning opportunities, take time to discuss this with the classroom teacher. Journal Response- How do you feel, about using play as a major strategy for learning in the early childhood classroom? Do you have any doubts or questions about plays role? Journal Response- Assume you are teaching first grade and including play as part of your curriculum. The family confronts you after class, asking you why you are letting children spend valuable school time just playing. How would you respond?

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Additional resources
13. References Brewer, J., & Kieff, J. (1997). Fostering mutual respect for play at home and school. Childhood Education, 73(2), 92-96. Fayden, T. (1997). Childrens choice: Planting the seeds for creating a thematic sociodramatic center. Young Children, 52(3), 15-20. Kemple, K. (1996). Teachers beliefs and reported practices concerning sociodramatic play. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 17(2), 19-31. Zeavin, C. (1997). Toddlers at play: Environments at work. Young Children, 52(3), 72-77.

14. Videos The Playworks Video (11 min.; Community Playthings; 800-777-4244; FREE) Play: The Seed of Learning (30 min; National Association for the Education of Young Children; 800-424-2460; $39)

15. Building Your Personal Library Kieff, J., & Casbergue, R. (2000). Playful learning and teaching. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. This book is a good combination of theoretical perspectives and practical suggestions for implementing play. It also does a nice job of helping teachers make connections between play and the primary classroom. Owocki, G. (1999). Literacy through play. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. An indepth study of the role of play in the development of literacy, this book also provides many practical ideas for teachers. Van Hoorn, J., Nourot, P., Scales, B., & Alward, K. (2007). Play at the center of the curriculum (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. The authors have a nice blend of theory and practical suggestions about how to make play the focus of the early childhood curriculum. Separate chapters on play and the electronic media and play as a tool for assessment are particularly helpful. Wasserman, S. (2000). Serious players in the primary classroom. (2nd ed.). New York: Teachers College Press. This is one of only a few books examining the importance of play in the primary classroom. Wasserman makes a strong case for
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encouraging play at this level and provides many good ideas on how this can be accomplished.

26

Chapter 6 Guiding Young Children


This chapter emphasizes:
Definitions of guidance and discipline. An identification of basic guidance principles. The importance of routines and how to manage them. Strategies for helping children understand and respond to their feelings. Techniques for guiding social situations. Ideas for managing groups of young children.

Essential content
1. There are several important elements of guidance. Building self-esteem Dealing with social/emotional issues Growing toward independence and self-control

2. Principles of guidance help conceptualize and define it. Initial considerations Indirect guidance Building relationships Physically guiding children Verbal guidance strategies Discipline strategies

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3. Guiding routines is an important part of the teachers responsibilities. Arrival and departure Transitions Snack/meal time Toileting Rest times

4. Helping children deal with feelings is another important part of guidance. Accept feelings as valid Be calm and direct Help child verbalize emotions Suggest alternatives

5. Guiding social interactions is a high priority for early childhood teachers. Be a careful observer Can children solve their own problems? Define the limits of acceptable behavior Help children become more pro-social

6. Group guidance is also necessary in the early childhood classroom. Consider the physical setting Careful planning and organization Mixing active and quiet times

7. Guidance for children with special needs is another consideration. Problem behaviors no different from other students Techniques remain the same Work closely with parents

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Teaching strategies
8. Discussion starters Your text makes a distinction between guidance and discipline. Do you see the differences as significant or not? Give a rationale for your perspective. Is physical touch really that important in the early childhood classroom? Why do you feel the way you do? Why are transitions such an important part of the school day? What do you remember about transitions from your school days? Transitions are crucial times to the classroom atmosphere. Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Guidance then read Transitions. Choose Step 2. As a class, create a list of six additional tasks in which a teacher could engage to keep disruptions to a minimum. What does it mean to be calm when you work with young children? Is it acceptable to show emotions in some situations? Give some examples.

9. Small-group tasks Building teacher-student relationships is an important part of good guidance and discipline. In small groups, discuss techniques you remember teachers using to build relationships. Try to identify strategies you liked and didnt like, giving reasons for your responses. Your text (p. 153) discusses how allowing children to help make rules develops self-control. Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Guidance, then read When Children Make the Rules. This article discusses rule making from a constructivist point of view. The authors believe that when children make the rules, their moral development is enhanced. Making rules gives children a feeling of autonomy, according to the authors. Is your authority threatened when children make the rules? How would classroom discipline be strengthened if children helped make the rules? Brainstorm a list of several misbehaviors that children may engage in either in the classroom or on the playground. For each problem identified, discuss whether a natural or logical consequence could be used. If a logical consequence makes sense, suggest one or two alternatives that may work. Andrew is a kindergarten child in your classroom who hits others when he gets angry. You have tried several discipline strategies with minimal success and decide it is time to try a problem solving approach. As a group, walk through the steps you would take to problem solve with Andrew to help him stop hitting.

10. For Discussion and Action


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Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Guidance then watch the video Empowering Students to Resolve Conflicts. In the video, how effective was the teacher in helping he students resolve conflict? Reflect on how you could successfully use this strategy. Write similar scenarios and role-play the strategy. Ask an early childhood teacher to describe the main discipline strategies used in the classroom. Make a list from your discussion, and compare it with the principles described in this chapter. Discuss effective techniques you could use to build relationships with children in the early childhood classroom. Identify at least five you would consider using. Are there circumstances for which it would be appropriate to show your emotions with children? Describe situations for which it may be acceptable, for example, to express your anger in the classroom. Identify at least one appropriate and one inappropriate way to express anger to children. Watch a teacher conduct a group time experience with children. Pay careful attention to active/quiet times and how the teacher actively engages children in the planned activities. Discuss your findings with others.

11. Handouts (see Appendix A ) Handout 6.1 - Ways to Say Good for You Handout 6.2 - Using Problem Solving Power Point Slides are provided in a separate file in the Instructors Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com.

Evaluating learning
12. Test bank 13. Other assessment ideas Project- Spend some time in an early childhood classroom. Look specifically for examples of the teacher using indirect guidance techniques. Describe what you saw and the effectiveness of the strategies implemented. Project- Interview an early childhood teacher about the discipline techniques used. Which of the strategies discussed in the text does the teacher use? Why? What does he or she like about the strategies used? Why doesnt this person use some of the other options? Journal Response- A three-year-old child in your classroom has just bitten another child in the class. Describe the feelings you think you would have and the response you would make to the child that did the biting.

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Journal ResponseHow do you feel about assuming the role of disciplinarian in the early childhood classroom? Can you describe both positives and negatives concerning this part of teaching?

Additional resources
14. References Albanesi, F. (1990). Montessori class management. Chicago: Adams Press. Gunzenhauser, N. (Ed.). (1990). Advances in touch: New implications in human development. Skillman, N.J.: Johnson and Johnson. Lawhon, T. (1997). Encouraging friendships among children. Childhood Education, 73(4), 228-31. Marion, M. (1997). Research in review: Guiding young childrens understanding and management of anger. Young Children, 52(7), 62-67.

15. Videos Teacher/Child Interaction- (Magna Systems; 800-203-7060; $89.95) Painting a Positive Picture: Proactive Behavior Management-(28 min.; National Association for the Education of Young Children; 800-424-2460; $39)

16. Building Your Personal Library Essa, E. (2003). A practical guide to solving preschool behavior problems (5th ed.). Albany, NY: Delmar. After an overview of basic strategies for dealing with behavior problems, Essa describes specific ideas for dealing with aggressive, disruptive, destructive, and emotional behaviors. Hearron, P., & Hildebrand, V. (2009). Guiding young children (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. This classic text presents important information about direct and indirect guidance in the early childhood classroom. The authors sensitivities to children and guidance issues makes this a must-read for those interested in knowing more about this important topic. Marion, M. (2007). Guidance of young children. (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. This popular text describes the Decision-Making Model of Child Guidance as a method of making choices between strategies for guiding young children. Miller, D. (2004). Positive child guidance (4th ed.). Albany, NY: Delmar. Miller provides sound advice on how to prevent misbehavior. She adds a strong chapter on the importance of good communication for guidance and discipline.
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Chapter 7 Working with Parents, Families, and Communities


This chapter emphasizes:
The diversity of family situations and its impact on teaching. The importance of family and community involvement. The elements of good communication. Strategies for effective communications with families. The role of the community in early education.

Essential content
1. Family life today is much different than it was in the past. The missing extended family Divorce and single-parent families Blended families Two-career families Older and younger parents Ethnic/cultural diversity Family mobility Homeless families

2. The benefits of involvement are many. Benefits to teachers Benefits to parents and families Benefits to children

3. Building strong two-way relationships is the key to family involvement. Providing mutual support Communication: the key Family-friendly schools
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4. Effective communication methods are important to success with families. Telephone calls Written communications Communicating through technology Visual communication tools Home visits Parent meetings Family-teacher conferences

5. Several factors influence quality family involvement. Written policies Administrative support Training Partnership approach Networking Evaluation

6. Family-teacher conflicts can be barriers to good relationships. Barriers caused by human nature Barriers caused by the communication process Barriers caused by external factors

7. Families having children with special needs require additional strategies for involvement. 8. Working with the community is also important to effective schooling. Involving the community in the school Involving the school in the community

Teaching strategies
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9. Discussion starters How many different configurations of family can you remember from your own childhood? How many can you identify today? Would you be uncomfortable working with parents in any of these situations? How will you overcome any misgivings you may have, in order to provide the best possible education for each child in your classroom? What kinds of family involvement do you remember from your own schooling? How do those memories compare to the kinds of involvement and interaction being suggested in this chapter of your text? While many parents and families can be of much help to you as a classroom teacher, other families may need your help and support. What kinds of help do you think you could provide? Where could you go to get additional help for needy families? Your text (p. 188) describes the benefits of involving families in the classroom. Read and discuss those benefits. Can you think of other benefits? In your opinion, are there drawbacks to involving parents? Written communications often lead to either positive or negative impressions of the person doing the writing. Can you give examples from your own experience of either positive impressions or negative impressions you received from someone elses written message? Does this tell you anything about the importance of using strong writing skills when you communicate with families?

10. Small-group tasks While we always hope to have positive interactions with families that lead to better learning opportunities for children, there are times when problems may occur when families get involved. Brainstorm as a group potential problems for the teacher and for children when families get involved in the educational process. In a small group, brainstorm content you would want to include on a bulletin board for families. Sketch your bulletin board on a sheet of paper and then share your thinking with another small group. Home visits are important tools for learning about children and families. Brainstorm a list of possible things you might learn from a home visit. As you think about the community in which you live, brainstorm a list of potential resources that could be useful to you as a teacher of young children. Where might you go for field trips? What materials and supplies could you potentially get for free or at a reduced price?

11. For Discussion and Action Interview a parent with a child in the early childhood years. What does this parent see as the major hassles of family life? How does the parent feel about her childs
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school? Is the parent involved in the school? Come up with several specific interview questions, and see what kinds of responses you get. Go to MyEducationLab, Click on Video Classroom and select the topic Families and Communities and watch the video Head Start. Why do you suppose family involvement is a required component of Head Start programs? How does family involvement affect child development? Why was Even Start created? Read about an example of a kindergarten teachers efforts to involve parents. Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Families and Communities view the strategy A Teachers Experience Involving Parents in Their Childrens Reading and writing. Discuss the list of ideas for involving parents. Are there additional ideas that you can contribute to the discussion? This chapter discussed a variety of different family situations that you will encounter in your work with young children. Discuss how these variances in family structure could influence the ways in which you work with parents and families. Try to be as specific as possible. How do you think you will use written communications in your work with parents? Identify two or three specific ideas that you may want to use. Are you aware of community resources that may be available to help parents deal with some of the struggles they face? For example, if a parent confided in you that she needed some warm clothing for her children to make it through the winter, could you point her in the right direction? Find three community resources for this situation or a similar problem of your choosing.

12. Handouts (see Appendix A) Handout 7.1 - Family Interview - Family Involvement Handout 7.2 - Teacher Interview - Family Involvement Power Point Slides are provided in a separate file in the Instructors Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com.

Evaluating learning
13. Test bank 14. Other assessment ideas Project - Assume you are just beginning your first year of teaching in an early childhood classroom. Describe in detail what you would like to do during the upcoming year to involve and work with families. Remember that you will be very pressed to just get your teaching organized and planned- be realistic in your expectations for working with families.
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Project - The parents of your four-year-olds have just indicated from the results of a recent questionnaire that they would like to meet and discuss aggressive play and how to deal with it. Outline an interesting hour and one-half family meeting on this topic. Journal Response - You have just had a conference with a family that wants you to use spanking as a form of punishment for your kindergarten children. You disagree with the familys suggestion and it makes for a strained meeting. How could you strengthen your relationship with this family for future interactions? Journal Response - Describe the impact that either strong or poor communications have had on a personal relationship (family member, friend, etc.). What does this tell you about your work with families?

Additional resources
15. References Keller, B. (1997). House calls. Education Week, September 3, pp. 37-40. National Center for Education Statistics. (1997). Fathers involvement in their childrens schools. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. Shartrand, A., Weiss, H., Kreider, H., & Lopez, M. (1997). New skills for new schools: Preparing teachers in family involvement. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project. U.S. Department of Education. (1994). Strong families, strong schools: Building community partnerships for learning. Washington, D.C.: Author.

16. Videos Parents on Board (Childs Work Childs Play; 800-962-1141; $299) Partnerships with Parents (28 min.; National Association for the Education of Young Children; 800-424-2460; $39)

17. Building Your Personal Library Barbour, C., Barbour, N., & Scully, P. (2008). Families, schools, and communities: Building partnerships for educating children. (4th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. The authors provide a strong overview of home schoolcommunity relations. In particular, separate chapters on community involvement and model parent involvement programs are helpful. Gestwicki, C. (2004). Home, school and community relations (5th ed.). Albany, NY: Delmar. This book is an excellent overview of the issues involved in working
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with parents and families. It stresses the importance of effective communication in establishing and maintaining relationships. Lawler, S. D. (1991). Parentteacher conferencing in early childhood education. Washington, DC: National Education Association. This book focuses on conducting effective conferences and includes separate chapters on academic performance conferences, referral conferences, and conferences about discipline problems.

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Chapter 8 Diversity and Young Children


This chapter emphasizes:
The ways in which children develop diversity concepts. Ideas to encourage acceptance of diverse people. Techniques for integrating diversity topics into the curriculum. Working with families and community members about diversity.

Essential content
1. Diversity is a foundational element of early childhood education. Diversity impacts child development Play is influenced by diversity Diversity is a factor in guidance and discipline Diverse parents and families require varied strategies for involvement

2. Attitudes about diversity vary among children. Racial/cultural attitudes Attitudes about gender Attitudes about people with special needs

3. Encouraging an acceptance of diversity is challenging, but important. Begin with self-analysis Talk about differences Talk about similarities Expose children to diversity

4. There are inappropriate responses to diversity issues.


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Ignore diversity The tourist approach

5. It is important to integrate diversity throughout the curriculum. The anti-bias curriculum Using toys that promote diversity Diversity through games Quality childrens literature The visual-aesthetic environment Meaningful diversity experiences

6. Consider the diversity of languages spoken in homes of students. 7. Working with individuals with special needs requires planning and thought. Developing inclusive environments Social interactions in the classroom Collaborating with other professionals 8. Issues of gender equity must be dealt with in the early childhood classroom. Language Accessibility issues Attitudes 9. Working with parents and community members is necessary to bring about changes in attitudes. Family involvement in diversity issues Changing attitudes

Teaching strategies
10. Discussion starters Do young children really notice differences between people? Can you give any examples from your own experiences with children?
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Holiday times are important components of most cultural heritages. Which holidays will you celebrate and how will you celebrate them? Give a rationale for your response. Reread Diversity as an Essential Element pp. 213-214. Referring to the NAEYC Standards, divide students into 3 groups. Assign each group one of the three standards listed. Each group should be able to list five suggestions for implementing those standards to ensure that each child receives a quality, accepting education. It has been said There is strength in diversity. What does that statement mean to you? Recall your P-5 education. Who were the diverse children in those classrooms? What strengths did those children bring with them? What does each child bring to the classroom that is different from what every other child brings?

11. Small-group tasks In small groups, generate a list of examples of how diversity impacts the other four foundational elements of early education (child development, play, guidance and discipline, and working with families) Talk about how television impacts childrens concepts about diversity. Identify specific programs that encourage either positive or negative attitudes. Share your thoughts with another small group. In small groups, brainstorm ways in which families influence attitudes about diversity. For the negative elements on your list, talk about ways in which you could counterbalance these problems. You have just been hired to teach in a classroom that has limited diversity. Talk in small groups about ways in which you could build relevant diversity experiences into your classroom.

12. For Discussion and Action What are your attitudes toward diversity? Go back to the section on attitudes, and try some of the activities suggested there. Discuss your thoughts with a small group of peers. Take some time to browse through some toy and equipment catalogs for young children. What did you find that addresses diversity issues? Find a childrens book listed in the diversity bibliography of the National Association for the Education of Young Children (1993) or Marshall (1998) and read it. Would you use it in working with young children? Why or why not? Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Diverse Learners and watch the video Incorporating the Home Experiences of Culturally Diverse Students into the Classroom. What biases do teachers have about bilingual students? How would you, as a teacher, overcome such biases? How could a teacher convert
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information from another language, such as knowing how to count, to knowledge in English, the dominant language in many U.S. classrooms? Reread Diversity as an Essential Element, referring to the NAEYC Standards. Divide yourselves into three groups. Each group will discuss one of the three standards shown. Each group should be able to list five suggestions for implementing those standards to assure that each child in the classroom receives a quality and accepting education.

13. Handouts (see Appendix A) Handout 8.1 - Your Attitudes about Diversity Handout 8.2 - Childrens Books Dealing with Diversity Power Point Slides are provided in a separate file in the Instructors Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com.

Evaluating learning
14. Test bank 15. Other assessment ideas Project - Talk to an early childhood teacher about the changes (both positive and negative) that have come about through the inclusion of children with special needs in the classroom. Write up your findings. Project - Observe in an early childhood classroom for examples of diversity built into classroom activities. Look for toys, games, childrens literature, pictures, and experiences that promote positive concepts of diversity. What did you find? Journal Response - How would you feel about a family whose attitudes about diversity differ from your own? What could you do to help this family change their attitude? Remember that attitudes of adults change slowly. Journal Response - If you had to choose one aspect of diversity that is most important to you, what would it be? Describe why you feel it is the most important.

Additional resources
16. References Banks, J. (1993). Multicultural education: Development, dimensions, and challenges. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(1), 22-28. Boutte, G., Van Scoy, I., & Hendley, S. (1996). Multicultural and nonsexist prop boxes. Young Children, 52(1), 34-39.
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Ferguson, P., & Ferguson, D. (1998). The future of inclusive educational practice. Constructive tension and the potential for reflective reform. Childhood Education, 74(5), 302-308. Neubert, K., & Jones, E. (1998). Creating culturally relevant holiday curriculum: A negotiation. Young Children, 53(5), 14-19.

17. Videos Tales from the Philippines- (35 min.; ABA Productions; 1-888-88-PINYA; $22.45) Anti-Bias Curriculum-(30 min., Redleaf Press; 800-423-8309; $41.95)

18. Building Your Personal Library Derman-Sparks, L. (1989). Anti-bias curriculum: Tools for empowering young children. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children. A practical guide for implementing a diversity curriculum. In addition to consciousness-raising activities, Derman-Sparks provides a review of childrens literature dealing with diversity issues and suggests possible experiences that increase childrens awareness and understanding of diversity. Hildebrand, V., Phenice, L., Gray, M., & Hines, R. (2008). Knowing and serving diverse families. (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. An upto-date text with separate chapters on working with African American, Hispanic, Asian, Arab, Native American, and Amish families. Additional chapters on teen parents, families with children with special needs, single parent families, stepfamilies, and gay and lesbian families are included. Valdez, A. (1999). Learning in living color: Using literature to incorporate multicultural education into the primary curriculum. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. This book focuses on using literature to incorporate multicultural education into the primary curriculum. It includes sections on integrated language arts activities for primary classrooms and an annotated bibliography of quality childrens literature dealing with multicultural issues. Wolery, M., & Wilbers, J. (Eds.). (1994). Including children with special needs in early childhood programs. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children. This book provides a strong overview of the issues involved in integrating children with special needs into the early childhood classroom.

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Chapter 9 Planning the Physical Environment: Indoors


This chapter emphasizes:
Basic issues related to planning an indoor environment for young children. The typical centers found in an early childhood classroom. Indoor environments for infant/toddlers, preschoolers, and primary children. Criteria for selecting equipment and materials for the classroom. Health and safety issues for young children.

Essential content
1. Planning guidelines identify the fundamentals of room arrangement. Basic considerations Incompatible centers Spaces for varying group sizes Personal spaces Assessing the physical space

2. The centers-based classroom is most common in early childhood. Art center Manipulative center Literacy center Block center Housekeeping center Dramatic play center The Music center Discovery/Science Other creative center options (woodworking, sand/water)
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Writing center Computer center

3. Age-related considerations for early childhood classrooms are important. Infant/toddler classrooms Children three to five Primary children

4. Guidelines are available for selecting equipment and materials. Criteria for selection Commercial materials Teacher-made equipment

5. Planning is needed to include provide an inclusive classroom. 6. Providing for change in the physical environment is important. Observe and listen to children Balancing consistency and change Rotating materials through centers

7. Health and safety issues are essential for optimal child development. Planning a healthy environment Safety concerns

8. Consider creating a space for parents in the classroom.

Teaching strategies
9. Discussion starters Is centers-based learning more planning and effort for the classroom teacher or less? What makes you think this?

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Often, teachers have to buy supplies with their own money. Your text discusses teacher-made games on p. 263. Read and then discuss materials, games, and supplies that you could make for your classroom. Generate a list and add to it as the semester progresses. If you had to choose two or three centers to include in a primary classroom, what would they be? Why? What are the similarities between infant/toddler, preschool, and primary classrooms? What are the differences? Referring to the section on selecting equipment and materials, the sixth bullet lists enhancing self-concept as one of the criteria for selecting materials. Discuss ways you as a teacher could select materials to enhance students self-esteem. Explain how the toy selection can enhance a students self esteem. Referring to the section of your text on selecting equipment and materials beginning on p. 261, the sixth bullet lists enhancing self-concept as one of the criteria for selecting materials for the classroom. Discuss ways that you as a teacher could select materials to enhance self-esteem. Explain how the toy selection can enhance a childs self-esteem.

10. Small-group tasks Given the planning guidelines outlined in your text, as a small group sketch out a format for a centers-based early childhood classroom. Have a clear rationale for the placement of each center. Share your sketch with another small group. Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Teaching Strategies then read the article Ideas for Enhancing the Learning Environment. What are some ideas you discovered about learning spaces? How many other ideas can the group generate? What special considerations would there be for setting up and using a woodworking center in the early childhood classroom? What materials could you use for this center? Assume you have decided to include a family corner in your early childhood classroom. As a small group, discuss the elements of this corner and sketch a design for your parent corner.

11. For Discussion and Action Sketch to scale an early childhood classroom. Compare what you found with the guidelines presented in this chapter. Observe children playing in an early childhood center. What were they doing and saying? Discuss your observations with your peers. Your principal is concerned about your plans to add centers to your primary classroom. Make a case for the benefits of centers and play for children.
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Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Early Environments, then watch the video EnvironmentsEarly Childhood. Are materials child-sized? Are the areas well-defined pertaining to the activities that happen there? Are noisy and messy areas separated from quiet, neat areas? Are the areas appropriate for a preschool classroom? Can you think of other areas that might be appropriate? How important is the need for monitoring all stations at all times? Why? Research, make, and demonstrate to others a simple game or material that could be used for play in an early childhood center. Spend some time in an early childhood classroom looking for ways in which the teacher has dealt with safety issues. Make a list of your findings.

12. Handouts (see Appendix A ) Handout 9.1 - The Value of Unit Blocks Handout 9.2 - Dramatic Play Centers Power Point Slides are provided in a separate file in the Instructors Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com.

Evaluating learning
13. Test bank 14. Other assessment ideas Project - Spend some time in an early childhood classroom. Make an accurate sketch of the physical space. Discuss the classroom design in relation to the planning guidelines described in your text. Project - Talk to an early childhood teacher about a game or activity that is needed for the classroom. Based on this need and the criteria for good materials presented in your text, construct a game or activity for use in the classroom. Try it out with children and then evaluate its effectiveness. Journal Response - In a centers-based classroom, the teacher is more of a facilitator of learning rather than a provider of direct instruction. How do you feel about assuming the role of facilitator? What do you see as the strengths and limitations of this role for teachers? Journal Response - Your text suggests you create personal spaces for children in your classroom. Why is this important? How would you go about creating these spaces for children in your classroom?

Additional resources
15. References
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Aronson, S. (1991). Health and safety in child care. New York: Harper Collins. Ewing, J., & Eddowes, A. (1994). Sand play in the primary classroom. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 22(4), 24-25. Harms, T., Jacobs, E., & White, D. (1995). School-age care environment rating scale. New York: Teachers College Press. Provenzo, E., & Brett, A. (1983). The complete block book. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press.

16. Videos Places to Grow - The Learning Environment (30 min.; National Association for the Education of Young Children; 800-424-2460; $39) Setting up the Learning Environment (20 min.; High/Scope Press; 800-40-PRESS; $30.95)

17. Building Your Personal Library Catron, C., & Allen, J. (2008). Early childhood curriculum (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. This text presents an early childhood curriculum based on creative play. It includes strong chapters on curriculum for personal awareness and emotional, social, and cognitive development. Dodge, D., Colker, L., & Heroman, C. (2002). The creative curriculum (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Teaching Strategies, Inc. This is a well-respected book describing the importance of play and a centers-based classroom. Special emphasis is on the prekindergarten age range. Isbell, R. (1995). The complete learning center book. Beltsville, MD: Gryphon House. This book provides a clear guide for the development of thirty-two different early childhood centers. This how-to guide presents many good ideas. Mitchell, A., & David, J. (Eds.). (1992). Explorations with young children. Mt. Rainier, MD: Gryphon House. This book was prepared as a curriculum guide for early childhood classrooms by the Bank Street College of Education. It describes the Bank Street approach, which is a framework for developmentally appropriate practice for children from birth through age eight. Wasserman, S. (2000). Serious players in the primary classroom (2nd ed.). New York: Teachers College Press. An excellent rationale for the inclusion of play in the primary classroom, this book also presents many practical tips for implementing a primary program that is play oriented.

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Chapter 10 Planning the Physical Environment: Outdoors


This chapter emphasizes:
The importance of outdoor play. Ideas for planning the outdoor play environment. A rationale for encouraging a variety of play types outdoors. The teachers role in preparing for outdoor play. Playground health and safety issues.

Essential content
1. The importance of outdoor play needs to be emphasized. 2. Planning guidelines help children play creatively outdoors. Basic considerations Fixed equipment Moveable equipment Variety of play options

3. A variety of play areas outdoors allows for diverse play experiences. Transition area Manipulative/Construction area Dramatic play area Physical area Sand/water play area Natural areas

4. Developmental considerations make the outdoors appropriate for all young children. Infant/toddler play spaces Children three through five
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Primary children The child with special needs

5. There are several options for selecting equipment and materials. Commercial equipment Donated materials Adult-made equipment

6. It is important to plan for regular change in the outdoor environment. Outdoor prop boxes Teacher-movable equipment Child-movable equipment

7. Health and safety issues must be considered on the playground. Playground injuries Safety guidelines Health considerations The adults role

8. Family and community involvement can help ensure a quality playground. 9. If outdoor play is to be productively used, teachers need to commit to the playground.

Teaching strategies
10. Discussion starters Share a favorite outdoor play experience you remember from childhood. Tell where you were, what you were doing, with whom you were playing. After several people have shared, discuss what these experiences say about outdoor play. Your text emphasizes the importance of having materials outdoors that children can manipulate. Is this really that important? Why or why not? Obesity is an increasingly problematic situation for children. We all know the rules that govern obesity. Because weight control is so difficult for most of us, how can we control our own eating and exercise habits better? How can we inspire our students to eat healthy foods, and to exercise more? What can we do to encourage more active play and less sedentary lifestyles in our students?
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While early childhood teachers spend many hours each week preparing the indoor environment, much less effort is generally spent on the outdoors. Why has so little time and energy been spent preparing and planning for creative outdoor play?

11. Small-group tasks Spend some time in small groups reviewing catalogs of commercial playground equipment. Look specifically at the costs and creative potential of this equipment. Discuss your findings as a large group. If hands-on manipulation of materials is important outdoors, it is necessary to create some low-cost options for children. Brainstorm in small groups one or two options for inexpensive manipulative/construction materials for use outdoors. Share your ideas with another small group. Using the guidelines for playground planning found in your text, plan and then sketch an exciting playground for young children. In small groups, brainstorm a list of materials that could be donated from various businesses in your community for use on the early childhood playground.

12. For Discussion and Action Is it worth all the effort required to make the outdoor play area more like the indoor classroom? Why or why not? Reread the section on Children with Special Needs and the Celebrating Diversity feature on pp. 286-287. Why do children with special needs generally need more modeling, encouragement and reinforcement in their play situations? What kinds of accommodations need to be made for special equipment to make playgrounds truly accessible for children with special needs? Talk to a teacher of young children, and find out how much time children spend playing outdoors. In what typical activities are children involved? What problems does the teacher see associated with outdoor play? Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Child Development then watch the video Physical Activity and observe two preschool children playing outdoors. Compare and contrast the differences in their physical development. How do weather conditions influence outdoor play in your area? Can you think of ways to minimize the negative influences of weather for playground use? Plan and put together a prop box that could be used to stimulate dramatic play outdoors. 13. Handouts (see Appendix A) Handout 10.1 - History of Playgrounds Handout 10.2 - Playground Safety
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Power Point Slides are provided in a separate file in the Instructors Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com.

Evaluating learning
14. Test bank 15. Other assessment ideas Project - Find a playground in your community designed for young children. Observe carefully for the play areas included, and for the quality of the fixed and movable equipment. Write a critique of the playground as compared to information in your text. Project - Using information from your text and Handout 10.2, locate an early childhood playground in your community and assess it for strengths and problems related to safety. Journal Response - Outdoor play can be a very messy experience. How will you deal with this component of the activity? What can you do to minimize the messiness without stifling the creativity of the play? Journal Response - Make a case for children spending more time outdoors. Identify the benefits of play in this setting.

Additional resources
16. References Brett, A., Moore, R., & Provenzo, E. (1993). The complete playground book. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. Fenton, G. (1996). Back to our roots in natures classroom. Young Children, 51(3), 8- 11. McKee, J. Builder boards. Bellingham, WA: Hands On Books. Vergeront, J. Places and spaces for preschool and primary (outdoors). Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

17. Videos Safe Active Play: A Guide to Avoiding Play Area Hazards (National Association for the Education of Young Children; 800-424-2460; $39)

18. Building Your Personal Library


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Frost, J. (1992). Play and playscapes. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers. This book provides an in-depth discussion of historical perspectives on playgrounds, clear guidelines for playground development, key points on playground safety issues, and important information on adult roles on the playground. Guddemi, M., & Jambor, T. (Eds.). (1993). A right to play. Little Rock, AR: Southern Early Childhood Association. The articles in this edited book make a strong case for allowing children creative play experiences both indoors and on the playground. Many suggestions are provided on preparing the outdoor setting and ways in which adults can support the play opportunities there. Hewes, J. (1975). Build your own playground. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. This guide describes the procedures necessary for getting parents and community members organized and involved in constructing inexpensive playground equipment. It presents many drawings and pictures of possible projects. Marston, L. (1984). Playground equipment. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Company. This book is full of sketches of playground structures that adults can build inexpensively and with average construction skills. The ideas are adaptable to a variety of ages within the early childhood range. Rivkin, M. (1995). The great outdoors: Restoring childrens right to play outside. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children. This little book is a must-read for those who are not yet convinced of the importance of outdoor play. Rivkin makes an impassioned plea for the childs right to quality outdoor play experiences and gives many good resources to help the interested reader get started.

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Chapter 11 - Activity Planning and Assessment


This chapter emphasizes:
The components of developmentally appropriate curriculum. The importance of observations in planning and assessment activities. Activity and lesson planning. Elements of an integrated curriculum and the project approach. Scheduling issues and the curriculum. The elements of assessment in the early childhood classroom.

Essential content
1. There are several steps needed to create a developmentally appropriate curriculum. Guidelines for the developmentally appropriate curriculum Developmental considerations Observation as a curriculum tool Curriculum goals Planning activities and lessons Activity planning Lesson planning

2. The integrated curriculum is important in early childhood education. Why implement an integrated curriculum? Planning and preparation (thematic learning)

3. The project approach is gaining proponents by teachers of young children. 4. Scheduling issues are important to planning the curriculum.
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5. Assessment techniques include more than the traditional test options. Using standardized tests Developmental screening The role of observation in assessment Documentation of childrens learning The portfolio and its use

6. Involving families in curriculum planning and assessment makes good sense.

Teaching strategies
7. Discussion starters Page 305 of your text discusses observation and the use of anecdotal records, checklists, and rating scales. How familiar are you with these tools? What information should be included in anecdotal records? The 4th tool discussed is the running record. How does the running record provide a more detailed and descriptive record of a childs behavior? Explain integrated curriculum. What are the advantages of an integrated curriculum? What does an integrated curriculum contribute to a holistic approach to education students? How does an integrated curriculum relate to real life? Compare and contrast the integrated curriculum and project learning. What are the similarities? Differences? Preparing a schedule of activities for the early childhood classroom is important. How does it influence the learning that takes place?

8. Small-group tasks Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Observation and Assessment. Read the article Documenting Learning With Digital Portfolios. Discuss how to make such portfolios meaningful. What kinds of student work should be included? Next, observe in a primary classroom. Using the information from the article as a guide, list all the examples you see documenting that children are learning. Include as many artifacts as possible of samples or pictures of students work. Using the lesson plan in your text, as a small group, plan a social studies lesson on community helpers for a class of first grade students. Explain integrated curriculum. What are the advantages of an integrated curriculum? How does an integrated curriculum contribute to a holistic approach to educating children? How does an integrated curriculum relate to real life?
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Your second-grade children came back excited from the recent field trip to a local lake, about ways in which they could help save the trout in the lake. Discuss in small groups, how you could help students develop this interest into project learning.

9. For Discussion and Action Spend some time observing in an early childhood classroom. Look for some indicators of student interests. Could any of these interests be developed into a thematic unit? Your text, p. 305 discusses observation and the use of anecdotal records, checklists, and rating scales. How familiar are you with these tools? What information should be included in anecdotal records? The fourth tool discussed is the running record. Discuss the running record. How does the running record provide a more detailed and descriptive record of a childs behavior? Create a checklist for use in observing an aspect of child development. Try it out with a group of children. Create a curriculum web for a theme of your choice. Use the subject areas of mathematics, language, art, music, movement, science, and social studies for the spokes of the web. Talk with your classmates about the strengths and limitations of projects when compared with the thematic approach to planning the curriculum.

10. Handouts (There are no handouts for this chapter.) Power Point Slides are provided in a separate file in the Instructors Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com.

Evaluating learning
11. Test bank 12. Other assessment ideas Project - Interview a teacher about the activity planning and lesson planning they do. How do teachers spend their planning time? Why is this different than what was described in your text? Project - Develop an observation checklist focusing on a specific behavior of young children. Try out your checklist and then discuss the things you learned from this activity. Journal Response - Is assessment necessary in a play-oriented early childhood classroom? Why or why not?
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Journal Response - Assume you will be beginning your first year of teaching in a few weeks. What are your feelings about project learning? What do you see as the strengths, limitations, and challenges of this approach?

Additional resources
13. References Britz, J., & Richard, N. (1992). Problem solving in the early childhood classroom. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association. Grace, C., & Shores, E. (1991). The portfolio and its use: Developmentally appropriate assessment of young children. Little Rock, AR: Southern Early Childhood Association. Hills, T. (1993). Assessment in contextTeachers and children at work. Young Children, 48(5), 20-28. Stone, S. (1996). Integrating play into the curriculum. Childhood Education, 72(2), 104-107.

14. Videos Charting Growth - Assessment (30 min.; National Association for the Education of Young Children; 800-424-2460; $39) Active Learning (17 min.; High/Scope Foundation; 800-40- PRESS; $30.95)

15. Building Your Personal Library Bredekamp, S., & Copple, C. (Eds.). (1997). Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs (rev. ed.). Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children. This revised book is the definitive statement on developmentally appropriate practice from the largest, most influential professional organization in the early childhood arena. The book contains sections describing foundational principles and separate discussions of developmentally appropriate practice for infant/toddlers, preschoolers, and primary children. Krogh, S. (1995). The integrated early childhood curriculum (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. This text provides a strong rationale for using an integrated curriculum. It then presents practical ideas for developing this approach for the early childhood classroom. Included is a clear description of curriculum webbing. McAfee, O., & Leong, D. (1997). Assessing and guiding young childrens development and learning. (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. McAfee and Leong
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present a strong framework for effective assessment in the early childhood classroom. They provide good discussions of making and using observations in assessment and the portfolio process. Wortham, S. (1996). The integrated classroom: The assessmentcurriculum link in early childhood education. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. As the title implies, this book emphasizes the importance of integrating assessment and curriculum in the planning and teaching of young children. Included is an important chapter on screening and assessment in early childhood programs.

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Chapter 12 Enhancing Physical Development


This chapter emphasizes:
The components of physical development. The role of the teacher in facilitating physical development. The role of toys and play in gross and fine motor development. The importance of outdoor activities in physical development. Health and safety issues in early childhood.

Essential content
1. The importance of motor skills in child development is substantial. Social skills and physical development Motor activities and emotions Connections to cognitive development

2. Early childhood provides a foundation for physical fitness. 3. There are several components of physical development. Physical growth Gross motor development Fine motor skills Levels of motor development Perceptual-motor development

4. There are many things teachers can do to teach physical development. Basic considerations Instructional strategies for physical development

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Physical development and play Organized physical activities

5. Enhancing physical development indoors can be accomplished in several ways. Organized games and activities

6. Enhancing physical development outdoors is important. Rough-and-tumble play Organized games and activities: outdoors

7. Teaching children to care for their bodies requires effort. Health education Safety issues

8. Working with parents and families is important for optimal physical development. Understanding physical growth Importance of active play Nutrition information Competitive sports

Teaching strategies
9. Discussion starters There are many connections between physical and cognitive development. Can you provide examples of this relationship? Go to My Education Lab and select the topic Health, Safety and Nutrition and read the article A Coordinated School Health Plan. Read about how a school district used Maslows hierarchy of needs, added a ninth componentacademic opportunity, and transformed the district into a nurturing community that daily impacted the students holistically. On p. 340, find a discussion of levels of motor development. Discuss the levels that are listed. How much do you know about how children develop physically? How will this section about knowledge of motor development in children be of help to you as a teacher?
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Throughout this chapter physical activity is discussed as a way to prevent health problems as children mature into adulthood. List and discuss the many ways as possible that make the claim that physical activity enhances health. Both play and organized physical activities are emphasized by your text as techniques for enhancing physical development. How much of each should be included and why?

10. Small-group tasks Decide on a traditional competitive game (not found in your text) and discuss ways in which it can be changed into a non-competitive activity. Is this change really necessary? Why or why not? Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Math and Science then watch the video Food Survey Lesson and observe a first-grade children discussing and graphing their fast food preferences as part of a math lesson. How might this lesson be adapted to reinforce the concept of making healthful food choices? The National Association of Sport and Physical Education has developed two sets of curriculum standards for young people (See Figures 12-1 and 12-2). From your experience working with and observing young children, how well do you think young children meet these standards? In your classroom, how would you organize your school day to ensure that young children could meet these standards? As a small group, outline the contents of a letter to families of second grade children addressing nutrition information. Assume your families speak English, but are sending foods high in salt, sugar, and fat to school with children for snacks.

11. For Discussion and Action Survey a parent concerning his childs television viewing during an average week. Try to get the parent to be as accurate as possible. Compare your findings with others doing the same task, and then discuss the impact of television on childhood fitness. Read about motor skills in a book on child development, and then discuss with a small group the roles of heredity and environment in physical development. Using a beanbag or a large, soft ball, play a game of catch with a preschool child. Do the same thing with a primary-aged child. Describe the differences in physical abilities of the two children. Increasingly, Americans are dangerously overweight, and this situation has filtered down to our children. How can you as a teacher model and teach the dynamics of weight control, so as to be a good role model for your students? Watch a competitive sport for young children. Observe the childrens reactions to the game, the coaches interactions with players, and the communications between parents and children.
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12. Handouts(see Appendix A) Handout 12.1 - Growth in Gross Motor Skills Handout 12.2 - Growth in Fine Motor Skills Power Point Slides are provided in a separate file in the Instructors Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com.

Evaluating learning
13. Test bank 14. Other assessment ideas Project - Find a non-competitive game (not found in your text), plan how you will present it to children (see chapter 11 for activity and lesson plans), and then play the game with children. Write up your assessment of how the game went. Project - Observe children playing outdoors on a playground. Look especially for specific examples of how children are developing physical skills as they play. Write up your findings. Journal Response - Rough-and-tumble play can often border on aggression. How do you feel about this play type and how will you monitor the play to avoid the negative aggression? Journal Response - Your text strongly supports a de-emphasis on competitive sports during the early childhood years. How do you feel about this option? Are there both strengths and weaknesses to organized sports for young children?

Additional resources
15. References Cleland, F. (1994). Preschool annotated bibliography. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 65(6), 53-56. Fuhr, J., & Barclay, K. (1998). The importance of appropriate nutrition and nutrition education. Young Children, 53(1), 74-80. Hammett, C. (1992). Movement activities for early childhood. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers. Ignacio, A. (1994). Early childhood physical education: Providing the foundation. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 65(6), 28-30.

16. Videos
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A Child Grows: The First Year (25 min.; Learning Seed; 800-634-4941; $89) Structured Play: Gross Motor Activities for Every Day (28 min.; National Association for the Education of Young Children; 800-424-2460; $39)

17. Building Your Personal Library Graham, G., Holt-Hale, S., & Parker, M. (1998). Children moving: A reflective approach to teaching physical education (4th ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing. Although this book focuses more on the elementary grades, it does provide a strong discussion of developmentally appropriate practice for physical education. It is a good overview of physical education for younger children. Marotz, L., Cross, M., & Rush, J. (2005). Health, safety and nutrition for the young child (5th ed.). Albany, NY: Delmar. As the title implies, this book provides an overview of health, safety, and nutrition issues for young children. It gives practical advice about disease control, accident prevention, and providing nutritious meals. National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health. (1992). National health and safety performance standards: Guidelines for out-of-home child care programs. Arlington, VA: Author. This large three-ring binder provides definitive information on health and safety guidelines for early childhood classrooms. It makes specific recommendations for both the indoor and outdoor settings. Pica, R. (2000). Moving and learning series. Albany, NY: Delmar. This is a twonotebook series, one for ages four to six and one for children six to nine. It includes audiocassettes and CDs and provides an excellent collection of movement activities for young children.

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Chapter 13 Supporting Social and Emotional Development


This chapter emphasizes
Helping children deal with their feelings Materials and activities for emotional development Components of social competence The social development curriculum The impact of stress on emotional and social development in children and its impact on adults

Essential content
1. 2. 3. 4. Teachers also help young children with emotional development.

What are emotions? Dealing with feelings There many good materials and activities for emotional development. The development of social competence continues throughout the early years Building a sense of self Adult-child relationships Peer interactions

The social development curriculum provides children with assistance in social skills The environment and materials Activities and themes Stress is a factor in social and emotional development. Stress factors Helping children cope
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5.

6. The teachers and caregivers personal development is enhanced by emphasizing social/emotional well-being. 7. Working with parents and families strengthens social/emotional development

Teaching strategies
8. Discussion starters

How we feel about ourselves varies from day to day and moment to moment. What factors cause these fluctuations? What are the implications of this for your teaching of young children? Your text suggests that family-child relationships are important because children develop trust and feelings of safety within the family. What are your memories about relationships in your early years? What happens when family-child relationships do not live up to expectations? What remedies can you initiate when family-child relationships do not seem to be what they should? Although preschool students become increasingly aware of peers, and build relationships with them, they sometimes have problems seeing ideas from the point of view of others. Preschool children also sometimes have problems with ownership, and do not want to share with anyone. Because social skills are crucial to success in life, how would you assist these students to understand someone elses point of view? How would you assist these students to take turns with toys? Many well-meaning adults say things like: Dont be sad or Stop crying. Based on information in your text, what is the problem with these kinds of statements? What would be some better ways of communicating with children about their feelings? Small-group tasks

9.

What are some specific ways in which you can build self-concept in children? In small groups, brainstorm a list of ideas. For the four core emotions discussed in your text, identify ways in which you could help children recognize these feelings and appropriately deal with them. William Glasser talks about creating a friendly workplace. In small groups, discuss what you could do as a teacher of young children to foster this atmosphere. Cooperation is an important social skill. How will you encourage this behavior in the classroom? Discuss your thoughts with another small group.
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10. For Discussion and Action Think about your own self-concept. What makes you feel good about yourself? Are there issues or events that cause you to feel less positive? Talk this over with others, and then apply your findings to working with children. How can this help you in building their self-concept? Work with a small group of peers, and develop a list of specific ways in which teachers serve as models for young children in social relationships. Discuss the importance of being a good model. Think back to your own childhood. Who was your first friend? What do you remember about this person? Discuss what you remember with others, and then talk about what this tells you about helping children build friendships. Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Child Development and read Conflicts, Possessions. Read STEPS, Discuss Activities. Generate a list 5 additional ways the adults in the classroom can help students to resolve conflicts in the classroom. In spite of out best efforts to teach children to share, often, they resist. What are some strategies you have used that have been successful in teaching children to share. Generate a list of 5 additional strategies. Spend some time in an early childhood classroom. Look especially for materials, books, and equipment that may help children with their social/emotional development. Talk to the teacher about how she specifically addresses this content in the curriculum. Handouts (see Appendix A) Handout 13.1 - Building Teacher-Student Relationships Handout 13.2 - Childhood Stressors Power Point Slides are provided in a separate file in the Instructors Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com.

11.

Evaluating learning
12. 13. Test bank Other assessment ideas Project - Identify five strategies for building peer relationships. These ideas should be different from the ones in your text. For each strategy, write a brief paragraph describing the procedures for implementation. Project - Observe an early childhood teacher working with children. Look specifically for ways in which the teacher helps children recognize and deal with feelings. Write up your observations, including any suggestions for improving the interactions you observed.
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Journal Response - What kinds of things cause you stress in your life? What do you do to relieve these stresses? What do your responses tell you about how you might work with children under stress? Journal Response - Do you see yourself as a person who can express feelings appropriately in your interactions with other adults? How will this influence your work with children?

Additional resources
14. References Hartup, W., & Moore, S. (1990). Early peer relations: Developmental significance and prognostic implications. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 5, 1-17. Honig, A., & Wittmer, D. (1996). Helping children become more prosocial: Ideas for classrooms, families, schools, and communities. Young Children, 51(2), 62-70. Nabors, M., & Edwards, L. (1994). Creativity and the childs social development. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 23(1), 14-16. ONeil, J. (1996). On emotional intelligence: A conversation with Daniel Goleman. Educational Leadership, 54(1), 6-10.

15. Videos Preschool Social Development- (30 min.; Insight Media; 800-233-9910; $139) Preschoolers: Social and Emotional Development- (Magna Systems; 800-2037060; $89.95)

16. Building Your Personal Library Canfield, J., & Siccone, F. (1995). 101 ways to develop student self-esteem and responsibility. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. As the title suggests, this book is loaded with ideas for helping children develop healthy self-esteem. With modification in some instances, the ideas are useful in working with children throughout the early childhood range. Elkind, D. (2001). The hurried child: Growing up too fast too soon (3rd ed.) Reading, MA: Addison Wesley. This classic book describes the stresses children face today and the problems that come from pushing children to grow up too quickly. It is an excellent book for both parents and teachers. Kostelnik, M., Stein, L., Whiren, A., & Soderman, A. (2002). Guiding childrens social development (4th ed.). Albany, NY: Delmar. Providing a strong
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developmental understanding of the social issues faced by young children, this book also gives much good advice about how to deal with the problems that arise. McClellan, D., & Katz, L. (1997). Fostering childrens social competence: The teachers role. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children. This book is designed to blend research and practice on the subject of strengthening young childrens social skills. It is an important resource on the topic.

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Chapter 14 Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies Learning


This chapter emphasizes:
The goals for cognitive development in the early childhood classroom. The constructivist approach to learning. Issues relating to mathematics instruction in early childhood education. The science curriculum for young children. The importance of social studies in early childhood.

Essential content
1. Goals of the cognitive curriculum help define what should take place. The role of learning facts The importance of critical thinking Encouraging problem solving Creating lifelong learners

2. The constructivist approach is emphasized in the early childhood classroom. 3. Mathematics education is important for young children. Classification Seriation Patterning Number concepts Measurement Geometry The language of mathematics Problem solving
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4. Science learning should be included in the early childhood classroom. Scientific content The scientific process Developing scientific attitudes

5. Young children also need quality social studies experiences. Understanding self Understanding others

6. Integrating cognitive learning throughout the curriculum is important. Infant/toddler materials and activities Children three through five The primary grades

7. The familys roles in cognitive development are critical. Supporting the importance of cognitive development Assisting with classroom learning Home learning tasks

Teaching strategies
8. Discussion starters Go to My Education Lab and select the topic Math and Science, and then read the Strategy Children Will Gain Skills in Predicting Mathematical Outcomes. Many students suffer from math anxiety. Predicting, making guesses about all the topics listed in this article could give primary students a sense of power over mathematics and launch children on an adventure that could lead to confidence in math. What other predictions could children make? While constructivist learning is essential to early education, is it always necessary for children to learn in this manner? Can you give examples of situations in which constructivist learning isnt necessary or even best?

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Recognizing patterning is considered an important skill in learning mathematics. Can you identify patterns in mathematics that you recognize? How do we help young children develop scientific attitudes? Describe some specific things that can be done.

9. Small-group tasks In a small group, take five minutes or so to take the following quiz: a) Find the square root of 163; b) Name the fifth president of the United States; c) What are the capital cities for Vermont, Rhode Island, Arizona, Montana, and Oregon? d) What is an imperative statement? e) Give a definition for mammal. Following the quiz, take some time to talk about the importance of learning facts in the early childhood classroom. Go to MyEducationLab and then select the topic Math and Science. Read the strategy Science Centers. This strategy suggests that children need room to observe, classify, compare, measure, communicate, make predictions, and reach conclusions. Discuss in small groups and then in whole group what would be possible to do in a primary classroom. Your text lists the ten thematic strands for social studies content in schools. Divide the class into groups of 5. Assign each group two of the strandsCulture; Time, Continuity and change; People, places and environments, etc.and brainstorm activities for each strand that would be appropriate to teach in a primary class. Brainstorm and identify at least three home learning tasks that would be appropriate for families of toddlers. Be specific in what you would have families do.

10. For Discussion and Action Take a second look at the goals for cognitive development presented in this chapter. How well do you think you have met these goals in your own life? Will your experiences influence the way you teach conceptual knowledge? Many adults are math or science anxious, meaning they had poor experiences while studying one or both of these subjects and have come to see themselves as failures in these areas. How can you help avoid these phobias in the children you teach? The learning of facts does have a place in the early childhood classroom. What should that place be? Make a case for learning some facts (names, dates, events) in the primary social studies curriculum. Compare and contrast constructivist learning and play. How are they similar and different?

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Choose an age within the early childhood range, and brainstorm a list of home learning tasks that parents could do easily and that would be fun for both the child and the parent.

11. Handouts (see Appendix A) Handout 14.1 - Play and Problem Solving Handout 14.2 - Home Learning Tasks Power Point Slides are provided in a separate file in the Instructors Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com.

Evaluating learning
12. Test bank 13. Other assessment ideas Project - Plan a constructivist science activity (using planning strategies from chapter 11) for a small group of young children. Do the activity with children and then describe the strengths and weaknesses of the project. Project - Observe an early childhood classroom, looking for examples of constructivist learning in mathematics, science, and/or social studies. Write up a critique of the activities observed. Journal Response - Do you see yourself as math or science phobic? What led to either the phobia or the lack of one? How will this affect the ways in which you work with young children? Journal Response - Do you see yourself as a lifelong learner? Why or why not? Will this influence the way in which you work with children?

Additional resources
14. References Goldhaber, J. (1994). If we call it science, then can we let the children play? Childhood Education, 71(1), 24-27. Patton, M., & Kokoski, T. (1996). How good is your early childhood science, mathematics, and technology program? Young Children, 51(5), 38-44. Perlmutter, J., Bloom, L., & Burrell, L. (1993). Whole math through investigations. Childhood Education, 70(1), 20-24.
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Yelland, N. (1995). Encouraging young childrens thinking skills with Logo. Childhood Education, 71(3), 152-155.

15. Videos Jed Draws his Bicycle: A Case of Drawing to Learn- (13 min.; Learning Materials Workshop; 800-693-7164; $23) Mathematics- (14 min.; High/Scope Press; 800-40-PRESS; $30.95)

16. Building Your Personal Library American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1999). Dialogue on early childhood science, mathematics, and technology education. Washington, DC: Author. This text is a collection of thought-provoking articles describing the problems that exist in teaching mathematics and science to young children. The authors also encourage early educators to see the potential for learning that exists during these years. Bickart, T., Jablon, J., & Dodge, D. (1999). Building the primary classroom. A complete guide to teaching and learning. Washington, DC: Teaching Strategies. This book describes a developmentally appropriate approach to teaching in the primary grades. It includes separate chapters on mathematics, science, and social studies learning. Chaille, C., & Britain, L. (2003). The young child as scientist: A constructivist approach to early childhood science education (3rd ed.). New York: Longman. The authors promote the idea that children naturally engage in strategies for learning that are much like those used by scientists. They present many good ideas for promoting this constructivist approach in science education. Shaw, J., & Blake, S. (1998). Mathematics for young children. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. This book presents many good ideas for developing a mathematics curriculum for young children that goes beyond the rote learning so typical of this subject.

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Chapter 15 Language and Literacy Learning


This chapter emphasizes:
The development of language in young children The linguistic systems children master to understand language Techniques for facilitating language learning Understanding the young childs emerging reading and writing skills Effective techniques and materials for language and literacy learning

Essential content
1. Language learning is a complex process. Theoretical perspectives Language development Linguistic systems Facilitating language learning Language learning materials

2. Literacy learning is closely related to language learning. Literacy development Assisting with emergent literacy Childrens books Writing tools Writing Instruction Formal reading instruction

3. It is important to encourage parent involvement in language/literacy learning.


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Taking advantage of daily living Simple home learning tasks

Teaching strategies
4. Discussion starters Throughout this chapter, English as a second language is discussed. English language learners (ELLs) in the U.S. schools have more than doubled in the last 15 years. Discuss the Celebrating Diversity activity, p. 418 in your text. What additional actions could you take as the teacher of these children to ensure that your classroom is experienced as a welcoming place? After reading a classic childrens book (like Alexanders Perfectly Horrible, Awful, Day), ask students to define characteristics of the book that make it so attractive to children. Your text talks about emergent literacy and its importance. What are the values of thinking of literacy as emerging throughout the early years? The lullaby is discussed in your text as a language-rich experience for young children. Lullabies are thought to have a calming and stress-reducing effect on children. Recall the lullabies you remember from your childhood, and from your child-care experiences. Discuss your experiences with lullabies.

5. Small-group tasks Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Curriculum/Program Models then read the strategy Book Reading to Children. In small groups, read about how reading to children uses language circuits that children will later need, to learn to read. Learn about ways that hearing stories develops these circuits. Discuss prereading, during reading, and after reading strategies teachers can use to enhance reading in children. Generate a list of words or phrases that children may have difficulty understanding because of their tendency to take things literally. (example: I have a frog in my throat) Maria Montessori proposed that children experience sensitive periods wherein they have a keen interest in certain aspects of their development. Early childhood is a time of great interest in language. Examine text on page 419, and generate lists of ways that teachers in early childhood classrooms could meet the strategies listed there. As a group, talk about how you could create a print-rich environment for a group of four-year-old children. Share your ideas with another small group.
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6. For Discussion and Action Spend some time in a public place such as a playground, grocery store, or restaurant, and observe how parents and children talk to each other. Share what you find with classmates. Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Emergent Literacy and Language Arts and then watch the video Peer Scaffolding. Observe an older student reading to a younger student. What effect did the teachers intervention have on the children? Could you identify the effects of buddy reading on the children? Could you explain how Vygotskys Zone of Proximal Development was at work in this situation? Observe primary children at play. What kinds of language interactions did you see? Share this information with your classmates. Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Emergent Literacy and Language Arts then watch the video Mini-lesson: Teaching 1st Graders to Add Detail. As a group, discuss how the examples the teacher gives are helpful to children for understanding the concept of voice? What do the children say that tells you they understand the concept of voice? Browse through a collection of books for children. See if you can find one or two that you remember as a child. What made those books memorable to you?

7. Handouts (There are no handouts for this chapter.) Power Point Slides are provided in a separate file in the Instructors Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com.

Evaluating learning
8. Test bank 9. Other assessment ideas Project- Read from other sources about one of the theories of language acquisition discussed in your text. Write a critique of this approach. Project- Observe a toddler interacting with an adult. Record as much of the actual language you hear from both the adult and child. It may be helpful to tape record the interactions. Discuss the language observed with the information presented in the text for this age. Journal Response- Most of oral language learning is caught rather than taught. Is there a role for actually teaching language skills to young children? Give examples to support your response.
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Journal Response- Assume you are teaching a group of second grade children. How will you encourage quality writing skills without discouraging childrens enthusiasm and creativity in the writing process?

Additional resources
10. References Brock, D., & Dodd, E. (1994). A family lending library: Promoting early literacy development. Young Children, 49(3), 16-21. Branscombe, A., & Taylor, J. (1996). The development of Scraps understanding of written language. Childhood Education, 72(5), 278-281. Einarsdottir, J. (1996). Dramatic play and print. Childhood Education, 72(6), 352357. Henriques, M. (1997). Increasing literacy among kindergarteners through crossage training. Young Children, 52(4), 42-47.

11. Videos Language and Literacy (17 min.; High/Scope Press; 800-40-PRESS; $30.95) Beginning to Read and Write (30 min.; Films for the Humanities and Sciences; 800-257-5126; $149)

12. Building Your Personal Library Christie, J., Enz, B., & Vukelich, C. (2003). Teaching language and literacy: Preschool through the elementary grades. (2nd ed.). New York: Longman. This book provides a nice blend of theory and practical ideas that are useful in helping children develop language and literacy skills. Cullinan, B., & Galda, L. (1998). Literature and the child (4th ed.). Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace. This book provides an overview of childrens literature and describes how to select and use books with young children. Halliday, M. (1975). Learning how to mean: Explorations in the development of language. London: Edward Arnold. This book is an excellent discussion of the interactionalist perspective on language development. Snow, C., Burns, S., & Griffin, P. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. This is a scholarly look at the importance of using a variety of techniques in the teaching of reading. It emphasizes the teaching of phonics in conjunction with whole language learning.
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Chapter 16 Using the Creative Arts to Support Development and Learning


This chapter emphasizes:
Defining creativity as it applies to young children. The importance of art and music in child development and learning. The teachers role in facilitating the creative arts. Creative art and music activities for young children. Families roles in the creative arts. The role of play in early drama experiences.

Essential content
1. Defining creativity is a difficult task. Definitions of creativity Characteristics of creative individuals Assisting with the creative process Creativity and play

2. The young artist is developing lifelong skills for enjoying the creative arts. Why include art? Misconceptions about art Developmental trends in art The early childhood art curriculum The adults role in art experiences The art of Reggio Emilia

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3. Young children enjoy musical experiences throughout the school day. The importance of music in early childhood Musical development The music curriculum for young children Movement and music Facilitating musical experiences

4. There are many options for creative art and music activities. Activities for infant/toddlers Art and music for preschoolers The primary years

5. Creative dramatics occur naturally with children.

Teaching strategies
6. Discussion starters Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Early Environments and then watch the video EnvironmentsEarly Childhood. As the video is watched, discuss what happens in each center. Are all the centers that you consider to be important, included? In your own childhood, what were your favorite centers? Why were they important to you? What do these play centers provide for children? Your text talks about avoiding models in art projects for young children. What are the problems with doing so? Without using models, what can the teacher do to help children who are struggling in their use of art materials? With school budgets strained to the limit, often the task of teaching creative arts is left to the teachers. Read the feature Family Partnerships The Art Docent in Primary Classrooms p. 447. Who are some talented friends or parents that you know? Discuss the possibility of making use of talented parents and other talented people in the community to teach all the genres of creativity.

7. Small-group tasks In small groups, identify what you see as the key characteristics of creativity in childhood. Compare your list with the information presented in your text. What are your areas of creativity? Who nurtured your talents when you were young? What is necessary on the part of adults to nurture creativity in children?
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Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Curriculum/Program Models then watch the videos Montessori and High Scope. Compare and contrast Montessori and High Scope. List advantages of each program. Are there any disadvantages of either program that you can find? Using a set of shared crayons, draw something of interest to you. You will have approximately five minutes. Share your drawing with your small group. Then discuss your feelings about your competence in art and then the implications of this for your work with young children. Read the Into Practice feature Singing Songs With Young Children p. 456. In groups of five, discuss the categories listed. Create additional songs in each category. Share your findings with the whole group. Identify other possibilities for using songs in the classroom.

8. For Discussion and Action What do you like to do when you are being creative? Discuss this with a small group, and then talk about what this tells you about creativity. When you were a child, did you engage in dramatic play? What were the games of lets pretend that you played? How did you find props to use for this kind of play? What did you learn from your dramatic play? What do children today learn from dramatic play? Observe children participating in an early childhood art experience. What did they do? Was it creative? Why or why not? What is your comfort level in teaching music? How do you respond to music? Read p. 458 in your text. Which of the activities listed would you be comfortable doing? Can you name other musical activities with which you would be comfortable doing? Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Creative Arts and then read the article The Arts Make A Difference and learn how the arts impact the academic achievement of poor achievers. The article explores the findings of a longitudinal study conducted by the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS: 88). This study found a significant correlationgrowing over timebetween arts participation and academic performance. Discuss how art and music have attracted poor performing students and enhanced their academic achievement in varied academic subjects.

9. Handouts (see Appendix A) Handout 16.1 - Creative Art from Junk Handout 16.2 - Singing with Children Power Point Slides are provided in a separate file in the Instructors Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com.
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Evaluating learning
10. Test bank 11. Other assessment ideas Project - After talking to an early childhood teacher about an appropriate activity, use the activity plan found in chapter 11 to plan an art activity for young children. Actually do the activity and then assess its effectiveness. Project - Talk to an early childhood teacher about songs for young children. Identify with the teacher a new song that the children would enjoy. Schedule a time and teach the song to the class of children. Write up your assessment of the activity. Journal Response - How would you rate your own personal creativity? Discuss how this assessment may influence your efforts to stimulate the creativity in children. Journal Response - Some people have great difficulty carrying a tune when they sing. How could someone with this problem still have a strong music curriculum? Additional resources 12. References Balke, E. (1997). Play and the arts: The importance of the unimportant. Childhood Education, 73(6), 355-360. Eddowes, A. (1995). Drawing in early childhood: Predictable stages. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 23(4), 16-18. Moyer, J. (1990). Whose creation is it, anyway? Childhood Education, 66, 130-32. Schiller, M. (1995). An emergent art curriculum that fosters understanding. Young Children, 50(3), 33-38.

13. Videos Art and Music for Preschoolers (20 min., Insight Media, 1996, 800-233-9910, $129) Music Across the Curriculum (20 min., NAEYC, 800-424-2460, $39)

14. Building Your Personal Library


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Brookes, M. (1986). Drawing with children: A creative teaching and learning method that works for adults, too. New York: G.T. Putnams Sons. This book describes a nonthreatening process for teaching children techniques for improving drawing. The emphasis is on enhancing creativity, not on the end product of the drawing process. Croft, D. (2000). An activities handbook for teachers of young children (6th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. This time-honored resource has a wealth of ideas for art, woodworking, music, and many other categories of creative activities for children throughout the early childhood years. Isenberg, J., & Jalongo, M. (2006). Creative thinking and arts-based learning: preschool through fourth grade (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. These well-respected authors make a strong case for the connections between play and creative activities. They address both music and art activities and present many good ideas for making them a playful part of the early childhood classroom. Schirrmacher, R. (2002). Art and creative development for young children (4th ed.). Albany, NY: Delmar. This book focuses on art for young children and provides an in-depth look at creativity, developmental aspects of art, the adults roles, and necessary components of a creative art center.

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Chapter 17 Using Technology to Support Development and Learning

This chapter emphasizes:


The impact of television on young children. The relationships between technology and play. The impact of television on young children. Characteristics of developmentally appropriate software for the early childhood classroom. The teachers role in technology use. Strategies for communicating with families about technology.

Essential content
1. Television viewing has both positive and negative influences on children. Time spent viewing Sex, violence, and advertising Redeeming aspects?

2. Video games are another recent technological issue parents and teachers must face. The debate over value

3. Making computer use developmentally appropriate is necessary and possible. Computers and play Social interactions and computer use Developmental abilities The child with special needs Computers in the classroom Interacting with children using computers
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4. It is important to take care in selecting computers and software. Hardware options Selecting computer software

5. Families play critical roles in technology use. Guidelines for family television use Video games in the home Helping families select computer software Communicating with families using technology

Teaching strategies
6. Discussion starters Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Technology and then watch the video Tablet Computers in First Grade Math. View a first grade teacher using a tablet computer to teach mathematics. How is the tablet used to teach students to solve math problems? How does the teacher manage her students use of the tablet? Would you feel confident using this technology in your primary classroom? Have any of you witnessed an act of violence? an act of murder? Discuss this. Does thinking about it bring back the horror of it? Your text states that, according to Hurst (2004), the average child sees more than 200,000 acts of violence including 40,000 acts of murder by age 18. How do these acts affect you when you view them? How do you thing they would impact toddlers, pre-school children, primary children, middle school children, high-school students? Many elementary schools have computer labs rather than placing computers in the classrooms. What are the problems with this approach for primary children? Most of the software available for young children is categorized as drill and practice (see page 481). While this software has its place, how could you convince families that playful software is better?

7. Small-group tasks

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Collect titles of video games available for primary children. Discuss the content of the games. What are the benefits of these games for children? What are the bad effects? Talk in small groups about video games you have played or are aware of. What do you see as the strengths and/or weaknesses of video games for young children? Some families let their children watch inappropriate television shows or movies. What could you do to help parents make better choices for their children? Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Technology and read the article How Technology Can Transform a School. Read about Willow Bend School in Rolling Meadows, Illinois. The school Significantly improved test scores, [caused] a high level of student enthusiasm, and renewed staff enthusiasm by adopting a successful technology program. The program dramatically changed a school with a 42% low-income student population, 33% English Learners, 57% minority students, and a 50% mobility rate. In small groups discuss the different aspect of the program, and then share in whole group.

8. For Discussion and Action Keep a log of advertisements that children view on television. Are the products appropriate for children? Do the ads encourage lying, stealing, and other forms of deceit? Do the ads encourage bullying or conformity to inappropriate behavior? What do these advertisements teach children? Survey your classmates regarding televisions in the home. Find out how many televisions each person has at home. What does this tell you about this form of technology in American homes? Go to MyEducationLab and select the topic Technology and then read the article Assistive Technology for Reading. Discover how assistive technology is used in Kentucky schools to assist Learning Disabled students to improve reading skills. Discuss the several strategies used in software to improve prior knowledge so that students understand what they are reading. Is it possible that we can learn from software better strategies for teaching? Play a video game designed for young children. Describe its strengths and weaknesses. Watch an educational television program (like Sesame Street) designed especially for young children. Talk about its strengths and limitations.

9. Handouts (There are no handouts for this chapter.) Power Point Slides are provided in a separate file in the Instructors Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com.

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Evaluating learning
10. Test bank 11. Other assessment ideas Project - View one hour of television programming designed especially for children and one hour of prime time viewing (six to eight pm). Focus on observing sexual themes, violence, and the advertising during these times. Write a critique of this viewing. Project - Review a piece of software designed for children in the 3 to 8 age range. Using the criteria presented in your text, discuss the strengths and limitations of the software. Journal Response - Do you think TV, movies, and video games interfere with quality play experiences in childhood? Why or why not? Journal Response - If you had to choose between a computer and a set of blocks for the kindergarten classroom, which one would you choose? Present a rationale for the position you take.

Additional resources
12. References Brett, A. (1994). Computers and social development of young children. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 23(1), 10-13. Elkind, D. (1996). Young children and technology: A cautionary note. Young Children, 51(6), 22-23. Samaras, A. (1996). Childrens computers. Childhood Education, 72(3), 133-136. Shade, D. (1996). Software evaluation. Young Children, 51(6), 17-21.

13. Videos Computer Learning for Young Children (13 min.; High/Scope Press; 800-40PRESS; $30.95) The Adventure Begins: Preschool and Technology (10 min.; National Association for the Association of Young Children; 800-424-2460; $20)

14. Building Your Personal Library


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Haugland, S., & Wright, J. (1997). Young children and technology: A world of discovery. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. This book provides much practical information about the appropriateness of computers in the early childhood classroom, guidelines on selecting good software, and integrating the computer into the classroom. Approximately 130 software titles are reviewed. Liebert, R., & Sprafkin, J. (1988). The early window: Effects of television on children and youth (3rd ed.). New York: Pergamon Press. This book chronicles the impact of television viewing on children. It describes how, for many American families, the television has become an integral part of family life, consuming more free time than any other activity. Papert, S. (1993). The childrens machine: Rethinking school in the age of the computer. New York: Basic Books. Papert gained fame through the development of a computer language called Logo, which allows children to program the computer. In this thought-provoking book, he describes how computers and software like Logo can potentially transform the way in which schools operate

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Appendix A Handouts

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Handout 1.1 Ethical Conduct in the Early Childhood Classroom


The National Association for the Education of Young Children, in its Code of Ethical Conduct, has defined for early childhood educators a framework for determining appropriate behaviors in interacting with children, families, colleagues, and the community. This framework is, by necessity, general rather than specific. Real-world situations require careful analysis and discussion with others to adequately resolve. The following hypothetical situation is designed to get you thinking and discussing an ethical situation. Begin by discussing the case with others, identifying the values that seem to be in conflict. Brainstorm possible solutions, evaluate each critically, and make a decision about the most appropriate resolution. Once you have worked through this situation, try creating your own ethical dilemma and work through the process once again.

Ethical Case: The Meddlesome Mom


Adrienne is the mother of five-year-old Merrilee and an active participant in your kindergarten classroom. Adrienne volunteers each Tuesday and Thursday mornings and regularly spends additional time volunteering each week. She has very strong opinions about instructional strategies that work at this age for both her daughter and other children in the class. Adrienne is convinced that the children need more direct instruction in mathematics and reading. She has shown you the workbooks recommended by a friend and has tried to get you to use these materials with children in the class. Even though you have shared with Adrienne your philosophy of playful learning with manipulative materials, she continues to promote a more structured approach to learning. Merrilee is getting a heavy dose of workbook learning at home and you are worried about the stress she may be under there.

Your Own Ethical Case:

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Handout 1.2 Making a Decision About Teaching


Several options are available to help you make a decision about a career in early childhood education. Consider observing in an early childhood classroom, spend time interacting with young children, and ask for feedback from others. One additional option is to do some self-analysis. The purpose of this handout is to help you begin that process of introspection. Try to spend some quality time thinking through each of the self-assessment tasks that follow. Good luck! 1. Identify both strengths and weaknesses you are aware of in yourself that will influence your ability to carry out the various roles of the early childhood teacher: Facilitator of Learning Counselor Janitor Cook Educational Specialist Parent Substitute 2. What personal attributes do you have that will allow you to develop the following broad skills needed to teach young children? Positive interactions with children Preparing the environment Working with other adults

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Handout 3.1 The Plan-Do-Review Sequence


Jerry, Marita, and Enrique are second-grade children in your classroom. They have been engrossed over the past several days by their study of animals through the use of a CD-ROM Encyclopedia program on the computer. So far, they have spent several freetime periods huddled together, enjoying the video clips and other information on the CD. While they seem to be enjoying themselves, there is little structure or direction to their activity. It is time to gather them together for some planning for future time spent on this project. The Plan-Do-Review sequence is an important part of the High/Scope Program and should help you with planning for these three children. Think through the three steps and what you and the children could do to successfully implement them. Plan

Do

Review

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Handout 3.2 Comparing the Approaches


Each of the four approaches to teaching young children has both strengths and limitations. Take some time now to outline these models, listing both the positives and negatives (from your perspective) of each option. Montessori Education Strengths Weaknesses

High/Scope Program Strengths Weaknesses

Bank Street Approach Strengths Weaknesses

Reggio Emilia Program Strengths Weaknesses

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Handout 4.1 Piaget on Education


Jean Piaget is recognized primarily for his contributions to our understanding of child development and learning. Occasionally, however, he made his views on education known. The following quote summarizes his thoughts: The principal goal of education is to create men who are capable of doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done. . . men who are creative, inventors, and discoverers. The second goal of education is to form minds that can be critical, can verify, and not accept everything they are offered. The great danger today is of slogans, collective opinions, ready-made trends of thought. We have to be able to resist individually, to criticize, to distinguish between what is proven and what is not. So we need pupils who are active, who learn early to find out by themselves, partly by their own spontaneous activity and partly through materials we set up for them; who learn early to tell what is verifiable and what is simply the first idea to come to them (Elkind, D. 1981 Children and adolescents- 3rd ed. N.Y.: Oxford University Press, p. 29). Discussion/Reflection What are the implications of the points that Piaget makes above? Is education today supportive of Piagets goals? Why or why not? Do you agree or disagree with the points that Piaget makes? Describe your thinking.

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Handout 4.2 Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development


Your text introduces only the first four of Eriksons eight stages of development. To better understand Eriksons perspective on development, all eight are presented here with a brief discussion of the positive resolution for each stage. Trust vs. Mistrust (birth through eighteen months) The young child is learning to trust the caregivers responsible for providing for basic needs. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (eighteen months through age three) Children are learning to make choices to explore their world and do things on their own separate from the adults providing their care. Initiative vs. Guilt (three to six years) Children become more curious about learning and doing as they explore the world around them. Industry vs. Inferiority (six to twelve years) Children begin to develop a sense of strengths and limitations in comparison to others their own age. Identity vs. Confusion (adolescence) Young people begin to investigate their vocation and professional orientation. Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adult) The development of love relationships occur during this period. Generativity vs. Stagnation (mature adult) Time is spent in parenting, supporting others. Integrity vs. Despair (older adult) Reflecting on and accepting the life one has led.

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Handout 5.1 Favorite Play Experience


This task is designed to get you thinking about your own childhood and some of the special play experiences you remember. Think back to your childhood (ages three to eight is best, but any time during your childhood is okay). What do you remember doing when you had a chance to play? Can you recall a special play experience that you engaged in regularly? For the play times you remembered answer the following questions: 1. Describe your remembered play experience.

2. Where did you play and what were the materials you used?

3. Who did you play with?

4. Share your remembered experience with two or three others.

5. Does this activity give you any insights about childhood play? Were there any common characteristics in the remembered experiences?

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Handout 5.2 Recipe for Preserving Children


Start with one large grassy field, a half dozen children, two or three small dogs, a pinch of brook & some pebbles. Mix the children and dogs together and put them into the field, stirring constantly. Pour the brook over the pebbles, sprinkle the field with flowers. Spread over all a deep blue sky and bake in the hot sun. When brown, set away to cool in a bathtub. Author Unknown

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Handout 6.1 Ways to Say Good for You!


One of the quickest ways to get children to tune you out is to continually use the same words to praise and encourage them. Many of us get into the bad habit of saying Good for you far too often. Rather than getting stuck in that rut, try varying the words you use. The following examples should help get you started: Outstanding! Youve got it. Im proud of your hard work. Youre really thinking today. Youre learning fast. I knew you could do it! Keep up the good work. This time is much better than the last. Your practice has made a real difference! I like what you are doing. Congratulations. You are making great steps forward. Thats much better. You make that look easy. Im impressed. Look at you! Very creative.

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Handout 6.2 Using Problem Solving


Problem solving can be used to work through problems with individual children or with issues that concern the entire class. The basic steps as defined in your text are as follows: 1. Work together to identify the problem behavior 2. Discuss the implications of the behavior 3. Brainstorm possible solutions. 4. Agree on a plan. 5. Check periodically to make sure the plan is working. Try applying these problem-solving steps to the following situation with an entire class: It is early in the school year, and your second grade students are having difficulty managing their time on the playground. They frequently end up in trouble with the playground supervisor for their aggressive play. You have decided it is time to have a classroom meeting to resolve this problem. Discuss the issues you would consider in preparing for the meeting and outline a prospective agenda.

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Handout 7.1 Family Interview Family Involvement


One important way to gather information about family involvement in education is to ask family members themselves. The following questionnaire is intended as a way to begin that process. If you are a parent yourself, please interview someone other than yourself. You will gain more from the experience. 1. What do you see as the benefits to you, children, and teachers of family involvement?

2. In what ways are you involved in your childs education?

3. Have you encountered problems as you got involved in school-related activities? If so, please describe.

4. How does your childs teacher communicate with you as a family member?

5. How do you feel about being involved in your childs education?

6. Is there anything else you can tell me about your involvement in education?

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Handout 7.2 Teacher Interview - Family Involvement


Teachers vary in their attitudes towards working with families and in ways they involve them in the educational process. The purpose of this interview task is to give you some first-hand information about family involvement. If you have a friend or relative that teaches young children, consider contacting that person for this interview. 1. What do you see as the benefits to you, children, and families of family involvement?

2. Have you encountered problems as you have worked to involve families? If so, can you describe them?

3. In what ways do you involve families in your classroom activities? Do you try to involve families at home to work with their children?

4. What strategies do you use to communicate with families?

5. How do you feel about working with families?

6. Is there anything else you can tell me about your work with families?

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Handout 8.1 Your Attitudes about Diversity


While most of us would like to think that we are not prejudiced against people who are different from ourselves, careful introspection will probably indicate that each of us can make additional progress in our attitudes. Self- analysis is one way in which we can begin the process of positive change. Try the following steps as an initial way to assess your own attitudes. 1. Can you give specific examples from your past in which you have interacted positively with people who are culturally/racially different from yourself? Do you remember examples of times when your interactions were less positive?

2. Think about your attitudes towards the opposite sex. What characteristics do you associate with that group that you like? Are there characteristics you dont like?

3. Describe your feelings when you are around children with special needs. Be as specific as possible.

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Handout 8.2 Childrens Books Dealing with Diversity


There are many good examples of childrens books that deal positively with diversity issues. An example will be presented here for each of the three aspects of diversity discussed in your text. You will be expected to find three additional books that you find helpful and that could be included in the early childhood classroom.
Cultural/Racial Diversity

Adolf, A. (1973). Black is brown is tan. N.Y.: Harper Collins. Your choices: 1. 2. 3.
Children with Special Needs

Cairo, S. (1985). Our brother has Downs syndrome. Toronto: Annick Press LTD. Your choices: 1. 2. 3.
Gender Equity

Merriam, E. (1989). Mommies at work. N.Y.: Simon and Shuster. Your choices: 1. 2. 3.

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Handout 9.1 The Value of Unit Blocks


Unit blocks (see chapter 9 for a description) are one of the most versatile and valuable tools for learning in classrooms for young children. They can be successfully used throughout the early childhood years. Elizabeth Hirsch, editor of The Block Book, suggests the following potential benefits of block use in the early childhood classroom:

Patterns Symmetry Balance

Physical Development

Hand manipulation Eye-hand coordination Visual perception

Art

Social Studies
People and their work Mapping Interdependence of people Symbolic representation

Language Arts
Questions and concepts Exchange of ideas Planning of building Naming of building Function of building Stories about building

Feeling of competence Gravity Cooperation Stability Respect for the work of others Balance Inclined planes Interaction of forces Property of matter Inductive thinking Mathematics Classification Measurement Order Geometry Number Inequality Fractions Equality Depth Height Length Measurement

Social Development

Science

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Handout 9.2 Dramatic Play Centers


Because of the importance of dramatic play, teachers need to take special care to prepare quality materials that encourage this play type. Brainstorm materials that could be used to create interesting play options for the following dramatic play centers: Shoe Store Camping

Airplane

Barber Shop

Restaurant

Doctors Office

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Handout 10.1 History of Playgrounds


Playgrounds as we know them today are a relatively recent phenomenon. The first playgrounds in this country began around the beginning of the twentieth century as settings for large muscle development. Frost and Wortham (1988) identified several phases in the evolution of the American playground:
The Manufactured Appliance Era

During this period, which began around the turn of the century and lasted until the 1950s, the emphasis was on iron, steel, and wooden manufactured structures. Playgrounds were designed with functionalism in mind- structures were strong and expected to last many years.
The Novelty Era

The 1950s and 1960s have been described as the novelty era. Influenced by artists, architects, recreation specialists, and educators, an attempt was made to add novelty or fantasy structures to the playground. Turtle climbing structures, rocket ship merry-gorounds, and Disney character swings are examples of options that were placed on playgrounds to stimulate dramatic play outdoors.
The Modern Era

The 1970s saw an increasing variety in playground equipment, with modular wooden equipment becoming more popular. Complex wooden structures with linkages to other units, platforms of varying heights, suspended bridges, ramps, firemans poles; wide slides, rings, and ropes became popular.
The Movable Parts Era

While Frost and Wortham didnt include this category, it appears that interest is growing in having more movable parts on playgrounds for young children. Storage remains the largest drawback to this option for many early childhood programs.

Frost, J., and Wortham, S. (1988). The evolution of American playgrounds. Young Children, 43(5), 19- 28.

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Handout 10.2 Playground Safety


Safety on playgrounds has been a concern of the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) since 1974. After much research and public testimony, the CPSC developed a set of voluntary playground safety standards that are generally accepted as the best guidelines for safety outdoors. The basic elements of the standards are summarized below:
Surfacing Under and Around Play Structures

The most common cause of injury on playgrounds is falling from a piece of equipment onto a hard surface. The CPSC suggests some sort of shock absorbing material under and around every piece of equipment on the playground. Six to twelve inches of sand, pea gravel, bark, shredded tire, or a manufactured pad over concrete or asphalt are recommended depending on the height of the structure. This surfacing should extend at least six feet out from each structure to make sure children land on the softer material.
Spacing of Equipment

Equipment on the playground should be placed in such a way that children can safely move between equipment without the threat of injury. For example, a child coming off a slide should have room to recover before coming in contact with the swings.
Sharp Points, Protrusions, and Pinch Points

Sharp metal edges, exposed bolts, and angles on equipment that can trap childrens body parts are evidence of poor equipment design and often lead to unneeded injuries on playgrounds.
Enclosures and Heights for Platforms

The CPSC has identified safe platform heights and railings/enclosures to help avoid the problem of children falling off play structures. Higher platforms also require deeper/more shock-absorbing materials under and around the equipment.
Poorly Maintained Equipment

Even good equipment that doesnt receive proper care from adults will eventually become a playground hazard. It is necessary to regularly check and repair equipment on playgrounds for young children.

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Handout 12.1 Growth in Gross Motor Skills


The development of gross motor skills (large muscles in arms and legs) follow a pattern for most children in the early years. While there are many variances from the typical patterns, the following characteristics are common for children at different ages:
Infants

Sits up (six months) Stands with help (eight months) Crawling (ten months) Walking (twelve months)
Toddlers

Bend from waist to pick up toy (eighteen months) Walk on a line (age two) Beginning running (age two)
Three-Year-Olds

Run smoothly Quick stops Alternate steps as climb stairs


Four-Year-Olds

Climbing high (stretching limits) Running and standing jumps Masters trike riding
Five-and Six-Year-Olds

Jump rope Jump over objects Hopping and skipping


Seven-Year-Olds

Gallop to music Throwing a ball mastered Bike riding

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Handout 12.2 Growth in Fine Motor Skills


Clear patterns emerge in the development of fine motor skills during the early years. While there are variances between children, the following characteristics are common: Infancy Grasping objects Pincer grasp (thumb and finger) Twos and Threes Stringing large beads Copying circle or cross Folding paper Four-Year-Olds Abilities needed for dressing developed Tying shoes with help Beginning writing Five-Year-Olds Fold a triangle from paper Draw square or triangle Cut along a line with scissors Sixes and Sevens Still reverse numbers and letters Able to draw diamond shape

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Handout 13.1 Building Teacher-Student Relationships


Strong teacher-student relationships dont just happen; they require time and effort to build. As described in your text, it is important to take time for positive personal interactions with children. Greeting children as they arrive and asking appropriate questions is one example of this type. Many teachers also take time to engage in gettingacquainted activities that are more contrived, but which can strengthen teacher-student relationships. The following is an example of this type:
Koosh and Kisses

With students seated in a circle, bring out a Koosh ball and explain that you will toss the Koosh ball to a student in the group. That child should introduce herself and then toss the ball to another student. The second child then introduces the previous student and then introduces himself. Depending on the age of the children, you may want to have children introduce up to three children preceding them. Once everyone has been introduced (including the teacher), reward everyone with a candy Kiss as a treat for their participation. Find, and describe below, two other getting-acquainted activities that you could use in your work with young children: 1.

2.

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Handout 13.2 Childhood Stressors


There are many different events that cause stress in the lives of children. Some are a normal part of growth and development. Others are brought about by the circumstances in which children find themselves. Often, a single stressor can be overcome by children when they are given the time and resources to do so. It becomes much more difficult, however, when stressing events continue to accumulate. The list that follows is meant to give you some idea of the many different events that can cause stress in the lives of young children. Please note that even positive experiences can be stressful events. When you see children who are experiencing several of these at once or in a short time frame, you will need to take extra care to assist them in dealing with these stressors. Parent dies Parent divorces Parent travels extensively for work Personal illness or injury Parent remarries Mother goes to work Child experiences difficulties in school Birth of a sibling Change in the familys financial condition Starting a new extracurricular activity (music, soccer, etc.) Outstanding personal achievement Move to another part of town Receives or loses a pet Change in day care hours Vacation with family Changes friends

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Handout 14.1 Play and Problem Solving


Problem solving is an important skill to develop in children, and as described in chapter 5, play is an excellent vehicle for practicing and perfecting this task. Tegano, Sawyers and Moran (1989) describe the findings of research on problem solving and play. Here are some of the connections described in their article: Play provides a non-threatening environment in which children feel free to explore and experiment. Play is real life for young children. The problems they encounter there are meaningful to them. Skills learned in these real life situations are more likely to be generalized to other situations. Play allows children to experiment with more than one solution to a potential problem.

Based on this information, spend some time observing children at play in an early childhood classroom or on the playground. Look for examples of problem solving in play. 1. What did children do or say that indicated problem solving was taking place? 2. Describe the level of involvement of children as they engaged in play and problem solving. 3. What was the teachers role in facilitating problem solving?

Tegano, D., Sawyers, J., and Moran, J. (1989). Problem-finding and solving in play: The teachers role. Childhood Education, 66(2), 92-97.

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Handout 14.2 Home Learning Tasks


It is important for teachers of young children to involve families in simple ways at home in the education of their children. These activities are often referred to as home learning tasks. The following criteria help teachers construct valuable experiences for families and children: Tasks should require the child to do most of the talking/work and the parent to do the least. Families need clear directions that identify both the purpose for the task and the materials and procedures to follow. Evaluation should be built into the task so that the child knows if they have been successful. The family and child need to be interested in, and enjoy the task. Good home learning tasks need to be easy to prepare for, inexpensive, and brief.

Given the above criteria, plan four interesting home learning tasks for a specific age within the early childhood range. Use terms that parents will understand and that clearly describe what you expect them to do. For each activity, use the following format to describe the task: Title (make it fun and attractive) Materials needed Procedures Reference (where you got the idea)

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Handout 16.1 Creative Art from Junk


A quality art program for young children doesnt require expensive materials or equipment. Frequently, throw-away materials can be recycled in the art center for some very creative art experiences. The following list is a sampling of materials that teachers, community members, and parents can contribute to the art center (Schirrmacher, 1998): Artificial flowers Berry baskets Wood scraps Empty cereal boxes, toothpaste boxes, etc Bottle caps and tops Butter tubs Old magazines Cardboard scraps Buttons Old calendars Cancelled stamps Candles Corks Scraps of cloth Catalogs Old greeting cards Egg cartons Cotton balls Old crayons Foam rubber Gummed labels Packing material Paper scraps Ribbon scraps String Meat trays Yarn Toilet paper rolls Used gift wrap Schirrmacher, R. (1998). Art and creative development for young children. (3rd ed.). Albany, N.Y.: Delmar.

Handout 16.2 Singing with Children

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Children learn to sing over time and through much repetition. Wolf (1994) suggests that children develop their ability to sing in four steps:
Listening

The youngest children, or those who are just starting to learn a new song, begin by listening to others sing. While recorded music is helpful, hearing and seeing another person sing seems to be the most effective. It may appear to the adult that some children may not be listening, but many times they are absorbing the music quickly and completely.
Tagging On

Once children start to get the rhythm and tune of a song, they begin to tag on to songs they hear and like. They will echo brief bits and pieces of the song. Children may be engaged in other activities, but when a favorite part of a song comes along, they will echo the parts they especially enjoy.
Joining In

By age three or four, most children will join in singing a song, once they have become familiar with the words and tune. Group singing becomes more participatory at this point. Many children switch between tagging on and joining in as their interest rises and falls.
Independent Singing

After considerable experience with singing along with a group, children eventually become more comfortable in singing alone. For many children, this step is reached by kindergarten. The songs chosen for independent singing are those that the child has mastered by following the earlier steps.

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