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Fluidized Bed Combustion Technology(2)

Fluidized Bed Combustion Technology(2)

START-UP

START-UP

BED TEMPERATURE

BED TEMPERATURE

of the in-bed tubes immersed inin the sand bed

of the in-bed tubes immersed

the sand bed isis 5-6 times higher than

5-6 times higher than

that of the conventional convection tube bank area. IfIf design of boiler

that of the conventional convection tube bank area.

design of boiler

requires 3030 m2 for convection area toto generate 1000 Kg of steam per

requires

m2 for convection area

generate 1000 Kg of steam per

hour, we can safely take 1/6 of itit or

hour, we can safely take 1/6 of

or 55 m2

m2 toto generate 1000 Kg of steam

generate 1000 Kg of steam

from the immersed in-bed tube area.

from the immersed in-bed tube area.

The fluidizing air enters through air distributors mounted onon aa flat base

The fluidizing air enters through air distributors mounted

flat base

plate. The bed material

plate.

The bed material isis silica sand having

silica sand having aa mean size of 0.9 mmmm

mean size of 0.9

(#3). Bed depth isis about 400 mm.

(#3).

Bed depth

about 400 mm.

Start-up of the bed isis achieved

Start-up of the bed

achieved byby the firing of

the firing of anan above bed distillate

above bed distillate

coal layer, which isis lit

coal layer, which

lit byby small quantity of oil at the very start. Start-

small quantity of oil at the very start. Start-

upup isis normally achieved inin 4545 minutes from cold status. Hot starts

normally achieved

minutes from cold status.

Hot starts

normally are achieved inin less than 1010 minutes,

normally are achieved

less than

minutes, 66 minutes of which

minutes of which isis

needed for purging toto ensure there are

needed for purging

ensure there are nono pockets of ignitable gas inin

pockets of ignitable gas

the boiler passes. IfIf the bed temperature

the boiler passes.

the bed temperature isis above 600 oCoC nono oil fuel

above 600

oil fuel

isis needed

needed toto re-start the bed.

re-start the bed. Usually bed can maintain enough heat

Usually bed can maintain enough heat

or above 600 oCoC for 1-2 hours.

or above 600

for 1-2 hours.

The average bed temperature varies between 950 oCoC at full load

The average bed temperature varies between 950

at full load toto

750 750

oCoC at minimum load.

at minimum load. InIn fluidised bed operation bed temperature

fluidised bed operation bed temperature

isis monitored and isis inin fact

monitored and

fact aa better indication of combustion condition

better indication of combustion condition

than aa flame scanner used for oil burner.

than

flame scanner used for oil burner.

FREE BOARD

FREE

BOARD ZONE/

ZONE/

OVERFIRE 22 NDND AIR

OVERFIRE

AIR

COAL FEEDING SYSTEM

COAL FEEDING SYSTEM

COARSE ASH REMOVAL

COARSE ASH REMOVAL

circulating sand bed

circulating sand bed

The major proportion of the fuel isis burnt within the bed, with the

The major proportion of the fuel

burnt within the bed, with the

remainder burning inin the free board zone or disengaging space above

remainder burning

the free board zone or disengaging space above

the bed. With the injection of overfire

the bed.

With the injection of overfire 22 ndnd air into the free board zone,

air into the free board zone,

disengaging space temperature will rise higher than the temperature of

disengaging space temperature will rise higher than the temperature of

the bed. The final gas temperature leaving the furnace will bebe similar

the bed.

The final gas temperature leaving the furnace will

similar

toto the bed temperature

the bed temperature asas the elevation inin temperature due toto free

the elevation

temperature due

free

board combustion isis partially offset byby the heat transfer

board combustion

partially offset

the heat transfer toto the

the

uncovered portion of in-bed tubes and cooling effect of the fresh air

uncovered portion of in-bed tubes and cooling effect of the fresh air

injection.

injection.

Fine coal isis stored

Fine coal

stored onon the ground and normally flat conveyor system

the ground and normally flat conveyor system

transport coal from the in-ground hopper toto the silo mounted at the

transport coal from the in-ground hopper

the silo mounted at the

front ofof the boiler. The coal runs from the storage silo

front

the boiler. The coal runs from the storage silo byby gravity

gravity toto the

the

screw conveyor with variable speed gear motor, then the coal enters

screw conveyor with variable speed gear motor, then the coal enters

the furnace through anan air swept spout.

the furnace through

air swept spout.

SOOTBLOWERS SOOTBLOWERS Soot blowers are not necessary toto bebe installed Soot blowers are not necessary installed
SOOTBLOWERS
SOOTBLOWERS
Soot blowers are not necessary toto bebe installed
Soot blowers are not necessary
installed asas the combustion
the combustion
temperature of the fluidized bed
temperature of the fluidized bed isis controlled at well below the ash
controlled at well below the ash
fusion temperature and fly-ash entrained inin the gases entering the
fusion temperature and fly-ash entrained
the gases entering the
convection tube banks are dry and non-adhering and possess aa self-
convection tube banks are dry and non-adhering and possess
self-
cleaning action.
cleaning action.
Coarse ash which
Coarse ash which isis not elutriated from the bed must bebe removed.
not elutriated from the bed must
removed. This
This
material
material isis removed continuously byby means of circulating sand bed.
removed continuously
means of
circulating sand bed.
We call this system asas CIRCULATING BED.
We call this system
CIRCULATING BED.
Air nozzles are
Air nozzles are
screwed
screwed inin toto the multiple air distribution pipes instead of base plate
the multiple air distribution pipes instead of base plate
which was used before.
which was used before. Because of this air distribution pipes, coarse
Because of this air distribution pipes, coarse
ash can fall below the pipe level travelling downward
ash can fall below the pipe level travelling downward inin between the
between the
pipes and those materials will
pipes and those materials will bebe discharged from the rotary valve
discharged from the rotary valve
below together with the silica sand onto the vibrating screen which will
below together with the silica sand onto the vibrating screen which will
segregate those coarse ash and other foreign materials from the pure
segregate those coarse ash and other foreign materials from the pure
silica sand.
silica sand. Then the pure silica sand will bebe returned
Then the pure silica sand will
returned toto the furnace
the furnace