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RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION SUPERVISED BY SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULLFILLMENT OF

THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE M.COM DEGREE OF

MASTER IN COMMERCE -1 (MANAGEMENT) SUBMITTED TO UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI LALA LAJPAT RAI COLLEGE, MAHALAXMI, MUMBAI SUBMITTED BY

ANIL MARU

Roll no: 629

PROF. NEELAM ARORA Prof. RAHUL CHOPRA

15th October 2013

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

CERTIFICATE

I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the M.Com internal project report entitled RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Master of Commerce and Economics, in MANAGEMENT and submitted to the LALA LAJPATRAI COLLEGE OF COMMERCE AND ECONOMICS, Mahalaxmi, Mumbai-400034 is an authentic record of my own work carried out under the supervision of Prof. neelam arora & Prof.rahul chopra. The matter has not been presented by me for the award of any other degree elsewhere.

SIGNATURE OF THE STUDENT:

SIGNATURE OF SUPERVISORS:

INTERNAL EXAMINER:

EXTERNAL EXAMINER:

COLLEGE STAMP

PRINCIPAL

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

ACKNOWLEGEMENT

Writing is a solitary task. However turning of millions of bytes of information requires an army of talented folks . I have been fortunate enough to be assisted by many talented and caring people. And I wish to express my appreciation all those help has been most valuable. To all these truly outstanding people , and many others too , my warm personal regard . I am indeed grateful to my Director prof.neelam arora for providing me the necessary guidance and facility required for completion of this project and for being an effective source of inspiration. I am thankful to the library for providing the necessary magazines and journals without which the completion of this project would not be possible

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

INDEX

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

T o d a y, i n ev er y o r g a n i s at i o n p ers o n n el p l an n i n g as an a ct i v i t y i s n eces s ar y . It i s a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f a n o r g a n i s a t i o n . H u m a n R e s o u r c e P l a n n i n g is a vital ingredient for the success of the organisation in the long ru n. There are certain ways that are to be f ollowed b y ever y organisation, which ensures that it has right number and kind of people, at the right p lace and ri ght time, so that organisation can achieve its planned objective.

The objectives of Human Resource Department are Human Resource P lanning, areer Recruitment and Selection, Training and Development, C

planning,

Transfer

and

Promotion,

Risk Management, Performa

nce Appraisal and so on. Each objective needs special attention and pr oper planning and implementation. For ever y organisation it is important to have a right person on a ri g h t j o b . R e cru i t m en t an d S el ect i o n p l a ys a v i t al ro l e i n t h i s s it u at i o n . S h o rtage of skills and the use of new technology are putting considerable pressure on how employers go about R ecruiting and S electing staff. It is recommended to carr y out a strategi c anal ysis of Recruitment and S elect ion procedure. With reference t o this context, this project is been prepar ed to put a li ght on Recruitment and S election process. This project includes M ean ing and Definition of Recruitment and Selection, Need and Purpose of Recruitment, Evaluation of Recruitment Process, Recruitment Tips. S ources of R ecruitment through which an Organisation gets suitable ap plication. Scientific Recruitment and Selection, which an Organisation s h o u l d fo l l o w f o r , ri g h t m an p o w er . J o b A n al ys i s , w h i ch g i v es an i d ea ab out the requirement of the job. Next is Selection process, which inclu d es s t ep s o f S el ect i o n , T yp es o f T es t , T yp es o f In t erv i ew , C o m m o n In t erview RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 5

Problems and their Solutions. Approach es to Selection, Scientific S el ect i o n P o l i c y, S el ect i o n i n In d i a an d p ro b l em s . Recruitment and Selection are simultaneous process and are incomple te without each other. They are important components of the organisatio n and are different from each other. Since all the aspect needs practical example and explanation this project includes Recruitment and selection Pr o ces s o f In fo s ys . A n d a p ract i cal cas e s t u d y. It al s o co n t ai n s ad d r es s es of various and top placement consultants and the pricelist of advertiseme nts in the magazine.

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

INTRODUCTION

Recru itmen t and S election

Recruitment and selection are two of the most important functions of personnel management. Recr uitm ent precedes selection and helps in selecting a right candidate. Recruitment is a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirement of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate

numbers to facilitate effective selection of efficient personnel. Staffing is one basic function of management. All managers have responsibility of staffing function by selecting the chief executive and even the foremen and supervisors have a staffing responsibility when they select the rank and file workers. However, the personnel manager and his personnel department is mainly concerned with the staffin g function. Every organisation needs to look after recruitment and selection in the initial period and thereafter as and when additional manpower is required due to expansion and development of business activities. Right person for the right job is the basic principle in recruitment and selection. Ever organisation should give attention to the selection of its manpower, especially its managers. The operative manpower is equally important and essential for the orderly working of an enterprise. Every business organisation/unit needs manpower for carrying different business activities smoothly and efficiently and for this recruitment and selection of suitable candidates are essential. Human resource management in an organisation will not be possible if unsuitable persons are selected and employment in a business unit.

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

M E A N I N G:

RECRUITMENT

Recruitment means to estimate the available vacancies and to make suitable arrangements for their selection and appointment. Recruitment is understood as the process of searching for and obtaining applicants for the jobs, from among whom the ri ght people can be selected. A f o r m a l d e f i n i t i o n s t a t e s , It i s t h e p r o c e s s o f f i n d i n g a n d attracting capabl e applicants for the employment. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applicants are submitted. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are select ed. In this, the available vacancies are given wide publicit y and suitable candidates are encouraged to submit applications so as to have a pool of eli gible candidates for scientific selection. In recruitment, information candidates. For this different is collected source such from interested as newspaper

ad v e rt i s em en t , em p l o ym en t ex ch an g es , i n t ern al p ro m o t i o n , e t c. ar e used. In the recruitment, a pool of eli gi ble and interested

candidates is created for selection of most suitable candidates. Recruitment represents the first contact that a compan y makes with potential emplo yees

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

D e f i n i t i o n: According to EDW I N FLI PPO , Recr uitment is the pr ocess of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization.

N e e d f o r r e c r u i t m e n t: The need for recruitment may be due to the following reasons / situation: a) Vacancies due to promotions, transfer, retirement, termination, p erm an en t d i s ab i l i t y, d eat h an d l ab o u r t u r n o v e r. b) Creation of new vacancies due to the growth, expansion and diversification of business activities of an enterprise. In

addition, new vacancies are possible due to job specification.

Purpose and importance of Recruitment:

1. Determine

the

present

and

future

requirements

of

the organizati

o n o n co n j u n ct i o n w i t h i t s p ers o n n el - p l a n n i n g an d j o b an al ys i s act i v i t i es . 2. Increas e the p ool of job candid ates at minimum cos t. 3. Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the ants. 4. Help reduce the probability that job applicants, once recruited and selec ted, will leave the organization only af ter a short period of time. 5. M eet the organizat ions legal and s oci al obligations regard ing the comp osition of its work force. 6 . Be g i n i d en t i f yi n g an d p r ep a ri n g p o t en t i al j o b ap p l i can t s wh o w i l l b e ap propriate candidates. 7. Increas e or gan izational and individu al effectiven es s in the s hort t er m and long term. 8. Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting techniqu es and sourc RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 9 number of visibly under qualified or overqualifi ed job applic

es fo r al l t yp es o f j o b ap p l i can t s .

Recruitm ent is a pos itive function in which publicit y is given to the jobs available in the organization and interested candidates are encouraged to submit applications for the purpose of selection.

Recruitment represents the first contact that a compan y makes w ith potential emplo yees . It is thro u gh recruitmen t that man y individuals will come to know a company, and eventual l y decided whether the y wish to work for it. A well-planned and well-managed recruiting effort will result in hi gh qual it y applicants, wher eas, a haphazard and piecemeal efforts will result in mediocre ones.

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RE CR U IT ME N T PR OC ES S
R ecru i t m en t ref ers t o t h e p ro ces s o f i d en t i f yi n g an d at t ra ct i n g job seekers so as to build a pool of qualified job applicants. The process comprises five interrelated stages , viz, 1. P lanning. 2. Strategy develop ment. 3. Searching. 4. Screening. 5. Evaluation and control. The ideal recruitment pro gramme is the one that attracts a relativel y lar ger number of qualified applicants who will survive the screening process an d accept positions with the organisation, when o ff er ed . R ecr u i t m en t p ro g ram m es can m i s s t h e i d eal i n m an y w a ys i.e. b y failing to attract an adequate applicant pool, b y under/over

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selling the organis ation or b y inadequate screening applicants before they enter the selection process. Thus, to approach the ideal, individuals responsible for the recruitment process must kno w how m an y an d w h at t yp e s o f em p l o ye es are n eed ed , w h er e an d h o w t o look for the individuals with the appropriate qualifications and i n t eres t s , wh at i n d u cem en t t o u s e fo r v ari o u s t yp es o f ap p l i can t s groups, how to distinguish applicants who are qualified from those who have a reasonable chance of success and how to evaluate their work.

STAGE 1: RECRUITMENT PLANNING:

The first stage in the recruitment process is planning. Planning involves the translation of likely job vacancies and information about the nature of these jobs into set of objectives or targets that specif y the (1) Numbers and (2) T ypes of applicants to be contacted. Numbers of contact : O r gan i z at i o n , n earl y al w a ys , p l an t o at t ract m o r e ap p l i can t s t h an they will hire. Some of those contacted will be uninterested, unqualified or both. Each time a recruitment Programme is

contemplated, one task is to estimate the number of applicants necessar y to fill all vacancies with the qualified people. Types of contacts: It i s b as i cal l y co n c e rn ed w i t h t h e t yp es o f p eo p l e t o b e i n f o rm ed about job openings. The t ype of peopl e depends on the tas ks and responsibilities involved and the qualifications and experience expected. These details are available through job description and job specification. RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 12

STAGE 2: STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT :


W h en i t i s es t i m at ed t h at what t yp es o f rec ru i t m en t an d h o w many are required then one has concentrate in (1). Make o r Bu y employees. (2). Technological sophistication of recruitment and selection devices. (3). Geographical distribution of labour markets comprising job seekers. (4). Sources of recruitment. (5). Sequencing the activities in the recruitment process. Make or Buy: Organisation must decide whether to hire le skilled employees and invest on training and education programmes, or they can hire s k i l l ed l ab o u r an d p ro f es s i o n al . E s s en t i al l y, t h i s i s t h e m ak e o r bu y decision. Organizations, which hire skilled and professionals shall have to pay more for these emplo yees. Technological Sophistication: The second decision in strategy development relates to the methods used in recruitment and selection. This decision is mainly i n fl u en ced b y t h e a v ai l ab l e t ech n o l o g y. T h e ad v en t o f co m p u t ers has made it possible applicant for emplo yers to scan national and

international

qualification.

Although

impersonal,

co m p u t er s h av e g i v e n em p l o ye r s an d o b s eek er s a w i d er s co p e o f options in the initial screening stage. Where to look: In order to reduce t he costs, organisations look in to labour markets most likel y to offer the required job seekers. Generall y, companies look in to the national market for managerial and professional emplo yees, regional or local markets for t echnical employees and local markets for the clerical and blue- collar employees. RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 13

When to look: An effective recruiting strategy must determine when to look decide on the timings of events besides knowing where and how to look for job applicants .

STAGE 3: SEARCHNG:
Once a recruitment plan and strateg y are worked out, the search process can begin. Search involves two steps A). S ource activation an d B). Selling. A ) . SOURCE ACTIVATION: T yp i cal l y, s o u rc es a n d s earch m et h o d s are act i v at ed b y t h e issuance of an employee requisition. This means that no actual recruiting takes place until lone managers have verified that vacancy does exist or will exist. If the or ganisation has planned well and done a good job of developing its sources and search methods, activation soon results in a flood of app licat ions and/or r es umes . The application received must be screened. Those who pass have to be contacted and invited for interview. Unsuccessful applicants must be sent letter of regret.

B ) . SELLING: A second issue to be addressed in the searching process concerns communica tions. Here, organisation walks tightrop e. On one hand, they want to do whatever they can to attract des irable applicants. On the other hand, they must resist the temptation of overselling their virtues.

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In selling the organi sation, both the m essage and the media deserve attent ion. M essage refers to the employment advertisement. With regards to media, it may be stated that effectiven ess of an y recruiting message depends on the medi a. M edia are several-some h av e l o w cr ed i b i l i t y, w h i l e o t h er s en j o y h i gh cr ed i b i l i t y. S el ect i o n of medium or media needs to be done with a lot of care.

S T E P 4: SCREENING:
S creening of applicants can be regarded as an integral part of the r ecru iting pr oces s , though man y view it as the fir s t s tep in the selection process. Even the definition on recruitment, we quoted in the beginning of this chapter, excludes screening from its scope. However, we have included screening in recruitment for valid reasons. The selection process will begin after the applications have been scrutinized and short-listed. Hiring of professors in a

u n i v er s i t y i s a t yp i c a l s i t u at i o n . A p p l i cat i o n rec ei v ed i n res p o n s e t o advertisements is screened and onl y eligibl e applicants are called for an interview. A selection committee comprising the Vicechancellor, Registrar and subject experts conducts intervi ew. Here, the recruitment process extends up to s creening the applications. The selection proces s commences onl y later. Purpose of screening The purpose of screening is to remove from the recruitment process, at an early stage, thos e applicants who are visibly unqualified for the job. Effective s creening can save a great deal of t i m e an d m o n e y. C are m u s t b e ex er ci s e d , h o w ev er, t o as s u r e t h at potentiall y good employees are not reject ed without justification.

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In s creen in g, clear jo b s pecifications are invaluab le. It is bo th good practice and a legal necessit y that applicants qualificat ion is judged on the basis of their knowledge, skills, abilities and interest required to do the job. The techniques used to screen applicants vary depending on the cand idate sou rces and recruitin g methods us ed. In terv iew and application blanks may be used to screen walk-ins. Campus

recruiters and agency representatives us e interviews and res umes. Reference checks are also useful in screening.

STAGE 5: EVALUATION AND CONTROL:

Evaluat ion and con trol is necessar y as considerable costs are incurred in the recruitment process. The costs generally incurred are: 1. Salaries for recruiters. 2. M anagement and professional time spent on preparing job description, job specifications, advertis ements, agency liaison and so forth. 3. The cost of advertisements or other recruitment methods, that is, agency fees. 4. Recruitment overheads and administrative expenses. 5. Costs of overtime and outsourcing while the vacancies remain unfilled. 6. Cost of recruiting unsuitable candidates for the selection

process.

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SOURCES OF MANAGERIAL RECRUITMENT

INTERNAL SOURCES

EXTERNAL SOURCES

1) Promotion 2) Transfers 3) Internal notification (Advertisement) 4) Retirement

1) Campus recruitment 2) Press advertisement 3) Management consultancy service & private employment exchanges 4) Deputation of personnel or transfer from another one enterprise to

5) Recall 6) Former employees 7) Miscellaneous external sources

5) Management training schemes 6) Walk-ins, write-ins, talk-ins

The sources of recruitment can be broadl y categorized into internal and ex ternal sources(I ) I n tern al R ecru itmen t Internal recruitm ent seeks app lican ts for p os iti o n s f ro m w i t h i n t h e co m p an y. T h e v a ri o u s i n t e rn al s o u r ce s i n cl u d e Pro mo tion s an d Tran s fers Promotion is an effective means using job posting and person nel Job s, posting circulating requires n o t i f yi n g vacant positions by posting records. notice

publications

or announcing at staff meetings and inviti

n g em p l o yees t o ap p l y. P er s o n n el reco rd s h el p d i s co v e r em p l o yees w h o are doing jobs below their educational qualifications or skill levels. Promo tions has man y advantages like it is good public relations, builds mor ale, encourages competent individuals who are ambitious, improves the RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 17

probabili t y of good selection since infor mat ion on the individuals perfor mance is readil y availabl e, is cheaper than going outside to recruit, those c hosen internally are familiar with the organization thus reducing the orien tation time and energy and also acts as a training device fo r developin g middle-level and top-level managers. However, promotions restrict the fi eld of selection preventing fresh blood & ideas from enteri ng the or gani z a t i o n . It a l s o l e a d s t o i n b r e e d i n g i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . T r a n s f e r s a r e a ls o important in pr ovidin g emplo yees w ith a broad - b as ed view of th e or ganization, necessar y for future pr omotions.

Employee referralsEmployees can develop good prospects for their famili es and f riends b y ac quainting them with the advantages of a job with hing them with introduction t h e co m p an y, furnis

an d en co u ra g i n g t h em t o ap p l y. T h i s i s

a ver y effective means as man y qualified people can be reached at a ver y l o w co s t t o t h e co m p an y. The other advantages are that the emplo yee

s would bring onl y those referrals that they feel would be able to fit in t he or ganization based on their own experience. The or ganization can be a s s u r e d o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e r e f e r r a l s . In t h i s way, the or ganization can also fulfill social obli gations and create good will. Former E mp loyees These include retired employees who are willing to work on a part-time bas is, individuals who left work and are willing to come back for higher comp en s at i o n s . E v en r et re n ch ed em p l o ye es ar e t ak en u p o n ce a g ai n . T h e ad v an tage here is that the people are alread y known to the organization and t here is no need to find out their past performance and character. Also, t here is no need of an orientation programme for them, since they ar e familiar with the organization. D ep en d ents of d eceas ed emp loyees U s u al l y, b an k s fo l l o w t h i s p o l i c y. If an em p l o yee d i es , h i s / h er s p o u s e o r son or daughter is recruited in their place. This is usuall y an effective w RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 18

ay to fulfill social o bligation and create goodwill.

Recalls : When management faces a problem, which can be solved only by a manager who has proceeded on long leave, it may de decided to recall that persons a fter the problem is solved, his leave may be extended. Retirements : At times, management may not find suitable candidates in place of the one who had retired, after meritorious service. Under the circumstances, mana gement ma y decide to call retired managers with new extension. Internal notification (advertisement) : Sometimes, management issues an internal notification for the benefit of existing emplo yees. M ost employees kno w from their own experience abou t the requirement of the job and what sort of person the company is looking for. Often emplo yees have friends or acquaintances who meet these require ments. Suitable pers ons are appointed at the vacant posts.

(I I ) Extern al R ecru itmen t Ex ternal recruitment s eek s app licants fo r p ositions from sources o u t s i d e t h e co m p an y. They have outnumbered

the internal methods. The various external sources include

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Professional or Trade Associations :Many associations provide placement service to its members. of compiling job or seekers lists and providing access to It consists members

during

regional

national conventions. Also, the publications of the

se associations carry classified advertisements from emplo yers interested i n recruiting their members. These are particularly useful for attracting high ly educated, experienced or skilled personnel. Also, the recruiters can zer o on in specific job seekers, especially for hard-to-fill technical posts.

Advertisements :It is a p opu lar meth od of s eekin g recrui ts , as man y recruiters prefer adv ertisements because of their wide reach. Want ads describe the job benef i t s , i d en t i f y t h e em p l o yer an d t el l t h o s e i n t eres t ed h o w t o ap p l y. N ews p ap er is the most com mon medium but for highl y speciali zed recruits, adver tisements may be placed in professional or business journals. Advertisements must contain proper information like the working e conditions , job location of job, compensation job content, fring

including

benefits,

specifications, growth aspects, etc. The advertisement h

as to sell the idea that the compan y and job are perfect for the candidate . Recruitment advertisements can also serve as corporate advertisement s t o b u i l d co m p an y i m age. It al s o cos t ef fect i v e.

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Employment Exchanges:E m p l o ym en t E x ch an g es h av e be en s et u p al l o v er t h e co u n t r y i n d efer en ce t o t h e p ro v i s i o n o f t h e E m p l o ym en t E x ch an g es (C o m p u l s o r y N o t i fication of Vacancies) Act, 1959. The Act applies to all industrial e stablishments having 25 workers or more each. The Act requires all the industrial establishments to notify the vacancies before they are filled. The major functions of the exchanges are to increase the pool of possi b l e ap p l i c an t s an d t o d o t h e p rel i m i n ar y s c re en i n g. T h u s , e m p l o ym en t e xchanges act as a link between the employers and the prospective emplo y ees. These offices are particularl y useful to in recruiting blue-collar, white collar and technical workers.

C a mpu s R ecru itmen ts :Colleges, universities, research laboratories, sports fields and institutes are fertile ground for recruiters, particularly the ment is going gl obal institutes. Campus Recruit

w i t h co m p an i e s l i k e H LL, C i t i b an k , H C L- H P , and Reliance looking for global ma

ANZ Grindla ys , L&T, M otorola rkets.

S ome companies recruit a given number of candidates from th

ese institutes ever y year. Campus recrui tment is so much sought after t hat each college; university department or institute will have a placem ent officer to han dle recruitment functions. However, it is often an expensive process, even if recruiting process produces job offers and accep t an c es ev en t u a l l y. A m aj o ri t y l eav e t h e o r gan i z at i o n w i t h i n t h e f i rs t fi v e yea rs o f t h ei r em p l o ym en t . Y et , i t i s a m aj o r s o u r ce o f r ecru i t m ent for prestigious companies.

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Walk -in s, Write- in s an d Talk -in sThe most common and least expensive approach for candidates is direct a pplications, in which job seekers submit unsolicited application letters or resumes. Direct applications can also provide a pool of potential em ployees to meet fut ure needs. From employees viewpoint, walk-ins are preferable as they are free from the hass les associated with other method s of recruitment. While direct applications are particularl y effective in fill ing entr y-level and unskilled vacancies, s ome organizations compile pools of potential emplo yees from direct app lications for skilled positions. Wr ite-ins are th os e w ho s end written enquiries . Thes e job s eekers are as ked to complete application for ms fo r fur ther p ro ces s ing. T alk- ins inv o lves the job aspirants meeting the recruiter (on an appropriated date) for de tailed talks. No application is required to be submitted to the recruiter.

Contractors:They are used to recruit casual workers. The names of the work ers are not entered in the compan y records and, to this extent; difficulties experienced in maintaining permanent

workers are avoided. Consultants:They are in the profession for recruiting and selecting managerial and exe cutive personnel. They are useful as they have nationwide contacts and lend professionalism to the hiring process. They also keep prospective e m p l o ye r a n d e m p l o ye e a n o n ym o u s . H o w e v e r , t h e c o s t c a n b e a d e t e r r e n t factor.

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Head Hunters:They are useful in specialized and skilled candidate working in a particula r co m p an y. A n a g en t i s s en t t o rep res en t t h e re cru i t i n g co m p an y an d o f f e r is made to the can didate. This is a useful source when both the compan ies involved are in t he same fi eld, and the emplo yee is reluctant to take t h e o f f er s i n ce h e f e ar s , t h at h i s co m p an y i s t es t i n g h i s l o yal t y. Radio, Television and Internet:R ad i o an d t el ev i s i o n are u s ed t o rea ch cert ai n t yp es o f j o b app l i can t s s u ch as s k i l l ed wo rk er s . R ad i o an d t el ev i s i o n ar e u s ed b u t s p ari n gl y, an d t h at t o o , b y go v e rn m en t d ep a rt m en t s o n l y. C o m p an i es i n t h e p ri v at e s ect o r are hesitant to use the media because of high costs and also because the y fear that such advertising will make the companies look desperate and da mage their conservative image. However, there is nothing inherently desp e r a t e a b o u t u s i n g r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n . It d e p e n d s u p o n w h a t i s s a i d a n d h ow it is delivered. Internet is becoming a popular option for recruitment t o d a y. T h e re ar e s p eci al i z ed s it es l i k e n au k ri . co m . A l s o , w eb s i t es o f co mpanies have a separate section wherein; aspirants can submit their resu mes and applications. This provides a wider reach.

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60-Second Guide to Hiring the Right People


0:60 D efin e th e Du ti es : T o fi n d p ro m i s i n g e m p l o yees , yo u m u s t fi rs t d et e rm i n e w h a t yo u w an t them to do. Carefully consider all direct and associated responsibiliti es and incorporate them into a written job description. Be careful with gen eral t i t l es s u ch as t yp i s t o r s al es cl erk , a s t h e y h av e d i f fe ren t m ean i n gs t o different people. 0:49 and What it Takes to do Them: Fulfilling these responsibilities will require some level of skill and experi ence, even if it is an entr y-level position. Be reasonable about your expecta tions. S etting the bar too high ma y limit your available talent pool; setting it too low risks a flood of applications from those unqualified for the jo b. 0:37 Make it Worth their While: Likewis e, you dont want to be overl y generous or res trictive about compe n s at i o n . S t at e an d l o cal ch am b ers o f co m m erce, em p l o ym en t b u re au s an d p ro fes s i o n al as s o ci a t i o n s can h el p yo u d et erm i n e ap p ro p ri at e and benefits. S cannin g descriptions wages

of comparable jobs in the cl

as s i fi ed ad s an d o t h er em p l o ym en t p u b l i cat i o n s w i l l al s o p ro v i d e cl u es about prevailing wage rates.

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0:38 Spread the Wo rd: H o w yo u ad v ert i s e yo u r j o b o p en i n g d e p en d s o n wh o yo u w an t t o at t rac t . S ome pos itions ar e as eas y to p romo te as pos ting a h elp w anted s i gn i n yo u r s t o re w i n d o w o r p l a ci n g an ad i n yo u r l o cal n ew s p a p er. F o r j o b s requirin g mor e s pecializ ed skills , cons ider tar geted ch an nels s uch as trade m agazines, on-line job banks and employment agencies (though the se may require a fee). And dont overloo k sources such as friends, neig hbors, suppliers customers and present employees.

0:25 Talk it Over: Because you have cl earl y defined the role and requirements, you should h av e l i t t l e d i ffi cu l t y i d ent i f yi n g can d i d a t es fo r i n t erv i ew s . M ak e s u r e yo u s ch ed u l e t h em w h e n yo u h av e am p l e t i m e t o rev i ew t h e res u m e, p r ep ar e your questions and give the candidate your undivided attention. After t he interview, jot down an y impressions or ke y points while theyre still f res h i n yo u r m i n d . T h i s w i l l b e a v al u ab l e re fer en ce w h en i t s t i m e t o m ak e a decision. 0:12 Follow -up on I n terview s : You want to believe your candidat es are being honest, but never assum e. Contact references to make sure youre getting the facts or t o clear up a ny uncert aint ies. P rofessional background checks are a wise investment for highl y sensitive posi tions, or those that i nvolve handling substantial amoun ts of money and valuables.

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

25

0:03 You ve Fou n d Th em; Now Keep Th em: N o w t h at yo u v e h i r ed i d eal em p l o yees , m ak e s u r e t h e y s t a y w i t h yo u by providing training and professional development opportunities

. The small business experts at SCORE can help you craft human resour ce p o l i ci es an d i n ce n t i v e p l an s t h at w i l l en s u r e yo u r co m p an y r em ai n s t h e small business employer of choice.

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

26

SELECTION
S election is d ef in ed as th e p roces s o f diff eren tiatin g b etw een ap p lic an ts in ord er to id en tify (an d h ire) th os e w ith a greater l ik elih ood of su ccess in a job . S election is basically pickin g an applican t from (a p ool of appli can ts ) w h o has th e appropriate qu alification an d competen cy to do th e job. Th e differen ce between recru itmen t an d selection : Recru itmen t is iden tifyin g n en couragin g pros pective empl oyees to apply for a job. And Selection is selecting the right candidate from the pool of applicants.

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

27

SE LE C TI ON PR OC E S S
Selection is along process, commencing from the preliminary interview o f the applicants and ending with the contract of employmen t. T h e f o l l o w in g c h a r t g i v e s a n i d e a a b o u t s e l e c t i o n p ro c e s s : -

External Environment

Internal Environment

Preliminary Interview

Selection Tests Rejected Application

Employment Interview

Reference and Background Analysis

Selection Decision

Physical Examination

Job Offer

Employment Contract Evaluation RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 28

Envir onment factor affecting selection : Selection is influenced by several factors . More prominent among them are supply and d emand of specific market skills in the legal labour and market, political

u n em p l o ym en t

rate,

labour-

conditions,

co n s i d er at i o n s , co m p an ys i m a g e, co m p an ys p o l i c y, h u m an res o u rc es planning and cost of hiring. The las t three constitute the internal environment and the remaining form the external environment of selection process.

S T EP 1 : PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW
The applicants received from job seek ers would be subject to s crutin y s o as to eliminat e unqu alified applicants . This is us uall y fo llow ed by a preliminary interview the purpose of which is more or less the same as scrutiny of application, that is, eliminate of unqualified applicants. Scrutiny enables the HR specialists to eliminate unqualified jobseekers based on the information supplied in their application forms. Preliminary interview, on the other hand, helps reject misfits for reason, which did not appear in the application forms. Besides, preliminar y interview, often called courtes y interview, is a good public relation exercise.

S T EP 2 : SELECTION TEST:
Job seekers who pass the screening and the preliminary interview are called for t ests. Different t ypes of tests may be administered, depending o n t h e j o b an d t h e co m p an y. G en er al l y, t es t s are u s ed t o d et erm i n e t h e ap p l i can t s ab i l i t y, a p t i t u de an d p e rs o n al i t y.

Th e follow in g are th e typ e of tests tak en :

1 ) . Ability tests : Assist in determining how w ell an individual can perform tasks related to the job. An excellent illustration of this is the t yping tests given to a prospect ive emplo yer for secretarial job. Also called as A CH E IV EM EN T accomplished. TESTS. It is concerned claims to with know what one has an

When

applicant

something,

achievement test is taken to measure how well they know it. Trade t es t s ar e t h e m o s t c o m m o n t yp e o f ach i ev em en t t es t gi v en . Q u es t i o n s have been prepared and tested for such trades as asbestos worker, punch-press operators, electricians and machinists. 2 ) . Aptitude test : Aptitude tests measure whether an individuals has the capaci t y or latent abilit y to learn a given job if given adequate training. The use of aptitude test is advisable when an applicant has had little or no experience alon g the line of the job opening. Aptitudes tests help determine a persons potential to learn in a given area. An example of such test is the general management aptitude tests (GMAT), w hich many business students take prior to gaining admission to a graduate business school programme.

Forms of aptitude test: 1. Mental or intelligence tests : They measure the overall intellectual ability of a person and enable to kn ow w heth er the p ers on has the m ental abi lit y to d eal w ith cert ain pro blems . 2. Mechanical aptitude tests : T h e y m eas u r e t h e ab i l i t y o f a p ers o n t o l earn a p ar t i cu l ar t yp e o f m e chanical work. These tests helps to measure specialized technical knowl edge and problem solving abilit ies if the candidate. The y are useful in s election of mech ani cs , maintenan ce w o rkers , etc. 3. Psychomotor or skills tests : The y are tho s e, w hich meas ure a p ers on s abilit y to do a s pecific job. S u c h tests are conducted in respect of semi- skilled and repetitive jobs su ch as packing, testing and inspection, etc.

3 ) . Intelligence test : This test helps to evaluate traits of intelligence. M ental ability, presence o f m i n d (al ert n es s ), n u m eri c al ab i l i t y, m em o r y an d s u ch o t he r as p ect s can be measured. The intell igence is probabl y the most widel y administered standardized tes t in indus try. It is taken to judge nu merical, s kills , reas oni ng, memor y and such other abilities. 4 ) . Interest Test : This is conducted to find out likes and dislikes of candidates towards occupations, hobbies , etc. such tests indicate which occupations are more i n line with a persons interest. Such tests also enable the compan y to p rovide vocational guidance to the select ed candidates and even to the e xisting employees.

5 ) . Personality Test : The importance of personality to job success is undeniable. Often an individual who possesses the intelligence, aptitude and experience for certain has failed because of inability to get along with and motivate other people. 6 ) . Projective Test : This tes t requir es interp retat ion o f pro ble ms or s ituations . For ex ample, a photograph or a picture can be shown to the candidates and they are asked to give their views, and opinions about the picture. 7 ) . General knowledge Test : N o w d a ys G. K . T es t s ar e v e r y co m m o n t o fi n d gen er al aw a re n es s o f t h e candidates in the field of sports, politics, world affairs, current affairs. 8 ) . Perception Test : At times perception tests can be conducted to find out beliefs, attitudes, and mental sharpness .etc. 9 ) . Graphology Test : It i s d es i gn ed t o an a l yz e t h e h an d w r i t i n g o f i n d i v i d u al . It h a s b een s ai d t h at an i n d i v i d u a l s h an d w r i t i n g can s u g g es t t h e d e gr ee o f en er g y, inhibition and s pon taneit y, as well as dis clos e the idios yn cras ies and elements of balance and control. For example, big letters and emphasis on capital letters indicate a tendency towards domination and

competi tiveness. A slant to the ri ght, moderate pressure and good legibil it y show leadership potential.

1 0 ) . Polygraph Test : P ol ygraph is a lie detector, which is designed to ensure accurac y of the information given in the applications. Department store, banks, treasury offices and jewellery shops, that is, those highl y vulnerabl e to theft or swindling may find pol ygraph tests useful .

1 1 ) . Medical Test: It r ev eal s p h ys i c al fi t n es s o f a can d i d at e. W i t h t h e d ev el o p m en t o f t ech n o l o g y, m ed i ca l t es t s h av e b eco m e d i v ers i f i ed . M ed i c a l s erv i ci n g helps measure and monitor a candidates p h ys i c al res i l i en ce u p o n

exposure to hazardou s chemicals.

: STEP 3 I N T ER V I EW
The next step in the selection process is an interview. Interview is formal, in-depth conversation conducted to evaluate the applicants accep t ab i l i t y. It i s c o ns i der ed t o b e ex ce l l en t s el ect i o n d ev i c e. It i s f ac eto-face exchange of view, ideas and opinion between the can didates and i n t erv i ew e rs . B as i cal l y, i n t erv i ew i s n o t h i n g b u t an o r al ex am i n at i o n o f c a n d i d a t e s . In t e r v i e w c a n b e a d a p t e d t o u ns k i l l e d , s k i l l e d , ma n a g e r i a l a n d p ro fes s i o n em p l o ye e s .

Objectives of interview : Interview has at least three objectives and they are a follows: 1) Helps obtain additional information from the applicants 2) Facilit ates givin g general informati on to the applicants such as compan y policies, job, products manufactured and the like 3) Helps build the compan ys image amon g the applicants.

Types of interview: Interviews can be of different t ypes. Ther e interviews employed b y the com p a n i e s .F o l l o w i n g a r e t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f i n t e r v i e w : 1) Informal Interview : An informal interview is an oral interview and may take place an yw h er e. T h e em p l o yee o r t h e m an a ge r o r t h e p ers o n n el m a n a ge r m a y ask a few almost inconsequential questions like name, place of birth, names of relatives etc. either in their respective offices or an ywhere outs ide the plant o f compan y. It id no t pl anned an d nob od y p r epar es f or i t . T h i s i s us ed w i del y w h en t h e l ab o u r m ark et i s t i gh t an d w h en yo u n eed wo r k e rs b ad l y. 2) Formal Interview : F o rm al i n t er v i ew s m a y b e h el d i n t h e em p l o ym en t o f fi c e b y h e employment office i n a more formal atm osphere, with the help of well structured questions, the time and place of the interview will be stipulated by the employment office.

3) Non-directive Interview : Non-directive intervi ew or unstructured interview is designed to let the interviewee speak his mind freel y. The interviewer has no formal or directive questions, but his all attention is to the candidate. He encourages the candidate to talk b y a li ttl e prodding whenever he is s i l en t e. g. M r . R a y, p l eas e t el l us ab o u t yo u r s el f aft er yo u r g rad u at ed from hi gh school. The idea is o give t he candidate complete freedom to sell himself, without the encumbrances of the interviewers question. But the interviewer must be of hi gher caliber and must guide and relate the information given by the applicant to the objective of the inter view.

4) Depth Interview : It is des i gn ed to intens el y ex amine the cand idates back gro und and thinking and to go into considerable detail on particular subjects of an important nature and of special interest to the candidates. For example, i f t h e c a n d i d a t e s a ys t h a t h e i s i n t e r e s t e d i n t e n n i s , a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s may be asked to test the depth of understanding and interest of the candidate. These probing questions must be asked with tact and through ex h au s t i v e an al ys i s ; i t i s p o s s i b l e t o get a g o o d p i ct u re o f t h e can d i d at e. 5) Stress Interview : It is d es ign ed to tes t the cand idate an d h is condu ct and b eh avior b y him u nder conditions of s tress and strain. The interviewer may s tart with Mr . J o s ep h , w e d o n o t t h i n k yo u r q u al i fi ca t i o n s an d ex p eri en ce are ad eq u at e for this position, an d watch the reaction of the candidates. A g o o d can d i d at es w i l l n o t yi el d , o n t h e co n t ra r y h e m a y s u bs t a n t i a t e w h y h e i s q u a l i f i e d t o h a n d l e t h e j o b .T h i s t y p e o f i n t e r v i e w i s borrowed from the Military organisation and this is very us eful to test behaviour of individuals when they are faced with disagree able and tr ying situations. 6) Group Interview It is des igned to s ave bu s y ex ecutives time and to s ee h o w t h e can d i d at es m a y b e b ro u gh t t o g et h er i n t h e em p l o ym e n t office and they may be interviewed. 7) Panel Interview A panel or interviewing board or selection committee may inter view the candidate, usuall y in the case of supervisor y and m an a ge ri al p o s i t i o n s . T h i s t yp e o f i n t erv i ew p o o l s t h e co l l ec t i ve judgment and wisdom of the panel in the assessment of the candidate and also in questioning the faculties of the candidate. 8) Sequential Interview : The sequential interview takes the one-to-one a step further and involves a series of interview, usually utilizing the strength and knowledgebase of each interviewer, so that each interviewer can ask

questions in relation to his or her subject area of each candidate, as the candidate moves from room to room. 9) Structures Interview : In a structured interview, the interviewer uses preset standardized questions, which are put to all the interviewees. This interview is also called as Guided or P atterned interview. It is useful fo r valid res ults , es pecial l y w hen dealin g w ith the lar ge n umb er of app licants .

1 0 ) Unstructured Interview: It is als o kn ow n as U npattern ed intervi ew , the interv iew is largel y unplanned and the interviewee does most of the talking. Unguided interview is advantageous in as much as it leads to a friendl y conversation between the interviewer and the interviewee and in the process, the later reveals more of his or her desire and problems. But the Unpatterned interview lacks uniformity and worse, this approach may o verlook k e y ar eas of the app licants s kills or back groun d. It is useful when the interviewer tries to probe personal details of the can d i d at e i t an al ys e w h y t h e y ar e n o t r i g h t fo r t h e j o b .

1 1 ) Mixed Interview: In practice, the interviewer while interviewing the job seekers uses a blend of structured and structured and unstructured questions. This appr oach is called the M ix ed Inter view . The s tru ctur ed qu es tions provide a base of interview more conventional and permit greater insights into the unique differences between applicants.

1 2 ) Impromptu Interviews: T h i s i n t erv i ew co m m o n l y o ccu rs w h en em p l o ye rs ar e ap p r o ach ed directl y and tends to be ver y inform al and unstructured. Applicants should be prepared at all times for on-the-spot interviews, especially i n s i t u a t i o n s s u c h a s a j o b f a i r o r a c o l d c a l l . It i s a n i d e a l t i m e f o r employers to ask the candidate som e basic questions to determine

whether he/she may be interested in formall y interviewing the candidate.

1 3 ) Dinner Interviews: These interviews may be structured, informal, or sociall y situated, such as in a restaurant. Decide what to eat quickl y, some interviewers

w i l l as k yo u t o o rd e r fi rs t (d o n o t ap p e ar i n d eci s i v e). A v o i d p o t en t i al l y mess y foods, such as spaghetti. Be prepared for the conversation tl y chan ge from friendl y chat to to abrup

direct interview questions, howeve

r, d o n o t u n d er es t i m at e t h e v al u e o f c as u al d i s cu s s i o n , s o m e em p l o ye r s place a great val ue on it. Be prepared to switch gears rapidl y, from fun talk to business talk.

1 4 ) Telephone Interviews : Have a cop y of your resume and an y poi nts you want to remember to say n ear b y. If yo u a re o n yo u r h o m e t el ep h o n e, m ak e s u r e t h at al l ro o m m at es or family members are aware of the interview (no loud stereos, bark ing d o gs etc. ). Sp eak a bit s low er than us ual. It is cru cial convey yo u r enthu siasm verball y, since that yo u

the interviewer cannot see y

o u r f ace. If t h er e ar e p au s es , d o n o t w o r r y; t h e i n t erv i ew er i s l i k el y j u s t t aking some notes.

S T EP 5 : SELECTION DECISION:After obtaining information through the preceding steps, selection decisio n- the most critical of all the steps- must be made. The other stages in the s election process hav e been used to narrow the number of the candidates. T he final decision has to be made the pool of individuals who pas the test s, interviews and reference checks. The view of the line manager will be generally considered in the final s

election because it is he/she who is responsible for the performance o f t h e n ew em p l o yee . T h e H R m an a g er p l a ys a cr u ci al r o l e i n t he fi n al s el e ction.

S T EP 6 : PHYSICAL EXAMINATION : -

After the selection decision and before the job offer is made, the candidate i s req u i red t o u n d e r go a p h ys i cal f i t n es s t es t . A j o b o ff er i s , o ft en , co n t i n g e n t u p o n t h e c a n d i d a t e b e i n g d e c l a r e d f i t a f t e r t h e p h ys i c a l e x a m i n a t i on. The results of the medical fitness test are recorded in a statement and a re p res erv ed in the p ers onn el reco rds . Th ere are s everal ob jectives b ehi n d a p h ys i cal t es t . O b v i o u s l y, o n e r eas o n fo r a p h ys i cal t es t i s t o d e tect if the individual carries an y infectious disease. S econdl y, the t e st assists in determining whether an applicant is physicall y fit to perfor m t h e w o rk . T h i rd l y, t h e p h ys i cal ex am i n at i o n i n fo rm at i o n ca n b e u s ed t o determine if there are certain ph ysical capabili ties, which differentiate su ccessful and less successful emplo yees . Fourth, medical check-up protec ts applicants with health defects from undertaking work that could be detri m en t al t o t h em o r m i gh t o t h er w i s e en d an g er t h e em p l o yer s p ro p er t y. F i n al l y, s u ch an ex am i n a t i o n will protect the em p l o ye r from w

orkers compensation claims that are not valid because the injuries or illness were present when the emplo yee w as hired.

S T EP 7 : J O B OF F E R : The next step in the selection process is job offer to those applicants w ho have crossed all the previous hurdles. Job offer is made through a lett er of appointed. S uch a letter generall y contains a date b y which the a p p o i n t ee m u s t r ep o r t o n d u t y. T h e ap p o i n t ee m u s t b e gi v en r eas o n ab l e t i

me for reporting. Thos is particularl y necessary when he or she is alread y i n em p l o ym en t , i n w h i ch cas e t h e ap p o i n t ee i s r eq u i r ed t o o b t ai n a relieving certifi cate from the previous employer. A gain, a new job ma y req u i re m o v em en t t o an o t h er ci t y, wh i ch m ean s co n s i d er a b l e p r ep a rat i o n , an d m o v em en t o f p ro p ert y. The compan y may also want the individu al to delay the date of reporting o n d u t y. If t h e n ew e m p l o yee s f i rs t j o b u p o n j o i n i n g t h e co m p an y i s t o g o on compan y until perhaps a week before such training begins. Natural l y, t h i s p r act i ce can n o t b e ab u s ed , es p ec i al l y i f t h e i nd i v i d u al i s u n em p loyed and does not have sufficient finances.

PROBLEMS IN EFFECTIVE SELECTION :

The main objective of selection is to hire people having competence and commitment. This objective s often defeated because of certain barriers. The impediments, which check effectiveness of selection, are perception, fai rn es s , v al i d i t y, rel i ab i l i t y an d p r es s u r e.

Percep tion : Our inability to understand others accurately is probably the most funda mental barrier to selecting the right candidate. S election demands an individual or a group of people to assess and compa re the respective competencies of others, with the aim of choosing t he ri ght persons for the jobs. But our views are hi ghl y personalized. W e al l p ercei v e t h e w o rl d d i f fe ren t l y. O u r l i m i t ed p ercep t u al ab i l i t y i s obviousl y a stumbling block to the objective and rational selection of the people.

Fairn es s : -

Fairness

in

selection

requires

that

no

individual

should

be discr

iminated against on the basis of religion, region, race or gender. But the l ow numbers of women and other less privileged sections of the society i n middle and senior management positions and open discrimination on the basis of age in job advertisements and in the selection process wou ld suggest that all the efforts to minimize inequit y have n ot been effec tive.

Validity: V al i d i t y, as ex p l ai n ed e arl i er , i s a t es t t h at h el ps p r e d i ct j o b performance of an incumbent. A test that has been validated can differenti ate between the emplo yees who perform well and those who will not. However, a validated test does not predict job success accu rat e l y. It c an o n l y i n cr eas e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u cces s .

Reliab ility: A reliable method is one, which will pro duce consistent results when rep eat ed i n s i m i l ar s i t u at i o n s . Li k e v al i d at ed t es t , a rel i ab l e t es t m a y fail to predict job performance with precision. Pres s u re: P ressure is brou ght on the selectors by politici ans, bureaucrats, relatives, friends and peers to select particular candidates. Candidates selected because of compulsions are obviously not the right ones. Appointments to pu blic sectors undertakings generally take place under such pressures .

INFOS YS
Work at In fosys: A f eel i n g o f en er g y an d v i t al i t y, o f f r es h n es s , o f a p l ace w h er e p eo p l e work in a campus like facility and culture, are unafraid to voice new i d eas , o f a p l ace w h er e t h er e i s m i n i m a l h i era rch y. R o b u s t p e o p l e m a n a g e m e n t p r a c t i c e s e n a b l e I n f o s ys t o c r e a t e t h i s en v i ro n m en t f o r i t s em p l o yees . T h i s i s wh at d i s t i n gu i s h es In fo s ys am o n g other technolo g y co mpanies , enab ling In fos cions to ex cel an d innov ate in w h at t h e y d o fo r t h ei r cl i en t s an d i n wh at t h e y s t an d fo r as a co m p an y.

Con tin u ou s learn ing: The spirit of learnabilit y among Infos ys peopl e and an organizational commitment to continuous personal and professional development keeps I n fo s ys at t h e fo r efr o n t i n a fas t - ch an gi n g i n d u s t r y. T h ei r f ra m ew o rk fo r c o n t i n u o u s l ear n i n g at In f os ys i s b u i l t aro u n d a n u m b e r o f fo cu s ed p r ograms for their employees. These range from major initiat ives such as th e In fo s ys Leaders hip In s t i t u t e to various on going management de

velopment and pers onal improvement programs. They complement a ho st of technolog y advancem ent and ongoing training options.

D e d i c a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r g r o u p s w i t h i n In f o s ys l e a d t h e s e i n i t i a t i v e s . In f o s ys i n v es t m en t in p eo p l e an d i n f ras t r u ct u r e t o b u i l d a h o l i s t i c l earn i n g framework demonstrates their commitment to continuous learning and building intellectual capital for their employees. This learning framework is continuously enhanced with new programs and the latest learnin g techniques - and close-knit coordination across these initiatives ensures that it meets the different learning need s of their emplo yees in specific are as o f t ech n o l o g y, m an a gem en t , l ead ers h i p , cu l t u ral an d co m m u n i ca t i o n skills, and other soft skills.

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

41

In fosys believes in an organ ization w ith less h ierarch y and faster d ecis ion -mak in g. I n ord er to mak e th at h app en , every I n fos cion n eeds to k n ow h ow th e organ ization w ork s , how d ecision are ma d e, an d w hat d rives I nfos ys . S o it is imp ortan t for I nfos ys to co mmu n icate th is to everyone" S. Gopalakrishnan Co-founder & Member of Board

Careers: In f o s ys h as a v i s i o n o f w h er e t h e y w an t t o go , an d i t ' s re al l y e x ci t i n g W i t h an an n u al co m p o u n d ed g ro w t h rat e o f aro u n d 6 0 % i n t h e l as t 5 ye ars , an d b ran ch es acro s s t h e w o rl d , In fo s ys i s fo r gi n g ah ead i n t h e gl o b al m ark et . T o ach i ev e t h ei r v i s i o n , t h e y ar e al w a ys l o o k i n g o u t fo r t al en t ed , l earnable individuals who are ambitious, who love challenges and who have a pas s ion to ex cel! T o w ard s t h i s o b j ect i v e, In fo s ys p art i ci p at es i n cam p u s h i ri n g p ro gr am s a n d a l s o c o n d u c t s a n u m b e r o f o f f - c a m p u s i n i t i a t i v e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r.

Infosys in th e sp otligh t:

I n 2 0 0 5 , C o m p u t e r w o r l d m a g a z i n e , w h i l e r a n k i n g I n f o s ys a m o n g t h e 1 0 0 bes t places to w ork in IT, placed it at the ver y top of the lis t of bes t places for education and training. In its M arch 2006 i ssue, Fortune magaz ine stepped inside the gates of In fo s ys an d emer ged w ith the impres s ion that gainin g admis s ion to the Taj Mahal of training centers is harder than getting into Harvard.

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SOURCES ON MAN POWER SUPPLY:


I N T ER N A L :
In f o s ys u p gr ad es f ro m w i t h i n o n l y f o r m an a g eri a l p o s i t i o n s , b u t o n l y t o some extent. Becaus e upgrading from wi thin is considered better as the employee is alread y famili ar with the organization, reduces tr aining cost, h el p s i n b u i l d i n g m o ral e an d p ro m o t es l o ya l t y. If no one capable for managerial position is found in its internal source, it l ooks ou t fo r ex tern al s ources . It s elects onl y the bes t emplo yee for the o rganizat ion

TYPES:

Former E mp loyees The y ask the retired employees who are willing to work on a part-time basis, individuals who left work and are willing to come back for higher compensations. Even retrenched employees are taken up once again. Retirements : If its not able to find suitable candidates in place of the one who had retired, after meritorious service. Under the circumstances,

management decides to call retired managers with new extension. Internal notification (advertisement) : Most em p l o yees know from their own experience about the

requirement of the job and what sort of person the compan y is looking for. Often emplo yees have friends or acquaint ances who meet these requirements. Suitable persons are appointed at the vacant posts.

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EXTERNAL:

For the posts of technicians, engineers, floor managers etc, it looks out f o r e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s w h i c h i n c l u d e .A g e n c i e s : T A P L In s t i t u t i o n s : Li k e B S ch o o l s , co l l eges , M an a gem en t In s t i t u t es , et c. Websites: www.indiatimesjob.com www.monster.com www.naukri.com O f t h e a b o v e t h r e e w e b s i t e s g i v e n m o s t w i d e l y u s e d b y t h e I n f o s ys i s t h e w ww.monster.com with the success rate of 80% followed by w

ww.indiatimesjob.co m at 60% and www.naukri.com at the success rate of 5 0 % .E x t e r n a l r e c r u i t m e n t e n a b l e s t h e c o m p a n y t o g e t t h e b e s t c a n d i d a t e . In f o s ys p re fer s ex t er n al r ecru i t m en t an d m ai n l y t ak es h el p fr o m a gen ci es and institutions as its a giant compan y and internal recruitm ent proves to be inadequate as its yearl y targets are very hi gh.

Recruitment Targets for Infosys:


Year N o. of emp loyees (p er y ear)

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

10000 11000 13000 15000 18000 25000

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C A MP U S:
Campus recruitment is so much sought after that each college; univer sity department or institute will have a placement officer to handle recru itment functions. recruiting process However, it is often an expensive proces s, produces job offers even if

an d acc ep t an ces e v en t u al l y. A

majori t y l eave the organization within the first five years of their emplo y ment. Yet, it is a major source of recrui tm ent for pres tigiou s companies . In f o s ys i s t h e co m p an y o f ch o i ce fo r ca m p u s re cru i t m en t p r o g r am s i n m o s t major engineering institutes such as IITs, RECs etc. and at premier mana gement institutes such as the IIMs.

Engineering Institutes: C am pus hi ri n g at en gi n eer i n g i ns t i t ut es typ i cal l y s t art s i n M ay and cont i n u es t h ro u gh S ep t em b er. S en i o r m an a g er s an d o ffi cers f ro m In f o s ys act i v el y p articip ate in this hiring, to brin g o n board the nex t gen eration of b ri gh t , yo u n g an d t al en t e d l ead er s fo r t h e co m p an y. W e en co u r a g e cu rr en t s t u dents at the campuses we visit to use this opportunit y to interact with th e In fo s ys r ecr u i t m en t t eam s d u ri n g t h e h i ri n g p r o c es s t o u n d e rs t an d t he compan y and our people philosophy. We hire engineering graduates and post- graduates from all disciplines, and MCA students at the campuses. Management Institutes: Campus hiring at management institutes typicall y starts n December and c ontinues through March. We hire management graduates from all discipli

nes, with or without prior work experience in software or other fields. All a pplications are pre-s creened based on academic credentials. Short-listed can didates are usually invited for an interview as part of the selection process .

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OFF CAMPUS: It is the event for th os e can didates w ho do not get s elected durin g campus recru it m ent. The process remains the same; it just aims at giving t hose candidates a cha nce that were not able to go through the process before. These candidates also go through the same two rounds, here onl y the scale and basis on which they are eva luated chan ges.

ADVERTISEMENTS:It is a po pular meth od of s eekin g recru its , as man y recruit ers p refer ad ver tisements because of their wide reach.

Infosys advertises in: NEWS PA PERS : T i m e s of India T h e economic times I n d i a n express H i n d u s t a n times T h e financial express E m p l o y m e n t papers MAGA ZINES: B u s i n e s s world B u s i n e s s Today I n d i a Today c a p i t a l market B u s i n e s s journals I T magazines C o m p u t e r and technical journals RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 46

WEB: www.infosys.com www.indiatimesjob.com www.monster.com www.naukri.com

Advertisements contain proper information like the job content, working condition s, location of job, compensation includi ng fringe benefits, job specificat ions, grow th aspects, etc. The advertisement sells the idea that the compan y and job are perfect for the can di date.

THE SELECTION PROCESS OF INFOSYS:


Steps: 1. Initial screening of interviews:
Initial Screening is done on the basis of applicants and applications. A preliminary interview is con du cted s o as to s el ect the s uitable can didate w ho can go th r ough further stages of interviews. Normally for the posts of engineers degree cutof f is decided like say 60% on an average. If the candidates do not meet the require m e n t t h e y a r e r e j e c t e d .A n d f o r h i g h e r p o s t s a p p l i c a t i o n s a n d a p p l i c a n t s b o t h p l a y a major role in the screening process.

2. C o mp letion of ap p lication forms : Application form establishes the candidates general details like name, address, tel ephone number, education, job- related training, work- experience with dates, c ompan y names, and job details, professional or industrial invo lvement, hobbies and rec re at i o n a l p u rs u i t s . T h e co m p an y es t ab l i s h es as m an y h yp o t h es es ab o u t t h e can d i 47 RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

date from the details prov ided in the ap pl ication form. It th en decides wh at areas o f infor mation it need s to ex plore or inv es tigat e mor e specifi call y du rin g the int er view. Compan y sees to it that no judgment is passed about the candidate based o n l y at t h i s l ev el . W h at draw n h er e i s h yp o t h es es an d n o t co n cl u s i o n s . A p p l i c ation forms are such framed that, they provide the necessary details to the or ganisation without affecting the sentiments and feelings of the candidate.

3. Employment tests:
log ical t es t English test Vocabulary Reasoning Essay writing

VARIOUS TESTS:

Mental or intelligence tests : They measure the overall intellectual ability of a person and enable to know w h ether th e pers on h as the men tal abili t y to deal w ith certain problems. Mechanical aptitude tests : The y measure the abilit y of a person to learn a particul ar t ype of mechanical work. These tests helps to measure specialized technical knowledge and problem solving abilit ies if the candidate. They are useful in s election of mechanics , engin eers , etc. Intelligence test : This test helps to evaluate traits of intelligence. M ental ability, presence o f m i n d (al ert n es s ), n u m eri c al ab i l i t y, m em o r y an d s u ch o t he r as p ect s can be meas ured. It is taken to jud ge nu merical, s kills , reas onin g, memor y an d such other abilities. Personality Test : RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 48

It is condu cted to judge matu rit y, s ocial or interp ers on al s kills , behavior under s tres s and s tr ain, etc. this tes t is ver y much es s ential on cas e o f s election of s ales fo rce, public relation s taff, etc. w here pers o nalit y pl ays an important role.

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Graphology Test : It i s d es i g n ed t o an al ys e t h e h an d w ri t i n g o f i n d i v i d u al . It h as b e en s ai d t h at an i n d i v i d u a l s h an d w r i t i n g can s u g g es t t h e d e gr ee o f en er g y, inhibition and s pon taneit y, as well as dis clos e the idios yn cras ies and elements of balance and control. For example, big letters and emphasis on capital letters indicate a tendency towards domination and

competi tiveness. A slant to the ri ght, moderate pressure and good legibil it y show leadership potential. Medical Test: It r ev eal s p h ys i cal fi t n es s o f a can d i d at e. M ed i cal s erv i ci n g h el p s m eas u re an d m o n i t o r a c an d i d at es p h ys i cal r es i l i en c e u p o n ex p o s u re b u s i n es s hazards.

4.

Interview:
Formal Interview : Interviews are held in the em p l o ym en t office in a more formal

atmosphere, with the help of well structured questions.

Patterned Interview : A patterned interview is also a planned interview, but it is more carefull y pre-planned to a high degree of accurac y, precision and exactitude. With the help of job and man specifications, a list of questions and areas are carefully prepared which will act as the interviewers guide.

Non-directive Interview : Here the interviewee is allowed to speak his mind freel y. The interviewer has no formal or directive questions, but his all attention is to the candidate. He encourages the candidate to talk by a little prodding

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w h en ev er h e i s s i l en t e. g . M r. R a y, p l eas e t el l u s ab o u t y o u rs el f aft e r youre graduated from high school. The idea is to give the candidate complete freedom to sel l himself, without the encumbrances of the interviewers question.

Depth Interview : It is des i gn ed to intens el y ex amine th e candid ates b ack groun d and thinking and to go i nto considerable det ail on particular subjects of an important nature and of special interest to the candidates. For example, if t h e can d i d at e s a ys t h at h e i s i nt eres t ed i n t en n i s , a s eri es o f q u es t i o n s m a y be asked to test the depth of understandin g and interest of the candidate.

Stress Interview : It is d es ign ed to tes t the cand idate and h is condu ct and b ehav ior b y him under conditions of s tress and strain. The interviewer may start with Mr. J oseph, we do not think your qualificat ions and experience are adequate for this position, and watch the reaction of the candidates. A good candidates will not yield, on the contrar y he ma y substantiat e wh y he is qualified to handle the job. W hat IN FO S YS practice is that if interview is planned at 5pm, it w ill start candidates interview at 6.30pm and watch the candidates behavior and stress level.

Panel Interview : A panel or interviewing board or selection committee interviews the candidate, usuall y in the case of supervisor y and managerial positions.

Mixed Interview : In practice, the interviewer while inter viewing the job seekers uses a blend of structured and structured an d unstructured questions. This approach is called the Mixed interview. The structured questions provide a

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base of interview more conventional and permit greater insights into the unique differences between applicants. Second Interviews: J ob seekers are invited back after they have passed the first initial interview. Middle or senior managemen t generally conducts the second i n t erv i ew , t o g et h e r o r s ep arat el y. M o r e i n - d ep t h q u es t i o n s are as k ed t o t h e candidate and the employer expects a greater level of preparation on the part of the candidates. 6. Ph ys ical Examin ation : After the s election decision and befo re the job offer is made, the can d i d at e i s r eq u i re d t o u n d er go a p h ys i cal fi t n es s t es t . A j o b o f fer i s , o ft en , d ep en d s u p o n t h e can d i d at e b ei n g d ecl a red fi t aft e r t h e p h ys i cal examination. The results of the medical fitness test are recorded in a statement and are preserved in the personnel records. Th ere are s everal o b jectiv es b eh ind a ph ys ical tes t: 1 . O n e r e a s o n f o r a p h ys i c a l t e s t i s t o d e t e c t i f t h e i n d i v i d u a l carries an y infectious disease. 2 . S eco n d l y, t h e t es t as s i s t s i n d et erm i n in g wh et h er an ap p l i c an t is physicall y fit to perform the work.

3 . T h i rd l y, t h e p h ys i cal ex am i n at i o n i n fo rm at i o n can b e u s ed t o d etermine if there are certain ph ysical capabili ties, which dif ferenti ate successful and less successful employees. 4. Fourth, medical check-up protects applicants with health d efects from undertaking work that could be detrimental to th em o r m i gh t o t h er w i s e en d an g er t h e em p l o yer s p r o p ert y. 5 . F i n al l y, s u ch an ex am i n a t i on w i ll p ro t ect t h e em p l o yer f r o m workers compensation claims that are not valid because the i njuries or illness were present when the employee w as hired.

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Conclusion:
The hum an element of or ganization is the most crucial asset of an organi zation. Taking a closer perspective -it is the very quality of this asset th at sets an organization apart from the others, the ver y element that brings the organizations vision into fruition. Thus , one can gras p the s trategic implications that the man po wer of an o rg anization has in shaping the fortunes of an organization. This is where th e complementary roles of Recruitment and Selection come in. The role of these aspects in the contemporar y or ganization is a subject on which t he experts have pon dered, deliberated and studied, considering the vital r o l e t h at t h e y o b v i o u s l y p l a y. The essence of recruitment can be summed up as the philosophy of attract ing as man y ap plican ts as pos s ible for g iven jobs . The face value o f this d efi n i t i o n i s wh at gu i d ed re cru i t m en t act i v i t i es i n t h e p as t . T h es e d a ys , however, the emph asis is on alignin g the organizat ions objectives w i t h t h at o f t h e i n d i v i d u al s . B y m ak i n g t h i s a p ri o ri t y, an o r g an i z at i o n s af eguards its interests and standing. After all, a satisfied workforce is a st able workforce which also ensures that an organization has credible and r eliable performance. Ina bid to underscore this subtle point, the project examines the various processes and nuances one of the most critical activi ties of an organization. The end result of the recruitment process is essentially a pool of applic ants. Next to recruitm ent, the logical step in the HR process is the selectio n of qualified and competent people. As such, this proces s concentrat es on differentiating between applicants in order

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to identify and hire- those individuals whose abilities are consist ent with the organizations requiremen ts. The reader will do well to note that the transition between the 2 activiti es i s n o t s t ri n g en t . T h e 2 act i v i t i es b as ical l y h av e o n e ai m - t o yi el d a p e rf e c t e m p l o y e e f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n .N o r a r e t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s t y p e c a s t . E v e r y organization tailors the processes keeping in mind the nature of the or g a n i z a t i o n , i t s n e e d s a n d c o n s t r a i n t s .I n t h i s p r o j e c t , w e e x a m i n e t h i s a n g l e through the case studies of 2 companies, involved in the same sector but es s entiall y dif f er ent in their per ceptions t ow ard s recruitment and s election . And both seem to have benefited from their take on the 2 pro cesses. In the end, this project endeavors to present a comprehensive picture of Recruitm ent an d S election and hop es t o enable the r eader to appr eciate t he various intricacies involved.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

NEW S PA PER S : T IM ES O F IN D IA TH E ECO N O M IC T IM ES

MA G A ZINES : BU S IN ESS W O R LD BU S IN ESS TO D AY IN D IA TO D A Y

W EB: www.google.com www.soople.com w w w . i n f o s ys . c o m www.learningmate.com

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TYBMS

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