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proportioning following

IS 10262:2009

M.C. Nataraja and Lelin Das

The BIS code IS 10262 on concrete mix design has

been revised and published in December 2009. The

new code is in line with ACI 211 method and provides

provisions for concrete proportioning with mineral and

chemical admixtures. Design of pumpable concrete is

also included in the revision. The concrete mix design

methods practiced in countries such as Britain, India

and USA are based on similar principles and substantial

experiments with locally available materials. Therefore,

the procedures are more or less same with minor

differences. Here is an attempt to present a few mix

designs following IS 10262:2009 that were tested in the

laboratory. The mixes were modifed from the point of

economy while satisfying the design requirements.

Keywords: Aggregates, cement, sand, workability, MSA,

w/c ratio, mix proportioning.

Concrete mix design is a process of specifying the mixture

of ingredients required to meet anticipated properties of

fresh and hardened concrete. Proportioning ingredients

in a concrete mix is a well-established practice around

the world with many countries having their own

methods for doing so.

1-7

Such methods are developed

based on empirical relations, charts, graphs, and tables

developed as outcomes of extensive experiments and

investigations with locally available materials. The

method development therefore is based on trial and

error principles. Some of the well-known concrete mix

design methods are: ACI Mix Design Method, USBR

Mix design practice, British Mix design Method, and

BIS Recommended guidelines. The scope of this study

is to compare the BIS and ACI recommended mix design

guidelines. The major difference in the two codes are

for calculating the aggregates content, cement content,

and water cement (w/c) ratio. In the ACI method,

sand content is calculated after calculating the coarse

aggregate content. In the old BIS method, the process

was the other way around. The order of calculating the

coarse aggregate in the new BIS code is now similar to

the ACI method.

8-11

The results show that old BIS method consumes more

cement when generalised w/c curve is used. Providing

for extra cement is understandable considering the

quality of cement available in the past when the code

was introduced. In addition, availability of limited

research data on cement and concrete at that time would

have dissuaded code writers from experimenting with

reduced cement content.

The w/c ratio is higher in the ACI mix than that in the

old BIS mix.

THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL JANUARY 2011 12

Although, sand content decreases as the strength

requirement increases in both codes, it is lower in the

old BIS mix design than in the ACI mix design.

To form the basis for a mix design, it is important to

develop the w/c curve for the materials actually to be

used rather than arbitrarily using any available curve.

However, in the absence of such data, to start with, the

w/c ratio to be assumed can be based on such available

relationship as already established. Table 5 of IS 456:2000

can also be referred to select the w /c ratio for the frst

trial mix.

12

However, this table gives the limiting value

of w/c ratio based on the exposure condition; therefore,

a suitable lower value should be selected based on the

experience of the mix designer. In other words, one

should be careful in selecting the w/c ratio. Depending

on the frst assumed w/c ratio, the cement content will

vary substantially. For designing M20 concrete for mild

exposure, one can assume w/c as 0.5 or 0.55 to start with,

and with this cement content also changes. Table 1

illustrates the basic data used in the two codes.

Table 1. Basic data used in new BIS and ACI mix

design methods

Parameter BIS

Method

New

ACI

Method

Characteristic compressive strength at 28

days

yes yes

Standard deviation of compressive strength yes yes

Degree of workability Slump Slump

Type and maximum size of aggregates yes yes

Nominal maximum size of coarse aggregates

(NMSA)

yes yes

Dry rodded unit weight of coarse aggregates

(DRUW)

no yes

Fine aggregates (sand) Fineness

modulus

(FM)

Fineness

modulus

(FM)

Specifc gravity of cement, coarse and fne

aggregates

yes yes

Water absorption and moisture content

adjustment

yes yes

Type of construction yes yes

Exposure condition yes yes

Air/Non-air entrainment no yes

Superplasticiser, mineral admixtures yes yes

Salient feature of new BIS approach

(IS 10262:2009)

Table 1 shows that the basic data required in the new

BIS method is very similar to that of the ACI method

of mix design. The new BIS is applicable to ordinary

and standard concrete grades only. The durability

requirements, limitations on w/c ratio and maximum

cement contents are as per IS 456:2000. The requirements

for selecting of w/c ratio, water content and estimations

of coarse aggregate content and fne aggregate content

have been reviewed and modifed. Since the air content

in normal (non-air entrained) concrete is not of much

signifcance and is not a part of IS 456:2000, considering

air content is not in the new procedure.

The BIS method (IS 10262:2009)

This standard provides the guidelines for proportioning

concrete mixes as per the requirements using the concrete

making materials including other supplementary

materials identifed for this purpose. The proportioning

is carried out to achieve specified characteristics

at specified age, workability of fresh concrete and

durability requirements.

Data for mix proportioning

The following data are required for mix proportioning

of a particular grade of concrete:

Grade designation

Type of cement

Maximum nominal size of aggregate (MNSA)

Minimum cement content

Maximum water cement ratio

Workability

Exposure conditions as per Table 4 and Table 5

of IS 456:2000

Maximum temperature of concrete at the time

of placing

Method of transporting and placing

Early age strength requirements, if required

Type of aggregate

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

13 JANUARY 2011 THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL

Maximum cement content and

Whether an admixture is, or is not, to be used and

the type of admixture and the condition of use.

Steps for proportioning

The target average compressive strength ( f

ck

) at 28 days

is determined by using equation 1

f

ck

= f

ck

+k s ......(1)

where,

f

ck

= characteristic compressive strength at 28 days,

s = standard deviation of compressive strength,

t = a statistic, depending upon the accepted proportion of

low results and the number of tests and is taken as 1.65.

The standard deviation is to be established separately

based on the strength data. When suffcient test results

for a particular grade of concrete are not available, the

value of standard deviation given in Table 1 of the

code or from IS 456:2000 may be assumed in the frst

instance.

Selecting individual parameters of mix

proportion

Selecting water cement ratio

The relationship between strength and free water

cement ratio should preferably be established for the

materials actually to be used. In the absence of such

data, the preliminary free water cement ratio by mass

corresponding to the target strength at 28 days may be

selected from the established relationship, if available.

Otherwise, the water cement ratio given in Table 5 of

IS 456:2000 for respective environment exposure

condition may be used as a starting point. The free

water-cement ratio selected should be checked against

the limiting water cement ratio for the requirement of

durability and the lower of the two values should be

adopted.

Note: The supplementary cementitious materials or

mineral admixtures shall also be considered in water

cement ratio calculations in accordance with Table 5 of

IS 456:2000.

Selecting water content

The quantity of maximum mixing water per unit

volume of concrete may be determined from Table 2

of IS 10262:2009. The water content shown there is for

angular coarse aggregate and for 25-50 mm slump range.

It should be adjusted for other conditions such as change

12.

13.

in slump, type of aggregate and use of admixtures as

explained in the code.

Calculating cementitious material content

The cement and supplementary cementitious material

content per unit volume of concrete may be calculated

from the free water cement ratio and the quantity of

water per unit volume of concrete. The cementitious

material content should be checked against the

minimum requirements for durability and the greater of

the two values should be adopted. The maximum cement

content should be in accordance with IS 456:2000.

Estimating coarse aggregate proportion

The approximate values for coarse aggregate volume

are given in Table 3 of IS 10262 for a water cement ratio

of 0.5, which may be suitably adjusted for other water

cement ratios. For producing a more workable concrete

that can fow around congested reinforcing steel, it may

be desirable to reduce the estimated coarse aggregate

content.

Combining different coarse aggregate

fractions

The coarse aggregate used must conform to IS 383.

Coarse aggregates of different sizes may be combined

in suitable proportions to result in an overall grading

conforming to Table 2 of IS 383 for a particular nominal

maximum size of aggregate.

Estimating fne aggregate proportion

The coarse and fne aggregate contents are determined

by fnding out the absolute volume of cementitious

materials, water and the chemical admixture; by

dividing their masses by their respective specifc gravity,

multiplying by 1/1000 and subtracting the result of their

summation from unit volume. The values so obtained

are divided into coarse and fne aggregate fractions by

volume in accordance with coarse aggregate proportions

already determined earlier. The coarse and fne aggregate

contents are then determined by multiplying with their

respective specifc gravities and multiplying by 1000.

Trial mixes

The calculated mix proportions is required to be checked

in trial batches. Workability of the Trial mix No. 1 should

be measured. The mix must be carefully observed to

ensure that it is free from segregation and bleeding. If

the measured workability is different from the stipulated

value, the water and/or admixture content should be

adjusted. With the adjustment, the mix proportions is

THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL JANUARY 2011 14

recalculated keeping the free water cement ratio at the

preselected value, in trial mix Number 2.

In addition, two more trial mixes Number 3 and Number

4 are made with the water content same as trial Number

2 and varying the free water cement ratio by 10 percent

of the preselected value

Mix Numbers 3 and 4 should normally provide suffcient

information including the relationship between

compressive strength and water cement ratio, from

which the mix proportions for feld may be arrived.

The concrete for feld trials can then be made for actual

production.

ACI Method

In 1991, the American Concrete Institute (ACI) published

its guidelines for normal, heavyweight and mass

concrete mix design.

8

Now the Absolute Volume Method

of mix design as described by the ACI Method and the

design steps for mix proportioning as recommended by

ACI Committee 211 are discussed:

13

1. The required (target) average compressive

strength (f

cr

) at 28 days for mix design is

determined by adding up an empirical factor (k)

to the design compressive strength (fc ) as per

equation 4:

f

cr

= f

c

+ k ......(4)

2. The w/c ratio is selected based on the target

strength and the type of concrete (air-entrained

or non air-entrained).

3. Air content, as percentage of the concrete volume,

is estimated depending upon the air-entrained

or non-air-entrained type of concrete, exposure

conditions, and NMSA.

4. Slump, as measure of workability, is selected

depending upon the type of structure and

complexity of the pouring conditions.

5. Water content, is determined based on the

NMSA, type of concrete (air-entrained or non-

air entrained), and specifed slump. Then it is

adjusted for the types of aggregates.

6. Cement content is calculated based on the w/c

ratio and the water content.

7. Coarse aggregates content, as dry rodded

bulk (percentage) of concrete unit volume, is

determined based on the NMSA, and the fneness

modulus of sand.

8. Once the water content, cement content, air

content, and the coarse aggregate content per unit

volume of the concrete is determined, the fne

aggregate (F

agg

) is calculated by subtracting the

absolute volume of the known ingredients from

unit volume of the fresh concrete (in this case,

1 m

3

) as following:

F

agg

=1- Y ......(5)

where, Y = sum of all other ingredients (air, water,

cement and coarse aggregates) in cubic meter

calculated for 1 m

3

of concrete.

9. Finally, water content is adjusted based on the

absorption and the current moisture content of the

coarse and fne aggregates, in account of saturated

surface dry condition of the aggregates.

Similarities between BIS and ACI mix

design process

Both the methods are based on the empirical relations,

which are derived from extensive experiments done

with the locally available materials. Thus, both

methods extensively use tables and graphs during the

design process and follow logical determination of

the ingredients by establishing the targeted strength

for trial batch. Trial batch strength is derived from the

required design strength of the structural concrete and

the statistical analysis to ensure that the mix design

meets or exceeds the design strength. Once the target

strength is established, both methods advance the

process by determining the w/c ratio. It is common

in both the cases that the cement content is calculated

based on the relationships of two parameters: the w/c

ratio and the cement content both derived separately

and independently. These two parameters are checked

against the limiting values in order to ensure the

durability conditions.

Differences between BIS and ACI mix

design process

The following are the major differences between the two

design methods.

Target strength: The BIS method uses equation 1 but

the ACI method uses equation 2 to determine the

target average compressive strength. Although both

the methods utilize the standard deviation to calculate

the target strength, there is a difference in the technique

15 JANUARY 2011 THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL

of calculation. When suffcient data are not available

to establish standard deviation, the ACI method

recommends use of empirical values to determine the

target strength, whereas the old BIS method suggests that

the value of standard deviation be based on the quality

control. In the new BIS method, standard deviation is

to be calculated separately for each grade of concrete

and the procedure for the same is discussed. When

suffcient test results for a particular grade of concrete

are not available, the value of standard deviation given

in Table 1 of the code is assumed for the frst trial mix.

Measure of workability: The old BIS method uses the

compacting factor as a measure of workability, whereas

new BIS and ACI use the slump.

Water to cement (w/c) ratio : In the ACI method, w/c ratio

is determined in combination with the target strength

and the type of concrete (air/non-air entrainment).

Although, old BIS discusses the air entrainment, the

selection of w/c ratio in this method is a sole function of

target strength. Curves for w/c are available for different

cements based in their strengths. Generalised w/c

curve is also proposed. However the new BIS suggests

developing w/c curve based on the type of materials

used in the project or using the w/c values given in

IS 456:2000 based on durability conditions to start

with.

Water content: The old BIS method determines the water

content based on target strength, type of aggregates,

NMSA and compacting factor. Accordingly, tables are

given for medium and high strength concretes. In the

case of the ACI method, water content is dependent on

air-entrainment, types of aggregates, slump, and NMSA.

Therefore, unlike old BIS method, water content can be

determined independent of target strength. However,

the new BIS is similar to ACI method wherein a table

for maximum water content per cubic meter of concrete

for nominal maximum size of aggregate (Clauses 42, A-5

and B-5) is given.

Coarse and fne aggregate content: In the ACI method,

coarse aggregate content is determined without knowing

the absolute volume of fne aggregates. Contrary to the

ACI method, the old BIS method determines the fne

aggregate content, as a percentage of total aggregate

by absolute volume first, and the coarse aggregate

content is determined once the proportion of all other

ingredients are known. In this method, sand grading

zones are used as a governing parameter for sand

content determination, whereas the fneness modulus is

used in the ACI method for selecting the bulk volume of

dry rodded coarse aggregate. The old BIS method does

not utilize the fneness modulus and dry rodded unit

weight of aggregates. However, the new BIS has the

same procedure as the ACI method, wherein the volume

of coarse aggregate per unit volume of total aggregate

for different zones of fne aggregate (Clause 4.4 and A-7)

is calculated based on maximum size of aggregate.

Previous work on proportioning of normal and high

strength concrete using the provisions of draft code

IS 10262 and other methods using cement as well as

supplementary cementitious materials are published

elsewhere.

6,7

Numerical example of the mix design

Design of M20 concrete mix as per IS 10262:2009,

Concrete mix proportioning guidelines (First

revision)

A-1 Design stipulations for proportioning

i. Grade designation : M20

ii. Type of cement : OPC 43 grade confrming to

IS 8112

iii. Maximum nominal size of aggregates : 20 mm

iv. Minimum cement content : 320 kg/m

3

v. Maximum water cement ratio : 0.55

vi. Workability : 75 mm (slump)

vii. Exposure condition : Mild

viii. Degree of supervision : Good

ix. Type of aggregate : Crushed angular aggregate

x. Maximum cement content : 450 kg/m

3

xi. Chemical admixture : Not recommended

A-2 Test data for materials

i. Cement used : OPC 43 grade confrming to IS 8112

ii. Specifc gravity of cement : 3.15

iii. Specifc gravity of

i. Coarse aggregate : 2.68

ii. Fine aggregate : 2.65

iv. Water absorption

i. Coarse aggregate : 0.6 percent

ii. Fine aggregate : 1.0 percent

v. Free (surface) moisture

i. Coarse aggregate : Nil (absorbed moisture full)

ii. Fine aggregate : Nil

vi. Sieve analysis

i. Coarse aggregate: Conforming to Table 2 of IS 383

ii. Fine aggregate: Conforming to Zone I of IS 383

THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL JANUARY 2011 16

A-3 Target strength for mix proportioning

It is given by f'

ck

= f'

ck

+ 1.65 s = 20 + 1.65 x 4 = 26.60

N/mm

2

A-4 Selection of water cement ratio

From Table 5 of IS 456:2000, maximum water cement

ratio = 0.55 (Mild exposure)

Based on experience adopt water cement ratio as 0.50

which is less than 0.55 from durability and hence ok.

A-5 Selection of water content

From Table 2, maximum water content = 186 litres

(for 25 mm 50 mm slump range and for 20 mm

aggregates)

Estimated water content for 75 mm slump = 186 + 3/100

x 186 = 191.6 liters

A-6 Calculation of cement content

Water cement ratio = 0.50

Cement content = 191.6/0.5 = 383 kg/m

3

>

320 kg/m

3

(given)

From Table 5 of IS: 456, minimum cement content for

mild exposure condition = 300 kg/m

3

Hence OK.

A-7 Proportion of volume of coarse aggregate and

fne aggregate content

From Table 3, volume of coarse aggregate corresponding

to 20 mm size aggregate and fne aggregate (Zone I) for

water-cement ratio of 0.50 =0.60

A-8 Mix calculations

The mix calculations per unit volume of concrete shall

be as follows:

Volume of concrete = 1 m

3

Volume of cement = [383.16/3.15] x[1/1000] =0.122 m

3

Volume of water = [192/1] x [1/1000] = 0.192 m

3

Volume of all in aggregates (e) = a (b + c)

= 1 (0.122 + 0.192) = 0.686 m

3

Volume of coarse aggregates

= e x Volume of CA x specifc gravity of CA

= 0.686 x 0.6 x 2.68 x 1000 = 1103 kg

Volume of fne aggregates

= e x Volume of FA x specifc gravity of FA

= 0.686 x 0.4 x 2.65 x 1000 = 727 kg

A-9 Mix proportions for trial number 1

Cement = 383 kg/m

3

Water = 191.6 kg/m

3

Fine aggregate = 727 kg/m

3

Coarse aggregates = 1103 kg/m

3

Water cement ratio = 0.50

Yield =2404.6 kg

Aggregates are used in SSD condition.

Trial mixes

Laboratory results: Slump and compacting factor of the

above mix when tested in laboratory were 90 mm and

0.93 respectively. The slump was slightly more than the

required and hence the mix was accepted without any

modifcation to reduce slump. Six concrete cubes were

cast for compression testing at 7 and 28 days. As per BIS,

two more mixes were worked out having variation of

10 percent of water cement ratio, and keeping water

content constant. All three mixes are presented in Table 2

and the workability results along with 7 and 28-day

results are presented in Table 3.

As mentioned in the code, a graph using these three

water cement ratios and their corresponding strengths

was plotted to work out the mix proportions for the

given target strength for feld application. This is shown

in Figure 1. However, durability requirements was to

be kept in mind. All the three mixes resulted in desired

workability but more strength than required. Here w/c

ratio based on durability requirements controlled the

fnal mix.

Table 3. Workability and compressive strength results

Trial Water /

cement

ratio

Slump

mm

Comp-

acting

factor

7-day

strength

28-day

strength

Obser-

vation

1 0.50 90 0.93 29.6 40.7 Cohesive

mix

2 0.45 70 0.91 34.2 47.6 Cohesive

mix

3 0.55 100 0.91 23.8 34.2 Cohesive

mix

Table 2. Proportions per cubic meter of concrete

Trial Water,

kg

Cement,

kg

Water /

cement,

ratio

Fine

aggregate,

kg

Coarse

aggregate,

kg

Yield,

kg

1 191.6 383 0.50 727 1103 2405

2 191.6 426 0.45 713 1082 2413

3 191.6 348 0.55 739 1121 2400

17 JANUARY 2011 THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL

The compressive strength of the trial mix 1 was

signifcantly more than required and hence uneconomical.

This was due to high cement content and use of high

strength cement. The strength of trial mix II is still higher.

The strength of trial Mix III at 28 days was still slightly

higher than required, having a slightly higher slump.

At this stage of design, as the trial Mix III satisfes all

the requirements, it can be used in the feld. Though

this mix satisfes all requirements, it was found to be

uneconomical as plasticisers and mineral admixtures

were not used to reduce the cement content.

So, one more trial mix was designed to reduce the cement

content and using a locally available plasticiser. Five%

of water was reduced using only 0.5% plasticiser. The

proportion is presented in the Table 4. The strength and

workability results are shown in Table 5.

Table 4. Proportions per cubic metre of concrete

Trial Water

kg

Cement

kg

w/c

ratio

FA

kg

CA

kg

Yield

kg

1-S 180 327 0.55 1151 759 2417

Table 5. Workability and compressive strength results

Trial Water /

cement

ratio

Slump

mm

Comp-

acting

factor

7-day

strength

28-day

strength

Observ-

ation

1-S 0.55 60 0.89 21.6 30.2 Cohesive

mix

Here the strength at 28 days is slightly higher. However,

this mix has resulted in the desired strength and

workability consuming minimum cement. The cement

content is slightly more than the minimum suggested.

Hence, it can be regarded as the fnal design mix for

feld application. It is possible to reduce the cement

further if mineral admixtures such as fy ash or GGBFS

are permitted. This is not tried here. In any case, the

minimum cementitious material content should be

satisfed as required.

Design of M30 concrete mix as per

IS 10262:2009

A-1 Design stipulations for proportioning

1. Grade designation: M30

2. Type of cement: OPC 43 grade confrming to IS 8112

3. Maximum nominal size of aggregates: 20 mm

4. Minimum cement content : 350 kg/m

3

5. Maximum water cement ratio : 0.50

6. Workability : 25 - 50 mm (slump)

7. Exposure condition : Moderate

8. Degree of supervision : Good

9. Type of aggregate : Crushed angular aggregate

10. Maximum cement content : 450 kg/m

3

11. Chemical admixture : Not recommended

The target strength = 30 + 1.65 x 5 = 38.25 N/mm

2

The mix proportion for the trial No. 1 (frst mix) was

as follows.

Mix proportions for trial number 1

Cement = 413 kg/m

3

Water = 186 kg/m

3

Fine aggregate = 706 kg/m

3

Coarse aggregates = 1117 kg/m

3

Water cement ratio = 0.45

Yield =2422 kg

Laboratory results: The laboratory results are shown

in Table 6.

Table 6. Workability and compressive strength results

for M30 mix

Trial Water /

cement

ratio

Slump,

mm

Comp-

acting

factor

7-day

strength

28-day

strength

Observ-

ation

1-S 0.45 35 0.87 36.6 51.2 Cohesive

mix

THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL JANUARY 2011 18

Here the 28-day strength is substantially higher, though

has the desired workability. Hence trial mixes are

needed as explained in the previous design to economize

the mix. However, this is not attempted.

Design of M40 grade pumpable concrete as per

IS 10262:2009 for the following data

A-1 Design stipulations for proportioning

a) Grade designation : M40

b) Type of cement : OPC 43 grade confrming to

IS 8112

c) Maximum nominal size of aggregates : 20 mm,

angular

d) Minimum cement content : 350 kg/m

3

e) Maximum water cement ratio : 0.45

f) Workability : 120 mm (slump)

g) Exposure condition : Severe (for reinforced

concrete)

h) Method of concrete placing : Pumping

i) Degree of supervision : Good

j) Type of aggregate : Crushed angular aggregate

k) Maximum cement content : 450 kg/m

3

l) Chemical admixture type : Superplasticiser (1 % is

recommended to get 25% reduction of water, Sp. Gr.=

1.14)

Here the target strength = 40 + 1.65 x 5

= 48.25 N/mm

2

The mix proportion for the trial No. 1 (frst mix) was

as follows.

Cement = 370 kg/m

3

Water = 148 kg/m

3

Fine aggregate = 852 kg/m

3

Coarse aggregates = 1097 kg/m

3

Chemical admixture = 3.7 kg/m

3

Water cement ratio = 0.40

Yield of concrete = 2467 kg

Laboratory results

Aggregates are used in SSD condition. The workability

in terms of slump and compacting factor were 80 mm

and 0.92 respectively. The compressive strength of

the concrete based on 28-day cube test is presented in

Table 7.

Table 7. Workability and compressive strength results

for M40 mix

Trial w/c

ratio

Slump

mm

Comp-

acting

factor

7-day

strength

28-day

strength

Observ-

ation

1-S-40 0.40

SP=1%

80 0.92 38.2 55.5 Cohesive

mix

Here the slump is less compared to the required slump

of 120 mm. Hence the SP dosage was increased, to get

the desired workability. The 28-day strength is 55.5 MPa

as against the required strength of 48.25 MPa.

Suggestion: Increase the water content marginally such

that w/c = 0.42. Doing that will decrease the strength and

increase workability marginally. However, the dosage

of superplasticiser is increased to 1.5% and the results

of this mix is presented in Table 8.

Table 8. Workability and compressive strength results

for modifed M40 mix

Trial Water /

Cement

ratio

Slump

mm

Comp-

acting

factor

7-day

strength

28-day

strength

Observ-

ation

1-S 0.42

SP=1.5%

110 0.95 36.8 56.2 Cohesive

mix

The 28 day strength of this mix was more than the

required. If required, one more trial can be designed

and tested.

Conclusions

Following conclusions can be drawn based on the

limited study conducted.

The code IS 10262:2009 is drafted in line with

ACI 211.1 code. All modifcations in the code

are encouraging to use available supplementary

materials.

The frst mix may not lead to economical design

and trial mixes may be necessary. The first

mix may yield higher strength as the water

cement ratio is kept below what is required for

durability.

Even the mix with higher w/c ratio will have

substantially higher strength when compared to

the target strength. This mix has to be invariably

used as the mix with lower w/c ratio increases

the strength further. Economy in the mix design

is possible if plasticisers and mineral admixtures

are used.

1.

2.

3.

19 JANUARY 2011 THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL

The procedure of mix proportioning for standard

concretes of low strength range is demonstrated.

Use of M20-M30 concrete is quite common

in many projects and hence these mixes are

considered. M40 pumpable concrete mix is also

demonstrated.

The concept of trial mixes is demonstrated for M20

concrete by way of graphical representation as it is

not covered in the new IS 10262 code. However it

is well demonstrated in the old IS 10262 code.

Further studies are required for using fy ash and

GGBFS in high strength and high performance

pumpable concretes.

References

Nataraja, M.C., Dhang, N and Gupta, A.P., Computer aided concrete mix

proportioning, The Indian Concrete Journal, September 1997, Vol. 71, No. 9,

pp. 487-492.

Nataraja, M.C., Dhang, N and Gupta, A. P., A Simple equation for concrete

mix design curves of IS 10262:1982, The Indian Concrete Journal, February

1999, Vol. 73, No. 2, pp. 111-115.

Nataraja, M.C., Dhang, N. and Gupta, A. P., Computerised Concrete Mixture

Proportioning Based on BIS Method-A Critical Review, Fifth International

Conference on Concrete Technology for Developing Countries, NCCBM, New

Delhi, 17-19 Nov. 99.

Nataraja, M.C and Patil Gopal Reddy, Proportioning of High Strength

Concrete Mixes, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Innovative world

of Concrete, ICI-IWC-93, August 1993, India, Vol. 2, pp. 3-223 to 3-232.

Nataraja, M.C and Anil Kumar T.V., Computerised Fly ash Concrete Mix

Design as per IS: 10262-1982 using Provisions of IS: 456-2000, INCONTEST-

2003, CD-ROM Proceedings of the international seminar on industrial structures,

Association of Consulting Civil Engineers (India), Coimbatore, India.

September 2003, pp 39-40.

Nataraja, M.C and Ramalinga Reddy, B.M, Bavanishankar, S. and Barathraj

Etigi., Mix design and some properties of concrete containing Ground

granulated Blast Furnace Slag, pp. 491-500, II CANMET-ACI International

conference on Concrete Technology for Sustainable Development, Hyderabad,

March 2005.

4.

5.

6.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Dr. M.C. Nataraja holds a PhD from Indian

Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. Presently,

he is a Professor in the department of civil

engineering at Sri Jayachamarajendra College of

Engineering, Mysore. He has research experience

of 25 years and has published over 100 technical

papers in national and international journals and

conferences. His areas of interest are SFRC, concrete mix

design and controlled low strength materials. He is in the

international technical committee of PROTECT in connection

with international conferences.

Mr. Lelin Das received his BE in Civil Engineering,

M.Tech in Structural Engineering and is pursuing

his PhD at Sri Jayachamarajendra College of

Engineering, Mysore. Presently, he is a Technical

Offcer at Ultratech Cement Ltd. at Mysore.

His research interests include use of marginal

materials in concrete, special concretes and

concrete mix design.

Nataraja, M.C, Lelin Das and N. Richard Sandeep, Comparison of indian

standard draft method and ACI method of concrete mix proportioning,

Second National seminar on Advances in Materials and Structure, IIT, Chennai,

India.

______Standard practice for selecting proportions for normal, heavyweight, and

mass concrete, ACI 211.1-91 (1991), ACI Committee 211, Farmington Hills,

MI.

______Recommended guidelines for concrete mix design, IS 10262:1982, Bureau

of India Standards, New Delhi, India.

______Indian standard concrete mix proportioning - Guidelines, IS 10262:2009,

(First revision Bureau of India Standards, New Delhi, India

______Handbook on concrete mixes (based on Indian Standards), SP: 23-1988,

Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India

______Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete (fourth edition), 2000,

IS 456:2000, Bureau of India Standards, New Delhi, India.

Neville, A.M., Concrete Technology, Fourth edition, Pearson Education,

New Delhi.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

We at ICJ offer an opportunity to our readers to contribute articles and

be a part of a big family of ICJ authors.

In particular, we will appreciate receiving contributions on the

following:

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Just a Point of view covering your opinion on any facet of concrete, construction and

civil engineering

All contributions will be reviewed by expert Editorial Committee. Limit your contribution to

about 2000 words only.

Contact: The Editor, The Indian Concrete Journal, ACC Limited, L.B. Shastri Marg, Thane 400 604.

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