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revised 15.09.2008

Introduction

Hardening Soil (HS) and Hardening Soil-small (HS-small) models are designed to reproduce basic phenomena exhibited by soils:

densication stiness stress dependency plastic yielding dilatancy strong stiness variation with growing shear strain amplitude in the regime of small strains ( = 106 to = 103 ) this phenomenon plays a crucial role for modeling deep excavations and soil-structure interaction problems

Introduction

HS model was initially formulated by Schanz, Vermeer and Bonnier (1998, 1999) and then enhanced by Benz (2006) Current implementation is slightly modied with respect to the theory given by Benz:

simplied treatment of dilatancy for the small strain version (HS-small) modied hardening law for preconsolidation pressure

This model seems to be one of the simplest in the class of models designed to handle small strain stiness It consists of the two plastic mechanisms, shear and volumetric Small strain stiness is incorporated by means of nonlinear elasticity which includes hysteretic eects

Initial stiness modulus Eo Unloading-reloading modulus Eur Secant stiness modulus at 50 % of the ultimate deviatoric stress qf

250

Eo

200 150 100 50 0 0 0.05 0.1

0.15 EPS-1 [-] 0.2

qun

q [kpa]

1 1 q50

0.25

Remark: All classical soil models require specication of Eur modulus (Cam-Clay, Cap etc..)

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

G - current secant shear modulus Go - shear modulus for very small strains

Atkinson 1991

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

G ( ) curve an additional Go characteristic point is needed To describe the shape of It is common to specify the shear strain 0.7 at which ratio G = 0.7 Go

0.7

07

Relation between static Young modulus Es , obtained from standard triaxial test at axial strain 1 103 , and dynamic Young modulus (the one at very small strains) Ed = Eo is shown in diagram published by Alpan (1970) (after Benz)

100

Ed Es

10

co h es i ve so i ls

Ro ck

gran

u l ar

soil

1 1000

Es [kPa]

10000 100000 1000000

Double hardening elasto-plastic model (Schanz, Vermeer, Benz) Nonlinear elasticity for stress paths penetrating the interior of the elastic domain

600 500 400 q [kPa] 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 p [kPa] 300 400 500

Cap surface

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

Duncan-Chang model as the origin for shear mechanism

250

qf 200

q [kPa] 150 100 50

M-C limit

E50 1

qf 1

0.01 0.02

Eur

0 0

0.03 eps-1

0.04

0.05

+ c cot 3

Remarks

1

To extend standard HS model to the range of small strain Benz introduced few modications:

1

Strain dependency is added to the stress-strain relation, for stress paths penetrating the elastic domain The modied Hardin-Drnevich relationship is used to relate current secant shear modulus G and equivalent monotonic shear strain hist Reversal points are detected with aid of deviatoric strain history second order tensor Hij ; in addition the current equivalent shear strain hist is computed by using this tensor

N N-1 N+1

plot from paper by Ishihara 1986 At step N : histN 1 = 8 105 histN = 104 At step N + 1 : histN = 0 histN +1 = 2 105 max Primary loading: histN +1 > hist max Unloading/reloading: histN +1 hist Go Hardin-Drnevich law: G = hist (secant modulus) 1+a 0 .7

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

G

Gur

c

c = 0.7 a Go 1 Gur

600 500 400 q [kPa] 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 p [kPa] 300 400 500

Shear mechanism

Cap surface

SR

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

600 500 400 q [kPa] 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 p [kPa] 300 400 500

Shear mechanism

Cap surface

SR

Procedure:

PS from plastic condition For given SR state compute o f1 = 0

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

Remarks

1

SR = K NC 1 sin() in the standard applications Ko o (approximate Jakys formula) SR = 1 for case of isotropic consolidation (used in triaxial Ko testing for instance)

For sands notion of preconsolidation pressure is not as meaningful as for cohesive soils hence one may assume OCR=1 and eect of density will be embedded in H and M parameters

p* q*

Eoed

1

ref oed

Material properties

Parameter ref Eur ref E50 ref m ur Rf c emax ft D M H OCR /q POP ref Eo 0.7 Unit [kPa] [kPa] [kPa] [] [] [] [kPa] [o ] [o ] [] [kPa] [] [] [kPa] [/kPa] [kPa] [] HS-standard yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no no HS-small yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes

Assumption: q = 0.5 qult Given: E for MC model and

1m A q = 0.5 qult

10m

10m

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

6 5.5 5 SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa] 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 -EPS-Y [-]

20000 0 0.00001 0.0001 G [kPa] 100000 80000 60000 40000 HS-std HS-small 120000

HS-std HS-small

0.001

0.01

0.1

(a) 1 (1 ) (Z Soil) 3

4 3.5 SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa] 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 -EPS-Y [-] HS-std HS-small

(b) G ( ) (Z Soil)

0 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 -EPS-V [-] 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 -0.01 -0.02 -EPS-Y [-] HS-std HS-small 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

(d) v (1 ) (Z Soil)

6 5.5 5 SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa] 4.5 4 HS-std HS-small

200000 180000 160000 140000 G [kPa] 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

3.5 3

HS-std HS-small

0 0.00001 0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

(a) 1 (1 ) (Z Soil) 3

4 3.5 SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa] 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 EPS-1 [-] HS-std HS-small

(b) G ( ) (Z Soil)

0 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 EPS-V [-] 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 -0.01 -0.02 EPS-1 [-] HS-std HS-small 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

(d) v (1 ) (Z Soil)

6 5.5 5 SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa] 4.5 HS-std HS-small

300000 250000 200000 G [kPa] 150000 100000 50000 0 0.00001 0.0001 HS-std HS-small

4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 EPS-1 [-]

0.001

0.01

0.1

EPS-1-EPS-3 [-]

(a) 1 (1 ) (Z Soil) 3

4 3.5 SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa] 3

EPS-V [-]

(b) G ( ) (Z Soil)

0 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 -0.01 HS-std HS-small 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

HS-std HS-small

(d) v (1 ) (Z Soil)

Given 3 drained triaxial test results for 3 conning pressures: 3 = 100 kPa 3 = 300 kPa 3 = 600 kPa

Shear characteristics q 1 Dilatancy characteristics v 1 Stress paths in p q plane Measurements of small strain stiness moduli Eo (3 ) for the assumed conning pressures (through direct measurement of shear wave velocity in the sample)

Estimation of friction angle = cs and cohesion c

q

M* =

1

6 sin 3 sin

c* =

6c cos 3 sin

p

Estimation of friction angle = cs and cohesion c

3000 2500 2000 q [kPa] 1500 1000 500 0 0 300 600 900 p [kPa] 1200

1386 2358 2358/1386=1.7

1500

1800

Here: = arcsin

c=0

0.06 0.05 0.04

1

EPS-V [-]

0.03 0.02 0.01 0 -0.01 -0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

EPS-1 = - EPS-3 [-]

Dilatancy cut-off

= arcsin

d 2+d

1 d=0.75

V 0.03

0.02 0.01 0 -0.01 -0.02 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

= arcsin

0.75 2 + 0.75

16o

Analytical formula: Eo =

ref + c cot Measured: shear wave velocity vs at 1 = 106 and at given conning stress 3 Compute : shear modulus Go = vs2 Compute : Young modulus Eo = 2 (1 + ) Go 3 [kPa] 100 300 600 Eo [kPa] 250000 460000 675000

ref Eo

+ c cot 3

Analytical formula: Eo =

ref + c cot Measured: shear wave velocity vs at 1 = 106 and at given conning stress 3 Compute : shear modulus Go = vs2 Compute : Young modulus Eo = 2 (1 + ) Go 3 [kPa] 100 300 600 Eo [kPa] 250000 460000 675000

ref Eo

+ c cot 3

Reanalyze Eo vs 3 in logarithmic scales 13.1 12.55 Averaged slope yields m; here m = = 0.55 1.0 Find intersection of the line with axis ln Eo at + c cot 3 ln =0 ref + c cot Here the intersection is at 12.43 hence ref = e 12.43 2.71812.43 = 250000 kPa Eo

13.6 13.4 13.2

ln Eo 13

12.8 12.6 12.4 12.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

m 1

12.43

1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

To estimate small strain modulus Go at a certain depth one may use empirical formula by Mayne and Rix: q 0.695 Go = 49.4 t1.13 [MPa] e qt is a corrected tip resistance expressed in MPa e is the void ratio

2500

1

2000

1 1

1500

f ( 3 = 100) q50

1000

f q50 ( 3 = 100) 500 f q50 ( 3 = 100)

0 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1

Reanalyze E50 vs 3 in logarithmic scales Here we can x m to the one obtained for small strain moduli Find intersection of the line with axis ln E50 at + c cot 3 ln =0 ref + c cot Here the intersection is at 10.30 hence ref e 10.30 2.71810.30 30000 kPa E50

11.4 11.2 11

ln E50

10.8 10.6 10.4 10.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

10.30

The unloading reloading modulus as well as oedometric moduli are usually not accessible

ref once we know We can use Alpans diagram to deduce Eur ref ref (default is Eur = 3); for cohesive soils like tertiary clays Eo ref Eo this value is larger

For oedometric modulus at the reference stress ref = 100 ref = E ref kPa we can assume Eoed 50 0.7 = 0.0001...0.0002 for sands and 0.7 = 0.00005...0.0001 for clays Smaller 0.7 values yield softer soil behavior

Interface wall-soil

90m

30m

120m

-600 -400 -200 0 200 400 0 -5 -10 Y [m[] -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 M [kNm/m] HS HS-small MC

-0.04 -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 0 -5 -10 Y [m] -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 Ux [m] HS-small HS MC Measurement

0 0 -10 -20 -30 -40

Y [m]

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

Uy [m]

HS HS-small MC

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiness

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

HS HS-small MC

UY [m]

X [m]

Conclusions

Model properly reproduces strong stiness variation with shear strain It can be used in simulations of soil-structure interaction problems Implementation is rather heavy It should properly predict deformations near the excavations Model reduces excessive heavings at the bottom of the excavation

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