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NATIONAL BUILDING CODE

TERMINOLOGIES

ABHISHEK JANI (01) 10/24/2013

First Semester Master of Urban and Regional Planning Department of Architecture Faculty of Technology & Engineering The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara.

Guided by :- Prof Devyani Trivedi

PART 2 ADMINISTRATION
TERMINOLOGY 2.1 Accessory Use Any use of the premises subordinate to the principal use and customarily incidental to the principal use. 2.2 Alteration A change from one type of occupancy to another, or a structural change, such as an addition to the area or height, or the removal of part of a building, or any change to the structure, such as the construction of, cutting into or removal of any wall, partition, column, beam, joist, floor or other support, or a change to or closing of any required means of ingress or egress or a change to the fixtures or equipment. 2.3 Approved Approved by the Authority having jurisdiction. 2.4 Authority Having Jurisdiction The Authority which has been created by a statute and which, for the purpose of administering the Code/Part, may authorize a committee or an official or an agency to act on its behalfi hereinafter called the Authority. 2.5 Building Any structure for whatsoever purpose and of whatsoever materials constructed and every part thereof whether used as human habitation or not and includes foundation, plinth, walls, floors, roofs, chimneys, plumbing and building services, fixed platforms, verandah, balcony, cornice or projection, part of a buildlng or anything affixed thereto or any wall enclosing or intended to enclose any land or space and signs and outdoor display structures. Tents/SHAMIANAHS, tarpaulin shelters, etc, erected for temporary and ceremonial occasions with the permission of the Authority shall not be considered as building. 2.6 Building, Height of The vertical distance measured, in the case of flat roofs from the average level of the ground around and contiguous to the building or as decided by the Authority to the terrace of last livable floor of the building adjacent to the external walls; and in the case of pitched roofs, up to the point where the external surface of the outer wall intersects the finished surface of the sloping roof, and in the case of gables facing the road, the midpoint between the eaves level and the ridge. Architectural features serving no other function exc2.7 Building Line The lineup to which the plinth of a building adjoining a street or an extension of a street or on a future street may lawfully extend. It includes the lines prescribed, if any, in any scheme. The building line may change from time-to-time as decided by the Authority. 2.8 Conversion The change of occupancy or premises to arty occupancy or use requiring additional occupancy permit. 2.9 Development Development with grammatical variations means the carrying out of building, engineering, mining or other operations in, or over, or under land or water, or in 2

the use of any building or land, and includes redevelopment and layout and subdivision of any land; and to develop shall be construed accordingly. 2.10 Drain A conduit or channel for the carriage of storm water, sewage, waste water or other waterborne wastes in a building drainage system. 2.11 Drainage The removal of any liquid by a system constructed for the purpose. 2.12 Occupancy or Use Group The principal occupancy for which a building or a part of a building is used or intended to be used; for the purposes of classification of a building according to occupancy, an occupancy shall be deemed to include the subsidiary occupancies which are contingent upon it. 2.13 Occupier Occupi&r includes arty person for the time being, paying or liable to pay rent or any portion of rent of the building in respect of which the ward is used, or compensation or premium on account of the occupation of such building and also a rentfree tenant, but does not include a lodger, and the words occupy and occupation do not refer to the lodger. An owner living in or otherwise using his own building shall be deemed to be the occupier thereof. 2.14 Operational Construction/Installation A construction/installation put up by Government Departments for operational purposes (ept that of decoration shall be excluded for the purpose of measuring heights. 2.15 Owner Person or body having a legal interest in land and/or building thereon. This includes free holders, leaseholders or those holding a sub-lease which both bestows a legal right to occupation and gives rise to liabilities in respect of safety or building condition. In case of lease or sub-leaseholders, as far as ownership with respect to the structure is concerned, the structure of a flat or structure on a plot belongs to the allottee/ lessee till the allotment/lease subsists. 2.16 Permit A permission or authorization in writing by the Authority to carry out work regulated by the Code. 2.17 Registered Architect, Engineer, Structural Engineer, Supervisor, Town Planner, Landscape Architect, Urban Designer A qualified architect, engineer, structural engineer, supervisor, town planner, landscape architect or urban designer who has been registered by the Authority or by the body governing such profession and constituted under statute, as may be applicable. The registration requirements of these professionals shall be as givenin Annex A. 2.18 Road See 2.25. 2.19 Road Line See 2.27.

2.20 Room Height The vertical distance measured from the finished floor surface to the finished ceiling surface. Where a finished ceiling is not provided, the underside of the joists or beams or tie beams shall determine the upper point of measurement for determining the head room. 2.21 Sanctioned Plan The set of plans and specifications submitted in connection with a building or development and duly approved and sanctioned by the Authority. 2.22 Service Road A road/lane provided at the rear or side of a plot for service purposes. 2.23 Set-back Line A line usually parallel to the plot boundaries and laid down in each case by the Authority, beyond which nothing can be constructed towards the site boundaries. 2.24 Site (Plot) A parcel (piece) of land enclosed by definite boundaries. 2.25 street Any means of access, namely, highway, street, lane, pathway, alley, stairway, passageway, carriageway, footway, square, place or bridge, whether a thoroughfare or not, over which the public have a right of passage or access or have passed and had access uninterruptedly for a specified period, whether existing or proposed in any scheme and includes all bunds, channels, ditches, storm-water drains, culverts, sidewalks, traffic islands, roadside trees and hedges, retaining walls, fences, barriers and railings within the street lines. 2.26 Street Level or Grade The officially established elevation or grade of the centre line of the street upon which a plot fronts and if there is no officially established grade, the existing grade of the street at its mid-point. 2.27 Street Line The line defining the side limits of a street. 2.28 To Erect To erect a building means: a) to erect a new building on any site whether previously built upon or no~ b) to re-erect any building of which portions above the plinth level have been pulled down, burnt or destroyed. 2.29 Unsafe Building Buildings which are structurally and constructionally unsafe or insanitary or not provided with adequate means of egress or which constitute a fire hazard or are otherwise dangerous to human life or which in relation to existing use constitute a hazard to safety or health or Public welfare, by reason of inadequate maintenance, dilapidation or abandonment.

PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS


2.1 Access A clear approach to a plot or a building. 2.2 Accessory Use Any use of the premises subordinate to the principal use and customarily incidental to the principal use. 2.3 Alteration A change from one occupancy to another, or a structural change, such as an addition to the area or height, or the removal of part of a building, or any change to the structure, such as the construction of, cutting into or removal of any wall, partition, column, beam, joist, floor or other support, or a change to or closing of any required means of ingress or egress or a change to the fixtures or equipment. 2.4 Approved Approved by the Authority having jurisdiction. 2.5 Authority Having Jurisdiction The Authority which has been created by a statute and which for the purpose of administering the Code/Part may authorize a committee or an official to act on its behalf; hereinafter called the Authority. 2.6 Back-to-Back Cluster Clusters when joined back to back and/or on sides 2.7 Balcony A horizontal projection, with a handrail or balustrade or a parapet, to serve as passage or sitting out place. 2.8 Basement or Cellar The lower storey of a building below or partly below ground level. 2.9 Building Any structure for whatsoever purpose and of whatsoever materials constructed and every part thereof whether used as human habitation or not and includes foundation, plinth, walls, floors, roofs, chimneys, plumbing and building services, fixed platforms, VERANDAH, balcony, cornice or projection, part of a building or anything affixed thereto or any wall enclosing or intended to enclose any land or space and signs and outdoor display structures. Tents, SHAMIANAHS, tarpaulin shelters, etc, erected for temporary and ceremonial occasions with the permission of the Authority shall not be considered as building. 2.10 Building, Height of The vertical distance measured in the case of flat roofs, from the average level of the ground around and contiguous to the building or as decided by the Authority to the terrace of last livable floor of the building adjacent to the external walls; and in the case of pitched roofs, up to the point where the external surface of the outer wall intersects the finished surface of the sloping root and in the case of gables facing the road, the mid-point between the eaves level and the ridge. Architectural features serving no other function except that of decoration shall be excluded for the purpose of measuring heights.

2.11 Building Envelope The horizontal spatial limits up to which a building may be permitted to be constructed on a plot. 2.12 Building Line The lineup to which the plinth of a building adjoining a street or an extension of a street or on a future street may lawfully extend. It includes the lines prescribed, if any, in any scheme. The building line may change from time-to-time as decided by the Authority. 2.13 Cabin A non-residential enclosure constructed of non-load bearing partition. 2.14 Canopy A projection over any entrance. 2.15 Carpet Area The covered area of the usable rooms at any floor level (excluding the area of the wall). 2.16 CHtL4J.lA A sloping or horizontal structural overhang usually provided over openings on external walls to provide protection from sun and rain. 2.17 Chimney An upright shaft containing one or more flues provided for the conveyance to the outer air of any product of combustion resulting from the operation of heat producing appliance or equipment employing solid, liquid or gaseous fuel. 2.18 Chowk or Courtyard A space permanently open to the sky, enclosed fully or partially by building and may be at ground level or any other level within or adjacent to a building. 2.19 Chowk, Inner A chowk enclosed on all sides. 2.20 Chowk, Outer A chowk one of whose sides is not enclosed. 2.21 Closed Clusters Clusters with only one common entry into cluster open space (see Fig. 2). 2.22 Cluster Plots or dwelling units or housing grouped around an open space (see Fig. 3). Ideally housing cluster should not be very large. In ground and one storeyed structures not more than 20 houses should be grouped in a cluster. Clusters with more dwelling units will create problems in identity, encroachments and of maintenance. 2.23 Cluster Court Town House A dwelling in a cluster plot having 100 percent or nearly 100 percent ground coverage with vertical expansion, generally limited to one floor only and meant for self use. 2.24 Cluster Plot Plot in a cluster. 2.25 Cooking Alcove A cooking space having direct access from the main room without any intercommunicating door.

2.26 Covered Area Ground area covered by the building immediately above the plinth level. The area covered by the following in the open spaces is excluded from covered area (see Table 3): a) b) c) d) Garden, rockery, well and well structures, plant nursery, waterpool, swimming pool (if uncovered), platform round a tree, tank, fountain, bench, CFL4BUTfL4 with open top and unenclosed on sides by walls and the like; Drainage culvert, conduit, catch-pit, gully pit, chamber, gutter and the like; Compound wall, gate, unstoreyed porch and portico, canopy, slide, swing, uncovered staircase, ramps areas covered by CHHAJJA and the like; and Watchmens booth, pumphouse, garbage shaft, electric cabin or sub-stations, and such other utility structures meant for the services of the building under consideration.NOTE For the purpose of this Part, covered area equalsthe plot area minusthe areadue for open spaces.

2.27 Cul-de-sac Cluster Plots/dwelling units when located along a pedestrianised or vehicular cul-de-sac road (see Fig. 4).

2.28 Density The residential density expressed in terms of the number of dwelling units per hectare. NOTE Where such densities are expressed exclusive of communityfacilities and provision of open spaces and major roads (excluding incidental open spaces), these will be net residentialdensities.Wherethesedensitiesare expressedtaking into consideration the required open space provision and communityfacilities and major roads, these would be gross residential densities at neighborhood level, sector level or town level, as the case may be. The provisionof open spaces and community facilities will depend on the size of the residential community. Incidentalopen spaces are mainly open spaces required to be left around and in betweentwo buildings to provide lighting and ventilation. 2.29 Detached Building A building detached on all sides. 2.30 Development Development with grammatical variations means the carrying out of building, engineering, mining or other operations, in, or over, or under land or water, on the making of any material change, in any building or land, or in the use of any building, land, and includes re-development and layout and subdivision of any land and to develop shall be construed accordingly. 2.31 Drain A conduit, channel or pipe for the carriage of storm water, sewage, waste water or other water borne wastes in a building drainage system. 2.32 Drainage The removal of any liquid by a system constructed for the purpose. 2.33 Dwelling Unit/Tenement An independent housing unit with separate facilities for living, cooking and sanitary requirements. 2.34 Escalator A power driven, inclined, continuous stairway used for raising or lowering 8

passengers. 2.35 Exit A passage, channel or means of egress from any building, storey or floor area to a street or other open space of safety. 2,36 External Faces of Cluster Building edges facing the cluster open spaces. 2.37 Fire Separation The distance in metres measured from the external wall of the building concerned to the external wall of any other building on the site, or from other site, or from the opposite side of a street or other public space for the purpose of preventing the spread of fiie. 2.38 Floor The lower surface in a storey on which one normally walks in a building. The general term floor unless specifically mentioned otherwise shall not refer to a mezzanine floor. 2.39 Floor Area Ratio (FAR) The quotient obtained by dividing the total covered area (plinth area) on all floors by the area of the plot: FM= Total covered area of the floors Plot area 2.40 Gallery An intermediate floor or platform projecting from a wall of an auditorium or a hall providing extra floor area, additional seating accommodation, etc. It shall also include the structures provided for seating in stadia. 2.41 Garage, Private A building or a portion thereof designed and used for parking of private owned motor driven or other vehicles. 2.42 Garage, Public A building or portion thereof, other than a private garage, designed or used for repairing, servicing, hiring, selling or storing or parking motor driven or other vehicles. 2.43 Group Housing Housing for more than one dwelling unit, where land is owned jointly (as in the case of co-operative societies or the public agencies, such as local authorities or housing boards, etc) and the construction is underta$+n by one Agency. 2.44 Group Open Space Open space within a cluster. Group open pace is neither public open space nor private open space. Each dwelling unit around the cluster open space have a share and right of use in it. The responsibility for maintenance of the same is to be collectively shared by all the dwelling units around. 2.45 Habitable Room A room occupied or designed for occupancy by one or more persons for study, living, sleeping, eating, kitchen if it is used as a living room, but not including bathrooms, water-closet compartments, laundries, serving and store pantries, corridors, cellars, attics, and spaces that are not used frequently or during extended periods. 2.46 Independent Cluster Clusters surrounded from all sides by vehicular access roads and/or pedestrian paths (see Fig. 5). 2.47 Interlocking Cluster Clusters when joined at back andon sides with atleastone side of a cluster common and having some dwelling units opening onto or having access from the adjacent clusters. Dwelling units in such clusters should have at leasttwo sides open to external open space. Houses in an interlocking cluster can have access, ventilation and light from the adjacent cluster and should also cater for future growth (see Fig. 6). 2.48 Internal Faces of Cluster Building edges facing the adjacent cluster open space (as in case of interlocking cluster) of the surrounding pedestrian paths or vehicular access roads. 9

2.49 Ledge or TAND A shelf-like projection,supported in any manner whatsoever, except by meansof vertical supports within a room itself but not having projection wider than 1 m.

2.50 Lift An appliance designed to transport persons or materials between two or more levels in a vertical or substantially vertical direction by means of a guided car or platform. The word elevator is also synonymously used for lift. 2.51 Loft A structure providing intermediate storage space in between two floors with a maximum height of 1.5 m, without having a permanent access. 2.52 Mezzanine Floor An intermediate floor between two floors of any storey forming an integral part of floor below. 2.53 Occupancy or Use Group The principal occupancy for which a building or a part of a building is used or intended to be used; for the purposes of classification of a building according to occupancy; an occupancy shall be deemed to include subsidiary occupancies which are contingent upon it. 2.54 Occupancy, Mixed The occupancy, where more than one occupancy are present in different portions of.the building.

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2.55 Open Clusters Cluster where cluster open spaces are linked to forma continuous open space (see Fig. 7). 2.56 Open Space An area, forming an integral part of the plot, left open to the sky. NOTE The open space shall be the minimum distance measuredbetweenthe front, rear and side of the building and the respectiveplot boundaries. 2.57 Open Space, Front An open space across thefront of a plot between the building line and front boundary of the plot. 2.58 Open Space, Rear An open space across the rear of a plot between the rear of the building and the rear boundary of the plot. 2.59 Open Space, Side An open space across the side of the plot between the side of the building and the side boundary of tb plot. 2.60 Owuer-Person or bodyhaving a legal interest in land and/or building thereon. This includes free holders, leaseholders or those holding a sub-lease which both bestows a legal right to occupation and gives rise to liabilities in respect of safety or building condition. In case of lease or sub-lease holders, as far as ownership with respect to the structure is concerned, the structure of a flat or structure on a plot belongs to the allottee/ lessee till the allotmenflease subsists. 2.61 Parapet A low wall or railing built along the edge of a roof or floor. 2.62 Parking Space An area enclosed or unenclosed, covered or open, sufficient in size to park vehicles, together with a drive-way connecting the parking space with a street or alley and permitting ingress and egress of the vehicles. 2.63 Partition An interior non-load bearing barrier, one storey or part-storey in height. 2.64 Plinth The portion of a structure between the surface of the surrounding ground and surface of the floor, immediately above the ground. 2.65 Plinth Area The built up covered area measured at the floor level of the basement or of any storey. 2.66 Porch A covered structure supported on pillars or otherwise for the purpose of pedestrian or vehicular approach to a building. 2.67 Road See 2.82. 2.68 Road Line See 2.84.

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2.69 Room Height The vertical distance measured from the finished floor surface to the finished ceiling surface. Where a finished ceiling is not provided, the underside of the joists or beams or tie beams shall determine the upper point of measurement. 2.70 Row Housing/Row Type Building A row of buildings, with only front, rear and interior open spaces where applicable. 2.71 Semi-Detached Building A building detached on three sides. 2.72 Service Roafiane A roadllane provided adjacent to a plot(s) for access or service purposes as the case may be. 2.73 Set-Back Line A line usually parallel to the plot boundaries and laid down in each case by the Authority, beyond which nothing can be constructed towards the plot boundaries. 2.74 Site (Plot) A parcel (piece) of land enclosed by definite boundaries. 2.75 Site, Corner A site at the junctions of and fronting on two or more intersecting streets. 2.76 Site, Depth of The mean horizontal distance between the front and rear site boundaries. 2.77 Site, Double Frontage A site, having a frontage on two streets, other than a comer plot. 2.78 Site, Interior or Tandem A site access to which is by a passage from a street whether such passage forms part of the site or not. 2.79 Staircover (or MUMTY) A structure with a roof over a staircase and its landing built to enclose only the stairs for the purpose of providing protection from weather and not used for human habitation. 2.80 Storey The portion of a building included between the surface of any floor and the surface of the floor next above it, or if there be no floor above it, then the space between any floor and the ceiling next above it. 2.81 Storey, Topmost The uppermost storey in a building whether constructed wholly or partly on the roof 2.82 Street Any means of access, namely, highway, street, lane, pathway, alley, stairway, passageway, carriageway, footway, square, place or bridge, whether a thoroughfare or not, over which the public have a right of passage or access or have passed and had access uninterruptedly for a specified period, whether existing or proposed in any scheme, and includes all bunds, channels, ditches, storm-water drains, culverts, sidewrdks, traffic islands, 12

roadside trees and hedges, retaining walls, fences, barriers and railings within the street lines. 2.83 Street Level or Grade The officially established elevation or grade of the central line of the street upon which a plot fronts and if there is no officially established grade, the existing grade of the street at its mid-point. 2.84 Street Line The line defining the side limits of a street. 2.85 To Abut To abut on a street boundary such that any portion of the building is on the road boundary. 2.86 To Erect To erect a building means: a) to erect a new building on any site whether previously built upon or noc and b) to re-erect any building of which portions above the plinth level have been pull down, burnt or destroyed..

2.87 Tower-like Structures Structures shall be deemed to be tower-like structures when the height of the tower-like portion is at least twice the height of the broader base at ground level. 2.88 VERANDAH A covered area with at least one side open to the outside with the exception of 1 m high parapet on the upper floors to be provided on the open side. 2.89 Volume to Plot Area Ratio (VPR) The ratio of volume of building measured in cubic metres to the area of the plot measured in square metres andexpressed in metres. 2.90 Water-Closet (WC) A water flushed plumbing fmture designed to receive human extirement directly from the user of the fixture. The term is used sometimes to designate the room or compartment in which the fixture is placed. 2.91 Window An open@g to the outside other than a door, which provides all or part of the required natural light or ventilation or both to an interior space

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PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY


2.1 Automatic Fire Detection and Alarm System Fire alarm system comprising components for automatically detecting a fire, initiating an alarm of fire and initiating other actions as appropriate. NOTE The system may also include manual fire alarm call points. 2.2 Automatic Sprinkler System A system of water pipes fitted with sprinkler heads at suitable intervals and heights and designed to actuate automatically, control and extinguish a fire by the discharge of water. 2.3 Building Any structure for whatsoever purpose and of whatsoever materials constructed and every part thereof whether used as human habitation or not and includes foundation, plinth, walls, floors, roofs, chimneys, plumbing and building services, fixed platforms, VERANDAH, balcony, cornice or projection,part of a building or anything affixed thereto or any wall enclosing or intended to enclose any land or space and signs and outdoor display structures. Tents, SHAMIANAHS, tarpaulin shelters, etc, erected for temporary and ceremonial occasions with the permission of the Authority shall not be considered as building. 2.4 Building, Height of The vertical distance measured in the case of flat roofs, from the average level of the ground around and contiguous to the building or as decided by the Authority to the terrace of the last livable floor of the building adjacent to the external wall; and in the case of pitched roofs, up to the point where the external surface of the outer wall intersects the finished surface of the sloping root and in the case of gables facing the road, the mid-point between the eaves level and the ridge. Architectural features serving no other function except that of decoration, shall be excluded for the purpose of measuring heights. 2.5 Combustible Material The material which either bums itself or adds heat to a fire, when tested for non-combustibility in accordance with accepted standard [4(1 )]. 2.6 Covered Area Ground area covered by the building immediately above the plinth level. The area covered by the following in the open spaces is excluded from covered area garden, rockery, well and well structures, plant nursery, waterpool, swimming pool (if uncovered), platform round a tree, tank, fountain, bench, CHABUTARA with open top and unenclosed on sides by walls and the like; drainage culvert, conduit, catch-pit, gully pit, chamber, gutter and the like; compound wall, gate, unstoreyed porch and portico, slide, swing, uncovered staircases, ramp areas covered by CHHAJ.JA and the like; and watchmans booth, pumphouse, garbage shaft, electric cabin or sub-stations, and such other utility structures meant for the servicesof the building under consideration. NOTE For the purpose of this Part, covered area equals the plot area minus the area due for open spacesin the plot. 2.7 Down-comer An arrangement of fire fighting within the building by means of downcomer pipe connected to terrace tank through terrace pump, gate valve and non-return 14

valve and having mains not less than 100 mm internal diameter with landing valves on each floor/landing. It is also fitted with inlet connections at ground level for charging with water by pumping from fire service appliances and air release valve at roof level to release trapped air inside. 2.8 Dry Riser An arrangement of fire fighting within the building by means of vertical rising mains not less than 100 mm internal diameter with landing valves on each floorflanding which is normally dry but is capable of being charged with water usually by pumping from fire service appliances. 2.9 Emergency Lighting Lighting provided for use when the supply to the normal lighting fails. 2.10 Emergency Lighting System A complete but discrete emergency lighting installation from the standby power source to the emergency lighting lamp(s), for example, selfcontained emergency lumirtaire or a circuit from central battery generator connected through wiring to several escape luminaries. 2.11 Escape Lighting That part of emergency lighting which is provided to ensure that the escape route is illuminated at all material times, for example, at all times when persons are on the premises, or at times the main lighting is not available, either for the whole building or for the escape routes. 2.12 Fire Door A fire-resistive door approved for openings in fire separation. 2.13 Fire Exit Away out leading to an escape route having panic bar hardware provided on the door. 2.14 Fire Lift The lift installed to enable fire services personnel to reach different floors with minimum delay, having such features as required in accordance with this Part. 2.15 Fire Load Calorific energy, of the whole contents contained in a space, including the facings of the walls, partitions, floors and ceilings. 2.16 Fire Load Density Fire load divided by floor area. 2.17 Fire Resistance Rating The time that a material or construction will withstand the standard fire exposure as determined by fire test done in accordance with the standard methods of fire tests of materials/structures. 2.18 Fh-e Resistance Fire resistance is a property of an element of building construction and is the measure of its ability to satisfy for a stated period some or all of the following criteria: a) resistance to collapse, b) resistance to penetration of flame and hotgases, and c) resistance to temperature rise on the unexposed face up to a maximum of 180C and/or average temperature of 150C. 15

2.19 Fire Separation The distance in metres measured from the external wall of the building concerned to the external wall of any other building on the site, or from other site, or from the opposite side of street or other public space for the purpose of preventing the spread of fire. 2.20 Fire Separating Wall The wall provides complete separation of one building from another or part of a building from another or part of a building from another part of the same building to prevent any communication of fire or heat transmission to wall itself which may cause or assist in the combustion of materials on the side opposite to that portion which may be on fire. 2.21 Fire Stop A fire resistant material, or construction, having a fiie resistance rating of not less than the fiie separating elements, installed in concealed spaces or between structural elements of a building to prevent the spread/propagation of fwe and smoke through walls, ceilings and like as per the laid down criteria. 2.22 Fire Tower An enclosed staircase which can only be approached from the various floors through landings or lobbies separated from both the floor areas and the staircase by fire-resisting doors, and open to the outer air. 2.23 Fire Resisting Wall A fire resistance rated wall, having protected openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends continuously from the foundation to at least 1 m above the roof. 2.24 Floor Area Ratio (FAR) The quotient obtained by dividing the total covered area (plinth area) on all floors by the area of the plo~ FM= Total covered area of all floors Plot area 2.25 High Rise Building For the purpose of this Part, all buildings 15 m or above in height shall be considered as high rise buildings. 2.26 Horizontal Exit An arrangement which allows alternative egress from a floor area to another floor at or near the same level in an adjoining building or an adjoining part of the same building with adequate fire separation. 2.27 Means of Egress A continuous and unobstructed way of travel from any point in a building or structure to a place of comparative safety. 2.28 Occupancy or Use Group The principal occupancy for which a building or a part of a building is used or intended to be used; for the purpose of classification of a building according to the occupancy, an occupancy shall be deemed to include subsidiary occupancies which are contingent upon it. 2.29 Plinth Area-The built-up covered area measured at the floor level of the basement or of any storey. 16

2.30 Pressurization The establishment of a pressure difference across a barrier to protect a stairway, lobby, escape route or room of a buildlng from smoke penetration. 2.31 Pressurization Level The pressure difference between the pressurized space and the area served by the pressurized escape route, expressed in pascals (Pa). 2.32 Roof Exits A means of escape on to the roof of a building, where the roof has access to it from the ground. The exit shall have adequate cut-off within the building from staircase below. 2.33 Site Plot A parcel (piece) of land enclosed by definite boundaries. 2.34 Stack Pressure Pressure difference caused by a temperature difference creating an air movement within a duct, chimney or enclosure. 2.35 Travel Distance The distance to be travelled from any point in a building to a protected escape route, external escape route or final exit. 2.36 Ventilation Supply of outside air into, or the removal of inside air from an enclosed space. 2.37 Venting Fire The process of inducing heat and smoke to leave a building as quickly as possible by such paths that lateral spread of fire and heat is checked, fire fighting operations are facilitated and minimum fire damage is caused. 2.38 Volume to Plot Area Ratio (VPR) The ratio of volume of building measured in cubic metres to the area of the plot measured in square metres and expressed in metres. 2.39 Wet Riser An arrangement for fire fighting within the building by means of vertical rising mains not less than 100 mm nominal diameter with landing valves on each floorflanding for fire fighting purposes and permanently charged with water from a pressurized supply. NOTE For definitions of other terms, reference shall be made to good practice [4(2)].

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PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN Section 2 Soils and Foundations


2.1 General 2.1.1 Clay An aggregate of microscopic and sub-microscopic particles derived from the chemical decomposition and disintegration of rock constituents. It is plastic within a moderate to wide range of water content. The particles are less than 0.002 mm in size. 2.1.2 Clay, Firm A clay which at its natural water content can be moulded by substantial pressure with the fingers and can be excavated with a spade. 2.1.3 Clay, Soft A clay which at its natural water content can be easily moulded with the fingers and readily excavated. 2.1.4 Clay, Stifi A clay which at its natural water content cannot be moulded with the fingers and requires a pick or pneumatic spade for its removal. 2.1.5 Foundation That part of the structure which is in direct contact with and transmits loads to the ground. 2.1.6 Gravel Cohesionless aggregates of angular rounded or semi-rounded, fragments of more or less unaltered rocks or minerals, 50 percent or more of the particles having size greater than 4.75 mm and less than 80 mm. 2.1.7 Peat A fibrous mass of organic matter in various stages of decomposition generally dark brown to black in colour and of spongy consistency. 2.1.8 Sand Cohesionless aggregate of rounded, surrounded, angular, sub-angular or flat fragments of more or less unaltered rock or minerals, 50 percent or more of particles greater than 0.075 mm or less than 4.75 mm in size. 2.1.9 Sand, Coarse Sand which contains 50 percent or more of particles of size greater than 2 mm and less than 4.75 mm. 2.1.10 Sand, Fine Sand which contains 50 percent of particles of size greater than 0.075 mm and less than 0.425 mm. 2.1.11 Sand, Medium Sand which contains 50 percent of particles of size greater than 0.425 mm and less than 2.0 mm. 2.1.12 Silt A fine grained soil with little or no plasticity. The size of particles ranges from 0.075 mm to 0.002 mm.

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2.1.13 soft Rock A rocky cemented material which offers a high resistance to picking up with pick axes and sharp tools but which does not normally require blasting or chiseling for excavation. 2.1.14 Soil, Black Cotton Inorganic clays of medium to high compressibility y. They form a major soil group in India. They are predominately montmorillonitic in structure and yellowish black or blackish grey in colour. They are characterized by high shrinkage and swelling properties. 2.1.15 Soil, Coarse Grained Soils which include the coarse and largely siliceous and unaltered products of rock weathering. They possess no plasticity and tend to lack cohesion when in dry state. 2.1.16 Soil, Fine Grained Soils consisting of the fine and altered products of rock weathering, possessing cohesion and plasticity in their natural state, the former even when dry and both even when submerged. In these soils, more than half of the material by weight is smaller than 75-micron IS Sieve size. 2.1.17 Total Settlement The total downward movement of the foundation unit under load. 2.2 Shallow Foundation 2.2.1 Back Fill Materials used or re-used to fill an excavation. 2.2.2 Bearing Capacity, Safe The maximum intensity of loading that the soil will safely carry with a factor of safety without risk of shear failure of soil irrespective of any settlement that may occur. 2.2.3 Bearing Capaci@, Ultimate The intensity of loading at the base of a foundation which would cause shear failure of the supporting soil. 2.2.4 Bearing Pressure, Allowable (Gross or Net) The maximum allowable loading intensity on the ground in any given case (with full cognizance of surcharge) taking into account the maximum safe bearing capacity, the amount and kind of settlement expected and the capability of the structure to take up this settlement. It is, therefore, a combined function of both the site conditions and characteristics of the particular structure. The net allowable bearing pressure is the gross allowable bearing pressure minus the surcharge intensity. NOTE The concept of gross and net used in defining the allowable bearing pressure could also be extended to safe bearing capacity, safe bearing pressure and ultimate bearing capacity. 2.2.5 Factor of Safety (with Respect to Bearing Capacity) A factor by which the ultimate bearing capacity (net) must be reduced to arrive at the value of safe bearing capacity (net). 19

2.2.6 Footing A spread constructed in brick work, masonry or concrete under the base of a wall or column for the purpose of distributing the load over a larger area. 2.2.7 Foundation, Raft A substructure supporting an arrangement of columns or walls in a row or rows transmitting the loads to the soil by means of a continuous slab, with or without depressions or openings. 2.2.8 Make-up Ground Refuse, excavated soil or rock deposited for the purpose of filling a depression or raising a site above the natural surface level of the ground. 2.2.9 Offset The projection of the lower step from the vertical face of the upper step. 2.2.10 Permanent Load Loads which remain on the structure for a period, or a number of periods, long enough to cause time dependent deformation settlement of the soil. 2.2.11 Shallow Foundation A foundation whose width is generally equal to or greater than its depth. NOTE These cover such types of foundations in which load transference is primarily through shear resistance of the bearing strata (the frictional resistance of soil above bearing strata is not taken into consideration) and are laid normally to depth of 3 m. 2.2.12 Spread Foundation A foundation which transmits the load to the ground through one or more footings. 2.3 Pile Foundation 2.3.1 Batter Pile (Raker Pile) The pile which is installed at an angle to the vertical. 2.3.2 Bearing Pile A pile formed in the ground for transmitting the load of a structure to the soil by the resistance developed at its tip and/or along its surface. It maybe formed either vertically or at an inclination (Batter Pile) and may be required to take uplift pressure. If the pile supports the load primarily by resistance developed at the pile point or base, it is referred to as End Bearing Pile, if support is provided primarily by friction along its surface, it is referred to as Friction File. 2.3.3 Bored Cast in-situ Pile The pile formed within the ground by excavating or boring a hole within it, with or without the use of a temporary casing and subsequently tilling it with plain or reinforced concrete. When the liner is left permanently it is termed as cased pile and when the casing is taken out it is termed as uncased pile. In installing a bored pile the sides of the borehole (when it does not standby itself) are required to be stabilized with the aid of a tempormy casing, or with the aid of drilling mud of suitable consistency. For marine situations such piles are formed with permanent casing (liner). 2.3.4 Bored Compaction Pile A bored cast in-situ pile with or without bulb(s) in which the compaction of the surrounding ground and freshly filled concrete in pile bore is simultaneously achieved by a suitable method. If the pile is with bulb(s), it is known as underreamed bored compaction pile. 20

2.3.5 Bored Pile A pile formed with or without casing by excavating or boring a hole in the ground and subsequently filling it with plain or reinforced concrete, 2.3.6 Bored Precast Pile A pile constructed in reinforced concrete in a casting yard and subsequently lowered in the pre-bored holes and the space around grouted. 2.3.7 Cut-offLevel It is the level where the installed pile is cut-off to connect the pile caps or beams or any other structural components at that level. 2.3.8 Driven Cast in-situ Pile A pile formed within the ground by driving a casing of permanent or temporary type and subsequently filling in the hole so formed with plain or reinforced concrete. For displacing the subsoil, the casing is installed with a plug or a shoe at the bottom end. When the casing is left permanently, it is termed as cased pile and when the casing is taken out, it termed as uncased pile. 2.3.9 Driven Precast Pil; A pile constructed in concrete (reinforced or prestressed) in a casting yard and subsequently driven in the ground when it has attained sufficient strength. 2.3.10 E@ciency of a Pile Group It is the ratio of the actual supporting value of a group of piles to the supporting value arrived at by multiplying the pile resistance of an isolated pile by their number in the group. 2.3.11 Factor of Safety It is the ratio of the ultimate load capacity of a pile to the safe load of a pile. 2.3.12 Multi- Under-ReamedPile An under-reamed pile having more than one bulb. The piles having two bulbs may be called double under-reamed piles. 2.3.13 Negative Skin Friction Negative skin friction is the force developed through the friction between the pile and the soil in such a direction as to increase the loading on the pile, generally due to drag of a consolidating soft layer around the pile resting on a stiffer bearing stratum such that the surrounding soil settles more than the pile. 2.3.14 Ultimate Load CapaciQ The maximum load which a pile can carry before failure of ground when the soils fails by shear or failure of pile materials. 2.3.15 Under-Reamed Pile A bored cast in-situ or bored compaction concrete pile with enlarged bulb(s) made by either cutting or scooping out the soil or by any other suitable process.

PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN Section 2 Soils and Foundations


2.1 Structural Purpose Definitions

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2.1.1 Beam, Built-Up-Laminated A beam made by joining layers of timber together with mechanical fastenings, so that the grain of all layers is essentially parallel. 2.1.2 Beam, Glued-Laminated A beam made by bonding layers of veneers or timber with an adhesive, so that grain of all laminations is essentially parallel. 2.1.3 Diaphragm, Structural A structural element of large extent placed in a building as a wall, or roof, and made use of to resist horizontal forces such as wind or earthquakes-acting parallel to its own plane. 2.1.4 Duration of Load Period during which a member or a complete structure is stressed as a consequence of the loads applied. 2.1.5 Edge Distance The distance measured perpendicular to grain from the centre of the connector to the edge of the member. 2.1.6 End Distance The distance measured parallel to grain of the member from the centre of the connector to the closest end of timber. 2.1.7 Finger Joint Joint produced by connecting timber members end-to-end by cutting profiles (tapered projections) in the form of V-shaped grooves to the ends of timber planks or scantlings to be joined, glueing the interfaces and then mating the two ends together under pressure. 2.1.8 Fundamental or Ultimate Stress The stress which is determined on small clear specimen of timber, in accordance with good practice [6-3A(2)]; and does not take into account the effect of naturally occurring characteristics and other factors. 2.1.9 Inside Location Position in buildings in which timber remains continuously dry or protected from weather. 2.1.10 Laminated Veneer Lumber A structural composite made by laminating veneers, 1.5 mm to 4.2 mm thick, with suitable adhesive and with the grain of veneers in successive layers aligned along the longitudinal (length) dimension of the composite. 2.1.11 Loaded Edge Distance The distance measured from the centre to the edge towards which the load induced by the connector acts, and the unloaded edge distance is the one opposite to the loaded edge. 2.1.12 Location A term generally referred to as exact place where a timber is used in building. 2.1.13 Outside Location Position in buildings in which timbers are occasionally subjected to wetting and drying as in the case of open sheds and outdoor exposed structures.

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2.1.14 Permissible Stress Stress obtained by applying factor of safety to the ultimate stress. 2.1.15 Sandwich, Structural A layered construction comprising a combination or relatively high-strength facing material intimately bonded to and acting integrally with a low density core material. 2.1.16 Spaced Column Two column sections adequately connected together by glue, bolts, screws or otherwise. 2.1.17 Structure, Permanent Structural units in timber which are constructed for a long duration and wherein adequate protection and design measures have initially been incorporated to render the structure serviceable for the required life. 2.1.18 Structure, Temporaq Structures which are erected for a short period, such as hutments at project sites, for rehabilitation, temporary defence constructions, exhibition structures, etc. 2.1.19 Structural Element The component timber members and joints which make up a resulting structural assembly. 2.1.20 Structural Grades Grades defining the maximum size of strength reducing natural characteristics (knots, sloping grain, etc) deemed permissible in any piece of structural timber within designated structural grade classification. 2.1.21 Structural Timber Timber in which strength is related to the anticipated in-service use as a controlling factor in grading and selection and/or stiffness. 2.1.22 Termite An insect of the order Isoptera which may burrow in the wood or wood products of a building for food or shelter. 2.1.23 Wet Location Position in buildings in which timbers are almost continuously damp or wet in contact with the earth or water, such as piles and timber foundations. 2.2 Definitions of Defects in Timber 2.2.1 Check A separation of fibres extending along the grain which is confined to one face of a piece of wood. 2.2.2 Compression Wood Abnormal wood which is formed on the lower sides of branches and inclined stems of coniferous trees. It is darker and harder than normal wood but relatively low in strength for its weight. It can be usually identified by wide eccentric growth rings with abnormally high proportion of growth latewood.

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2.2.3 Dead Knot A knot in which the layers of annual growth are not completely intergrown with those of the adjacent wood. It is surrounded by pitch or bark. The encasement may be partial or complete. 2.2.4 Decay or Rot Disintegration of wood tissue caused by fungi (wood destroying) or other microorganisms. 2.2.5 Decayed Knot A knot softer than the surrounding wood and containing decay. 2.2.6 Diameter of Knot The maximum distance between the two points farthest apart on the periphery of a round knot, on the face on which it becomes visible. In the case of a spike or a splay knot, the maximum width of the knot visible on the face on which it appears shall be taken as its diameter. 2.2,7 Discoloration A change from the normal colour of the wood which does not impair the strength of the wood. 2.2.8 Knot A branch base or limb embedded in the tree or timber by natural growth. 2.2.9 Knot Hole A hole left as a result of the removal of a knot. 2.2.10 Live Knot A knot free from decay and other defects, in which the fibres are firmly intergrown with those of the surrounding wood. Syn. Integrown knot; cf. Dead Knot. 2.2.11 Loose Grain (Loosened Grain) A defect on a flat sawn surface caused by the separation or raising of wood fibres along the growth rings; C$ Raised Grain. 2.2.12 Loose Knot A knot that is not held firmly in place by growth or position, and that cannot be relied upon to remain in place; c~ Tight Knot. 2.2.13 A40uld A soft vegetative growth that forms on wood in damp, stagnant atmosphere. It is the least harmful type of fungus, usually confined to the surface of the wood. 2.2.14 Pitch Pocket Accumulation of resin between growth rings of coniferous wood as seen on the cross section. 2.2.15 Sap Stain Discoloration of the sapwood mainly due to fungi. 2.2.16 Sapwood The outer layer of log, which in the growing tree contain living cells and food material. The sapwood is usually lighter in colour and is readily attacked by insects and fungi. 2.2.17 Shake A partial or complete separation between adjoining layers of tissues as seen in end surfaces. 2.2.18 Slope of Grain The inclination of the fibres to the longitudinal axis of the member. 24

2.2.19 Sound Knot A tight knot free from decay, which is solid across its face, and at least as hard as the surrounding wood. 2.2.20 Split A crack extending from one face of a piece of wood to another and mns along the grain of the piece. 2.2.21 Tight Knot A knot so held by growth or position as to remain firm in position in the piece of wood; C$ Loose Knot. 2.2.22 Wane The original rounded surface of a tree remaining on a piece of converted timber. 2.2.23 Warp A deviation in sawn timber from a true plane surface or distortion due to stresses causing departure from a true plane. 2.2.24 Worm Holes Cavities caused by worms.

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PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES Section 2 Electrical and Allied Installations


2.1 For the purpose of this Section, the following definitions shall apply. 2.1.1 Accessory A device, other than current using equipment, associated with such equipment or with the wiring on an installation. 2.1.2 Apparatus Electrical apparatus including all machines, appliances and fittings in which conductors are used or of which they form a part. 2.1.3 Appliance An item of current using equipment other than a luminaire or an independent motor. 2.1.4 Bunched Cables are said to be bunched when two or more are contained within a single conduit, duct, ducting, or trunking or, if not enclosed, are not separated from each other. 2.1.5 Cable A length of single-insulated conductor (solid or stranded), or two or more such conductors, each provided with its own insulation, which are laid up together. The insulated conductor or conductors may or may not be provided with an overall mechanical protective covering. 2.1.6 Cable, Armoured A cable provided with a wrapping of metal (usually in the form of tape or wire) serving as a mechanical protection. 2.L7 Cable, Flexible A cable containing one or more cores, each formed of a group of wires, the diameters of the cores and of the wires being sufficiently small to afford flexibility. 2.1.8 Cable, Metal-Sheathed An insulated cable with a metal sheath. 2.1.9 Cable, PVC Sheathed-Insulated A cable in which the insulation of the conductor is a polyvinylchloride (PVC) compound; with PVC sheath also providing mechanical protection to the conductor core or cores in the cable. 2.1.10 Cable, Weatherproof A cable so constructed that when installed in uncovered locations, it will withstand all kinds of weather variations (see 2.1.80, for definition of Weatherproofing). 2.1.11 Cable, XLPE A cable in which the insulation of the conductor is cross-linked polythene and the mechanical protection is provided for the core or cores by a sheath of a poly vinyl chloride compound. 2.1.12 Ceiling Rose A fitting (usually used to attach to the ceiling) designed for the connection between the electrical installation wiring and a flexible cord (which is in turn connected to a lampholder). 26

2.1.13 Circuit An assembly of electrical equipment supplied from the same origin and protected against overcurrent by the same protective device(s). Certain types of circuit are categorized as follows: CategoW 1 Circuit A circuit (other than a fire alarm or emergency lighting circuit) operating at low voltage and supplied directly from a mains supply system. Catego~ 2 Circuit With the exception of fire alarm and emergency lighting circuits, any circuit for telecommunication (for example, radio, telephone, sound distribution, intruder alarm, bell and call and data transmission circuits) which is supplied from a safety source. Category 3 Circuit A fire alarm circuit or an emergency lighting circuit. 2.1.14 Circuit Breaker A mechanical switching device capable of making, carrying and breaking currents under normal circuit conditions and also of making, carrying for a specified time, and breaking currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions such as those of short circuit. NOTE A circuit breaker is, usually intended to operate in frequently, although some types are suitable for frequent operation. 2.1.15 Circuit, Final Sub An outgoing circuit connected to one-way distribution board and intended to supply electrical energy at one or more points to current, using appliances without the intervention of a further distribution board other than a one-way board. It includes all branches and extensions derived from that particular way in the board. 2.1.16 Cleat An insulated incombustible support normally used for insulated cable. 2.1.17 Conductor, Aerial Any conductor which is supported by insulators above the ground and is directly exposed to the weather. NOTE Four classes of aerial conductors are recognized: a) Bare aerial conductors, b) Covered aerial conductors, c) Insulated aerial conductors, and d) Weatherproof neutral-screened cable. 2.1.18 Conductor, Bare A conductor not covered with insulating material. 2.1.19 Conductor, Earthed A conductor with no provision for its insulation from earth. 2.1.20 Conductor, Insulated A conductor adequately covered with insulating material of such quality and thickness as to prevent danger. 27

2.1.21 Conductor of a Cable or Core The conducting portion consisting of a single wire or group of wires, assembled together and in contact with each other or connected in parallel. 2.1.22 Connector The part of a cable coupler or of an appliance coupler which is provided with female contact and is intended to be attached to the flexiblecable connected to the supply. 2.1.23 Connector Box or Joint Box A box forming apart of wiring installation, provided to contain joints in the conductors of cables of the installations. 2.1.24 Connector for Portable Appliances A combination of a plug and socket arranged for attachment to a portable electrical appliance or to a flexible cord. 2.1.25 Consumers Terminals The ends of the electrical conductors situated upon any consumers premises and belonging to him at which the supply of energy is delivered from the service line. 2.1.26 Cord, Flexible A flexible cable having conductor of small cross-sectional area. Two flexible cords twisted together are known as twin flexible cord. 2.1.27 Core of a Cable A single conductor of a cable with its insulation but not including any mechanical protective covering. 2.1.28 Cut-out Any appliance for automatically interrupting the transmission of energy through any conductor when the current rises above a predetermined amount. 2.1.29 Damp Situation A situation in which moisture is either permanently present or intermittently present to such an extent as to be likely to impair the effectiveness of an installation conforming to the requirements for ordinary situations. 2.1.30 Dead A portion of the circuit (normally expected to carry a voltage) at or near about earth potential or apparently disconnected from any live system. 2.1.31 Direct Earthing System A system of earthing in which the parts of an installation are so earthed as specified but are not connected within the installation to the neutral conductor of the supply system or to earth through the trip coil of an earth leakage circuit breaker. 2.1.32 Distance Area or Resistance Area {for Earth Electrode only) The area of ground (around an earth electrode) within which a voltage gradient measurable with ordinary commercial instruments exists when the electrode is being tested. 2.1.33 Discrimination (Over-Current Discrimination) Co-ordination of the operating characteristics of two or more over-cument protective devices such that, on the incidence of over-currents within stated limits, the device intended to operate within these limits does so, while the others do not. 28

NOTES 1 Protective devices should have discrimination so that only the affected part (minimum section) of the circuit is isolated, even though a number of protective devices maybe in the path of the over current. 2 Distinction is made between series discrimination involving different over-crment protective devices passing substantially the same over-current and network discrimination involving identical protective devices passing different proportions of the over-cument. 2.1.34 Earth The conductive mass of the earth, whose electric potential at any point is conventionally taken as zero. 2.1.35 Earth Continuity Conductor The conductor, including any clamp, connecting to the earthing lead or to each other those parts of an installation which are required to be earthed. It may be in whole or in part the metal conduit or the metal sheath or armour of the cables, or the special continuity conductor of a cable or flexible cord incorporating such a conductor. 2.1.36 Earth Electrode A conductor or group of conductors in intimate c?ntact with and providing an electrical connection to earth. 2.1.37 Earth Fault Accidental connections of a conductor to earth when the impedance is negligible, the connection is called a dead earth. 2.1.38 Earthing Lead The final conductor by which the connection to the earth electrode is made. 2.1.39 Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker System A system of earthing in which the parts of an installation, specified, to be earthed are so earthed through one or more earth leakage circuit-breakers or relays. 2.1.40 Enclosed Distribution Board An enclosure containing bus bars with one or more control and protected devices for the purpose of protecting, controlling or connecting more than one outgoing circuits fed from one or more incoming circuits. 2.1.41 Exposed Metal All metal parts of an installation which areeasily accessible other than: a) parts separated from live parts by double insulation; b) metal name-plates, screw heads, covers, or plates, which are supported on or attached or connected to substantial non-conductin material only in such a manner that they do not become alive in the event of failure of insulation of live parts and whose means of fixing do not come in contact with any internal metal; and

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c) parts which are separated from live parts by other metal parts which are themselves earthed or have double insulation. 2.1.42 Fire Survival Cable A cable which continues in service after exposure to a temperature of 900C for 20 min or 700C for 90 min. 2.1.43 Fitting, Lighting A device for supporting or containing a lamp or lamps (for example, fluorescent or incandescent) together with any holder, shade, or reflector, for exmple, a bracket, a pendant with ceiling rose, an electrolier, or a portable unit. 2.1.44 Flameproof Enclosure An enclosure which will withstand without injury any explosion of inflammable gas that may occur within it under practical conditions of operation within the rating of the apparatus (and recognized overloads, if any, associated therewith) and will prevent the transmission of flame which may ignite any inflammable gas that may be present in the surrounding atmosphere. NOTES 1 Hazardous areas are classified into different zones, depending upon the extent to which an explosive atmosphere could exist at that place. In such areas ffame proof switchgear, fittings, accessories, have to be used/installed in flameproof enclosure. 2 An electrical apparatus is not considered as flameproof unless it complies with the appropriate statutory regulations. 3 Other types of fittings are also in vogue in wiring installations, for example, increased safety. 2.1.45 Flame Retardant Cable Flame retardant cable with reduced halogen evaluation and smoke. 2.1.46 Fuse A device that, by the fusion of one or more of its specially designed and proportioned components, opens the circuit in which it is inserted when the current through it exceeds a given value for a sufficient time. The fuse comprises all the parts that form the complete device. 2.1.47 Fuse-Element A part of the fuse-link designed to melt under the action of current exceeding some definite value for a definite period of time. 2.1.48 Harmonics (Current and Voltage) All alternating current which is not absolutely sinusoidal is made up of a fundamental and a certain number of current harmonics which are the cause of its deformation (distortion) when compared to the theoretical sine-wave. 2.1.49 In.arnmable A material capable of being easily ignited.

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2.1.50 Installation (Electrical), of Buildings An assembly of associated electrical equipment to fulfil a specific purpose or purposes and having coordinated characteristics. 2.1.51 Insulated Insulated shall mean separated from adjacent conducting material or protected from personal contact by a non-conducting substance or an air space, in either case offering permanently sufficient resistance to the passage of current or to dkwuptive discharges through or over the surface of the substance or space, to obviate danger or shock or injurious leakage of current. 2.1.52 Insulation, Basic Insulation applied to live parts to provide basic protection against electric shock. NOTE Basic insulation does not necessarily include insulation used exclusively for functional purposes. 2.1.53 Insulation, Double Insulation comprising both basic and supplementary insulation. 2.1.54 Insulation (Electrical) Suitable nonconducting material, enclosing, surrounding or supporting a conductor. 2.1.55 Insulation, Reinforced Single insulation applied to live parts, which provides a degree of protection against electric shock equivalent to double insulation under the conditions specified in the relevant standard. NOTE The term single insulation does not imply that the insulation must be one homogeneous piece. It may compris severaf layers which catmot & tested singly as supplementary or basic insulation. 2.1.56 Insulation, Supplementary Independent insulation applied in addition to basic insulation in order to provide protection against electric shock in the event of a failure of basic insulation. 2.1.57 Linked Switch Switches linked together mechanically so as to operate simultaneously or in definite sequence. 2.1.58 Live or Alive Electrically charged so as to have a potential different from that of earth. 2.1.59 Locations, Industrial Locations where tools and machinery requiring electrical wiring are installed for manufacture or repair. 2.1.60 Locations, Non-Industrial Locations other than industrial locations, and shall include residences, offices, shops, showrooms, stores and similar premises requiring electrical wiring for lighting, or similar purposes.

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2.1.61 Miniature Circuit Breaker Mechanical switching device capable of making, carrying and breaking currents under normal circuit conditions and also making carrying currents for specified times and automatically breaking currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions such as those of overload and short circuits. 2.1.62 Multiple Earthed Neutral System A system of earthing in which the parts of an installation specified to be earthed are connected to the general mass of earth and, in addition, are connected within the installation to the neutral conductor of the supply system. 2.1.63 Neutral Conductor Includes the neutral conductor of a three-phase four-wire system, the conductor of a single-phase or dc installation which is earthed by the supply undertaking (or otherwise at the source of the supply), and the middle wire or common return conductor of a three-wire dc or single-phase ac system. 2.1.64 Plug A device, provided with contact pins, which is intended to be attached to a flexible cable, and which can be engaged with a socket outlet or with a connector. 2.1.65 Point (in Wiring) A termination of the fixed wiring intended for the connection of current using equipment. 2.1.66 Residual Current Circuit Breaker A mechanical switching device design to make, carry and break currents under normal service conditions and to cause the opening of the contacts when the residual currents attains a giving value under specifiedconditions. 2.1.67 Service The conductors and equipment required for delivering energy from the electric supply system to the wiring system of the premises served. 2.1.68 Socket-Outlet Accessory having socket contacts designed to engage with the pins of a plug and having terminals for the connection of cable(s). NOTE A Iuminaire track system is not regarded as a socketoutlet system. 2.1.69 Switch A mechanical switching device capable of making, carrying and breaking current under normal circuit conditions, which may include specified operating overload conditions, and also of carrying for a specified time currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions such as those of short circuit. NOTE A switch may also be capable of making, but not breaking, short-circuit currents. 2.1.70 Switchboard An assembly of switchgear with or without instruments, but the term does not apply to a group of local switches in a final circuit. NOTEThe term switchboard includes a distribution board. 2.1.71 Switch Disconnectors A device used to open (or close) a circuit when either negligible current is interrupted (or established) or when the significant change in the 32

voltage across the terminals of each of the pole of the disconnectors occurs; in the open position it provides an isolating distance between the terminals of each pole. 2.1.72 Switch Disconnector Fuse A composite unit, comprising a switch with the fuse contained in or mounted on the moving member of the switch. 2.1.73 Switchgear A general term covering switching devices and their combination with associated control, measuring, protective and Regu lating equipment, also assemblies of such devices and equipment with associated interconnections, accessories, enclosures and supporting structures, intended in principle for use in connection with generation, transmission, distribution and conversion of electric energy. 2.L74 Usable Wall Space All portions of a wall, except that occupied by a door in its normal open position, or occupied by a fire place opening, but excluding wall spaces which are less than 1 m in extent measured along the wall at the floor line. 2.1.75 Voltage, Extra Low (ELV) The voltage which does not normally exceed 50 V. 2.1.76 Voltage, Low (LV) The voltage which normally exceed 50 V but does not normally exceed 250 V. 2.1.77 Voltage, Medium (MV) The voltage which normally exceeds 250 V hut does not exceed 650 V. 2.1.78 Voltage, High (HT, HV) The voltage which normally exceeds 650 V but less than or equal to 33 kV. 2.1.79 Voltage, Extra High (EHT) The voltage,which normally exceeds 33 kV. 2.1.80 Weatherproof Accessories, lighting fittings,current-using appliances and cables are said to be of the weatherproof type, if they are so constructed that wheninstalled in open situation they will withstand the effects of rain, snow, dust and temperature variations.

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PART 10 LANDSCAPING, SIGNS AND OUTDOOR DISPLAY STRUCTURES Section 1 Landscape Planning and Design
2.1 Avenue A wide road or pathway lined with trees on either sides, 2.2 Buffer The use of landscape to curtail view, sound or dust with plants or earth berms, wall, or any such element. 2.3 Climber (Creeper/Vine) A non-supporting plant, woody or herbaceous, which clings to a wall, trellis or other structures as it grows upward. 2.4 Columnar A slender, upright plant form. 2.5 Contour The form of the land, existing or proposed; a part of the topography, indicated by map lines at intervals as desired, to understand the landfonn clearly. The contour line though imaginary, indicates continuous elevation above mean sea level or an assumed datum line. 2.6 Contour Interval The difference in elevationor the vertical distance measured between consecutive contour lines. 2.7 Egress A way out, or exit. 2.8 Elevation A contour line or notation of relative altitude, useful in plotting existing or proposed feature. 2.9 Exotic A plant that is not native to the area in which it is planted. 2.10 Fencing A barrier of plant or construction material used to set off the boundary of an area and to restrict visual or physical passage in or out of it. 2.11 Foliage The collective leaves of a plant or plants. 2.12 Gee-textile Any permeable textile (natural or synthetic) used with foundation, soil, rock, earth or any other geotechnical engineering-related material as an integral part of a human made project, structure or system. 2.13 Grade The slope or lay of the land as indicated by a related series of elevations. 2.13.1 Natural Grade Grade consisting of contours of unmodified natural Iandform. 2.13.2 Finished Grade Grade accomplished after landscape features are installed and completed as shown on plan,as proposed contours.

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2.14 Gradient The degree of slope of a pipe invert or road or land surface. The gradient is a measure of the slope height as related to its base. The slope is expressed in terms of percentage or ratio. 2.15 Grading The cutting and/or filling of earth to establish smooth finish contours for a landscape construction project. Grading facilitates good drainage and sculpts land to suit the intent of landscape design. 2.16 Grasses Plants that characteristically have joint stems, sheaths and narrow blades (leaves). 2.17 Groundcover The planting material that forms a carpet of low height; these lowgrowing plants are usually installed as the final part of landscape construction. 2.18 Hard Landscape Civil work component of landscape architecture such as pavement, wrdkways, roads, retaining walls, sculpture, street amenities, fountains and other built environment. 2.19 Hardy Plant Plants that can withstand harsh temperature variations, pollution, dust, extreme soil conditions, and minimal water requirements and the likes. These plants have ability to remain dormant in such conditions and survive. 2.20 Hedge Number of shrubs or trees (often similar species) planted closely together in a line. A hedge may be pruned to shape or allowed to grow to assume its natural shape. 2.21 Herb An annual plant with a non-woody or fleshy structure. Certain herbs are highly useful for cooking or of high medicinal value. 2.22 Ingress A way in, or entrance. 2.23 Invert The low inside point of a pipe, culvert, or channel. 2.24 Kerb A concrete or stone edging along a pathway or road often constructed with a channel to guide the flow of storm water and thereby serving dual purpose. 2.25 Mound A small hill or bank of earth, developed as a characteristic feature in landscape. 2.26 Native A plant indigenous to a particular locale. 2.27 Screen A vegetative or constructed hedge or fence used to block wind, undesirable views, noise, glare and the like, as part of in landscape design; also known as screen planting and buffer plantation. 2.28 Sediment The product of erosion processes; the solid material, both mineral and organic, that is in suspension, is being transported or has been moved from its site of origin by air, water, gravity or ice. 35

2.29 Shrub A woody plant of low to medium height, deciduous or evergreen, generally having many stem. 2.30 Soft Landscape The natural elements in landscape design, such as plant materials and the soil itself. 2.31 Spot Elevation In surveying and contour layout, an existing or proposed elevation noted as a dot on the plan. 2.32 Street/Outdoor Furniture Items of furnishing in outdoor landscape. 2.33 Swale A linear wide and shallow depression used to temporarily store, route or filter runoff. A swale may be grassed or lined. 2.34 Topsoil The uppermost layer of the soil. 2.35 Transplanting Moving a plant from its place of origin to another location. 2.36 Tree A woody plant, generally taller than 2.00 m, with a well-distinguished trunk or trunks below the leaf crown. 2.36.1 Deciduous Tree Tree that sheds all its leaves in autumn or in dry season. 2.36.2 Evergreen Tree Tree that remains green for most part of the year and sheds leave slowly throughoutthe year. 2.37 Tree Grate A metal grille, installed at the base of a tree otherwise surrounded by pavement, that allows the free passage of air, water, and nutrients to the tree root, but does not interfere with the foot traffic. 2.38 Tree/Plant Guard The protection constructed around a tree to deter vandalism and help to prevent damage. It could be made of metal, bamboo or concrete or the like.

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