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CONTENTS

S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Topic Page Rice Research in India Current Status and Future Prospects B.C. Viraktamath 1 Current status of Hybrid Rice Research & Development in India B. C. Viraktamath Varietal improvement in rice - N. Shobha Rani Hybrid Rice Global Status A.S. Hari Prasad Grain quality vis--vis hybrid rice N. Shobha Rani Hybrid rice seed production An Overview A.S. Hari Prasad Principles of hybrid rice seed production P. Senguttuvel Genetic purity testing of hybrids/parental lines R.M. Sundaram Hybrids for problem situations (Aerobic & saline-alkaline) P. Senguttuvel Seed testing, certification and storage of hybrid rice seed L.V. Subba Rao 23 35 60 71 90 99 106 111 119

S.No. 11.

Topic Agronomic management for hybrid rice cultivation and seed production R. Mahender Kumar Integrated weed management in rice P. Krishna Murthy System of Rice Intensification Vis--vis hybrid lines R. Mahender Kumar Identification of paddy weeds B. Sreedevi Integrated nutrient management in hybrid rice K.V. Rao Organic farming in Rice - K. Surekha Insect pest management in hybrid rice G.R. Katti Disease management in hybrid rice M.S.Prasad Extension strategies to popularize hybrid rice technology P. Muthuraman Innovative methods of technology transfer with special reference to hybrid rice S.N. Meera Keys to Identify Insect Pests of Rice in the Field
- Mangal Sain

Page 136 149 165 180 186 189 198 212 221 226 239

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

Rice Research in India Current Status and Future Prospects


B. C. Viraktamath Project Director Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad

The current global population of 6.4 billions is expected to reach 7.5 billions by 2020 and 9.0 billions by 2050 AD. Most of this population increase will occur in developing countries of Asia and Africa, where rice is the staple food. Globally rice is cultivated now on 155 million hectares with annual production of around 443 million tons and average productivity of 2.85 tons/ha. Around 90% of the rice is produced and consumed in Asian countries. The other continents in which rice is grown are Africa (5.58% of the global area), South America (3.14%) and North America (1.23%). In India during the period 2008-09, rice was cultivated in an area of 44 million hectare with a production of 99.37 million tons of rice, average productivity being 2.26 t/ha. Large scale food shortages were experienced in India and in several neighbouring countries in Asia during late 50s and early 60s. Frequently there were dire warnings of impending widespread famines. During this grim scenario, the semi-dwarf, fertilizer responsive, high yielding genotypes of rice and wheat were introduced, which led to phenomenal increase in production and productivity of these crops. The food situation in many Asian countries progressively became better. This phenomenal turn around on food front from scarcity to self sufficiency and in few cases even to exportable surplus is referred to as Green Revolution. Most of the Asian countries have been able to keep pace between rice production growth rate and that of population during the last four decades. This has been mainly possible due to the contributions made by the green revolution technologies. However, it is of great concern to note that the rate of growth in rice production has started declining during 90s and there has been a plateauing effect. The population growth in most of the Asian countries, except China, continues to be around 2% per year. Hence it is very pertinent to critically consider whether the rice production can be further increased to keep pace with population growth with the current green revolution technologies. It is estimated that by 2020 at least 115-120 million tons of milled rice is to be produced in India to maintain the present level of self sufficiency. Is there a need for a paradigm shift in rice research to meet the challenges of the future decades for ensuring food security? Do we need to adopt the gene revolution technologies? After a brief review of rice research in India and considering the gains obtained through green revolution technologies, the possibilities and prospects of utilizing the gene revolution technologies are considered for further enhancing the production and productivity of rice for not only ensuring food security but also nutritional security.

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Rice Research in India


Systematic rice research in India was initiated in 1911 in the then provinces of Bengal and Madras. Initial research work involved collection of land races and their systematic evaluation. Pure line selection was practiced with these land races and more than 300 pure line varieties were developed in various parts of the country during the first 40 years. Recombination breeding was initiated subsequently. The rice breeding work carried out prior to 1960 has been reviewed by Parthasarthy (1972) and Gangadharan (1985). Significant aspects of rice research in India have been reviewed by Krishnaiah (1998). Prior to sixties, most of the rice varieties cultivated were tall and leafy with a low harvest index of around 0.3, long duration, photo sensitive and were susceptible to lodging when higher level of fertilizer was applied with a productivity of less than 1.0 tonne/ha. Breeders soon realized that to increase the yield potential it was necessary to promote responsiveness of the rice plant to management, make it photoinsensitive and redesign the plant architecture to prevent lodging. This was accomplished by reducing the plant height through incorporation of a dwarfing gene sd-1 conferring short stature, from a japonica variety, Dee-geo-woo-gen. The presence of this single gene ensured that the varieties were semi-dwarf, had good response to the applied fertilizers, non-lodging and better in yield, thus raising the productivity to more than 4-5 tonnes/ha compared to the traditional Indian rice cultivars. The mechanism of change in plant architecture brought out by dwarfing gene sd-1 has now been elucidated and involves a single gene mutation making the plant non-responsiveness to endogenous Gibberellin. Scientists at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) developed IR8 in 1966, a semi-dwarf variety with sturdy stems that became quickly popular with farmers and ushered the green revolution in rice in Asia. With a harvest index of 0.5, and appropriate crop management, yields were doubled. Being photo-insensitive IR8 could be planted at any time of the year and hence the rice crop could fit in well with any cropping system that farmers would find profitable. This land-saving technological innovation enabled farmers to increase food production without recourse to extending cultivation to marginal land. Subsequently a semi-dwarf high yielding variety Jaya was developed in India and released in 1968 through AICRIP. Adoption of semi-dwarf high yielding rice varieties on a large scale, however, increased farmers' dependence on chemical fertilizers. It also required control of water regimes on rice farms and therefore supplementary investment was needed to develop irrigation facilities. In the initial phase intensive cultivation of High Yielding Varieties (HYV) with high dose of chemical fertilizers new pest problems like that of brown planthopper surfaced. To counter this, there was a need to rely on insecticides for pest management. The evolution and spread of semi-dwarf rice varieties, nonetheless ensured countrys food security. The ever-increasing population coupled with depleting soil and water resources and transformation in dietary habits necessitate a change in our approach to rice improvement and deployment of altogether new strategies to meet the future rice demands.

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Breeding Strategies for Post-Green Revolution Era


Most traditional varieties in tropical and subtropical Asia grown during 1960s matured in 160-170 days and many were photoperiod sensitive. These were suitable for growing one crop of rice a year during the rainy season. Considering the demand for food for the population, plant breeders developed varieties that matured early with higher yield potential. The key to the success was the selection of the genotypes with rapid vegetative vigor at the earlier growth stages. This helped farmers to grow two rice crops during the year in areas where good irrigation facilities existed, or introduce a non-rice crop in the rice-based system depending on the resources available. While the profitability in rice farming increased with new varieties, a relatively small number of improved varieties, however, have replaced thousands of traditional ones, thereby reducing the genetic variability of the rice crop. The reduction in biodiversity, coupled with vegetative growth and continuous cropping, increased the vulnerability of the rice crops to insects and diseases. Scientists addressed this problem by incorporating resistance to major insects and diseases in newly released modern varieties. Large germplasm collections were screened and donors for resistance identified. Utilizing these donors, improved varieties with resistance to three major diseases (blast, bacterial blight and tungro) and three insects (brown planthopper, green leafhopper and gall midge) have been developed. Large-scale adoption of varieties with a broader geneticbase has helped stabilize rice yield and reduce the use of pesticides. During this phase, the emphasis has also been on development of grain quality suited to different regions of the country.

Contribution of AICRIP to Rice Improvement Efforts in India


Realizing the importance of location specific needs and the large influence of regional environment on the yield performance of cultivars, a multi-location coordinated testing program was initiated by the ICAR in the form of All-India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project (AICRIP) in 1965 with the coordinating center at Hyderabad. Varietal improvement component of this program basically involved pooling of breeding material generated in over 100 regional rice breeding stations and testing them under different groups designed for different rice ecologies and agroclimatic zones. The performance of the test lines is compared with the best check then available for the respective group. While the best performing breeding lines over three years of testing across the zones for a particular ecosystem are identified for variety release notification by the central board, those performing well in a specific zone/region are considered for release for commercial cultivation by the concerned states. The greatest advantage of the system has been free exchange of genetic material and rapid identification of the promising breeding lines. The success of AICRIP over the past 40 years of intensive testing program is reflected in release of 850 rice varieties, to date, for different ecosystems and agro-ecologies. Some of the high yielding varieties developed have become very popular with the farmers during the last two decades (Table 1).

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Development and Use of Hybrids


Convinced of the potential of hybrid rice technology to enhance productivity and production of rice, in light of the remarkable success of the Chinese in this field, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) initiated a goal oriented project in December, 1989 to develop and utilize hybrid rice in Indian Agriculture. First set of hybrids were developed and released in 1994. Till now 43 hybrids have been released, 28 from public sector and 15 from private sector. The hybrid rice seed production and cultivation packages have been developed and optimized. During the year 2008, hybrids were cultivated in an area of 1.4 m. ha. It is expected that during the next five years hybrids will cover 2-3 million hectares. The popular hybrids being cultivated in the country are PA6444, PHB-71, Pusa RH-10, KRH2, DRRH-2, Sahyadri etc. More than 30 private seed companies are actively involved in hybrid rice research, development and large scale seed production. Over 95 percent of the hybrid rice seed in the country is produced by the private sector. By cultivation of hybrids farmers are obtaining an additional yield advantage of 1-2 t/ha, the additional net profit being in the range of Rs. 3,000 5,000 per ha. In hybrid rice seed production, seed yields of around 2.0 t/ha are obtained with a net profit of Rs. 25,000 to Rs. 30,000/- per ha for the seed growers. At present hybrids are cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar, Haryana and Punjab. Some of the major constraints to further expansion of hybrid rice are unacceptable grain quality, lack of resistance to major pests and diseases and higher seed cost. Research efforts to overcome these constraints are underway. It is expected that hybrid rice will play a major role along with the New Plant Type (NPT) varieties, in raising the productivity and production of rice in the coming decades.

Development of aerobic rice adapted to water stress conditions


Water stress is an important abiotic stress limiting rice yields across the world. Traditionally rice crop requires almost thrice the quantity of water when compared to maize and wheat. The progressive reduction in water resources across the world necessitates the development of alternative strategies to combat water stress in rice. One such strategy is the development of aerobic rice which can survive moderate drought. Biotechnology can help in development of aerobic rice through the application of molecular markers, genetic engineering and genomic tools. Novel molecular and biotechnological methodologies can be used to identify stress-related genes and use them as probes for selection of tolerant genotypes and for generation of transgenic plants. Similarly, identification and utilization of molecular markers linked to gene(s) associated with drought tolerance can tremendously boost the capacity of rice cultivars to resist water scarcity.

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Deployment of Biotechnological tools


The efforts of rice breeders have no doubt brought the rice yield levels to such a stage where at least for the present; food production growth will outrace population growth. But we should not be complacent as the vagaries of monsoon and disturbing trend with respect to soil health are bound to destabilize rice production and we must therefore be ready to face the challenges of the future by judicious and prudent application of biotechnological tools. From a breeders perspective, biotechnology helps to add precision in the breeding process to become more target oriented and purposeful compared to traditional breeding. Biotechnology can help in improving rice breeding through: 1. Transfer of economically important traits across genus/species barrier into the rice gene pool (i.e. Broadening the genetic base) 2. Manipulation of target trait without disruption to the non target regions of the rice genome (i.e. Increasing efficiency in selection) 3. Shortening the breeding cycle The three broad applications of rice biotechnology that are expected to contribute both directly and indirectly towards rice improvement efforts in India are discussed here.

DNA marker technology


The application of molecular markers in rice improvement started with the efforts of Cornell University and IRRI using RFLP markers for development of molecular linkage maps in rice. The first restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) map of rice was developed in 1988. Later a comprehensive genetic map was developed with more than 2250 DNA markers by Harushima et al., (1998). RFLPs being laborious and costly were then replaced with more robust, simple to use PCR based markers like microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSR), Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs), Sequence tagged sites (STSs) etc. These simple PCR based markers help breeders to track the introgression of the target genes across segregating progenies. Markers tightly linked to the gene(s) of interest can be used at any crop stage for testing the presence of the gene(s) without waiting to observe its phenotypic manifestations. In addition, markers, which are co-dominant (eg. Microsatellites) also help us know the allelic status of a gene and thus are very helpful in recurrent/backcross breeding programs for introgression of recessive but agronomically important gene(s). More than 25 agronomically important rice genes have already been tagged with markers and can readily be deployed by breeders in breeding programmes. A successful use of marker-aided selection (MAS) has been shown in the development of Improved Sambha Mahsuri (DRR, Hyderabad) and Improved Pusa

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Basmati-1 (IARI, New Delhi) by pyramiding Xa-genes for bacterial blight resistance into otherwise popular rice varieties.

Genetic engineering for rice improvement


Genetic transformation is another tool that promises to revolutionize Indian rice production scenario. The most important advantage of transgenic technology is the capacity to mobilize useful genes from non-rice gene pool to rice with least disruption to rice genome. Ever since the publication of the first reports on successful production of transgenic rice plants of Japonica in 1988, a large number of rice varieties have been introduced with agronomically and economically important genes. Direct DNA transfer methods such as protoplasts, biolistic method and Agrobacterium-mediated methods are being used routinely in rice transformation in the biotechnology laboratories across the world including India. Transgenic indica rice tolerant to biotic stresses such as insect pests and disease causing organisms like viruses, fungi and bacteria have been developed and tested by research groups worldwide. Transgenic rice with herbicide resistant gene has also been tested under field conditions. In India, transformation studies initially involved standardization of various gene transfer techniques. The marker genes freely available in public domain to most researchers like Gus and hygromycin resistance were widely used for confirmation of transformation events. Subsequently, genes that confer resistance to pest or disease were targeted and within a few years, Nayak and co-workers reported the development of first transgenic rice with BT gene in 1997. Since then, several groups started working on transfer of different genes into important genotypes of rice, most notably the introduction of Bt genes such as cry1A(b), cry1A(c) to obtain resistance against yellow stem borer. Research groups in India have recently succeeded in transferring BT genes into indica rice cultivars such as IR64, Karnal Local and Pusa Basmati using Agrobacterium strategy. Similarly, work is progressing in development of transgenic rice resistant to bacteria leaf blight and sheath blight using constructs with Xa21 and Thaumatin like proteins. In India many research groups including IARI, New Delhi; Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai; DRR, Hyderabad; Osmania University, Hyderabad etc are working towards this objective. Now that transgenic rice lines are already developed both in India and abroad, it is time for their critical evaluation and assessment of suitability under Indian conditions. IARI, New Delhi and this Directorate are undertaking limited field evaluation of transgenic indica rice lines developed at both DRR and IRRI for stem borer and bacterial leaf blight resistance. Engineering rice to survive adverse abiotic stresses is also receiving attention. The abiotic stresses, which limit rice yields, include Salinity, alkalinity, drought and cold. Traditional breeding has contributed significantly to salinity tolerance and salt tolerant varities like CSR10, CSR11, CSR27, CSR30 etc. have been developed in India. But unlike biotic stress resistance where a single gene conferred resistance can effectively combat the pest/disease, abiotic stress tolerance is complicated due to the involvement of many genes. Studies using molecular markers basically aim at tagging
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and mapping of genes/QTLs associated with abiotic stress tolerance. Once tightly linked markers are available for such QTLs associated with the tolerance traits can be pyramided in the background of a popular high yielding cultivar. Genetic engineering is another promising biotechnology approach for developing rice cultivars with enhanced abiotic stress tolerance. It is beyond doubt that transgenic technology offers more powerful solutions for incorporation of complex traits like abiotic stress tolerance compared to traditional breeding approaches. Nutritional quality improvement is another area where genetic engineering is playing a critical role. Considering the inadequacy of rice with respect to human nutritional requirement and the non-availability of enough genetic variation in rice gene pool with respect to nutritional traits, researchers worldwide have targeted deployment of transgenes from other taxa for nutritional improvement of rice. Three genes - two from daffodil and one from a bacterium Erwinia uredovora have been used to provide the biosynthesis pathway for the production of beta-carotene, a precursor of Vitamin A, in rice. Transgenic rice, known popularly as Golden Rice, has already been produced through transformation on a japonica rice variety, T309 and recently in indica rice IR64. Since the inventors of the technology have donated it free-of cost to developing countries like India, Department of Biotechnology and Indian council of Agricultural Research have formalized a programme to transfer the beta-carotene biosynthetic traits to locally popular Indian rice varieties through marker assisted backcross breeding and genetic transformation. Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, University of Delhi, South Campus, New Delhi and Tamilnadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore has been entrusted with the responsibility of developing Indian version of Golden rice.

Application of Genomics for Rice Improvement


Similar to DNA marker technology and rice transgenics, rice genomics is another area full of prospects. The developments in the last five years have been explosive and we now have a complete sequence of the rice genome (Sasaki 2002). As the rice genome is being completely sequenced, biotechnologists have started a systematic assessment of the phenotypes resulting from the disruption of putative gene sequences with genetic resources such as mutants, near-isogenic lines, permanent mapping populations, and elite and conserved germplasm. Functional genomics, to a large extent, is analogous to the extensive germplasm screening that has allowed the extraction of useful traits in conventional breeding programs, yet with DNA sequence level precision on a global genome scale. The judicious utilization of the sequence information through functional genomic analyzes will certainly offer solutions to many a breeding problems through means hitherto not thought of. The availability of rice genome information is the foundation for the identification of orthologous genes in cereals and also facilitates the sequencing of other cereal genomes. An international collaboration was established for completion of rice genome sequencing and to coordinate the concerted utilization of sequence information for the benefit of humankind. This initiative called the International Rice Genome sequencing Project (IRGSP) is publicly funded and has 8 countries as its members. IRGSP has recently released completion of rice genome sequencing to ten-fold redundancy.
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Broadly, the science of genomics has two components Structural and Functional genomics. Structural genomics deals with large scale sequencing of genomes and understanding how genes are arranged in the genome. Functional genome pertains to the utilization of genome sequence to understand how genes function, their interactions, how genes are expressed, how their expression is regulated spatially and temporally. Shortly speaking the goal of Functional geneticists is to assign function to the complete set of rice genes numbering to about 40,000. The final task would be assigning roles to each and every rice gene for various cellular, structural and regulatory functions like transcription factors, mRNA synthesis, splicing, protein structure and their sites of action. Studies on secondary metabolites and their action in rice are also important aspect to be addressed through functional genomics. The rice genome information is vital starting point for mining new genes and various pathways. India, being an active partner in the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP) can exploit the rice genome sequence information made available to it by development of more reliable gene specific DNA markers, identification of critical pathways and metabolic networks related to yield, biotic and abiotic stress resistance and identification of novel rice genes for deployment through transgenic technology. The field of nutritional genomics needs proper impetus. Understanding and manipulation of the phenomenon of heterosis is another area where genomics can help.

Crop and Resource Management


Crop and resource management research intensified with the introduction of management and input responsive, photo-insensitive plant type based high yielding rice varieties. The latter provided ample opportunities for increasing cropping intensity depending on the resources available and developed, indicating the need for development of management technologies for intensive and efficient use of resources and inputs to realize the yield potential with enhanced factor productivity of evolved rice varieties and the production system. Combination of cultural and input management strategies involving identification of nutrient efficient varieties, integrated management of nutrients with balanced use of inputs, appropriate crop residue and organic/ green manuring practices, use of modified fertilizers and production potential of cropping systems and their sustainability were some of the areas of research pursued. The unique system of soil puddling for rice establishment, weed and water control not only benefited rice growth and nutrition, but also favoured loss of nutrients like nitrogen through several means from the system resulting in low N use efficiency. Rice derives more than two-thirds of its total N from native soil pool and about 25-35 per cent from the applied fertilizer N. Nitrogen losses through volatilization and leaching accounted for about 50 per cent from fertilizers such as urea. Coating of urea with suitable materials to control transformation of applied N in soil reduced N loss and increased its utilization by rice. Neem cake-coated urea (NCCU) applied as basal dose performed better than split-applied prilled urea under uncontrolled water situations in diverse soil types. Neem-cake possesses both urease and nitrification-inhibition properties, and a 10-15% higher efficiency through NCCU than prilled urea is common.
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Placement of fertilizer N in the reduced zone of soil decreased gaseous loss and improved use efficiency of the applied N. Urea super-granules (USG) developed for placement at desired depth, i.e. 10-15 cm, was extensively tested across the country. The field trials indicated 6 to 30% higher efficiency due to basal placement of USG over the conventional split application of prilled urea. Subsurface application of urea solution in the root zone of rice 10 days after transplanting by an indigenously fabricated applicator was also found equally effective in improving use efficiency of applied fertilizer N. Under controlled irrigated systems application of N fertilizer in 2 or 3 split doses depending on the duration of the crops to match with plant requirement of modern HYVs, preferably incorporating basal dose in the soil and top dressing after draining water improved N use efficiency. About 26 per cent of N efficiency was attributed to poor water control generally encountered in rainfed low land systems. Real time N management guided through chlorophyl meter or leaf colour chart enhanced N use efficiency substantially and saved 20- 30 per cent of N fertilizer. Water management showed strong interaction with the efficiency of applied N as well as that of water. While rotational irrigation at 7 day interval resulted in significant yield reduction and increase in N loss through ammonia volatilization showing seasonal variations, a 4- day cyclic irrigation optimized water use with no loss of grain and applied N. A net saving in irrigation water to the extent of 18-24 per cent could be achieved in transplanted irrigated rice with rotational irrigation resulting in substantial improvement in water use efficiency (DRR, 2003). Rice varieties differ in their response to nutrient and water management indicating importance of choice of varieties for integration to ultimately reach high input and resource use efficiency. Rice varieties like Swarna, Rasi, IET 15342, IET 11771, IET 12884 and hybrids were observed to be more efficient in utilizing nitrogen while Rasi, IET 12884 and hybrids recorded higher water use efficiency by 22 per cent over continuous submergence. Grain yield response to phosphorus application is substantial in most of acid and heavy clay soils. Dipping of rice seedlings in super phosphate soil slurry before transplanting or nursery application of P proved effective in terms of cost reduction with no yield loss and saved nearly 40 per cent of P fertilizer, while as P source, DAP or ammonium polyphosphate (APP) proved superior to SSP for their higher P use efficiency. Application of mixture of phosphate rock and SSP or phosphate rock alone (applied 2-3 weeks before planting or sowing) were efficient P sources for rice particularly in acid soils of pH 6.0 or below. Varieties such as Rasi, Vikas etc, showed considerable tolerance in low soil P fertility and also responded to P application indicating choice of such varieties for different levels of crop management. Management of potassium (K) involves its application in single or split doses depending on soil type and crop / variety demand. In high rainfall areas with coarsetextured soils, split application of K (half at planting and half at panicle-initiation stage) gives higher efficiency. Based on the research findings, split application of K in rice has been recommended in Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. Benefits of split application of K in rice have also been realized in West Bengal and North-Eastern hills regions. The productivity of rice hybrids is improved by split application of K (basal and at PI stage) to support high grain filling demand of the hybrids. In
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intensively cultivated rice crop systems with total productivity of more than 10-12 t/ha it is preferable to apply higher (25-50%) dose of K to maintain nutrient balance in the system and prevent its depletion for sustaining long term productivity of the system (DRR 2003). Recycling of rice residues not only supplied substantial K into the system thereby saving fertilizer K, but also maintained favourable soil quality and its productivity. Almost half of the rice growing soils are deficient in Zn. It was found that Zn deficiency in rice can be alleviated by applying 50 kg ZnSO4/ha at transplanting once in 2 or 3 seasons. However, the optimum rate varies with the type of soil and its deficiency status, variety and method of Zn application. Rice yields decline appreciably with a 10-20 days delay in Zn application on Zn-deficient soils. Broadcasting and mixing of ZnSO4 into soil is the most efficient method. Mid-season correction can be done with foliar sprays of 0.5 % ZnSO4 solution. In salt affected soils it is advisable to double the dose of ZnSO4. Scarcity of labour and increasing wages make the manual weeding less efficient and uneconomical. Several herbicides like butachlor, oxadiazon, anilophos and oxyflurofen were found effective in controlling common weeds in lowland rice. Recent research has shown that use of herbicide combinations like butachlor + 2, 4-D Na, anilophos + 2, 4-D EE, pretilachlor + 2, 4-D EE, bensulfuron- methyl + butachlor etc. control wide spectrum weed flora and were cost effective in transplanted rice. Butachlor + safener, Pretilachlor + safener or Pyrazo sulfuron ethyl gave best control of weeds in direct-sown rice under puddle conditions. Rice crop established by broadcast sowing of seeds under puddled conditions generally suffers from uneven growth and gives lower yields than a transplanted rice crop. Line sowing of sprouted seeds at 20 cm spacing with a row seeder produced excellent crop stand and similar yields to that of transplanted crop. Varieties like Vikas, IET 9994, IET 10402 and Jalapriya performed well.

Crop Protection through Integrated Pest Management


Major focus of recent research in field of crop protection has been on development of specific pest and multiple pest resistant rice varieties for different rice ecologies, studies on variability of pest populations, identification of new effective and eco-friendly chemicals, development and evaluation of alternative strategies for regulation of pest populations, development of weather based pest forewarning systems and formulation and on farm evaluation of integrated pest management packages for various situations. New sources of broad spectrum resistance against insect pests and their biotypes have been identified in a concerted network program. The results of this multi-location evaluation covering 15,820 accessions of germplasm during 1993-99 periods identified 276 accessions resistant to blast, 50 to bacterial leaf blight, 28 to sheath blight, 282 to brown planthopper, 74 to stem borer and 395 to gall midge (DRR, 1999). Utilising some

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of these sources of resistance breeding for multiple pest resistance was intensified. Some of the recently release pest resistant varieties are listed in Table 2. Use of sex pheromone in population monitoring and pest control through mass trapping and mating disruption has been demonstrated on large scale FLDs and on farm trials. Effective integrated disease management strategies against blast and sheath blight involved cultivation of resistant varieties and need based fungicide application. For BLB it involved cultivation of resistant varieties and judicious nitrogen application. IPM package for insect pests under rainfed rice production systems consisted of resistant variety, balanced fertiliser application, release of Trichogramma egg parasitoids, use of pheromone traps against yellow stem borer and need based application of pesticide as the situation demands. Such a package effectively checked pests and resulted in increasing net profits of the farmers.

Impact of Rice Research


As a result of the intensified rice research efforts over the last 60 years since India achieved independence, the annual rice production has gone up four times from 22 million tons to 90 million tons of milled rice and the productivity has increased three times from 700 kg/ha to 2000 kg/ha. India has become rice exporting country from the rice deficient one. India became self sufficient in rice during the early 80s and has started exporting rice since 90s. During 1995-96 a total of 5.5 million tons of rice was exported valued at Rs. 4553 crores. During the year 2002 with 4.5 million tons of rice export, India became second largest rice exporting country after Thailand. During the period 1965-2008, through the All India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project (AICRIP), around 860 rice varieties were developed and released for various ecosystems. A recent analysis concluded that rice varietal improvement research in India has a share of 20-24% of rice production value and benefits from rice research are 10 times higher than the total investment in the agricultural research. Rice research has also helped in reducing the number of rural poor. Research efforts initiated on hybrid rice, new plant types and use of biotechnological tools have started to give their dividend and are likely to contribute much more towards enhancing the productivity and production of rice in the country in the decades ahead. For instance, area under rice hybrids reached 1.5 m.ha hectares during 2008. With an yield advantage of 1.5 ton/ha the additional production of rice during this period, cumulatively, has been 7.5 million tons valued at 3,759 crores. Similarly, Frontline demonstrations conducted by DRR have clearly shown a yield advantage of about 1 ton with the currently developed varieties under all the ecosystems (Fig. 2). Thus these varieties have a potential to increase rice production by 30-40 million tons. Thus the impact of rice research undertaken in the country has been very positive and significant one.

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Some of the Lacunae in the rice research


1. No suitable high yielding varieties for the unfavourable rainfed ecosystems 2. Lack of major breakthrough in yield potential for irrigated ecosystem after 1968. 3. Lack of hybrids with better grain quality and resistance to major pests and diseases 4. Lack of multiple pest resistant varieties 5. Lack of effective alternatives to host-plant resistance and chemical control in IPM package 6. Region based or location specific information on remunerative and sustainable cropping systems and package of practices are lacking 7. Low nutrient and water use efficiency 8. No concerted efforts to enhance productivity of boro and hill rices.

Future Thrust Areas for Rice Research


Genetic Resource Management
Germplasm collection, evaluation, conservation and utilization Multilocation evaluation of rice germplasm for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses Genetic diversity studies in rice germplasm for specific traits Molecular fingerprinting of rice genetic resources. Targeted and trait specific exploration and collection of plant genetic resources Evaluation and identification of useful agronomic traits in wild species of rice

Crop Resource Characterization


Fingerprinting of rice genetic resources including varieties using molecular markers Development of rice specific protocols for DUS characterization of rice varieties Studies on discovery, characterization and functional validation of genes responsible for yield and tolerance to biotic stress through use of functional genomics tools. Application of molecular markers for DUS testing

Crop Improvement
Genetic enhancement of yield and grain quality Development of ideal new plant types for different ecosystems Identification of additional genetically diverse sources of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Genetic enhancement of tolerance to drought, salinity, low and high temperatures etc. Genetic enhancement of biotic stress tolerance through maker aided selection to generate gene pyramids for durable multiple pest resistance
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Genetic enhancement of yield, pest resistance and quality under aerobic conditions Genetic enhancement of yield of quality and specialty rices. Genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology of agronomically and commercially important traits Identification and mapping genes/QTLs using molecular markers for desirable traits. Identification of diverse CMS sources and male fertility restorers Enhancement of nutritional quality through biofortification with pro -vitamin A, iron and zinc content Breeding by design to suit to diverse rice ecologies and prevailing biotic and abiotic stresses targeting multiple genes through marker aided selection Breeding for specific objectives arising from market demands and novel food processing technology

Crop Production
Analysis of varietal responses in relation to nutrient uptake and resource use. Diversification of rice based cropping systems for enhanced total factor productivity and resource utilization under different production systems Understanding dynamics of nutrients and soil parameters in relation to cropping intensity and cropping systems. Understanding physiological process under diverse rice production environments. Integrated nutrient management Understanding rice response to crop under resource management and climatic changes. Development of location/ situation specific efficient rice production systems involving conservation agriculture practices to sustain resource quality and productivity Enhancing resource efficiency through optimisation of resource use Increasing profitability through development of cost effective crop management and remunerative cropping systems. Selective mechanization for evolving productive systems and value addition.

Crop Protection
Pest risk assessment under changing production systems Identification of new sources of resistance against major pests and exploiting host plant resistance Development of screening methodology for resistance against new and emerging pests Basic studies on plant based agrochemicals/ bio-pesticides Genetic diversity assessment of pests and pathogen of rice in relation to host reaction

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Basics studies on pest/ natural enemy dynamics in relation to environment and management. Identification of effective and safe insecticides, fungicides and herbicides Monitoring evolution, characterization and mapping distribution of new virulent races and biotypes of major pests Development and evaluation of site and, situation specific IPM package Exploring and evaluating innovative, eco-friendly IPM intervention strategies like use pheromone, entomopathogenic nematodes, microbes, antagonists etc.

Seed Science and Technology


Development of cost effective molecular tests for testing seed purity of varieties, hybrids and parental lines. Enhancing hybrid seed yields.

Biosafety of Transgenics
Evaluation of transgenic rice lines for safety towards non-target organisms like parasites and predators, gene escape studies. Development of protocols for small and large scale testing of transgenics and their identification.

Rice and Global Climatic Changes


Anticipatory studies on the impact of global climatic changes on rice cultivation and reciprocal impact of rice cultivation on the global climatic changes.

Conclusions
In view of rapidly increasing population and decreasing and deteriorating resource base ensuring food security in the decades ahead is a very challenging task. During the last four decades, the green revolution technologies have helped immensely in keeping the rice production growth ahead of population growth. Of late, the gains of green revolution technologies are plateauing, causing great concern and creating a doubt in our ability to ensure food security in the decades ahead. To add to these, are the looming threats of global climatic changes whose precise impact on food production can only be anticipated. We have to devise ways and means to keep the production growth ahead of population growth. Radically new approaches and paradigm shifts are needed in rice research to enhance production and productivity in the decades ahead to meet the anticipated demands. Fortunately, rapid advances in molecular biology and biotechnology offer us new hopes to utilize the gene technologies for facing these challenges, hopefully leading to an era of gene revolution. While continuing with the green revolution technologies, which have paid very rich dividends during the last four decades and undoubtedly will continue to play a vital role in decades ahead, we will have to intensify our research
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efforts to harness the new gene technologies for enhancement of production and productivity. These new tools may also help us expand the scope of rice research to shoulder the responsibility of ensuring nutritional and health security as well. Through the judicious and pragmatic application of DNA marker technology, development of transgenics and utilization of genomic tools designer rice plants with higher yielding potential, better nutritional quality, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and with higher nutrient and water use efficiency may soon be created. Another equally important change sweeping through the global economic environment with WTO regime implementing more stringent IPR and TRIPS regulations is likely to influence the accessibility of the fruits of rice research to the end users. While there are greater scopes of public and private sector collaboration to generate a win-win environment, rice research may never tend to be all public good affair. Free exchange of germplasm, pre-breeding material and other prerequisites for rice research advancement may not be readily forthcoming. For India this requires development of necessary human resources, infrastructural facilities and interdisciplinary collaboration among plant breeders, molecular biologists, plant protection scientists, agronomists, physiologists, soil scientists and others. Thus to keep winning the war on food front, the green revolution technologies need to be supplemented and complemented by the nascent gene revolution technologies. We need to develop and effectively utilize gene revolution technologies for ushering in an evergreen revolution.

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Table 1: List of most popular rice varieties suitable for different states
State Andhra Pradesh Ecosystem Irrigated Name of the variety Shanti, Rasi*,Vikas*, Tella Hamsa, Rajendra, Bhadrakali, Deepti, IR64*, Surekha, Erramallelu, Kavya, Jagtial Sannalu, Krishna Hamsa, Triguna* Kesava, Indur Samba, Vijetha, MTU 1001, MTU 1010 (Cotton Sannalu), Suraksha*, Vibhava, Abhaya, Divya, Sasyasree*, Shiva, Samba Mahsuri, Warangal Sambha*, Prabhat, NDR 8002* Hybrids : APHR-1, APHR-2, PHB-71, PA -6201, PA -6444, RH -204, Suruchi, DRRH-1, GK -5003, PAC 837, US 312, DRRH-3, NK 5251 Tulasi*, Somasila, Varalu , Aditya*, Prasanna, Ravi, Rudrama

Rainfed upland Rainfed shallow

Assam

Bihar

Swarnadhan*, Phalguna, Mandya Vijaya, Swarna, Samba Mahsuri, Krishnaveni, Chaitanya, Pothana, Tolakari, Godawari, Baptala Sannalu, Sona Mahsuri, Surya, Vedagiri, Srikakulam Sannalu, Vasundhara, Dhanrasi*, Manasarovar*, Nandi, Pinakini, Thikkana, Orugallu, Sri Ranga, Sagara Sambha, Simhapuri Irrigated IR36*, IR64*, Luit, Satyaranjan, Basundara, Jayamati, Rasi*, Lachit, Chilari Rainfed Bahadur, Kushal, Ranjit, Manoharsali, Mahsuri, shallow Katekijoha, Rangili, Bhogali, Tapaswini, Lakshmi, water Salivahana*, Moniram Rainfed deep Amulya, Nalini, Jogen, Sabita, Jaladhi-1, Biraj water Post-flood Luit, Heera*, Kalinga-III Irrigated Pusa 2-21*, Pusa 44-33*, Gautham (Boro), CR 1002, Rajendradhan 201, Rajendradhan 202, IR 36*, IR 64*, Ajaya* Hybrid: KRH-2, PA -6201, Ganga, JKRH-401 Rainfed Anjali*, Aditya*, Rasi*, PNR 381*, Vandana, Heera*, Kalinga III, Turant Dhan upland Shallow Lowlands Irrigated Savithri*, Mahsuri, Sita, Radha, Rajashree, Kanak, Vaidehi, Pankaj*, Swarnadhan*, Rajendra Mahsuri Bamaleshwari, Mahamaya, Madhuri, Suraksha*, Abhaya, Dubraj, Ruchi, Indira Sugandhitdhan 1, NDR 8002*, Richa* Hybrid : Indira sona, Suruchi, HRI 157, DRH 775, PAC 837 Dhanteswari, Aditya*, Heera*, Annada, Poornima Shyamala, Swarnadhan*, Mahsuri, Phalguna, CR 1002, Safri-17, Kranti, Swarna Pusa 1121 (Pusa Sugandh 4), Pusa Sugandh 5*, Sugandhamati*
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Chhattisgarh

Delhi

Rainfed Upland Shallow Lowlands Aromatic Basmati

16

Goa

Irrigated

Gujarat

Rainfed upland Irrigated

Rasi*, Vikram, Jaya*, Suraksha*, Ratnagiri-3, Karjat-2, Karjat -3, Sugandha Hybrids : KRH-2 Rasi*, Goa-1 (Annada) Gurjari, Ratna*, Jaya*, IR 36*, IR 20*, GR 3, GR 7, GR11, Ambika, Narmada ,Mahsuri, IR 64*, GR 4 Hybrid: Suruchi, HRI 157, PAC 835, PAC 837, DRRH-3, NK 5251 GR 3, Rasi*, Prasanna, Tulasi*, GR 5, GR 8

Haryana

Himachal Pradesh

Jammu Kashmir

Dandi HKR 46, Pusa 44*, IR 64*, HKR 126, (Aromatic), Ajaya*, HKR 120, PR 108, PR 103, Ajaya* Hybrids : Pusa RH 10, Ganga, HKRH-1, PHB-71, RH -204, Suruchi, DRRH-2, Sahyadri-4 Salt affected CSR 10*, CSR 13*, CSR 27*, CSR 23*, Naina*, soil Aromatic Taroari Basmati, Basmati 370, Yamini (CSR 30)*, Basmati Vasumati*, Pusa Sugandha 2*, Pusa Sugandha 3*, Haryana Basmati, Kasturi*, Pusa Basmati*, Sugandhamati*, Pusa Sugandh 5 Irrigated Kasturi*, Himalaya 799,VL Dhan 61*, RP 2421,Palam Dhan 957,Vasumati*, Nagardhan Rainfed PNR 519, VL Dhan 221, Sukardhan* Upland & Irrigated Kohsaar, Ranbir Basmati, Pusa Basmati-1*,Vasumati*, Kasturi*, Jhelum, K 78-13, SKAU 23, SKAU 27, Sugandhamati*, Pusa Sugandh 5 Hybrids : PAC 837 Irrigated Rainfed Upland Shallow Lowlands Irrigated Pusa 2-21*, Pusa 44-33*, Gautham (Boro), IR 36*, IR 64* Hybrids : DRH 775 Anjali*, Aditya*, Rasi*, PNR 381*, Vandana, Birsadhan 101, Heera*, Birsadhan 103, Birsa gora 102, Kalinga III, Birsa Vikas Dhan 110, Birsa Vikas Dhan 108, Birsa Vikas Dhan 109 Savithri*, Mahsuri, Kanak, Swarnadhan*, Birsamati BR 2655-9-3-1, Mugad Sugandha (Aromatic), Sharavathi, KHP 5, Avinash, Karna, Mahaveera, Vibhava, Sonasali, Red Annapurna, Mandya Vani, Suraksha* Dhanrasi* Hybrids : KRH-1, KRH-2, PHB-71, PA -6201, PA -6444, RH -204, Suruchi, GK -5003, PAC 837, HRI 157, US 312, NK 5251 Amrut, IET 7564, Tulasi*, IR 30864

Rainfed upland Saline Areas Irrigated

Jharkhand

Karnataka

Rainfed upland Semi deep Hemavati, water

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Kerala

Rainfed Shallow Lowlands Irrigated

Intan, IET 7191

Madhya Pradesh

Rainfed upland Rainfed shallow Saline Irrigated

Jyothi, Metta Triveni, Sweta, Ranjani, Pavithra, Panchami, Ramanica, Uma, Revathy, Karishma, Krishnanjana, Triveni, Athira, Kartika, Makom, Remya, Kanakam, Kairali, Dhanu (Bas), Gauri, Varsha Harsha, Suvarnamodan, Onam, Chingam Kayamukulam 1, Neeraja, Neela, Rashmi, Kunjukunju-Varna, Kunjukunju-Priya Vytilla-2, Vytilla 3, Vyatilla 4, Sumati, Vytilla-6 Mahamaya, Madhuri, Suraksha*, Abhaya, Ruchi, JR 201, NDR 8002*, Richa* Hybrid: PA -6201, JRH-4, JRH-5, JRH 8, HRI 157 and DRRH-3 Jawahar 3, Poorva Rashmi, Swarnadhan, Mahsuri, Phalguna, CR 1002, Safri-17, Kranti, Swarna Karjat 3, Pusa Basmati*, Suraksha*, Parag, IET 16075, Sugandha, Ratna*, Kasturi*, Pawana, Karjat 2, Triguna*, HMT Sona, Phule Mawal, Pondaghat 1, SKL-3-11-25-30-36, PKV Makarand Hybrid: KRH-2, PA -6444, Suruchi, Sahyadri, Sahyadri-2, Sahyadri -3, Sahyadri -4, NK 5251 Terna, Tuljapur 4, Rasi*, Imp. Ambemohar SKL-8, IET 15358*, Kranti, Ratnagiri 2, SYE 75, SYE-ER 1, Ratnagiri 73-1, Surekha, Mahamaya, Dhanrasi* Panvel-3, Panvel-2, CSR 10*,CSR 13*, CSR 27*, CST 7-1*, CSR 23* Phou-oibi, Punshi, Re Maniphou 1, Re Maniphou 2, Sanaphou Eriemaphou Akutiphou, Lemaphou NEH Magha Rice 1, NEH Magha Rice 2, Shah Sarang-1, Lam Pnah-1 Bha Lum 1, Bha Lum 2, Sukardhan 1, Pankaj*, Jagannath*, Mahsuri*, Khonorullu, Ngoba CR 1014, Radhi, Tulashi, Pooja, Gajapathi, Konark, Sonamani, Boi, Surendra, Jajati, Lalat, Tapaswini, Gayatri, Pratiksha Hybrid : KRH-2, PA -6201, PA -6444, Ganga, Suruchi, Rajlaxmi, Ajay, JKRH-401, PAC 835, DRRH-3

Maharastra

Rainfed upland Shallow Lowlands Irrigated

Rainfed upland Rainfed shallow Saline Manipur Irrigated Deep water Irrigated Hills Irrigated Hills Rainfed Upland Rainfed shallow Irrigated

Meghalaya Meghalaya

Orissa

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Rainfed upland

Punjab

Pondicherry

Rajasthan

Shallow/ Rainfed semi deep water Saline Lunishree*, CSR 13*, CSR 27*, CSR 23* areas Irrigated Jaya*, PR 106, PR 108, Pusa 44-33*, IR 8*, PR 113, PR 114, PR 115, PR 116, Ajaya* Hybrids : Pusa RH 10, Ganga, PHB-71, PA 6129, Sahyadri Aromatic Basmati 385, Basmati-386, Basmati-370, Yamini (CSR 30)*, Basmati Vasumati*, Pusa Sugandha 2*, Pusa Sugandha 3*, Pusa Basmati-1 Irrigated Bhartidasan, Aravindar, Punithavathi, Subramanya/ Bharathi Hybrids : KRH-2, PA 6129, HRI 157 Rainfed Puduvu Ponni, Savithri*, Jawahar shallow Irrigated BK 79, Chambal, BK 190 Saline TRY 1, TRY (R) 2, Naina*, Jarava*, CSR 23* Areas Irrigated IR 64*, IR 50*, ADT (R) 45, ADT 43, TKM 11, ADT 37, ADT 40 Hybrids: KRH-2, RH -204 Rainfed Vagadhan upland Scented Khusboo, Mahisugandha Irrigated

Heera*, Kalinga-III, Annada, Lalithagiri, Udaygiri, Neela, Vanaprabha, Khandagiri, Nilgiri, Sneha, Ghanteswari, Vandana, Jogesh, Sidhanta Utkal Prabha, Sabita, Mahalakshmi, Kanchan, Indravati, Urbashi, Prachi, Mahanadi, Manika, Jagabhandhu, Uphar

Tamil Nadu

Medium Rainfed Upland Rainfed Shallow Irrigated Rainfed upland Rainfed shallow

IR 64*, IR 50*, TKM 9, PMK 1, ASD 18, ASD 36, ADT 37, MGR 11, ADT 43, ADT (R) 46, ADT 38 Hybrids: MGR- 1, KRH-2, CORH-2, ADTRH-1, PHB-71, PA 6201, RH -204, DRRH-2, CORH-3, PA 6129, US 312, NK 5251 IR 20*, ADT 39, White Ponni, Co 43, Co 44, MDU 3, MDU 4, ADT 17, JJ 92 (Scented), TKM 10, Co 47 Vaigai, MDU 1, Paramakudi 1, PMK (R) 3 Savithri*, Ponni, Paiyur 3, IET 15358*, ADT 40,Co 45, Co 46, ADT 44 IR 36*, Rasi*, TRC Borodhan 1(Rabi), Swati (Boro) Hybrids : KRH-2, PA -6201, PA -6444 Tulasi*, Heera*, Rasi*, Annada Salivahana, Lakshmi, Savithri*, Kalikhasa Hybrid : PHB-71,

Tripura

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Uttaranchal

Irrigated

Upland Hills Irrigated Hills Aromatic Basmati Uttar Pradesh Irrigated

Upland Rainfed shallow/L owland Saline/So dic areas Semi deep/dee p Hill Region Aromatic Basmati West Bengal Irrigated

Pantdhan 4, Pantdhan 6, Pantdhan 10, Pantdhan 12, Manhar, Pantdhan 16, Prasad, Govind Hybrids : PHB 71, Pant Sankar dhan 1, Pant Sankar dhan 3, Narendra sanker dhan-2, DRRH-1, DRRH-2* VL Dhan 16, VL Dhan 163, VL Dhan 206, VL Dhan 221*, VL Dhan 97, Pantdhan 16*, Sukardhan*, VLK Dhan 39, Vivek Dhan 82*, VL Dhan 81*, VL Dhan 61*, Vivek Dhan 62, Pantdhan 16, Majhera 3, Pantdhan 11 Type 3, Kasturi, Yamini(CSR 30), Vasumati, Pusa Basmati 1, Pusa Sugandha 2 , Pusa Sugandha 3, Pant Sugandh Dhan 15, Pant Dhan 15 Sarjoo 52, Narendradhan 359*, Pant Sanker Dhan-1, Manhar, UPHR-27, Pusa 44-33*, Narendradhan 2 Hybrids : KRH-2, Pant Sankar Dhan-1, Narendra Sankar Dhan-2, PHB-71, PA -6201, PA -6444, Pusa RH 10, Ganga, Narendra Usar Sankar Dhan-3, Sahyadri-4, HRI 157, US 312, DRRH-3 Narendra dhan-97*, Narendra dhan-18, Narendra dhan 80, Narendra dhan-118, Renu, Aswani, Saket 4, Jayalakshmi, Salivahana*, Mahsuri, Savithri*, Swarnadhan*,

CSR 13*, CSR 27*, Narendra Usar 1, Narendra Usar 3, CSR 30, CSR 10, Naina*, Jarava* Jalpriya, Jal Lahari, Jal Nidhi, Jalamagna, Jitendra*, Madhukar, Chakia 59, Barah Avarodhi VL Dhan-221*, Majhera 3, VL Dhan-206, VL Dhan 39, VL Dhan 163, Pantdhan-11, Type 3, Kasturi, Yamini(CSR 30), Vasumati, Pusa Basmati 1, Pusa Sugandha 2 , Pusa Sugandha 3, Hasan Serai Ratna*, Shatabdi, PNR 591, Rasi*, Suraksha*, Bipasa, Munal, Sasyasree, Khitish Hybrids: KRH-2, CNRH -3, PA -6201, DRRH-2, JKRH-401, Sahyadri-4, DRH 775, US 312 Jamini, Rasi*, Khitish, Kiron, Bhupen, Khanika, PNR 381*, Panke Manasarovar*, Swarnadhan*, Dinesh, Bipasa, Suresh, Biraj, IR42, Shashi, IET 14400 Sabita, Saraswathi, Mahananda, Bhagirathi, Golak, Sudhir, Jogen, Amulya, Nalini*, Mandira, Matangini, Purnendu, Madhukar, Bhudeb Neeraja, Jalapriya, Jitendra*, Jalaprabha Sunil, CSR 10*, CSR 13*, CSR 27*, CST 7-1*, Lunishree*, CSR 23*, Sumati, Jarava*, Naina*

Rainfed Upland Rainfed Shallow Rainfed Semi Deep Deep water Saline

Bold BSP; * Variety release by CVRC


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Table 2: Varieties Resistant/ Tolerant to Insect Pests/ Diseases


Insect/ disease GLH Donors Central Releases PTB 2, ARC 14529, Shaktiman, Latisail, Kataribhog, Nidhi Pankhari 203, ADT 14, ARC 6606, ADR 52 PTB 33, Manoharsali, Suraksha, Velluthacheera, ARC Triguna, 6650, ARC 5984, PTB 21, Manasarovar ARC 7080, Leb Muey Nahng, Rathu Heenati, Sinna Sivappu IET 6288, MO 1, HKR 126, Anaikomban, Haryana Bas.1 Andrewsail, PTB 33 TKM 6, W 1263, ARC Sasyasree 5500, Manoharsali Eswarakora, Siam 29, Shaktiman PTB 10 State Releases Vikramarya, Shiva, Lalat, IR 28, BK 79, Bharani

BPH

WBPH

Chaitanya, Chandana, Krishnaveni, Sonasali, Vajram, Vijetha, Manoharsali, Uma, Aruna, Annaga, Birupa, Neela, Bharatidasan, ADT 37, TKM 10, TPS 2 Surya, HKR 120, Khandagiri, Samata, PR 108 Vikas, HKR 46, Nilgiri Surekha, Erramallelu, Sneha, Kavya, Phalguna, Samridhi, Vasundhara, Bhuban, Penna, Samalei, Kesava Shakti, Shaktiman, Suraksha, Tara, Daya, Khira, Pratap, Sarasa,Udaya, Neela Karna, Ruchi, Divya Abhaya Panchami, Pavitra Bharani, Krishna Hamsa, Sagarsamba, Kotta molagulukulu, Swarna Mukhi, Kamini, Birsadhan 201, GR 101, Mandya Vijaya, Kartika, Ruchi, HMT Sona, Indrayan, Gayatri, Moti, Aravinder, PR 113, ADT 37, ADT 38, TRC Borodhan-1, Pantdhan 10, Narendra 80, Shashi, Sunil

Stem borer Gall midge Biotype-1 Biotype-2

Siam 29, PTB 10

Abhaya, IR 36 Rajendradhan202 Suraksha Triguna Rasi, CSR 13, Govind, IR 20, Pooja, Aditya, Vikas, VL Dhan 221, IR 64

Biotype-3 Biotype-4 Biotype-5 Blast

W 1263 PTB 10 Siam 29 Tetep, Tadukhan, Zenith, Co 4, Dawn Moroberekan, Correon, Dissi Hatif, Taride 1, IAC 25, IRAT 3, Co 29

Sheath Blight

T 141, OS 4, BCP 3, Pankaj, Saibham, Bhuhjan, Swarnadhan, Saduwee, Laka, Manasarovar Ramedja, Ta-poo-Cho-Z,
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Bacterial Leaf Blight

Rice Tungro Virus

Athebu Phourel , ARC 15368 Sigadis, IR 22, BJ 1, TKM Ajaya, IR 20, IR Mahsuri, Pinakini, Saleem, 6, Lacrosee-Zenith-Nira, 36, IR 64, Pothana, Tikkana, Jayashree, Java 14, Wase-aikoku Swarnadhan GR 101, Mata Triveni, Pavizham, Ruchi, Karjat 1, Badami, Gayatri, PR 4141, PR 109, PR 113, PR 114, PR 115, PR 116, Kanchan, Radha, Vaidehi, Mehar, Manika, PR 110, PR 111, ADT 37, ADT 38, Pantdhan 12, Govind, Manhar, Narendra Usar 3, Pantdhan 6, Sarjoo 52, Mandira PTB 18, ADT 21, ARC IR 20, Nidhi, Vikramarya, IR 28, Pusa 33, 10599, ARC 14320, ARC Shaktiman, Annapurna, Kanakam, 14766 Dhanarasi Poorva, Birupa, Dala Heera, Kshira, Urbashi, Vanaprabha, Bhartidasan, ADT 38, TKM 9, Narendradhan 1, Narendradhan 2, Dinesh, Matangini

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Current Status of Hybrid Rice Research and Development in India


B.C. Viraktamath Project Director Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad-500030, India E-mail:pdrice@drricar.org

1.

Introduction

The Hybrid Rice program in India was launched in 1989, through a systematic, goal oriented and time bound network project with the financial assistance from Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). Technical support from the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines and the FAO, Rome and additional financial support from the UNDP, ICAR and NATP and Barwale Foundation were the major contributing factors for the remarkable success of hybrid rice technology in India. So far forty three hybrids have been released for commercial cultivation and the area planted to hybrid rice in the country during kharif 2007 was around 1.4 m. hectares. More than 80% of total hybrid rice area is in U.P., Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Punjab and Haryana. It is estimated that every year more than 18000 to 20000 tons of hybrid rice seed is being produced in the country, 95% of it by the private seed sector. Hybrid rice seed production technology has been perfected over the years and many progressive farmers recorded more than 3 tons of hybrid seed yields per hectare. Hybrid rice seed production is being taken up during dry season and it is mostly concentrated in Karimnagar, Warangal, Nizambabad, Khammam, Kurnool and Nandyal districts of Andhra Pradesh. The national food security mission launched in 2007 envisages increasing of annual rice production by at least 10 million by 2011-2012. Hybrid rice technology is likely to play a pivotal role in achieving the targeted production increase in the near future. Therefore, it is included as one of the components of National Food Security Mission.

System of evaluating the rice hybrids


The multilocational evaluation trials are routinely conducted by every state in most crops at various well identified agro-climatic zones to identify a variety/hybrid suitable for these zones. In rice also, multi-location evaluation of promising experimental hybrid at 25 30 locations representing different agro-climatic zones of the country is the major activity in the hybrid rice network, coordinated by the Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad-500 030 through which hybrids are being tested in replicated trials. The breeders across the country nominate their best hybrids identified

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based on their performance in preliminary replicated yield trials for evaluation in nation-wide multilocation trials. The tests hybrids are pooled together based on duration and are evaluated in Initial Hybrid Rice Trials (IHRT). Each nominating hybrid entry is assigned IET (Initial Evaluation Testing) number which indicates its identity. An entry possessing IET number suggests that it has undergone multilocation testing in the AICRIP trials. Based on duration of the hybrid entries three groups of trials viz., Early (<120 days), Mid-Early (121-130 days) and Medium (131-140 days) are constituted. Besides this, one more trial (HRT-MS) is constituted based on grain type viz., medium slender grain type (similar to BPT 5204) with a purpose to identify the promising genotypes in this grain type category. Likewise, special trials are also constituted for evaluation of hybrids under abiotic stress conditions like saline alkaline conditions. Test hybrids which record more than 5% yield advantage over the best hybrid check and 10% yield advantage over the best varietal check are promoted to next stage of testing. The hybrids promoted from IHRT are included in AVT-1 and subsequently promoted to AVT-2 if their performance is good in AVT-1. At the AVT-2 stage, hybrids will also be tested for agronomic performance, disease/insect pest resistance and grain quality traits. Those entries with consistent yield advantage and other desirable traits will be identified for release at the time of Annual Rice Workshop by a specially constituted varietal identification committee. The proposals of identified hybrids are placed before the Central Sub-Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of Varieties (CSCCSN & RV) for deliberation and final approval. This is a well organized, proven system tested over the years and found to be very effective. Evaluation of most promising hybrids along with the promising inbred cultures in the same trials has given much credence to this system.

Hybrids released
As a result of concerted efforts for over two decades, totally 43 hybrids have been released for commercial cultivation in the country. Among these, 28 have been released from the public sector while remaining 15 have been developed and released by the private sector (Table 1). Out of 43 hybrids, 23 have been released by the State Variety Release Committees, while 20 viz., PHB-71, PA 6201, KRH-2, PA 6444, Pusa RH-10, RH 204, Ganga, Suruchi, DRRH-2, JKRH-401, PA 6129, Sahyadri-4, GK 5003, DRH 775, HRI 157, PAC 835, PAC 837, DRRH-3, NK 5251 and US 312 have been released by the CSCCSN & RV. Among the central releases five hybrids viz., KRH-2, Pusa RH-10, DRRH-2, Sahyadri-4 and DRRH-3 are from the public sector and the remaining 15 are from the private sector. The state-wise list of hybrids released in the country is given in Table 2.

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Table 1: List of hybrids released in India (1994-2009)


S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. Hybrid APHR-1 APHR-2 MGR-1 (CORH-1) KRH-1 CNRH-3 DRRH-1 KRH-2 Pant Sankar Dhan -1 PHB 71 CORH-2 ADTRH-1 Sahyadri Narendra Sankar Dhan-2 PA 6201 PA 6444 Pusa RH-10 PRH-122R (Ganga) RH-204 Suruchi Pant Sankar Dhan-3 Narendra Usar Sankar Dhan-3 DRRH-2 Rajlaxmi Ajay Sahyadri-2 Sahyadri-3 HKRH-1 JKRH-401 CORH-3 Indira Sona JRH-4 JRH-5 PA 6129 GK 5003 Sahyadri 4 JRH-8 DRH 775 HRI-157 PAC 835 PAC 837 NK 5251 DRRH 3 US 312 Duration 130-135 120 110-115 120-125 120-125 130 125-130 120 130-135 125-130 115 125-130 125-130 125-130 135 110-115 130 120-125 130 125-130 130-135 115 130-135 130-135 115-120 125-130 139 140 115 125-130 116 115 120 128 115-120 127 Year of Release 1994 1994 1994 1994 1995 1996 1996 1997 1997 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2001 2001 2001 2003 2004 2004 2004 2005 2005 2005 2006 2006 2006 2007 2006 2006 2007 2007 2007 2008 2008 2008 2009 Notification No. 662(E) 662(E) 360(E) 1(E) 401(E) 401(E) 425(E) 647(E) 425(E) 425(E) 821(E) 425(E) 92(E) 1134(E) 1134(E) 599 (E) 283(E) 122(E) 599 (E) Date of notification. 17.9.1997 17.9.1997 1.5.1997 1.1.1996 Developed by APRRI, Maruteru (ANGRAU), Hyderabad APRRI, Maruteru (ANGRAU), Hyderabad TNAU, Coimbatore ZARS, VC Farm, Mandya (UAS, Bengaluru) RRS, Chinsurah, West Bengal DRR, Hyderabad ZARS, VC Farm, Mandya (UAS, Bengaluru) GBPUA&T, Pantnagar Pioneer overseas corp. Hyderabad TNAU, Coimbatore TNRRI, Aduthurai (TNAU) RARS, Karjat (BSKKV) NDUA&T, Faizabad Bayer Bio-Science, Hyderabad Bayer Bio-Science, Hyderabad IARI , New Delhi Paras extra growth seeds Ltd. Hyderabad Parry Monsanto seeds Ltd. Bengaluru Mahyco Ltd, Aurangabad GBPUA&T, Pantnagar NDUA&T, Faizabad DRR, Hyderabad CRRI , Cuttack CRRI , Cuttack RARS, Karjat (BSKKV) RARS, Karjat (BSKKV) RARS, Kaul (CCSHAU) JK Agri Genetics Ltd, Hyderabad TNAU, Coimbatore IGKVV, Raipur JNKVV, Jabalpur JNKVV, Jabalpur Bayer Bio-Science, Hyderabad Ganga Kaveri seeds Pvt Ltd, Hyderabad RARS, Karjat (BSKKV) JNKVV, Jabalpur Metahelix Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad Bayer Bio-Science, Hyderabad Advanta India Ltd. Hyderabad Advanta India Ltd. Hyderabad Syngenta India Ltd, Secundrabad DRR, Hyderabad Seed Works International, Hyd

15.5.1998 15.5.1998 8.6.1999 9.9.1997 8.6.1999 8.6.1999 13.9.2000 8.6.1999 19.7.2000 5.11.2001 15.11.2001 25.4.2006 12.3.2003 2.2.2005 25.4.2006

1566 (E) 1572 (E) 1572 (E) 122 (E) 122 (E) 122 (E) 122 (E) 1178 (E) 1178 (E) 1178 (E) 1178 (E) 1703 (E) 454 (E) 454 (E) 449(E) 2187 (E)

5.11.2005 20.9.2006 20.9.2006 6.2.2007 6.2.2007 6.2.2007 6.2.2007 20.7.2007 20.7.2007 20.7.2007 20.7.2007 5.10.2007 11.2.2009 11.2.2009 11.2.2009 27.8.2009

2009 2187 (E) 27.8.2009 130-135 2009 2187 (E) 27.8.2009 132 2009 2187 (E) 27.8.2009 127-132 2009 128 2009 211(E) 131 2009 125-130 Hybrids in bold font are released by CSCCSN & RV Training Manual on HRPT

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Table- 2: Hybrids released State wise


STATE Andhra Pradesh Bihar Chattisgarh Delhi Gujarat Goa Haryana Karnataka Maharashtra Madhya Pradesh Orissa Punjab Pondicherry Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal Jharkhand Jammu & Kashmir : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : HYBRIDS APHR-1, APHR-2, PHB-71, PA -6201, PA -6444, RH -204, Suruchi, DRRH-1, GK -5003, PAC 837, US 312, DRRH-3, NK 5251 KRH-2, PA -6201, Ganga, JKRH-401 Indira sona, Suruchi, HRI 157, DRH 775, PAC 837 Pusa RH 10 Suruchi, HRI 157, PAC 835, PAC 837, DRRH-3, NK 5251 KRH-2 Pusa RH 10, Ganga, HKRH-1, PHB-71, RH -204, Suruchi, DRRH-2, Sahyadri-4 KRH-1, KRH-2, PHB-71, PA -6201, PA -6444, RH -204, Suruchi, GK -5003, PAC 837, HRI 157, US 312, NK 5251 KRH-2, PA -6444, Suruchi, Sahyadri, Sahyadri-2, Sahyadri -3, Sahyadri -4, NK 5251 PA -6201, JRH-4, JRH-5, JRH 8, HRI 157 and DRRH-3 KRH-2, PA -6201, PA -6444, Ganga, Suruchi, Rajlaxmi, Ajay, JKRH-401, PAC 835, DRRH-3 Pusa RH 10, Ganga, PHB-71, PA 6129, Sahyadri KRH-2, PA 6129, HRI 157 KRH-2, RH -204 MGR- 1, KRH-2, CORH-2, ADTRH-1, PHB-71, PA -6201, RH -204, DRRH-2, CORH-3, PA 6129, US 312, NK 5251 KRH-2, PA -6201, PA -6444 KRH-2, Pant Sankar Dhan-1, Narendra Sankar Dhan-2, PHB-71, PA -6201, PA -6444, Pusa RH 10, Ganga, Narendra Usar Sankar Dhan-3, Sahyadri-4, HRI 157, US 312, DRRH-3 PA -6444, Ganga, RH -204, Pant Sankar Dhan -3, DRRH-2 KRH-2, CNRH -3, PA -6201, DRRH-2, JKRH-401, Sahyadri-4, DRH 775, US 312 DRH 775 PAC 837 Hybrids in bold font are released by CSCCSN & RV

Multilocational evaluation of released hybrids


To make a comparative evaluation of hybrids released in the country and to get information on their adaptability in different states across the country, Multilocational evaluation of released hybrids was taken up in two phases. In the first phase, all the hybrids released prior to 1999 were extensively tested during three seasons viz., Kharif 1999 (64 locations), rabi 1999-2000 (15 locations) and kharif 2000 (46 locations). Based on overall mean (125 locations) pooled over three years, the hybrids viz., KRH-2, PHB-71, Sahyadri, PA 6201, NSD-2 and DRRH-1 were found promising and widely adapted. KRH-2 hybrid topped in both the kharif seasons, whereas Sahyadri hybrid was found to be better during rabi season (Table 3). Table 3: Hybrids found suitable for other states (other than for which they are released) based on MLT data-Phase I HYBRIDS Released for the states Found suitable for other states based on MLT performance (1999 & 2000) 1 DRRH 1 Andhra Pradesh Tripura 2 CORH 2 Tamil Nadu Tripura 3 Sahyadri Maharastra Tripura 4 NSD 2 Uttar Pradesh Tripura and Maharastra
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In the second phase, all the hybrids released after 2000 were tested in 32 35 locations across the country during kharif 2006 (34 locations), kharif 2007 (35 locations) and kharif 2008 (32 locations) seasons. Based on the criteria of 10% yield advantage over the best varietal check and 5% over the best hybrid check promising hybrids for different states have been identified (Table 4).

Table 4: Hybrids found suitable for other states (other than for which they are released) based on MLT data-Phase II
S.No Hybrids Released for the states Tamilnadu Haryana, Uttarkhand, Bengal Tamilnadu Uttarkhand Found suitable for other states based on MLT performance (2006,07 & 08) Early group 1 CORH-3 2 DRRH -2

New Delhi, Uttarkhand, Assam, Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal, New Delhi, Assam, Chattisgarh, Madhya West Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat and

Mid-Early Group 3 PSD -3 Medium group 4 CRHR-5 5 JKRH-2000 6

Assam, Madhya Pradesh, West Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu

Bengal,

Orissa Bihar and Andhra Pradesh West Bengal, Bihar Jharkhand and Orissa PA 6444 U.P, Tripura, Orissa, Jharkhand and Gujarat A.P, Karnataka, Maharastra and Uttarkhand *States in bold font represent hybrids performed well in all three seasons

Evaluation of hybrids under abiotic stress conditions


In general, hybrids are known to have more tolerance to abiotic stress tolerance because of their genetic plasticity. In order to find out the suitability of hybrids to abiotic stresses like moisture stress (rainfed upland) and saline/alkaline soil conditions, many released hybrids were tested in the hot spot locations to assess their performance. Based on preliminary studies, the following hybrids were found to be promising under different abiotic stress conditions (Table 5).

Table 5: hybrids suitable for abiotic stress conditions


Abiotic Stress Rainfed upland Salinity Alkalinity Promising Hybrids DRRH-2, PSD-3, PSD-1, KJTRH-4 DRRH-28, PSD-3, KRH-2, HRI-148, JRH-8, PHB-71 Suruchi (MPH-5401), PHB-71, JKRH-2000, CRHR-5, DRRH-2, DRRH-3
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Development of hybrids for Southern India


A perusal of the area covered under hybrids indicates that hybrids have not made a dent in the southern region. It is because of the fact that people in southern India prefer medium slender grained premium quality rice like BPT 5204 but the existing hybrids are long grained and sticky. In order to develop and release medium slender grain hybrids with better cooking quality on par with a popular variety BPT 5204, a separate trial for medium slender grain type were conducted for the past five years. The list of promising hybrids in advanced stage of release with high heterotic potential and better grain quality traits is given in Table - 6. Among these hybrids, DRRH-3, developed by DRR, Hyderabad is found to be superior both in terms of yield advantage and grain quality traits on par with BPT 5204. Therefore, this hybrid has been released recently for commercial cultivation in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.

Table 6: Promising hybrids with medium slender grain quality


Hybrid DRRH-3 27P11 HRI 159 BPT 5204 Grain yield Adv t/ha (%) 6.1 33 5.8 26 5.4 17 4.6 Grain quality traits Milling HRR WU (%) (%) (ml) 72 67 205 74 70 255 69 65 245 72 68 200 ASV 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 AC (%) 23.8 22.9 22 23.4 GC (mm) 63 26 24 23

Resistance to insect pests and diseases


For the stable performance of hybrids across locations/seasons, it is necessary that the hybrids should possess resistance/tolerance to major insect pests and diseases. Hence incorporation of resistance to major insect pests and diseases is one of the major objectives of the hybrid rice breeding programme. In addition to development of parental lines with high level of resistance to biotic stresses, hybrids in the coordinated trials are being regularly screened for resistance to major insect pests viz., stemborer, BPH, WBPH, leaf folder and gall midge and diseases viz., blast, bacterial leaf blight (BLB), rice tungro disease (RTD), brown spot, sheath blight and sheath rot through national hybrid rice screening nurseries. Table 7 lists the released hybrids with resistance or tolerance to inspect pests and diseases. Major emphasis is being given now for the development of parental lines with inbuilt resistance to major pests and diseases.

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Table- 7 : Pest and Disease reaction of released hybrids


S. NO Hybrid BL BLB MR MR R T R R MR T MR MR R MR MR R R R MR R MR T RTV ShBL BS GLH SB BPH MR MR MR MR WBPH GM LF

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43

APHR-1 APHR-2 (MGR-1) CORH-1 KRH-1 CNRH-3 DRRH-1 KRH-2 Pant Sankar Dhan -1 PHB 71 CORH-2 ADTRH-1 Sahyadri Narendra Sankar Dhan-2 PA 6201 PA 6444 Pusa RH-10 PRH-122(Ganga) RH-204 Suruchi Pant Sankar Dhan-3 Narendra Usar Sankar Dhan-3 DRRH-2 Rajalakshmi Ajay Sahyadri-2 Sahyadri-3 HKRH-1 JKRH-401 CORH-3 Indira Sona JRH-4 JRH-5 PA 6129 GK 5003 Sahyadri 4 JRH-8 DRH 775 HRi-157 PAC 835 PAC 837 NK 5251 DRRH-3 US 312

MR T

MR MR

MR

T MR

R MR T

MR T MR R

MR R MR MR MR MR R R R MR MR R MR MR MR MR T MR MR

R MR T MR MR MR

MR

MR MR MR R

MR R

MR MR R

MR MR MR

MR MR

R MR MR MR R R MR T MR R R R R MR MR R R R MR R MR MR R MR

MR MR MR MR MR MR MR MR MR T T T MR T MR T MR MR R R R T T T R MR R MR

MR MR MR T MR MR MR MR T MR MR MR

T T T

MR

T T

MR -

R MR MR MR MR MR MR MR

MR -

MR MR MR MR MR

MR

MR -

Bold font indicates central release BL: Blast, BLB: Bacterial Leaf Blight, RTV: Rice Tungro virus, ShBl: Sheath Blight, BS:Brown Spot, GLH: Green Leaf Hopper, SB: Stem Borer, BPH:Brown Planthopper, WBPH : White Backed Planthopper, GM: Gall Midge, LF: Leaf folder, R-Resistant, T-Tolerant and MR-Moderately resistant

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Two line breeding system:


The greater dependence on a single source of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) by the use of WA system and the most difficult and laborious process of seed production and parental line development warrant the development of alternate methodologies to exploit hybrid vigour in rice. Two line breeding based on two new kinds of genetic tools viz., photosensitive genic male sterility (PGMS) and thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) systems is one such possibility. In this system multiplication of female line is very simple, since it is multiplied as any ordinary genotype through self pollination under fertile phase. There are no problems of alternative rows, synchronization, supplementary pollination etc. unlike in three line system where CMS lines are multiplied or maintained utilizing maintainer line through A x B seed production plots. China has developed rice hybrids using this system. In India, GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar has been the first institute to develop two line hybrid UPRTGH 332 in the country and entered i n the national trial for multi location tests. Research work is also underway at DRR, Hyderabad and TNAU, Coimbatore on similar lines.

Application of Biotechnological tools for hybrid rice improvement


Molecular marker technology has tremendous potential for improvement of hybrid rice. Since the selection can be done at seedling stage, molecular markers now offer opportunities to breeders for manipulation of multiple traits. They can be deployed for hybrid rice improvement and thereby help in increasing the breeding efficiency. This technology is effectively deployed in assessment of genetic purity of seeds of rice hybrids and parental lines, identification of fertility restorer genes and their introgression into parental lines, introgression of biotic stress resistance genes into hybrid rice parental lines and Screening of genotypes for the presence of wide compatibility (WCG) genes.

2.

Hybrid Seed Production

Success of hybrid rice technology primarily depends on, besides other factors, purity, timely availability and affordability of hybrid seed to the farmers. Production of pure hybrid seed in self pollinated crops such as rice, at affordable price, is a highly skill oriented activity. Through extensive trials on different components like suitable locations, seasons, planting time, planting geometry, row ratios, GA3 application and supplementary pollination etc. a package for production of hybrid seed was optimized. This package was effectively demonstrated in farmers fields and the seed growers are following this package with some modifications to suit local conditions. Large scale seed production: India has got a strong seed sector both in public and private. However, private sector has taken a lead in production of hybrid seed. More than 50 private seed companies are taking up large scale seed production and about 10 of them possess their own R & D set up. The leading private sector seed companies are Hybrid Rice International (Bayer Bio-Science), PHI Seeds Ltd., Mahyco, Syngenta India Ltd., Nath-Biogene Ltd., Advanta India Ltd., Indo-American Hybrid Seeds, J.K. Agri.
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Genetics, Metahelix Life Sciences etc. Few public sectors funded State Seed Corporations of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh are also taking up hybrid seed production on a small scale. Sale of rice of hybrid seed produced by the private sector ranges from R. 175 200 per kg of seed whereas that of public sector ranges from R. 90 150 per kg. Average seed yield is in the range of 1.5 to 2.5 t/ha. With very active participation of the private sector, the area under hybrid rice seed production is increasing steadily over the years with proportionate increase in hybrid seed yield (Table 8). Table 8: Progressive increase in area and production of hybrid rice seed Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Area (ha) 195 1075 1485 1630 1660 1630 1625 1635 Seed Production (t) 200 1200 1800 2200 2500 2700 2900 3100 Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Area (ha) 2865 4350 6800 12000 13000 14000 18000 Seed Production (t) 4000 8600 12500 18000 19500 21000 27000

Though there were few problems in the initial stages of large scale hybrid rice seed production in the country, the average seed yields obtained at present are satisfactory and are increasing gradually over a period of time with the experience gained by the farmers. It is possible to overcome minor problems encountered. Hence by regular refinements in the seed production technology, prospects for large scale hybrid rice seed production in India appear to be bright and this activity will be very helpful to bring prosperity to the farming community. Hybrid Rice seed production is further intensified with the active participation of private seed companies and also through MOUs between public sector institutions and private companies.

3.

Technology transfer

Hybrid rice, being an innovative and new technology for Indian Agriculture needs intensive efforts to popularize it among the farmers. In order to crease awareness about the advantages of taking up hybrid rice cultivation, among the various stake holders viz., policy makers, extension personnel and farmers, etc. Efforts were made in the form of conducting trainings and organizing demonstrations etc. Compact block frontline demonstrations: To create awareness about the advantages of taking up hybrid rice cultivation among the rice farmers, large number of compact block frontline demonstrations were organized in all the rice growing states of the country for the last nine years. So far almost 9000 frontline demonstrations on hybrid rice have been
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conducted in as many as 16 states. This is an on-going activity and transfer of technology efforts are being intensified and large number of demonstrations are being organized in many more states under the macro-management scheme of the Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi, which is being coordinated and implemented by the Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad, India. In 90 95% of demonstrations organized, the hybrids have out yielded the best inbred check varieties to the tune of 1.5 2.5 t/ha, convincing the farmers about the profitability of hybrid rice cultivation. Training programmes: To impart the knowledge and necessary skills for hybrid rice cultivation and hybrid rice seed production, appropriate training programmes (as many as 400) with duration of training ranging from 1 21 days were organized for farmers, farm women, seed growers, seed production personnel of public and private seed agencies, extension functionaries of state departments of agriculture, agricultural universities, NGOs, etc. In addition to this, international training programmes were also organized for participants from Bangaldesh, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Korea and Egypt. During the first decades after the release of rice hybrids for commercial cultivation, adoption of hybrid rice has been much slower than expected mainly because of poor grain quality and consequently lower market price for the produce. However, the yield advantage of hybrids in the range of 15 20% over the high yielding inbred varieties has been established in the farmers field. The adoption of hybrid rice in the initial years has been rather slow but steady one. It has picked up during the last five years, mainly because of increasing popularity of hybrid rice among rice farmers of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. Large scale adoption of hybrid rice is expected in these states during next decade. Hybrid rice is also picking up in traditional rice growing states like Haryana and Punjab. It is reported from these states that less fertilizers and water are needed for hybrid rice as compared to the high yielding varieties. The earliness of hybrids is also another advantage reported, facilitating timely sowing of wheat crop or creating possibility of growing short duration winter crops. It is expected that by 2010 and 2015 hybrids will be cultivated in India in an approximate area of 2.0 and 4.0 million hectares respectively.

Major Challenges
Despite having great potential to enhance production and productivity of rice in the country, hybrid rice has not been adopted on large scale as was expected. This is due to several constraints. Some of the major constraints are;

Lack of acceptability of hybrids in some regions such as Southern India, due to region specific grain quality requirement. A few hybrids are reported to have stickiness and presence of mild aroma which is not liked in Southern India.
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Moderate (15 20%) yield advantage in hybrids is not economically very attractive and there is a need to increase the magnitude of heterosis further. Lower market price offered for the hybrid rice produce by millers/traders, is acting as a deterrent for many farmers to take up hybrid rice cultivation. Higher seed cost is another deterrent for large scale adoption and hence there is a need to enhance the seed yield in hybrid rice seed production plots. Efforts for creating awareness and for technology transfer were inadequate in initial stages. Involvement of public sector seed corporations in large scale seed production has been less than expected. Non-availability of hybrids for boro season and long duration hybrids for shallow lowland conditions.

Most of the constraints mentioned above are being addressed with right earnestness through the on-going research projects and through aggressive transfer of technology efforts.

Future Outlook
A good beginning has been made by ushering in to an era of hybrid rice in the country. Development of heterotic hybrids by the researchers, large scale production of hybrid seeds by various seed agencies and transfer of this technology to the end users by the extension agencies must go hand in hand to have the real impact of this technology in the Indian agriculture. Though the hybrid rice technology has been introduced to Indian agriculture, the successful large scale adoption of this innovative technology, in future, primarily depends upon the economic attractiveness of this technology. Rice hybrids with still higher magnitude of heterosis coupled with better grain, cooking and eating quality and possessing resistance to major pests and diseases are being developed. Many promising parental lines with better floral traits have been developed. Seed production technology has to be further refined to obtain average seed yields of 2.5 to 3.0 t/ha on a large scale, so that the cost of hybrid rice seed can be reduced to Rs. 100/- kg. Top priority has to be given to maintain the purity of parental lines and to produce high quality hybrid seed. Involvement of seed agencies in the public sector, NGOs and farmers cooperatives along with the private seed sector will be crucial to meet the increased demand for hybrid seed in the years to come. Transfer of hybrid rice technology from the research farms to the farmers field is as important as developing the hybrids. Extension agencies have to play a greater role in creating much needed awareness among farmers about the advantages of cultivating hybrid rice by various innovative approaches. Policy decisions of providing subsidy to meet the higher seed cost and giving minimum support price for rice hybrids for the next 4-5 years would be very helpful to bring more area under hybrid rice. Despite the few minor problems faced in the initial stages, timely and favorable decisions by the policy makers and active involvement of researchers, seed producers and the extension workers would certainly lead to
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successful hybrid rice cultivation on large scale in India during coming decades. The national food security mission launched in the last year envisages increasing of annual rice production by at least 10 million tons by the end of eleventh five year plan by 20112012. Hybrid rice technology is likely to play a major role in increasing rice production in the country. It is expected that by the year 2012 hybrids will be cultivated in India, in 3 million hectares and by 2015 hybrids are expected to cover at least 5 million hectares of the rice area in the country, thereby contributing significantly towards national food security.

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Varietal Improvement in Rice


N. Shobha Rani Principal Scientist & Head, Crop Improvement Section Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad 500030
The paradigm shift from subsistence agriculture to technology driven intensive farming has taken the country from the days of food deficit to an era of self sufficiency which is a golden chapter in the history of post independent India. The food grain production rose from 50.82 million tonnes (m.t.) in 1950-51 to 227.0 m.t in 2007 08. Rice, Wheat, Maize, Pearl Millet and Sorghum among cereals registered maximum production/productivity enhancement, with rice per se which is the staple food for more than two thirds of Indian population, contributing 39.19% to the total food grain production thereby, occupying a pivotal role in the food and livelihood security of the people. In terms of area rice crop is grown in about 44.6 million hectares (m.ha.) in India , which is 36.58% of net cropped area and 44.5% of area under cereals which is the largest acreage in the world. Since the introduction of plant type based high yielding varieties there has been phenomenal improvement in the production of rice which almost tripled from 30.4 m.t in 1966 to record production of 93.4 m.t in 2006-07 (Fig 1). As a result of enhanced rice production the country made a mark in international trade by becoming the fourth largest exporter of rice in the world earning considerable foreign exchange of about Rs. 11730 crores (2007 - 08). These commendable achievements have been largely due to the coordinated efforts of the researchers, extension personnel and policy makers within the country, which was catalytic in the quick dissemination and implementation of the new varietal, production and protection technologies by the farmers. Despite this overall increase in production, the rice productivity is still low 2.04 t/ha (FAO, 2004) as compared to many other countries such as China (4.19 t/ha), Japan (4.29 t/ha), Republic of Korea (4.55 t/ha) and Egypt (6.49 t/ha) (Table 1). This wide disparity mainly stems from the fact that rice area in India is very vast and only 52% is under assured irrigation while 72% of area is under irrigation in Indonesia and it is cent per cent irrigated in Japan, Republic of Korea, Egypt, USA and Australia. Thus rice environments in India are extremely diverse. Of the 43.2 million hectares of harvested area in 2004-05, about 30.8% are rainfed lowlands, 44.9% irrigated, 17.4% rainfed uplands and 6.9% flood prone (Table 2), which profoundly influenced the overall productivity of the country and such vast areas under each ecosystem is not encountered in any other rice growing country. Even within the country in the northwestern India comprising of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, the rice production has gone up by seven times from 3.50 m.t (1965-70) to 22.9 m.t (1996-01) and southern region comprising states such as Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala by two times during the same period (Table 3). Much of these areas are irrigated with rice yields of 5-6 t/ha due to high input use. Farmers in these states have much higher per capita income than do the traditional rice growing states of eastern India, where rice farming is exposed to several uncertainties imposed by drought, floods or both.

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Table-1: Area, Production and Productivity of selected rice growing countries, 2004
Country India China Indonesia Japan Republic Korea Egypt USA Australia Area (000 ha) 42300 28327 11908 1701 of 1001 635 1345 65 Production (000 mt) 86430 118880 36221 7311 4556 4120 7015 358 Distribution of rice area (%) Rainfed Flood prone 30.1 11.4 5.6 0.0 7.8 6.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Productivity (t/ha) 2.04 4.19 3.04 4.29 4.55 6.49 5.21 5.51

Source:FAOYearBook,2004

Table 2: Distribution of rice area by ecosystem in selected countries


Country India China Indonesia Japan Republic of Korea Egypt Australia USA (000 ha) 42649 33019 10282 2049 1208 462 89 1123 Irrigated 43.8 92.7 72.0 99.0 99.0 100 100 100 Upland 14.6 1.7 13.8 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Source:IRRIRiceAlmanac,IIEdition,1997

Table 3: Average Annual Rice Production in India by States


196065 Northern Region: Uttar 1.23 Pradesh Punjab 0.46 Haryana -Sub Total 3.71 Eastern Region: West 5.13 Bengal Assam 1.79 Bihar 4.53 Madhya 3.22 Pradesh Orissa 3.97 Sub Total 18.64 Region/ State 196570 2.81 0.42 0.27 3.50 5.51 1.98 3.97 2.60 3.95 18.01 Rice Production (million tones) 197019751980198575 80 85 90 3.63 0.99 0.48 5.10 6.14 2.03 4.46 3.30 3.96 19.89 4.45 2.42 0.91 7.78 6.58 2.14 4.84 3.28 3.88 20.72 6.21 4.14 1.29 11.64 6.86 2.46 4.66 3.98 4.09 22.05 8.11 5.70 1.48 15.29 9.41 2.64 5.90 4.68 5.02 27.65 199095 9.86 6.98 1.90 18.74 11.32 3.28 5.26 5.58 5.98 29.42 19962001 12.07 8.29 2.54 22.90 13.14 3.57 6.63 4.66 5.14 33.14

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Table 3: Average Annual Rice Production in India by States (contd.,)

196065 Southern Region: Andhra 4.35 Pradesh Tamil Nadu 3.88 Karnataka 1.51 Kerala 1.08 Sub Total 10.82 Western Region: Rajasthan 0.10 Gujarat 0.43 Maharashtra 1.42 Sub Total 1.95 All India 35.95
Source:DES,GOI(19601999)

Region/ State

196570 4.51 4.04 1.78 1.16 11.49 0.96 0.34 1.24 1.64 35.77

Rice Production (million tones) 197019751980198575 80 85 90 4.93 5.08 1.98 1.32 13.31 0.12 0.38 1.36 1.86 41.63 6.08 5.34 2.11 1.29 14.82 0.20 0.56 2.13 2.89 47.89 7.65 4.62 2.27 1.28 15.82 0.16 0.68 2.23 3.07 54.49 8.41 5.67 2.20 1.08 17.36 0.13 0.57 2.12 2.82 65.06

199095 9.33 6.44 2.86 1.05 19.68 0.14 0.79 2.32 3.25 75.28

19962001 10.39 6.99 3.41 0.77 21.56 0.19 0.99 2.39 3.57 91.17

Ecosystem diversity in Rice


Rice in India is thus grown under diverse conditions. It is cultivated exclusively as a rainfed crop in areas with precarious monsoon and unpredictable rainfall distribution. It is also raised in areas where water level reaches 5 metres or more. The rice culture in Kuttanad district of Kerala is below the sea level, while in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, it is grown almost upto an altitude of 2000 msl (6600 ft). A wide range of rainfall distribution pattern (drought, submergence, deepwater) and distinct differences in soils (coastal and inland salinity, alkalinity, acidity), agro-climatic situations (high humidity) and seasons has resulted in the cultivation of thousands of varieties and one can see a standing rice crop at some part of the country or the other in any time of the year.

Seasons for Rice Culture


In eastern and southern regions of the country, the mean temperature throughout the year is favourable for rice cultivation and three crops of rice can be grown in a year. In the northern and western parts where the winter temperatures are fairly low and rainfall is not high, only one crop of rice is taken. The three main seasons are named according to the season of harvest. Kharif (winter rice) (Sarwa, Sali, Samba, Mundakan, Aman) is sown in June-July and harvested in November-December and 48% of rice in India is grown in this season particularly with medium and long duration varieties. Pre-Kharif (autumn rice) (Kattera, Ahu, Aus, Viruppu, Swarnavari) crop is grown from April-May and harvested in August-September. About 43% of crop is grown in this season with short duration (90-110 days) varieties. Rabi rice (summer) (Dalwa, Dalua, Boro, Poonja, Nararai) is sown in November-December and harvested in
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April-May. It is only about 9% and early maturing varieties are predominantly grown in this season. In addition to the seasonal requirements the food consumption patterns, taste preferences have also been playing a dominant role in localization of varieties. Prior to the introduction of the short statured high yielding varieties, the cultivated rices were tall with long growth duration. They were the products of both conscious and unconscious selection by man and nature over centuries and were well adapted to the local situations. Although their yields were low they were assured.

Era of Green Revolution


Introduction of IR 8 in the mid sixties and release of the first Indian semidwarf variety Jaya ushered in green revolution. Since then varietal improvement programmes were reoriented to sustain the plant type based technology for diverse rice ecologies, varied cropping patterns, resistance/tolerance to yield limiting biotic and abiotic constraints, catering to the consumer quality preferences, expanding and sustaining the export of rice. Committantly acceptance of improved crop and pest management practices, increased fertilizer and other input use brought forth rapid increase in rice production and productivity in the country. The establishment of All India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project (AICRIP) in 1965 ensured an uniform testing on all India basis of varieties and agro-technologies generated at the various centers within the country and also professional linkages with International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines. Thus cooperative endeavor at both national and international level enabled the identification of wide choice of varieties. Of the 852 varieties released, 517 are for irrigated areas, 324 for rainfed ecologies and the rest for boro areas is a significant success story which has contributed to the transformation of national rice production scenario over last three decades from a net importing country in mid sixties to that of a potential exporter of quality rice since early nineties. Although efforts made since the introduction of high yielding varieties has been successful in development of suitable varieties for all the ecosystems till now, to further raise the yield levels to achieve 135-140, million tones of rice demand with a minimum growth rate of 3.5% per annum by 2020 AD requires tapping of new tools and integration of new techniques which would pave way for ensuring the food security of all.

Historical background
Rice improvement in the country received much needed impetus with the appointment of Economic Botanist in Dacca (now in Bangladesh) in 1911 and first crop specialist for rice in 1912 in Madras. Subsequently, research efforts were strengthened with the establishment of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) in 1929. By 1950, there were 82 rice research stations in the country and breeding efforts to increase yields were confined to pure line selection with limited intra indica hybridization with an emphasis on specific stress prevailing in a region which was called ecological breeding. Some of the popular rice varieties developed through pureline selection from the local rice varieties were N22 of Nagina (UP), PTB 10 of Pattambi (Kerala), T141 and T1242 of Orissa, Basmati 370 of Punjab, GEB 24 of Tamil Nadu and MTU 15 of Andhra Pradesh. SR 26B and FR13A were particularly bred for saline and flood tolerance respectively while Co25 and Co26 for blast resistance at Coimbatore. Some of
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the exotic types from China, Japan and Taiwan were evaluated at CRRI and among these CH 988 and CH 1039 were the cold tolerant varieties which were popular in Jammu and Kashmir. Thus prior to sixties, most of the rice varieties cultivated were of long duration, photoperiod sensitive, tall, leafy with low harvest index of around 0.3 and were prone to heavy lodging with little response to the applied fertilizer. There was only marginal improvement in the productivity of rice during this period from 771 kg/ha in 1950s to 1033 kg/ha in 1963-64. Stagnating rice yields was a cause of concern and rice breeders soon realized that to enhance the yield potential it is necessary to redesign the rice plant to prevent lodging, render it photoperiod insensitive and incorporate the fertilizer responsiveness of japonica rice into the genetic background of indica varieties. With this objective the indica/japonica hybridization programme was launched in 1952 by FAO for south and Southeast Asian countries, followed later at CRRI in 1960. These projects could claim only limited success in release of only four rice varieties, Malinja and Mahsuri hybridized in India and released in Malaysia, Circna in Australia and ADT 27 in India. Attempts were also made in late 60s to study the javonica germplasm especially bulus (tropical japonicas) with long panicles, stiff straw in breeding programmes, through which varieties like CR 1014 and some others were developed.

Era of semi-dwarf high yielding varieties


The rice breeding programmes in India were accelerated with the introduction of semi-dwarf and non-lodging plant type, Taichung Native 1, T(N)1 developed in Taiwan from a cross between semi dwarf mutant Dee-geo-woo-gen and Tsai Yuang Chung. The incorporation of a dwarfing gene Sd 1 from Dee-geo-woo-gen conferred short stature, fertilizer responsiveness, erect leaves to utilize maximum solar energy to achieve much higher yields 4-5 t/ha than the traditionals rice cultivars. A single gene mutation brought out by the dwarfing gene Sd 1 transformed the tall plant type to semi dwarf due to non responsiveness to endogenous Gibberellin. Subsequently, a miracle variety IR 8 from Peta and Dee-geo-woo-gen in 1966 from International Rice Research Institute, Philippines (IRRI), revolutionized the rice yields. More or less at the same time varieties Jaya and Padma were released by All India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project (AICRIP) now Directorate of Rice Research (DRR) and Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI) marked the ushering in of green revolution which transformed the country to a state of self sufficiency by mid eighties, arresting rice imports and beginning an era of exporting the surplus rice earning high foreign exchange for the country by early nineties (Fig 2). However, the productivity gains were confined to only irrigated ecology wherein high input intensive cultivation triggered the out break of several pests and diseases. Of the total rice area, irrigated ecology constitutes 44.9% with 65.2% of production, while the remaining 55% of area with 35% of production is complex, risk prone and ecologically handicapped situation, characterized by diverse agro-climatic and socio-economic conditions covering favourable and unfavourable environments i.e., drought, submergence/ floods, adverse soils etc.(Fig 3). Therefore, in order to sustain the productivity gains obtained in irrigated ecology and to meet the food security commitments, rice production in these harsh environments has to be stepped up through suitable varietal improvement programmes simultaneously insulating the varieties against biotic stresses in the irrigated ecosystem.
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AICRIP and Varietal Testing Procedure

All India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project (AICRIP) was started in 1965 at Hyderabad by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) to organize Coordinated Rice Research and national testing programme in India. The project over the years had grown to the present status as Directorate of Rice Research (DRR) from August 1985, with added mandate of organizing research on irrigated rice for strengthening and stabilizing rice production. The Coordinated Variety Improvement and Testing Programme covers 46 cooperating centers in addition to around 90 voluntary centers in different agro-climatic regions of the country. This programme helps in exchange and evaluation of the breeding material quickly across the country. AICRIP testing of promising breeding material (varieties, hybrids, etc.) helps in identifying the most stable, high-yielding or superior genotypes suited for different agro-climatic conditions. In the process, varieties are identified and released, not only for the zones/regions where they have been bred, but also for other regions as well. This helps in complementing the efforts of relatively upcoming centers where the breeding programme is not strong enough to cater to the needs of the specific region. Also, common testing helps in avoiding any possible bias towards the promotion of a breeders own varieties. In the process, only the best material gets identified for release. Normally, it takes a minimum of three to four years to identify a promising variety. Cooperating centers nominate their promising material directly for the Initial Varietal Trial (IVT). In the earlier years the promising materials were nominated to National Screening Nursery (NSN) for screening against pests/diseases. From NSN the material was flowing to the IVTs. IVTs are conducted for one year and material that show promise on the basis of either significant yield advantage or on the basis of better disease/pest resistance, drought tolerance quality attributes, etc. are promoted to the next stage of trial Advance Variety Trial (AVT). No variety that is inferior in yield than the best check gets promoted to AVT. Best entries are tested in AVT for two years (AVT 1 and AVT II). Simultaneously, agronomical and quality data are generated on promising varieties and the reaction to disease and pests are recorded under hotspot conditions as well as under epiphytotic conditions at selected centers where competent expertise is available. Also simultaneously, field data are generated through on-farm trials conducted either by the extension staff or by the scientists themselves. Concerned breeder has to submit the variety identification proforma to the workshop along with all supplementary data and relevant information for consideration of the variety identification. Superior eligible test entries shall be identified in the crop workshop/group meeting for presentation to the Central Sub-Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of varieties and State Variety Release Committees and those cultures approved would be named and released for general cultivation as Central or as State Releases. This process was instrumental in developing and releasing 880 rice varieties including 42 hybrids till 2009 in the last forty three years. Of these varieties 535 for irrigated areas (including Scented, Saline, Boro, Irrigated hills), 117 for rainfed uplands, 162 for rainfed low lands, 40 for semi deep, 14 for deep water situation, 38 for irrigated high altitudes, 7 for upland hills, 33 for saline and alkaline areas, 11 for boro situation, 53 aromatic slender grain varieties and 2 for aerobic condition werereleased (Fig 4).
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Varietal improvement

1. Identification of donors for Varietal Improvement:

Germplasm is the main source of genetic variability. Varietal improvement relies on systematic screening, selection and crossing the suitable genotypes in order to exploit the diversity available to increase yield potential, to safeguard from the attacks of pests/diseases and quality enhancement by combing such desirable traits. The progress of rice improvement relies on the extent of variability available and India being the secondary centre of origin for cultivated rice, is rich in rice genetic resources and nearly 66,760 accessions are believed to have been collected by various agencies and institutions. Although many land races, traditional accessions and wild species are known to possess resistance to several biotic and abiotic stresses, a large number of rice germplasm accessions have been evaluated against major insect pests and diseases at the DRR and at representative cooperating centers located all over the country and several sources of resistance have been identified as listed in Table 4. National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), New Delhi, played a key role in free exchange of germplasm within the country and outside especially with IRRI which greatly contributed to the rice breeding efforts in the country. Table 4: Donors identified for different ecosystems

Ecosystem Rainfed upland

Donors identified Mettasanna, Lalnakanda 41, N22, MTU 17, CH 45, Basmati 76, Fine Gora, Dular, M 63-83, Dhani, Terna, Black gora, Sathi 34-36, B-76

Rainfed low lands Shallow water areas (15-50 GEB 24, Mahsuri, T 141, MTU 3, Prasadbhog, Latisail, cms water depth). Safri 17, NC 1281, T 90, BAM 9, Peta, Intan, SR 26B, Bhasmanik, Badkalamkati Semi-deep water areas (50- Kalkersail, Baku, Velki, Gonda, Chenab, Raghusail, 100 cms water depth) Chakia-59, Patnai 23, Tilakkachari Deep water areas (above Badham, Boyan, NL 493, NC 490, Gomath, PLA 2, Jaisuria, one meter water depth) BR 14, Jaladhi I, Jaladhi II Flood prone areas Jalaplabhan1, FR 13A, FR 43B, Madhukar, Chakia 59, PLA 4 Saline alkaline areas Pokkali, Getu, Dasal, Nona Bokhra, Nonasail, Rupsail, Vytila-1, Bhurarata, Kalarata, Karekagga, Bilekagga Cold tolerant varieties for higher altitude, hilly areas Upland direct seeded areas Mitak, UPRH 8, Stejree 45, IRAT 102, Tapoochoz, Sukara, Zeera Irrigated areas Khonorollo, CH 988, CH 1039, Abor Basmati, Giza 14, Ahomsali, Bijar, T 23 Basmati , Phul Pattas 72, Jatto, Maboti, Shinei, Siga, Shirogi

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2. Breeding methods:
The breeding methods adopted were mass and pure line selection procedures mainly in the earlier years followed by hybridization among suitable parents to generate new variability to select desired recombinants. Pedigree method has been extensively used in rice improvement. Depending on the objectives bulk and back cross breeding was also used. Rapid Generation Advance (RGA) which is a modified bulk method which facilitates advancement of breeding material by 3 or 4 generations in a year has also been practiced especially in rainfed lowland rice breeding programmes. Instances of use of mutation breeding and deployment of tissue culture techniques are not uncommon while since nineties exploitation of heterosis for development of commercial rice hybrids with the availability of CMS lines developed in the background of tropical varieties has been one of the strategies for stepping up yield potential further. To enhance the yield levels, plant types with low tillering with no unproductive tillers and larger panicle weight types are being developed to reduce the unproductive tillers and increase number and grain weight. IRRI has been working on ideotype breeding project and they have developed New Plant type (NPT) lines, released in China, yielding 12-15 t/ha. These are Dianchao 1 and Dianchao 3, DRR, Hyderabad and few other centres within the country are also actively pursuing research on these lines. Amazing developments in the field of molecular biology and biotechnology in the last two decades as applicable to plant science in general and crop improvement in particular has unfolded unlimited possibilities in rice improvement programmes. Treading across genus / species barriers for transferring economically useful traits into the rice gene pool, manoveuring the target genes without disrupting the other nontarget regions of rice genome (i.e., increasing efficiency in selection) and shortening breeding cycle and transgenic technology to mobilize useful genes with resistance to insect pests and pathogens are some of the spectacular gains of biotechnology. The recent breakthrough in genetic engineering of a complete biosynthetic pathway by Ingo Potrykus and Peter Beyer towards developing nutritionally rich golden rice for alleviating the nutritional deficiencies (Vitamin A) of the poor and under nourished and other bio-fortification programmes which are initiated to genetically fortify rice with Iron and Zinc are the important developments. With the identification of two additional microsatellite markers RM 241 and RM 317, linked to gall midge resistance gene Gm2 at DRR, selection efficiency has been further enhanced through marker aided selection. Gall midge resistance gene Gm1 has been tagged and mapped on short arm of Chromosome 9 and two microsatellite flanking markers RM 219 and RM 316 have been identified. The current approach is towards pyramiding more than one gall midge resistance gene in the background of elite rice varieties with the help of MAS so that the resistance is durable. DRR, Hyderabad in collaboration with CCMB, Hyderabad has developed elite breeding lines in the genetic background of Samba Mahsuri and Triguna possessing three bacterial blight resistance genes (Xa21, Xa 13 and Xa 5) using MAS. The breeding lines has been evaluated in AICRIP trials and results indicate that the lines has high bacterial leaf blight resistance with grain quality and yield similar to Samba Mahsuri. One of these BLB resistant Samba Mahsuri lines (RP Bio 226) released as Improved Samba Mahsuri. Similar efforts
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are also on at IARI, New Delhi for introgression of BLB resistance genes into Pusa Basmati 1 and two BLB genes (Xa21, xa13) were introgressed into Pusa Basmati 1 background and lines were evaluated in basmati trials resulting in release of Improved Pusa Basmati. Research efforts are also being pursued to enhance yield through incorporation of yield QTLs from wild species; incorporation of trehalose biosynthesis genes into rice for achieving tolerance to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity. The existing inbuilt multi-disciplinary structure at DRR and at most of the cooperating centers wherein each of the team members such as plant breeders, molecular biologist, plant pathologists, entomologists, agronomists, cereal chemists, soil scientists and plant physiologists have contributed specialized knowledge and skill has immensely helped in development of varieties for all ecosystems. These efforts have also been enhanced greatly by the linkages Indian rice programme has with IRRI in exchange of germplasm and in human resource development.

3. Irrigated Rice Ecosystem


The total irrigated area under rice is about 44.9 per cent. In the States of Punjab, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Sikkim the irrigated area under rice is more than 90 per cent. In Karnataka it is 66 per cent, Uttar Pradesh (58 per cent), Himachal Pradesh (57 per cent) and Gujarat (53 per cent). In all other rice growing states, it is lower than the all India level. The initial rice breeding programmes were successful in developing short statured, non-lodging, fertilizer responsive high yielding varieties with wide adaptability. This was followed by the development of short duration varieties with minimal reduction in yield to fit into the different rice based cropping systems prevailing in the country depending on the seasons. The intensive cultivation of modern varieties with high inputs resulted in outbreaks of diseases and pests in late seventies and thus stabilization of achieved yields by incorporating resistance/tolerance to biotic stresses has become important. Identified donor parents were utilized in rice breeding programmes all over the country to fortify many of the varieties developed for this high productive environment with resistance to pests and diseases. As consumer preference for better grain quality assumed importance in mid eighties this became a predisposing factor for varietal adoption. Thus breeding for desirable quality components received special emphasis. 416 varieties have so far been released by Central and State Variety Release Committees which are early, mid early and medium in maturity with variable grain characteristics and abiotic stress tolerance. As plateauing of yields in irrigated areas has become a matter of concern, heterosis breeding methodology followed helped in release of 28 hybrids by public including another 14 hybrids marketed by the private seed sector. Thus irrigated areas recorded significant gains in production and productivity (Table 5).

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Table 5 : Varieties for Irrigated ecosystem


Central / States CSC on CSN&RV Varieties NDR 8002, Warangal Samba (WGL 14), DRRH 2, Ajaya, IR 20, IR 36, IR 64, IR 8, Jaya, Mahamaya, Narendradhan 359, Nidhi, PA 103 (PA 6201), Pusa 169, Pusa 2-21, Pusa 44-33, Pusa 834, Rasi, Ratna, Sasyasree, Shaktiman, Suraksha, Triguna, HRI 120, Krishna Hamsa, CSR 23, KRH 2, Naina, RH 204, Richa, Sumati, Suruchi (MPH 5401), JKRH 401, Abhishek, Akshyadhan, Gontra Bidhan 1, Pushyami, Sampada, Varadhan, Hybrid 6129 (HRI 152), JRH 4, JRH 5, Pusa Basmati 6, Improved Samba Mahsuri, Improved Pusa Basmati 1, Gontra Bidhan 1, DRR Dhan 39, Sahyadri 4, DRH 775, GK 5003, HRI 157, NK-5251, PAC 835, PAC 837 Tella Hamsa, Rasi, Surekha, Somasila, Kavya, Krishna Hamsa, Early Samba, Vijetha, IR 64, Shanthi, Keshava, Indur Samba, Shiva, Cotton Dora Sannalu, Pelala vadlu, Shravani, Swathi, Bharani, Deepti, Bhadrakali, Rajendra, DRRH 1, APHR-1, APHR-2, Jagtiala Sannalu, Apurva, Jagityal Mahsuri, Nandyal Sannalu, Shanti, Sumati, Indra, Warangal Sannalu, Ramappa, Taramati, Amara, Jagtial Samba, Manair Sona, Nellore, Mahsuri Luit, Satyaranjan, Basundhara, Jayamati Sita, Kanak, Sarjoo 52, Dhan Laxmi, Rajendra Sweta, Richharia IR 36, IR 64, Madhuri, Abhaya, Dubraj, Ruchi, Mahamaya, Suraksha, Bamaleswari, Indira Sugandhit Dhan 1, Chandrahasini, Indira Sona, Karma Mahsuri, Pusa 1121 Rasi, Vikram, Jaya, Suraksha, Ratnagiri-3, Karjat-2, Karjat -3, Sugandha GR 7, Jaya, Mahsuri, Gurjari, GR 3, GR 4, GR 11, Dandi, GR 8, AAUDR 1, HKR 47, HKR 46, HKR 126, HKR 120, CSR 30, CSR 27, Vikas, Haryana Sankar Dhan 1 Kasturi, Naggardhan, Palam dhan 957, RP 2421, Hassan Sarai, Varun Dhan Kohsaar, Jhelum, K 78-13, SKAU 23, SKAU 27 IR 64, IR 36, Pusa 2-21, Pusa 44-33, Gautham, Kalinga III IET 8116, KRH-2, IR 64, Jyothi, IR 20, Intan, Jaya, Phalguna, Rasi, Sharavati, Avinash, KRH-1, BR 2655-9-3-1, Kadamba, MAS 946-1*, Thanu, MAS-26* Uma, Jyothi, Ranjani, Pavitra, Panchami, Ramanika, , Revathy, Karishma, Krishnanjana, Sweta, Dhanu, Kunjukunju Priya, Kunju kunju Varna, Varsha IR 64, IR 36, Kranti, JR 201, Madhuri, Ruchi, Abhaya, IET 15376, PKV HMT, Karjat 4, JRH-8

Andhra Pradesh

Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh

Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka

Kerala

Madhya Pradesh

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Table 5 : (Contd..) - Varieties for Irrigated ecosystem


Maharashtra Sahyadri 2, Sahyadri 3, Karjat 5, Karjat 6, Ambika, Prabhavathi, Sugandha, Parag, Karjat-4, HMT Sona, Panvel 3, Phule Maval, Pondaghat 1, Sahaydri, Pusa Basmati 1, Kasturi, Triguna, Jaya, Ratna, SKL 3-11-25-3036, IET 16075, Phule Radha, Phule Samrudhi, PKV Khamang Sanaphou, Punshi, Phouibi, Re Maniphou 1, Re Maniphou 2, Linglinaphou, Sonaphou Ajay (CRHR 7), Rajalaxmi (CRHR 5), Kharaveli, Sebati, Gajapati, Konark, Surendra, Bhoi, Sonmani, Tapaswini, Radhi, CR 1014, Tulashi, Pratikshya, Jaldhi dhan 6, Manaswini, Satyavanshika, CR Dhan 10 Subramanya Bharati, Bharatidasan, Aravindar, Annalakshmi, Jaya, PR 106, PR 108, Pusa 44-33, PHB-71, IR 8*, PR 113, PR 114, PR 115, PR 116, CSR 30, Vasumati, PAU 201 Chambal, BK 190, BK 79, Jaya, Ratna, Khusboo, Mahisugandha, Vagad dhan ADT (R) 47, ADT (R) 48, ASD 20, ADTRH 1, CORH 2, ADT 43, TKM 11, CO 47, TRY 2, ASD 18, ADT 36, ADT 38, ASD 16, MGR-1, ADT (R) 45, RMD (R) 1, CO (R) 48, CO (R) 50 IR 36, Rasi, TRC Borodhan 1(Rabi only) Pantdhan 4, Pantdhan 6, Pantdhan 10, Pantdhan 12, Manhar, PHB 71, Pant Shankar dhan 1, Pantdhan 16, Prasad, Govind, Type 3, CSR 30, Pant Sankar Dhan 3 , Malaviya Sugandh 105, Malaviya Sugandh 4-3 Sarjoo 52, Narendradhan 359, Manhar, UPHR-27, PHB-71, Narendra Sanker dhan 2, Pusa 44-33, Narendradhan 2 , CSR 30, NDR 2026, Narendra Usar Sankar Dhan 3 Ratna, PNR 591, Rasi, Suraksha, Bipasa, Munal, Sasyasree, Khitish, CNRH-3, Satabdi

Manipur Orissa

Pondicherry Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu

Tripura Uttarakhand

Uttar Pradesh

West Bengal

Underline:RiceHybrids,*Aerobic

The irrigated ecosystem accounts for 65% of rice production. Studies have shown that even within the ecosystem disparities exist, with almost 40% increase in rice production coming from northwestern states while the eastern states contributing to 29% and southern states 23% in the last three decades. With the exploitative agriculture practiced to maximize the rice yields per unit area is a cause of concern, further enhancing the genetic yield potential is essential to cater the future needs. Therefore, efforts are continued through conventional and heterosis breeding to develop suitable high yielding genotypes combining desirable quality with pest/disease resistance.

4. Rainfed Rice Ecosystem


The rainfed ecosystem may be broadly classified into two categories Uplands and Lowlands. In the rainfed upland there is no standing water in the fields 48 hours after cessation of rain. In the rainfed lowland, water depth ranging from 10 cm to 75 cm is encountered during the crop growing season, depending on the location of the field
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and the intensity and duration of rainfall. Unfavourable rainfed lowlands suffer from intermittent drought as well as submergence. In this system rainfall is relatively high and the crop is submerged for most of its growing season. The lands are generally bunded to prevent run off and store the rain water. The risk of drought is less compared to the upland ecosystem. The risk of flooding from higher fields and submergence is higher. Rainfed shallow lowland rice is also mostly located in the Eastern region comprising Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Eastern Madhya Pradesh and Eastern Uttar Pradesh. For favourable rainfed lowlands, in general, the varieties developed for the irrigated areas are quite suitable and are widely adopted, whereas for unfavourable tracts drought and or submergence tolerance is a paramount requirement. 164 Varieties have been released for Rainfed shallow lowland situation (Table 6). The adoption of some of the popular among them have increased the production of especially eastern region as it is evident from the enhanced growth rate of more than 5% from 1982 to 1990.

Table 6 : Varieties for shallow low land ecosystem

Central/State CSC on CSN&RV Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Orissa

Pondicherry Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh West Bengal

Varieties Anamica, CR 1002, Dharitri, Manasarovar, Pankaj, Pooja, Pranava, Salivahana, Savithri, Swarnadhan, Dhanrasi, Improved Samba Mahsuri, Samba Mahsuri, Sona Mahsuri, Swarna, Chaitanya, Krishna Veni, Surya, Vedagiri, Srikakulam Sannalu, Vasundhara, Tholakari, Godavari, Deepti, Pardhiva, Sri Kurma Ranjit, Ketkijoha, Pemindra Rajashree, Swarna, Shakuntala, Satyam. Radha, Rajendra Mahsuri 1 Shyamala, Swarnadhan, Mahsuri, Safri 17, Kranti, Swarna, Jaldubi Birsamati Sharavathi, KHP 5, Madhuri, Kayamkulam 1, Neeraja, Neela, Rashmi Rashmi, Swarnadhan, Mahsuri, Phalguna, CR 1002, Safri 17, Kranti , Swarna SKL 8, Kranti, Ratnagiri 2, SYE 75, SYE- ER 1, Terna, Karjat 7 Pariphou Pankaj, Jagannath, Mahsuri, Khonorullu, Ngoba, Shah Sarang 1 Uphar, Jagabandhu, Durga, Sarasa, Gayatri, Pooja, Mahanandi, Prachi, Ramchandi, Moti, Utkal Prabha, Mahalakshmi, Nua Kalajeera, Nua Dhusara, CR Sugandh dhan-3 KKL (R)-1 CO 46, ADT 44, ADT 45, White Ponni, CO 43 Salivahana, Lakshmi, Savithri Jayalakshmi, Salivahana, Mahsuri, Savithri, Swarnadhan, Narendra Dhan, Narendra Jalpushp, Narendra Mayank Manasarovar, Swarnadhan, Dinesh, Bipasa, Suresh, Biraj, IR42, Shashi
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5. Semi deep and Deep water Ecology:


Semi-deep and deep water areas constitute around 3.1 million hectares, where the scope for improving productivity by elevating the genetic potential exists as the environment is not amenable for modern agronomic practices. Much of this area is mainly confined to eastern Indian states, where rainfall is moderate to high which results in drought as well as submergence in lowland conditions. Deep water rice areas are mostly situated in Assam (0.58 m ha), Bihar (0.15 m ha), Madhya Pradesh (0.22 m ha), Orissa (0.12 m ha), Uttar Pradesh (0.25 m ha) and West Bengal (0.38 m ha). These areas are subjected to floods and duration of flooding varies from year to year. The Varietal technology must possess in its repertoire long duration, photoperiod sensitive varieties with intermediate plant stature, tolerance to submergence for semideep water situations while tall statured varieties with elongation ability are the requirements for deep water rices. Resistance/tolerance to major biotic stresses like BLB, Sheath blight, Brown spot, Stem borer and Plant hoppers is also a prerequisite as management practices for plant production and protection are difficult for adoption. Breeding efforts were successful in developing varieties for these fragile ecosystems with the release of 38 varieties for semi deep and 15 for deep water areas in the last three decades (Table 7).

Table 7: Varieties for semi deep and deep water situations


SEMI DEEP Amulya, Nalini, Purnendu Jalpriya, Jal Lahari, Jal Nidhi, Jalamagna, Jitendra, Madhukar, Chakia 59, Barah Avarodhi Sabita, Saraswathi, Mahananda, Bhagirathi, Golak, Sudhir, Jogen, Amulya, Nalini, Mandira, Matangini, Purnendu, Madhukar, Bhudeb Uphar, Varshadhan, CR Dhan 70 Swarna Sub-1 DEEP WATER Jitendra Padmanth Janaki, Sudha, Vaidehi Hemavathi Eriemaphou Neeraja, Jalapriya, Jitendra, Jalaprabha, Sunil,

CSC on CSN&RV Manipur West Bengal Orissa Uttar Pradesh CSC on CSN&RV Assam Bihar Karnataka Manipur West Bengal

6. Rainfed Uplands:
Upland rice is grown in around 5.50 million hectares as direct seeded in flat lands of Coastal Orissa, Assam and Eastern Uttar Pradesh; gently rolling lands of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh; sloppy lands in Jharkhand, Western Orissa, Meghalaya and Uttarakhand. About 70% of upland rice area is drought prone and other 30% favourable. The shallow rooting depth of rice limits the storage of available water in the root zone. Erratic distribution of rainfall and the low rooting depth restrict the soil moisture supply to the crop. Moisture stress, low soil fertility, poor crop establishment, heavy infestation of weeds, pests and diseases like blast, brown spot, root knot nematode, gundhi bug, termites, leaf folder etc., continuous use of traditional varieties
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and poor adoption of improved crop production practices have been responsible for the abysmal low productivity of 0.6-1.5 t/ha in this ecosystem. There is an absolute need to identify suitable high yielding varieties endowed with drought tolerance, very early and early duration, intermediate plant stature with weed suppressive ability and pest and disease tolerance. Rainfed upland improvement programmes initially involved isolation of pure lines of land races, for example N22 from Rajbhog in UP and PTB 10 from Thavai Kannan in Kerala. Some of the popular drought tolerant rice varieties of earlier years are Mettasannavari, Brown Gora, CH 45, Dular, MTU 17. Most of these land races have coarse grains and red kennels. The main asset of these varieties is their inherent earliness, which allows them to mature before the cessation of the monsoon rains. Using some of these important donors 118 very early (90-100 days) and early (100-110) drought tolerant varieties have been released as listed in Table 8. Annada, Vana Prabha, Govind, Heera, Tulasi, Ravi, Aditya, Kalinga III, PNR 381, Vandana, Anjali, Maruteru Sannalu and MTU 9993 are some of the popularly grown varieties in upland areas.

Table 8: Varieties for upland ecosystem


Central/State CSC on CSN & RV Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Gujarat Jharkhand Himachal Pradesh Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Orissa Varieties NDR 1045-2, Aditya, Heera, Jawahar Rice 3-45, Narendra 97, PNR 381, Sattari, Tulasi, Govind, Anjali, Pantdhan 16, Shusk Samrat, Virender, Kameshdhan, CR Dhan-40 Somasila, Maruteru Sannalu, MTU 9993, Prasanna, Rajendra, Rudrama, Varalu, Sri Satya Kapilee, Luit Prabhat, Turant Dhan, Vandana, Birsadhan 105, Birsadhan 106 Danteswari, Somleswari GR 3, GR 5, GR 8 Birsadhan 108, Birsa Vikasdhan 109, Birsa Vikasdhan 110 PNR 519 Amrut, IET 7564, IR 30864 Suvarnamodam, Harsha, Chingam Poorva, Pragati, JR 75, Jagruti, Garima, Annapoorna, Rashmi Tulajapur 1, Imp.Ambemohar Ginaphou* Bhalum 1, Bhalum 2 Pratikshya (favourable uplands), Sidhanta, Jogesh, Naveen, Lalithagiri, Annada, Badami, Dala Heera, Ghanteswari, Heera, Kalinga III, Khandagiri, Neela, Sneha, Sattari, Rudra, Vanaprabha, Vandana, Jaldi Dhan-6 Vagaddhan Vaigai, MDU 1, Paramakudi 1, PMK (R) 3 Narendra dhan 1, Govind, Narendradhan 2, Narendra 80, Narendra 118, VL Dhan 97, Renu, VL dhan 97, Baranideep Kiron, Panke, Bhupen, Jamini, Khanika, PNR 519

Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal

*:alsosuitableforlowlands

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7. Saline Alkaline Tolerant Variety Trial:


About 9.04 m.ha are salt affected soils in India and account for nearly 47% of saline, 20% of sodic (alkali) and 7% of acid sulphate soils of tropical Asia. Soil salinity both coastal as well as inland salinity and alkalinity are the most predominant abiotic stresses limiting rice production in coastal and irrigated areas in the country. The complexity of salt tolerance, soil heterogeneity and environmental interaction are the major hurdles in breeding salt tolerant varieties with high yield potential. As soil amelioration practices are inaccessible to all farmers, breeding salt tolerant varieties is the most promising, economical and socially acceptable approach. Some of the important salt tolerant donors are Getu, Damodar, Dasal, Nona Bokhra, Nonasail, Pokkali, etc. Considerable efforts were made at CSSRI, Karnal and at International Rice Research Institute, IRRI to develop salt tolerant high yielding genotypes. Some of the important salt tolerant varieties released in the country include CSR 10, CSR 13, CSR 27, CSR 30 (Basmati type), CST 7-1, Lunishree etc., which are well adopted to inland saline, coastal saline and alkaline areas. 34 salt tolerant varieties are released in the country and some are listed in Table 9.

Table 9: Varieties with soil stress tolerance


Central/State CSC on CSN & RV Andhra Pradesh Haryana Kerala Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal

Varieties Naina, Jarava, Sumati, CSR 10, CST 7-1, Lunishree, CSR 27, CSR 13, Vikas, CSR 23, Bhuthnath, Amalmana, DRR Dhan 39 Vikas, Somasila CSR-10, CSR 13, CSR 27, CSR-30 (Yamini), Vikas Vyttila 6 Panvel 1, Sindewahi 1, Panvel 3, CSR 10, CSR 13, CSR 27 PVR 1, TRY 1, TRY (R) 2 Narendra Usar 2, Narendra Ushar 3, Ushar-1, Narendra Usar Rice Hybrid 3, Narendra Usar Dhan 2008 CST 7-1, CSR 27

8. Hill Rices
The hill rices are grown in around 1.8 2.0 m.ha spread over the states of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand in northernwest; West Bengal, Assam, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh in northeastern regions, with the climate varying between sub temperate through temperate to warm temperature. Cold injury due to low temperature is one of the major impediments to rice production in the hills. It manifests at different stages of crop growth in different areas depending on the climate. Further rice in hills is cultivated from 350 msl to about 2300 msl under two agroecosystems viz., direct seeded uplands and irrigated which add to the complexity and development of suitable varieties for hill ecology is thus difficult. Utilizing the cold tolerant donors such as CH 988, CH 1039, CH 977, Kransadorski etc., NEH Meghalaya; UPKAS, Almora and Rice Research Station, Malan and few other centers developed 7 and 37 high yielding varieties for both upland and irrigated hills respectively as listed in Table 10.
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Table 10: Cold tolerant hill rices


Central/State Varieties Upland direct seeded areas CSC on VL Dhan 221, Sukaradhan 1 CSN&RV Himachal PNR 519 Pradesh Uttar Pradesh VL dhan 221, VL dhan 206, VL dhan 16 Uttarakhand VL Dhan 209 Irrigated areas CSC on Vivekdhan 62, VL Dhan 61, VL Dhan 81, Vivekdhan 82, VL Dhan CSN&RV 86 Himachal RP 732, Naggardhan, RP 2421, Palamdhan 957 Pradesh Jammu & Chenab, Kohsaar, Jhelum, K-84, K 78-13, Tawi Kashmir Manipur Akutiphou, Lema Phou Meghalaya NEH Megha rice 1, NEH Megha rice 2, Uttar Pradesh Vivekdhan 62, VL dhan 81, Pantdhan 11 Uttarakhand VL Dhan 65

9. Boro areas
Boro rice is traditionally grown in the low lying areas during October/November April/May in West Bengal, Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Assam, Orissa and North eastern region. In view of its higher yield potential boro rice cultivation is one of the options to step up rice production. This fact is well documented in West Bengal and Assam. There is a vast scope to expand the area under boro rice and exploit its potential further. 13 varieties are released which have high yield potential and can tolerate the low temperature at the seedling stages and high temperature at flowering and maturity stage Table 11. Many efforts were made to optimize the agro-techniques for boro rice cultivation also.

Table 11: Varieties for Boro areas


CVRC Assam Bihar Tripura West Bengal Orissa

Krishna Hamsa Bishnu Prasad, Chandrama, Jyothi Prasad, Chandrama Dhan Laxmi, Gautam, Richharia, Swati, TRC Borodhan 1, PNR 546 Chandan, CR Boro Dhan-2

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10. Incorporation of pest/disease tolerance for stabilization of yield gains:

Even 60% of the yield potential of the currently available high yielding dwarf varieties in India has not yet been exploited. At present, as against the estimated potential of over 6-7 t/ha, the average yield of irrigated areas, for which the dwarf plant type was tailored, is hardly 3.5 tonnes of paddy per hectare, indicate the existence of vast scope for tapping still unexploited potential. Of several factors known to destabilize the rice yields, pests and diseases account for crop losses to the extent of 30-40%. Cultivation of high nitrogen responsive varieties together with higher use of inputs like fertilizers and pesticides accentuated the pest problems during the post-high yielding varietal era. While stemborer and leaf hoppers and blast were considered important prior to 1965, a dozen pests like gall midge, brown plant hopper, white backed plant hopper, leaf folder, rice hispa, earhead bug, leaf hopper (insect pests); sheath blight, bacterial leaf blight and rice tungro virus began causing serious yield losses stressing the urgent need of breeding resistant varieties. Host plant resistance played dominant in mitigating the key pest problems. Accelerated efforts led to the identification of resistant sources and their incorporation into the modern cultivars through strong resistant breeding programmes resulted in release of several resistant tolerant as well as multiple resistant varieties in the last three decades. Changing scenario in pests and biotypes/pathotypes warrant continued efforts to identify new sources of resistance and pyramiding of genes for developing durable resistance has assumed importance. A large number of varieties that have been developed incorporating host plant resistance include for blast followed by BLB, GM, BPH and WBPH (Tables 12 & 13). Remarkable progress was witnessed with several varieties with multiple resistance to major pests and diseases also released (Table 14).

Table 12: Varieties Resistant/ Tolerant to Insect Pests

Insect GLH

BPH

WBPH

Stem borer

Donors PTB 2, ARC 14529, Latisail, Kataribhog, Pankhari 203, ADT 14, ARC 6606, ADR 52 PTB 33, Manoharsali, Velluthacheera, ARC 6650, ARC 5984, PTB 21, ARC 7080, Leb Muey Nahng, Rathu Heenati, Sinna Sivappu IET 6288, MO 1, Anaikomban, Andrewsail, PTB 33 TKM 6, W 1263, ARC 5500, Manoharsali

Central Releases Shaktiman, Nidhi

State Releases Vikramarya, Shiva, Lalat, IR 28, BK 79, Bharani

Suraksha, Triguna, Manasarovar

HKR 126, Haryana Bas.1 Sasyasree, Amalmana

Chaitanya, Chandana, Krishnaveni, Sonasali, Vajram, Vijetha, Manoharsali, Uma, Aruna, Annaga, Birupa, Neela, Bharatidasan, ADT 37, TKM 10, TPS 2 Surya, HKR 120, Khandagiri, Samata, PR 108, CR Dhan 70 Vikas, HKR 46, Nilgiri

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Table 12 : (Contd..) - Varieties Resistant/ Tolerant to Insect Pests


Biotype-1 Eswarakora, Siam 29, PTB 10 Gall midge Shaktiman Surekha, Erramallelu, Sneha, Kavya, Phalguna, Samridhi, Vasundhara, Bhuban, Penna, Samalei, Kesava Shakti, Shaktiman, Suraksha, Tara, Daya, Khira, Pratap, Sarasa,Udaya, Neela Karna, Ruchi, Divya Abhaya

Biotype-2

Siam 29, PTB 10

Abhaya, IR 36 Rajendradhan202 Suraksha Triguna Central Rasi, CSR 13, Govind, IR 20, Pooja, Aditya, Vikas, VL Dhan 221, IR 64, Sampada

Biotype-3 Biotype-4 Biotype-5

W 1263 PTB 10 Siam 29 Donors Tetep, Tadukhan, Zenith, Co 4, Dawn Moroberekan, Correon, Dissi Hatif, Taride 1, IAC 25, IRAT 3, Co 29 T 141, OS 4, BCP 3, Saibham, Bhuhjan, Saduwee, Laka, Ramedja, Tapoo-Cho-Z, Athebu Phourel , ARC 15368 Sigadis, IR 22, BJ 1, TKM 6, Lacrosee-ZenithNira, Java 14, Wase-aikoku

Table 13: Rice Varieties resistant/ tolerant to diseases


Disease Blast State Bharani, Krishna Hamsa, Sagarsamba, Kotta molagulukulu, Swarna Mukhi, Kamini, Birsadhan 201, GR 101, Mandya Vijaya, Kartika, Ruchi, HMT Sona, Indrayan, Gayatri, Moti, Aravinder, PR 113, ADT 37, ADT 38, TRC Borodhan-1, Pantdhan 10, Narendra 80, Shashi, Sunil, CR Boro Dhan 2 CR Boro Dhan 2

Sheath Blight

Pankaj, Swarnadhan, Manasarovar

Bacterial Leaf Blight

Ajaya, IR 20, IR 36, IR 64, Swarnadhan, Improved Samba Mahsuri

Rice Tungro Virus

PTB 18, ADT 21, ARC 10599, ARC 14320, ARC 14766

IR 20, Nidhi, Shaktiman, Dhanarasi, Varadhan

Mahsuri, Pinakini, Saleem, Pothana, Tikkana, Jayashree, GR 101, Mata Triveni, Pavizham, Ruchi, Karjat 1, Badami, Gayatri, PR 4141, PR 109, PR 113, PR 114, PR 115, PR 116, Kanchan, Radha, Vaidehi, Mehar, Manika, PR 110, PR 111, ADT 37, ADT 38, Pantdhan 12, Govind, Manhar, Narendra Usar 3, Pantdhan 6, Sarjoo 52, Mandira Vikramarya, IR 28, Pusa 33, Annapurna, Kanakam, Poorva, Birupa, Dala Heera, Kshira, Urbashi, Vanaprabha, Bhartidasan, ADT 38, TKM 9, Narendradhan 1, Narendradhan 2, Dinesh, Matangini, Annalakshmi

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Table 14: Donors and Varieties with multiple resistance to more than one pest or disease

Released in Resistant/Tolerant to Banglei, Aganni, T 1477, Velluthacheera, ADR 52, Pondi, Chennulu, NHTA 8, T 141, Ptb 18, TKM 6, Ptb 33, Ptb 21 Varieties Resistant/Tolerant to Suraksha Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, West GM, BPH, WBPH, BL Bengal Vikramarya Andhra Pradesh GM, GLH, RTV Shaktiman Orissa, West Bengal GM, RTV, GLH, BL Rasmi Kerala GM, BPH, BL Daya Orissa GM, BPH, GLH, BL Samalei Orissa, Madhya Pradesh GM, BPH, GLH, BL Bhuban Orissa GM, BLB Kunti West Bengal GM, BL Lalat Orissa GM, BPH, GLH, BL Dhanrasi Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, BL, RTV, SB, Sh.R Karnataka, Maharashtra Chandrama Assam BL,BB,RTV,BS,BPH,WBPH,GM CR Dhan Orissa BL,ShBl,SB,BPHWBPH,GM 70 Donors
GM: Gall Midge; BPH: Brown Planthopper; WBPH: Whitebacked Planthopper; GLH: Green Leafhopper; BL: Blast; RTV:Ricetungrovirus

11. Significance and improvement of Basmati rices

Aromatic rices have a special place in world rice markets as they are highly priced. Among the aromatic rices, long grain basmati types fetch highest premium and India is one of the major exporters of basmati rice in the world. Superfine long slender grain (>6.61mm long), characteristic pleasant aroma, extreme elongation on cooking (>1.8 times) and soft texture of cooked rice are the distinctive features of basmati rices. Basmati 370 (Punjab Basmati), Karnal Local (Taroari Basmati) and Type 3 (Dehra Dun Basmati) are some of the traditional types that qualify for export among the rich basmati diversity that exists in the country. All traditional types are tall, prone to lodging, susceptible to pests and diseases with an average yield of 21-22 quintals/hectare. Basmati cultivation is confined to Northwest Indian states - Punjab, Haryana, Uttarakhand and Western Uttar Pradesh and to a limited area in Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Delhi and Rajastan. Although the exact area, production and productivity of basmati rice is not known, tentative estimates indicate that it is cultivated in about 0.7 to 0.8 million hectares. Area estimates prepared by the Basmati Export Development Foundation (BEDF) in 2003 indicate that it is cultivated in about 0.8 to 0.9 million hectares which is around 2.0% as compared to the area under non-basmati rices. The production of basmati rice is about 1.2 million tonnes with the productivity varying from 1.5 to 1.8 t/ha.

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About 50-70% of basmati produced in the country is exported mainly to Saudi Arabia (68%), UAE, UK, Kuwait, Bahrain and others. With a small beginning in 1978-79, India exported 0.67 lakh tonnes of basmati rice earning a modest foreign exchange of Rs.32 crores. The upward trend continued steadily with the quantum of basmati raising from 8.40 lakh tonnes in 2000-2001 to 1.16 million tonnes in 2005-2006 and the value from Rs. 2120 to Rs.3030 crores during the same period (Fig. 5). It accounts to 73% of total earnings indicating higher price realization and the demand it has in the world markets as a specialty rice of unparalleled quality and aroma. In addition, scope exists for the export of japonica rices under WTO agreement and short grained aromatic rices.

Development of High Yielding Varieties of Basmati Quality


Ever since the introduction of high yielding varieties, there has been scattered research efforts to combine basmati quality into the high yielding background. Selections made resulted in the production of several improved strains such as N 105 (sel. Hansraj Pilibhit), N12 (sel. From Safeda Punjab), T3 (Sel. Basmati Dehradoon), T9 (sel. Duniapat Basti), T1 (sel. Ramjiwain Saharanpur) and T 23 (sel. Kalasukhdas Banda). Varieties T3, N 105 and T9 are still popular and widely grown in the state. Basmati 370 is also a selection made at Kala Shah Kaku now in Pakistan in 1933. Although further efforts made throughout the country led to the release of 23 high yielding and improved tall traditional basmati varieties none could really gain the acceptance of the farmer and trade. Intensified efforts under ICAR Cess Fund programmes in late eighties in a short span helped in the release of 7 basmati rice varieties (Pusa Basmati 1, Kasturi, Haryana Basmati 1, Ranbir Basmati, Taroari Basmati, Basmati 385, Basmati 386) after extensive testing for yield attributes and entire range of physico chemical characteristics. Further breeding efforts led to the development of another four basmati varieties approved in 2001 by Central Sub Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of Varieties (CSC on CSN&RV) has approved release of 4 varieties viz., Yamini (IET 14720), Vasumati (IET 15391), Pusa Sugandh 2 (IET 16301) and Pusa Sugandh 3 (IET 16313) for traditional basmati growing areas on account of their superiority in yield and quality features, while the first variety in addition has tolerance to sodicity and salinity (Table 15). Under Development and Use of Hybrid Rice Technology, Pusa RH 10, an early duration super fine grained aromatic hybrid with 40% yield advantage over Pusa Basmati 1 has been released. It is the first fine grained aromatic hybrid to be released in the country. IET 13549 released as Mugad Sugandha in Karnataka state and also as Bhogavati in Maharashtra suitable for parboiling (sela basmati). In 2002 another basmati variety was released in Uttranchal as Pant Sugandhdhan 15 as state release. Again in the year 2004 Sugandhamati (IET 16775) from DRR and Pusa Sugandh 5 from IARI, were approved for release for traditional basmati growing areas of Northwestern India by the Central Sub Committee. With significant yield superiority of 24% over Pusa Basmati 1 with comparable quality, Sugandhamati possess leaf blast and brown spot resistance. It has long slender aromatic grains with good cooking quality features of basmati rice. Pusa Sugandh 5 is medium duration variety with extra long slender aromatic grains having high yield advantage over Pusa Basmati 1. It has moderate resistance to bacterial leaf blight. IET 17276 (CRM 2007-1), a mutant of Basmati 370, on the basis of yield superiority and quality comparable to Taroari Basmati was released as Geethanjali in Orissa. Mention may be
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made of Pusa Sugandh 4 (IET 18004) (Pusa1121) which is unique in having aromatic extra long slender grains with very high elongation on cooking and is at present occupying 40-50% of basmati growing areas and getting a very high price of Rs. 2200 Rs. 2500/quintal (Paddy basis). Other aromatic rices released from different states include Rajendra Sweta (IET 18052) a medium duration variety from Bihar and Pant Sugandhdhan 17 (IET 17263), medium maturing variety from Uttarakhand. In early 2007, Pusa 1460-01-32-6-7-67 (IET 18990), pyramiding two genes xa13 and Xa21 in Pusa Basmati 1 for resistance to bacterial leaf blight through marker assisted selection was released as Improved Pusa Basmati 1 for the states of Punjab, Delhi, J&K and Uttarakhand. Thus the research efforts made in the last two decades has been instrumental in the identification and release of several traditional as well as dwarf high yielding basmati types combining the typical basmati quality features. The adoption and spread of these varieties would go a long way in augmenting the basmati exports prospects of the country.

Table 15: Traditional Basmati varieties, high yielding semi- dwarf Basmati varieties, aromatic long grain and short grain varieties

Central/State CSC on CSN & RV Andhra Pradesh Bihar Chhattigarh Delhi Haryana Himachal Pradesh Maharashtra Karnataka Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tripura Tamil Nadu Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh
Underline:RiceHybrid

Varieties Yamini, Vasumati, Kasturi, Pusa Sugandha 2, Pusa Sugandha 3, Pusa Basmati 1, Haryana Basmati 1, Pusa RH 10 (Aromatic Hybrid), Pusa sugandh 5, Sugandhamati, Improved Pusa Basmati 1,Pusa Basmati 6 Sumati Sugandha (T), Rajendra Sweta Indira Sugandit Dhan 1 Pusa Basmati 1121 (Pusa Sugandh 4) Pusa 33, Taroari Basmati, Haryana Basmati 1 Kasturi, Hassan Sarai Bhogavati, PKV makarand, PKV Khamang Mugad Sugandha Geetanjali, Ketekijoha Punjab Basmati, Basmati 385, Basmati 386 BK 79, Basmati 370, Mahisugandha Khali Khasa JJ 92, ADT 41 Pant Sugandh Dhan 15, Pant Sugandh Dhan 17 Hassan Sarai, Malviya Sugandh 105, Malviya Sugandh 4-3

International Collaboration
The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), initiated a project similar to AICRIP model called International Rice Testing Programme (IRTP), which was later
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named as International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) with the main objective of facilitating free exchange of germplasm and breeding material among the researchers working on diverse rice growing ecologies around the world. India has been also benefited by the germplasm and breeding lines received from IRRI. Fifty one IRRI breeding lines and 31 elite lines received from different countries through IRRI have been released in India for commercial cultivation. In addition 234 varieties released in the country have IRRI lines in immediate parental background. The hybrid rice breeding programme got a tremendous boost under this collaborative effort which led to its success in developing 33 hybrids both by the Public and the Private sectors of which 6 are direct introductions while 19 have one of the IRRI lines as parental lines. Similarly the rich and diverse germplasm resource of India contributed profusely for International breeding programmes. Around 31 land races were used in the IRRI bred varietal releases and 11 of these originated from India. Some of the notable among them include Latisail, GEB 24, Co 18, O. nivara, Ptb 18, Ptb 21 and Ptb 33. Like wise several germplasm and breeding lines from India were utilized in breeding programmes in many rice growing countries across continents. Global adoption of 48 varieties (Table 16) of Indian origin emphasized the significant impact of INGER testing and adds to the strength of Indian breeding programme (Shobha Rani et al 2008).

Table 16: Indian varieties released elsewhere in the world


Region Sub-Saharan Africa South Asia Latin America South East Asia West & North Africa

: Varieties : Co38, RAU 4072-13, Vikram, RP 4-2, Vijaya, Savithri, Jaya, RP 2095-5-8-31, AD 9240, Basmati 217, Khitish, Rasi, RP 143-4, IET 4790, Sabarmati : CR 44-11, Cauvery, Padma, Barkat, Rasi, CR 123-23, K 39-96-1-1-12, Khitish : Seshu, IR 2153-276-1-10-PR 509, Khitish, R 22-2-10-1, PR 106 : OR 142-699, M 114, Mahsuri Mutant, Jaya, Sona : Sona

Epilogue:
Although impressive production targets have been achieved in the last three decades which ushered in an era of self sufficiency, the country still requires to add 2.5 million tonnes of milled rice per year to sustain the future food security. The projections made in mid nineties indicate that if the compound growth rate (CGR) for rice is 2.54 by year 2000, the country would produce 96 million tonnes of rice. But the present CGR is 1.19 (1998-1999) and the production although is high 93.1 million tonnes (2001-2002) is an indication of short fall. Indias rice production target for 2020 AD is 135-140 million tonnes to ensure food security to burgeoning population. With the depleting natural resource base, deteriorating soil health, declining input use efficiency, plateauing of yields in irrigated ecology and limited breakthrough in rainfed ecologies to achieve the targeted production would be an uphill task in the coming decades. Stabilization of already achieved yield levels by developing host plant resistance through the
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integration of conventional and molecular breeding approaches; raising yield frontiers further in irrigated areas through exploitation of hybrid vigour and restructuring of plant types and special efforts to improve the production potential of ecologically handicapped rainfed rice areas should continue to receive major research thrust to achieve the envisaged enhanced rice production.

Suggested Reading

1. FAOProductionYearBook,Vol.53,1999 2. Rice Research and Production in India Present Status and a Future Perspective. Quinquennial Review Committee Report 198896, Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad,pp216. 3. IRRI,1972.RiceBreeding.LasBanos,Philippines 4. DeDatta S.K. 1981, Pinciples and Practices of Rice Production. John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. 5. RiceResearchinIndia,1985.IndianCouncilofAgriculturalResearch. 6. DRR Bulletin 20011, High Yielding Rice Varieties of India2000. Directorate of Rice Research,Rajendranagar,Hyderabad. 7. Vision 2020, DRR Perspective Plan. Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. 8. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Rainfed Rice for Sustainable Food Security1996.CentralRiceResearchInstitute,Cuttack. 9. Shobha Rani N, GSV Prasad, LV Subba Rao, I Sudarshan, Manish K Pandey, VR Babu, T Ram, G Padmavathi, K Muralidharan, IC Pasalu and BC Viraktamath 2008. High Yielding Rice Varieties of India, Technical Bulletin No. 33, Directorate of Rice Research,Rajendranagar,Hyderabad,188pp

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Fig 1: Rice production trends in India, 1995-2006


Area (m.ha) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Production (m.t) Productivity (kg/ha)

2131 2500 2026 1936 1865 93.4 2000 1725 86.9 87.4 1475 79.7 1246 72.8 1500 1091 1144 991 960 60.8 865 41.2 42.2 42.7 44.9 43.2 43.8 1000 40 38.6 49.9 35.9 37.4 44.1 31.2 33.7 40.8 32.4 35.6 500 27 0 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 Years

Fig 2: Total Rice Exports, 1999-2007 1999-2000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Quantity (000't) Value (Rs. Crores) 1823 4787 6495 5697 3105.37 2002-2003 2007-2008 11730

Fig 3: Ecosystemwise rice area, production and yield in India 2004-05


60 50 40 30 19.4 20 667 10 0 Irrigated Upland Lowland Flood-prone 7.5 5.0 13.3 3.0 900 2.7 56.6 2918 Area(m.ha) Production(m.t) Yield(kg/ha) 3500 3000 2500 2000 1564 20.8 1500 1000 500 0

*-approximate figures

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Fig 4: High yielding varieties released in India upto 2009

IRM, 153 IRSA, 34 IRME, 104 RSL, 165

RUP, 117

IRE, 138 HRIR, 42 SCR, 53 BORO, 11

ARB, 2 SDW, 40 DW, 14 HRUR, 7

Total: 880

Irrigated: 535

Rainfed: 345

BORO SCR HRIR IRE IRME IRM IRSA RSL RUP ARB SDW DW HRUR

Fig 5: Yearwise Basmati Export, 1999-2007


Quantity (000,t) Value (Rs. Crores)

4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0

4334

2792.8 2062.59 1735.94 1045 606 710 1182

1999-2000

2002-2003

2006-2007

2007-2008

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Hybrid Rice Global Status


A.S. Hari Prasad Directorate of Rice Research Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030

1.

Introduction

The biggest problem faced by the humanity in the present 21st century is ensuring the food security for the ever increasing population. Adequate food and nutrition is to be made available for the huge global population with the ever shrinking resource base. With less land, less water, less fertilizers and pesticides so as not to pollute further the already polluted environment, much more food is required to be produced on a sustainable basis. The enormity of the challenge of ensuring food security in the decades ahead becomes clear if we consider the following fact. During the next 50 years more food needs to be produced than what has been produced cumulatively during the last 10,000 years, ever since the organized agriculture began, to effectively meet the demands of the anticipated population explosion.

1.1. The population explosion


The current global population which is estimated as 6.45 billion is expected to reach 7.54 billion by 2020 and 8.91 billion by 2050 AD. Ninety five percent of this population increase will take place in developing countries, where rice is the staple food. It is very interesting to consider the rate of increase in global population (Table-1).

Table - 1 : World Population (thousands) 1950-2020

Year 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020

Population 2 529 346 2 763 453 3 023 358 3 331 670 3 685 777 4 061 317 4 437 609 4 846 247 5 290 452 5 713 073 6 115 367 6 512 276 6 908 688 7 302 186 7 674 833
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% Increase 9.2 19.5 31.7 45.7 60.6 75.4 91.6 109.2 125.9 141.8 157.5 173.1 188.7 203.4

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The ten most populous countries in the world are listed below based on the recent
population figures.

Table - 2 : Ten most populous countries in the world (by 2010)


Rank 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Country China India USA Indonesia Brazil Pakistan Bangladesh Nigeria Russia Japan TOTAL Approximate population (in million) 1354 1214 317 232 195 184 164 158 140 126 4084 % Population 19.6 17.6 4.5 3.4 2.8 2.7 2.4 2.3 2.0 1.8 59.1

Of the 193 countries in the world, the above mentioned ten countries contribute almost 60% of the global population. Just the two most populous countries, together China and India contribute almost 37% i.e., more than one third to the global population. In both these countries, rice is the staple food. In five out of the ten most populous countries, rice happens to be the staple food, while rest of the five countries it is consumed in varying proportions.

1.2 The global rice scenario


Rice is grown worldwide over an area of 156 million hectares with an annual production of 660 million tons. It is cultivated in 114 of the 193 countries of the world. Among all the crops it is highest in global production but second to wheat (214 million ha.) in global area. During the last 50 years, the global area of rice has increased more than one and half time, and the production has increased four times, and the productivity exceeded more than double as shown in Table-3.

Table - 3 : Global rice scenario for last 50 years


Global Rice Area (m. ha.) Production rough rice (m. tons) Productivity rough rice (t/ha.) 1948 86.70 145.40 1.68 2008-09 155.71 661.81 4.25 % increase 179.6 455.2 253.0

Continent wise, more than 90% of the rice is produced and consumed in Asia. The other two continents growing and consuming rice are Africa and Latin America. In North America, Europe and Australia, rice is grown in a very limited area, though the productivity is quite high (Table-4).
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Table - 4 : Global rice area, production and productivity continent wise (2008)
Continent Asia Africa South America North America Europe Australia Oceania World Area (m. ha.) 139.61 8.68 4.88 1.92 0.41 0.09 0.09 155.68 Global (%) 89.72 5.58 3.14 1.23 0.26 0.05 0.05 Production rough rice (m. tons) 600.54 22.71 23.29 11.69 2.63 0.10 0.10 661.81 Global (%) 90.84 3.43 3.52 1.77 0.38 0.02 0.02 Productivity rough rice (tons/ha-1) 4.30 2.61 4.77 6.09 6.02 11.33 11.33 4.25

Top ten countries in the world with largest rice area are given in Table-5.

Table - 5 : Top ten countries with largest rice area (2008)


S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Country India China Indonesia Bangladesh Thailand Vietnam Myanmar Philippines Brazil Pakistan Rice area (m. ha.) 44.00 29.20 11.85 11.60 10.68 7.35 6.70 4.40 2.92 2.90 Production rough rice (m. tons) 148.36 193.00 57.83 46.51 29.39 35.90 17.50 16.81 13.00 9.45 Productivity rough rice (tons/ha-1) 3.37 6.61 4.88 4.01 2.75 4.88 2.61 3.82 4.45 3.26

These ten countries occupy 85% and the first five countries occupy 70% of the total global rice acrage. If we consider the top ten countries production wise (Table-6), the scenario is slightly different.

Table - 6 : Top ten countries with highest rice production (2008)


S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Country China India Indonesia Bangladesh Vietnam Thailand Myanmar Philippines Brazil Japan Production rough rice (m. tons) 193.00 148.36 57.83 46.51 35.90 29.39 17.50 16.81 13.00 11.02 Area (m. ha.) 29.2 44.00 11.85 11.60 7.35 10.68 6.70 4.40 2.92 1.63 Productivity rough rice (tons/ha. -1) 6.61 3.37 4.88 4.01 4.88 2.75 2.61 3.82 4.45 6.78

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China, though second in area, displaces with India, as first in production, partly because of large scale adoption of hybrid rice, in addition to the higher productivity of inbreds rice too due to rich soils, 100% irrigated area, and favourable climate. Thailand goes down to Vietnam, due to reduced production of high quality exportable rice. Japan creeps in at the expense of Pakistan, among the top ten, due to higher total production on account of higher, productivity. The major area in Pakistan is under basmati rices, which are lower yielding. If we take the productivity alone, many rice growing countries with negligible rice area but with advanced methods of far ming, come to the fore front (Table-7).

Table - 7 : Top ten countries with highest rice productivity (2008)


S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Country Australia Egypt Uruguay U.S.A. Peru Turkey Rep. of Korea Japan China Argentina Productivity rough rice (tons/ha. -1) 11.33 10.04 8.01 7.68 7.36 7.00 6.99 6.78 6.61 6.25 Production rough rice (m. tons) 0.10 6.75 1.25 9.24 1.84 0.70 6.55 11.02 193.00 1.20 Area (m. ha.) 0.09 0.67 0.16 1.20 0.25 0.10 0.94 1.63 29.20 0.19

Egypt with only 0.660, Greece with 0.02 and Turkey with 0.02 hectares of rice area top the list in productivity. The only country with large and sizeable rice area in the list of top ten countries for productivity is China. The productivity of more than 9.0 t/ha achieved by Egypt and Greece in a limited rice area is attributed to very favourable weather conditions, 100% irrigation facilities and very good crop management.

2.

Advent of hybrid rice

The decade of 1960s has been a eventful in the history of rice research and development. The semi-dwarf rice varieties revolutionized the rice production worldwide. The seeds of another rice revolution were sown in the same decade. Professor Yuan Long Ping, the person who is acknowledged as Father of Hybrid Rice, began his pioneering and now considered as path breaking research on hybrid rice in China during 1964. Those were the days of the Cultural Revolution in China and it was almost isolated from rest of the world. Very little news reached outside. A decade of silent, persistent, and arduous efforts of Prof. Yuan Long Ping and his associates resulted in development and identification of heterotic rice hybrids.

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Hybrid rice was released for large scale cultivation and commercialization in China during 1976. Development of successful hybrids in a self pollinated cereal crop, which was till then considered an impossibility was shown to be a reality. It made headlines then and prompted the International Rice Research Institute in Philippines to initiate the research on hybrid rice during 1979. A batch of scientists from IRRI and some Asian countries visited China during 1980 and 1981 to observe first hand the cultivation of rice hybrids on large scale. The initial efforts of Dr. S.S. Virmani at IRRI during the period 1979-82 were disappointing. China was not sharing its parental line material then, but agreed to share the same subsequently with IRRI. The research on hybrid rice was revived by Dr. Virmani at IRRI with the help of Chinese CMS lines. Reciprocally China has developed several promising hybrids utilizing indica restorers introduced from IRRI. Since the Chinese CMS lines were unadapted and highly susceptible to diseases and pests under tropical conditions, Dr. Virmani developed several new CMS lines adapted to tropics utilizing the WA cytoplasm from Chinese CMS lines V20A and Zenshan 97A. The most successful among them include IR 58025A and IR 62829A. IRRI during late 80s and early 90s encouraged initiation of research programs in several tropical NARS notably in India, Indonesia, Vietnam, and the Philippines. During this period, research on hybrid rice was also initiated in Japan and South Korea. Now after another decade of collaborative efforts, in which IRRI has played a catalytic role, hybrid rice research and development is being carried out in almost 20 countries globally. In recent years China has entered in to an era of hybrid rice while IRRI is reorienting its efforts to develop still better parental lines within improved outcrossing traits.

3.

The current global status

Out of the 20 countries engaged in hybrid rice research and development, hybrid rice has been already commercialized in ten countries viz., China, Vietnam, India, Philippines, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Myanmar, USA, Egypt, Iran and Brazil. In other ten countries research on hybrid rice is at various stages of development. A summary of the current status including the year in which research was initiated on hybrid rice, and the number of institutions involved, etc., are given in Table-8.

Table - 8 : A summary of status of hybrid rice research worldwide


Country Bangladesh Year initiated 1993 No. of institutions involved Govt. Private 1 4 Remarks Hybrid seed imported from India and China. Hybrids cultivated in 0.3 m. ha. annually. Two indigenously developed hybrid released recently and 12 hybrids introduced from China are being cultivated. Promising experimental hybrids identified. On-farm trials being conducted. Hybrids from private seeds companies commercialized. Limited area of around 25000 hectare under hybrid rice. Rice Tech of USA is moving aggressively to popularize rice hybrids. 19.0 million ha. planted annually to hybrid rice.

Brazil

1984

China

1964

50

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Colombia

1985

Egypt

1987

India Indonesia

1989 1986

15 2

30 4

Iran DPR Korea Republic Korea of

2000 1976 1982

1 1 3

Japan

1983

Malaysia Myanmar Pakistan Philippines

1985 1993 1993 1980

1 1 3 3

Russia Sri Lanka

1999 1991

1 1

Thailand

1993

U.S.A.

1980

Vietnam

1985

Promising experimental hybrids identified. On-farm trials being conducted. Hybrids from private sector commercialized. Promising experimental hybrids identified. Two hybrids released recently. Limited area of around 20,000 hectares. Developing aromatic rice hybrids also. 28 public bred and 15 private hybrids released. 1.3 m. ha. under hybrid rice annually. Thirty five hybrids released so far (public-6 and private sector-29). Annual area under hybrid rice 0.13 m. ha. Research on basic and applied aspects initiated. Promising hybrids identified, Not much progress reported so far. Only basic research is being done. Not much progress reported so far except a hybrid released during early years. Applied program has been revived recently. Likely to commercialize hybrids in next 3 years. Basic research on TGMS being carried out. Private sector has come out with two hybrids. Negligible area under hybrid rice. No suitable hybrids could be identified so far. Direct seeding in most of the rice area is a major constraint. Chinese hybrids and some hybrids from private sector from India cultivated in 50,000 60,000 ha annually. No suitable hybrid could be identified so far. Efforts are being made to develop hybrids in basmati rice. Eight hybrids released. Four private seed agencies have come forward for large scale production. 200,000 ha under hybrid rice annually. Research on basic aspects initiated recently. Consistently good performing hybrids not yet identified. May not be much scope in Sri Lanka, as 80% of the area is under direct seeding. Efforts are in progress to reduce the seed requirements. Promising experimental hybrids not yet identified. There may not be much scope for hybrid rice, as Thailand is interested in growing quality rices for exports. Applied program on hybrid rice revived recently. Four hybrids developed and released by private seed company, RiceTec, Inc. for cultivation in USA and southern America. 0.1 m. ha. area under cultivation. Hybrid seed is being imported from China and is produced in limited quantities locally. Hybrid rice cultivated in 0.68m. ha annually. Indigenous hybrids also being developed and popularized. Work on twoline hybrids intensified recently.

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Current area under hybrid rice (2008) where hybrids have been released and commercialized is given below Country Total rice area (m. ha) 29.2 44.0 7.3 12.2 4.2 11.2 Irrigated rice area (m. ha) 27.0 22.0 3.9 7.0 2.8 4.2 Hybrid rice area (m. ha) 19.0 1.3 0.68 0.13 0.34 0.30 0.60 22.15 % of hybrid rice area to total rice area 70.4 3.0 16.6 1.8 12.2 7.0 -

China India Veitnam Indonesia Philippines Bangladesh Others Total

Brief information on significant aspects is given below about the countries where hybrids have been released/commercialized.

3.1 China
1964 Research initiated on hybrid rice. 1976 Hybrids released for commercial cultivation. At present 70% of the total rice area in China is under hybrid rice (19.0 m. ha.) Over the last 30 years, hybrid rice was cultivated in about 370 m.ha and added 450 mt of rice to Chinas food basket. As a result of additional productivity, total rice area in China is reduced form 36 m. ha to 29.3 m. ha now. Hybrids on an average yield 6.6 t/ha as compared to conventional varietal yield of 5 t/ha. Average seed yields obtained are more than 3 t/ha. Two-line hybrids and inter sub-specific indica x japonica hybrids (Super hybrids) have been developed. Area under these hybrids is 5.0 m. ha. annually at present. Efforts are being made to develop and popularize super hybrid rice yielding 100 kg/ha/day. These are short duration two-line inter sub-specific hybrids for southern China. The major constraints experienced are stagnation in yield potential of hybrids and poor grain quality of which are now overcome by developing super hybrids with better grain quality.

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3.2 Vietnam
Hybrid seed is being imported from China and produced locally in limited quantity and hybrid rice is mainly cultivated in Northern Vietnam. Total area under hybrid rice is reported to be around 6,80,000 ha annually. Hybrids for tropical situation in South Vietnam have also been developed in collaboration with IRRI. Two hybrids have been released for Southern Vietnam. Seed production system is very weak. Extension and transfer of technology program is very strong and effective. Good progress has been in developing two line hybrids and inter sub specific indica x japonica hybrids are being developed. Prospects of large scale adoption of hybrid rice appear to be bright provided seed production capacity is developed indigenously. Major constraint experienced is lack of capacity for large scale seed production.

3.3 India
Twenty eight public bred hybrids and 15 hybrids from private sector released for general cultivation. Ten of them are widely adapted with good yield potential. Private seed sector is marketing another 20-25 hybrids. Area under hybrid rice was about 14,00,000 ha during 2008. Strong seed production capacity in private sector. Above 97% of the annual 20,000 tons of hybrid rice seed is produced and marketed by private sector. Large scale seed production in public sector seed agencies is very weak. Efforts for transfer of technology developed are inadequate. Level of heterosis (15-20%) is not very attractive at present prices. This needs to be enhanced. Grain quality of hybrids and resistance to pests and diseases needs to be improved. Large scale adoption of hybrids may take another 5-10 years. The major constraints experienced are poor grain quality of hybrids, inadequate profitability by cultivation of hybrids and higher seed cost. It is expected to cover about 3.0 m ha by 2014-15.

3.4 Philippines
Six hybrids in public sector and six hybrids in private sector released for general cultivation. There are no public sector seed production agencies to undertake large scale seed production at present. Seed of public bred hybrids is being produced through cooperatives of seed growers. Total area under rice is estimated to 3,00,000 ha annually. Development of two-line hybrids initiated recently. Major constraints experienced are lack of mechanism for large scale seed production, higher seed cost and low seed yields.

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3.5 Bangladesh
Hybrids introduced by the private seed sector from China and India are being cultivated in an area of around 3,00,000 ha. annually. Public sector research has developed and released two hybrids BRRI Hybrid Dhan1 and 2 suitable for Bangladesh. Seed production and transfer of technology efforts to be improved. Prospects of large scale adoption of hybrid rice are bright in next 5-10 years. Major constraint is lack of large scale seed production capacity. BRAC an NGO is also playing a major role.

3.6 Indonesia
Six hybrids developed by public sector and 29 hybrids by private sector have been released recently for general cultivation. Seed production system in public and private sector is reasonably strong. Effective network needs to be developed and concerted efforts made, to popularize hybrid rice on large scale in Indonesia. Major constraint is lack of identification of high yielding widely adapted hybrid. Area under hybrid rice cultivation is expected to be around 1,30,000 ha.

3.7 Myanmar
Hybrids imported from China and India are commercialized. Annual area grown to hybrid rice is around 50,000 hectares. Indigenous capacity for hybrid rice research and seed production to be developed. Fairly good prospects for popularization and large scale adoption of hybrid rice. Human resources and facilities need to be developed for research, seed production and technology transfer.

3.8 U.S.A.
A private seed company RiceTec Inc., has developed four hybrids adapted to mechanized farming for Southern U.S. and South America. Prospects of adoption, on a limited scale, appear to be bright. Area under hybrid rice is expected to be around 100,000 ha. Major constraint is limited rice area and scope for rice hybrids and cost of seed production is very high.

3.9 Egypt
Yield level of improved inbred varieties is very high. Hence difficult to develop hybrids with 20-25% yield advantage. Recently some hybrids have shown yield advantage of 15-20% under saline conditions. Two hybrids released recently. Very limited area under hybrids presently (20,000 ha.)
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Two-line hybrids and inter sub-specific indica x japonica hybrids are being developed to have desired level of heterosis. Efforts on heterosis breeding and seed production need to be intensified. Aromatic hybrids are being developed.

3.10 Brazil and Columbia


Promising hybrids have been identified and are being evaluated in on-farm trials presently. Some hybrids from private sector commercialized in a very limited area. Seed production capacity is strong in the private sector. Prospects of adoption of hybrid rice on a limited scale appear to be bright.

3.11 Japan
Japan is self-sufficient in rice production. There is no incentive for enhancement of production. A private seed company Mitsui, has developed two hybrids with 15-20% yield heterosis. These may not be cultivated in Japan, as the cost of seed production is very high and despite the yield heterosis, cultivation of hybrids is not economically viable. Mitsui Company may popularize these hybrids in other south-east Asian countries. Lack of demand for hybrids is a major constraint.

4.

Conclusions

After the discovery, use and deployment of semi-dwarfing gene in rice during 1960s, which ushered in an era of green revolution, hybrid rice technology appears to be a practically feasible genetic option to enhance the genetic yield potential. After the release of IR-8 and Jaya varieties during 60s, there has not been per se improvement in genetic yield potential as such, though there have been remarkable achievements during the intervening 45 years, for improvement of grain quality and incorporation of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. After the Chinese experience of almost three decades, hybrid rice appears to be another genetic option which can bring in a mini revolution in irrigated areas of few selected countries for yet another enhancement of yield potential. It has been demonstrated very clearly on large scale that hybrids give 15-20% increased yield over the highest yielding inbred varieties under the similar growing conditions. Globally hybrid rice research and development is currently being carried out in 20 countries. In ten of these countries, the technology has already been commercialized, though the area grown to hybrid rice is still very limited in all these countries except in China. Hybrid rice is grown in china in 19 million hectares. In all the other nine countries put together, the area cultivated to hybrid rice is around 3.0 million hectares. So the total area under hybrid rice globally is only 22 million hectares, which is approximately 14.20 % of the total global rice area (155 million hectares).
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The potential area for cultivation of hybrid rice in some of the major rice growing countries is substantial. For example, in India out of the 20 m. ha. of irrigated area, at least 8-10 million hectares are potential acrage for hybrid rice. Similarly in Indonesia and Bangladesh 3-4 m. ha. each can potentially be cultivated with hybrid rice. Similarly in Vietnam and Myanmar, 2-3 m. ha. and in Philippines, Thailand and Brazil 1-2 m. ha. and in all other countries 1-2 m. ha. form the potential area for rice hybrids. Thus totally there is a potential area of 25 to 30 million hectares in tropical Asian countries for cultivation of hybrid rice. If appropriate hybrids are developed with high magnitude of heterosis, desirable grain quality, resistance to major pests and diseases and if an effective and efficient system is established for large scale seed production and distribution with adequate technology transfer efforts, it is possible that the global area under hybrid rice will increase gradually from the present 22 million hectares to 30.0 million hectares or more during next 15 to 20 years.

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Grain Quality vis-a-vis hybrid rice


N. Shobha Rani

Principal Scientist & Head Crop Improvement Section Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad - 500030

1. Introduction
Rice plays a pivotal role in Indian economy being the staple food for two thirds of the population. With 44.62 million hectares, India ranks first in area, second in production with 31% of calories to Indian diet supplied by rice. Although the protein content of brown is relatively low (8.5%) as compared to other cereals like wheat (12.3%), Barley (12.8%) and Millet (13.4%) it is considered as one of the highest quality cereal protein being rich in Lysine (3.8%), the first limiting amino acid. True protein digestibility (TD) and the biological value (BV) for rice are also high as compared to other cereals (Table 1). Notwithstanding the nutritive properties, consumer preference plays a dominant role in localization and adoption of varieties. In addition, to the genetic diversity brought fourth by natural processes, the human selection due to socio economic compulsions, socio-religious traditions, also played a major role in adding diversity to morphological features especially to grain characters, aroma and endosperm properties for specialty preparations, products and even medicinal use. It is surmised that possibly quality considerations, food consumption patterns and taste preferences had overwhelming influence on farmers of Indian sub continent to carefully select and improve the best quality rices that are most preferred. Consumers base their concept of quality on the grain appearance, size and shape of the grain, behaviour upon cooking, taste, tenderness and flavour of cooked rice. The cooking quality preferences vary within the country, within ethnic groups and from one country to another within different geographical regions (Juliano et.al., 1964). Although since the mid sixties plant type based high yielding varieties have been developed and released which brought a quantum jump in production and productivity, for the acceptance and spread of varieties grain quality has become an important criteria after yield. Change in income levels and self sufficiency induced rice availability for consumption has brought a shift in the consumer as well as market preference for better rice grain quality. As good grain quality fetches higher returns to the farmers, it has now become imperative to incorporate quality features in desirable range into the conventionally bred varieties as well as in the hybrids for their adoption. Although the rice production has more than doubled from 37.61 millions tonnes in 1967-1968 to 96.00 millions tonnes 2007-08, due to the development of improved rice varieties and crop management practices, projections indicate that expected demands for rice would be 136-140 millions tonnes by 2020 AD (DRR 1997). Among the limited options available to scale up production to that level, hybrid rice is the most practically feasible and readily adoptable proposition as demonstrated in Peoples of Republic of China in the last three decades (Ilyas Ahmed et al., 2001). Thus convinced of the potential of this technology in increasing the rice production, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) initiated a mission mode project on Hybrid rice in 1989 and through the financial and technical
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support provided by several international and national agencies, 28 public bred hybrids have been released and additionally 14 hybrids are being marketed by the private seed Sector. As the grains harvested from commercial rice hybrids denote F2 generation produce and differs in grain characters, developing hybrids with acceptable grain quality to meet the consumer preferences is a challenging objective which has a bearing on the adoption of this technology.

2. Structure and Composition of Rice Grain


The principle parts of the grain are hull, pericarp, seed coat, nucellus, embryo, aleurone layer and endosperm as shown in fig1

Hull: it is the outer covering of the caryopsis (Brown rice). It is the inedible papery jacket of rice, oat and barley and not eaten by humans. Pericarp, Seed Coat, Nucellus and Aleurone:

The removal of hull from rough rice by de-hulling exposes the rice Caryopsis. It consists of 4 morphologically distinct layers. They are Pericarp, Seed Coat (Tegmen), Nucellus and Aleurone along with the embryo (germ) portion. These layers comprise the bran portion of the rice grain. Although aleurone layer is botanically part of the endosperm, it is removed as the part of bran fraction during milling. The bran portion accounts 5-8% of the brown rice weight. The bran is the most nutritive part of the caryopsis containing good balance of protein, fat, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, many vitamins and minerals.

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Sub-Aleurone and Starchy Endosperm

Milling of rice caryopsis removes the sub aleurone layer and the small part of the starchy endosperm layer. The sub-aleurone layers are rich in protein and lipid bodies while the starchy endosperm is rich in starch grannules and some protein bodies.

3. Milling Quality
Milling recovery is one of the most important criteria of rice quality especially from the standpoint of marketing. A variety should posses a high turnout of whole grain (head) rice and total milled rice (Webb 1985). Milling recovery of rough rice is an estimation of the quantity of head rice and total milled rice that can be produced from a unit of rough rice. It is generally expressed as percentage (Khush et.al., 1979). Milling recovery depends on grain shape and appearance, which has direct effect on the percentage of hulling, milling and head rice recovery. Normally the hull content is 20-22 percent of the rough rice although a variation of 18 to 26% has been recorded. Bran and embryo account for 8 to 10 percent. Thus for a given sample of rice about 70% of milled rice is obtained. The quantity of whole rice obtained is known as head rice recovery (HRR) and is expressed as percentage of rough rice. Thus from a sample of 100 grams (g) of rough rice, 70 g of milled rice is obtained and if 20 g is broken, the head rice recovery is 50 per cent. The head rice recovery may vary from as low as 25 percent to as high as 65 percent. Head rice recoverability is an inherited trait, although environmental factors such as temperature and humidity during ripening and post harvest stages are known to influence grain breakage during milling. Grain size and shape, hardness presence or absence of abdominal white, moisture content, harvest precision, storage conditions, processing and type of mills employed have direct bearing on head rice recovery (Bhattacharya, 1980). In general, varieties with long or long bold grains and those having white centers give lower head rice yields. Varieties possessing medium slender, long slender and translucent grains give high head rice yields. Parboiling increases milling percentage. Varieties with high protein content also suffer less breakage. Sun cracking which is caused by alternate drying and wetting of grains due to delayed harvest also aids in more breakage of grain. High gelatinization temperature types are less prone to cracking. Breeders have to pay special attention for improving this trait, as rice outturn is the most important index for fixation of procurement price of paddy. The full advantage of the high yielding ability of the hybrids cannot be realized unless hybrids exhibit milling quality equal to or higher than the either parent or the commercially accepted standard check variety. Low milling recovery was one of the significant deficiencies of rice hybrids when introduced from China in USA according to Rutger and Bollich, (1985). They attributed this problem to the cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines. Although in the initial years, some of the experimental hybrids recorded low head rice recovery, studies have shown that hybrids with higher head rice recovery can be obtained when the parents are selected carefully. If the parents are prone to enhanced grain breakage, the F1 would normally record lower head rice recovery than the better parent. Improvement in this trait is increasingly evident with many recently
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tested experimental hybrids exhibiting high head rice yields (Shobha Rani et al., 2002). Majority of the released hybrids were not upto the mark for this trait mainly because the female base in all the cases has been narrow mainly involving only 2 CMS lines viz., IR 58025A and IR 62829A which have low head rice recovery (Table 2). But the results are encouraging due to development and use of new CMS lines with some of the released hybrids like DRRH 2 recording 60% HRR and Suruchi has highest 71% head rice recovery (Table 8). Therefore, to improve this parameter in hybrids it is essential to choose parents with high head rice percentage especially restorers and this should not be a problem given the wide choice of restorers and new CMS lines now available in the hybrid rice breeding programmes.

4. Grain Size, Shape and Appearance


The appearance of milled rice is important to the consumer, which in turn makes it important to the producer and the miller. Thus grain size and shape are the first criteria for rice quality that breeders consider in developing new varieties for release for commercial production (Adair et.al.1966). Preferences for grain size and shape vary from one group of consumers to another. Some ethnic groups prefer short bold grains, while medium and long slender grains are prized by others. In general, medium to long grains are preferred in the Indian subcontinent while the country is also replete with hundreds of short grain aromatic types and long grain basmati types the latter commanding highest premium in both domestic and international markets. In temperate areas short grain varieties of Japonica type are prevalent. Extra long grain types are preferred in Thailand. In the Americans, long and extra long grains (Surinam) types are also popular. There is a strong demand for long-grain rice in the international market. Length of the grain is more variable and important than width and thickness or shape. Bold grains give low head rice recovery because of high breakage. Grains with short to medium long grains break less than long grains during milling. Thus, grain size and shape have direct affect on yields of head rice. Grain length and shape are independently inherited. Some of the grain tissues are maternal in origin and some result from fertilization of genetically diverse gametes (Fig 1). The lemma and palea of the rice hull are maternal tissues. Seed size and shape are determined by the shape and size of hulls. Since genetic segregation for shape and size of hulls for spikelets borne on F1 plants does not occur, all F2 seeds have similar dimensions even though the parents may be diverse in size and shape (Khush et al., 1986). In general the length and shape of F1 grains are intermediate to those of the parents. In a study of 27 hybrids tested at DRR, 17 belong to long slender, 4 to long bold, 5 to medium slender and 1 to short bold grain type. It was notable that 4 among the long slender were extra long type (Rani et al., 1998). In the last five years around 703 experimental hybrids were analyzed for 13 quality characters in coordinated and IHRT trials. The quality characters of hybrids tested. Some hybrids tested during 2008 with desirable cooking quality and HRR are given in Table 3. Grains borne on F1 plants never exceed the long, slender grained parent either in grain length or shape. Therefore to develop medium grained hybrids parents possessing long and short grains can be used. But to develop long grain hybrids both parents must have long slender grains.
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The hybrid DRRH 44 (IET 19583) with high yield combining medium slender grain and other quality characteristics maturing 10 days earlier to check variety Samba Mahsuri was released by CVRC for the states of Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. It has good grain quality features with grain type similar to Samba Mahsuri. While grain size and shape can be visually classified, more exact measurements are needed for classification and for critical comparison of varieties. Standards for evaluation of grain length and shape of breeding materials vary among countries and marketing areas. In the early years a broad classification (i) fine (ii) medium and (iii) coarse was followed in India. When this grouping was not satisfactory, Govt. of India appointed Ramaiah Committee in 1965 to recommend a uniform standard of grain classification. The committee suggested a more rational classification consisting of five groups, based on length and length / breadth ratio of kernel (Table 4). Similar international classification has also been developed by IRRI, Philippines, which are reproduced in Table 6 (SES, IRRI, 1996). Food Corporation of India in 1978 has also given a scheme in which all rice varieties (except the scented varieties) are classified into three groups based on L/B Ratio. The varieties having L/B ratio below 2.5 are common, those having L/B ratio of 2.5 to 3.0 as fine and those having L/B ratio of 3.0 and above are super fine.

4.1. Grain Appearance


Consumers prefer white, translucent grains and pay a premium for it. Grain appearance is largely determined by endosperm opacity, the amount of chalkiness. Based on endosperm opacity, the rice endosperm is classified as waxy or non-waxy. Waxy rices are devoid of or have only traces of amylose content and are opaque. Non-waxy rices have varying amylose level (2.1 to 32%) and are dull, hazy or translucent. Further the endosperm is a triploid tissue formed by the fusion of 1 male nucleus and 2 female nuclei (polar nuclei). If the parents vary in endosperm appearance the F2 grains show clear segregation and may pose a problem in hybrids. As waxy and low amylose rices with dull endosperm are not preferred in India and with almost all the parental lines having in general varying levels of whiteness to translucent in appearance, this trait as such should not be an impediment. But chalky white spots which often appear in the starchy endosperm lower the market value of the variety. Soft textured, white spots occurring in the middle part on the ventral side (side on which the embryo lies) are called white belly (Abdominal white). A white chalky region extending to the edge of the ventral side and towards the center of the endosperm is called a white core. A long white streak on the dorsal side is called the white back. In some varieties the grain tends to break more frequently at these chalky portions or pit left by the embryo when it is milled. Rice samples with damaged eyes have poor appearance and low market value. The starch granules in the chalky areas are less densely packed than those in translucent areas (Del Rosario et.al. 1968) and there are air spaces between the starch granules. Therefore, the chalky areas are not as hard as the translucent areas and the grains with chalkiness are more prone to breakage during milling. Of the 130 parental lines and
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hybrids scored for grain chalkiness of 34% lines were fully chalky, 50% showed occasional chalkiness and 14% were devoid of any. Among the 67 experimental hybrids tested since 1999 only 7.5%of the lines exhibited fully chalky grains while 83% had very occasional chalkiness (DRR Unpublished). The heritability of this character seems to be low, because the various agronomic practices and preharvest handling, together with the other maturity factors, are found to influence the expression of chalkiness to some extent (Kaul, 1970). However by selecting the suitable parents, developing hybrids without any chalky spots would not be a difficult objective.

5. Cooking and eating characteristics


Cooking and eating characteristics are largely determined by the properties of the starch that makes up 90% of milled rice. Gelatinization temperature, amylose content and gel consistency are the important starch properties, which influence cooking and eating characteristics. A complex relationship however exists, between chemical characters and quality.

5.1. Gelatinization Temperature


Unmodified starch granules are generally insoluble in water below 500C. Starch granules are heated in water beyond a critical temperature; the granules absorb a large amount of water and swell to many times their original size. Over a critical temperature range, the starch granules undergo an irreversible process known as gelatinization, which is marked by crystalline melting, loss of birefringence and starch solubilization. If we cook rice in the temperature below the critical gel temperature of the starch the viscosity is low. However, as soon as the temperature rises above the gelatinization temperature (GT), the starch granules begin to swell and viscosity increases. The temperature at the on set of this rise in viscosity is known as the pasting temperature. The pasting temperature provides an indication of the minimum temperature required to cook for a given rice sample. Gelatinization temperature ranges from 55 to 79oC. Environmental conditions such as temperature during grain development influence gelatinization temperature. A high ambient temperature during grain ripening results in starch with higher gelatinization temperature (Dela Cruz et.al., 1989). The gelatinization temperature of rice varieties may be classified as low (55 to 69oC), intermediate (70 to 74oC) and high (> 740C). Estimate of the gelatinization temperature is indexed by the alkali digestibility test (Little et. al., 1958). It is measured by the alkali spreading value. The degree of spreading value of individual milled rice kernels in a weak alkali solution (1.7% KOH) is very closely correlated with gelatinization temperature. Rice with low gelatinization temperature disintegrate completely, where as rice with intermediate gelatinization temperature shows only partial disintegration. Rice with high gelatination temperature remains largely UN affected in the alkali solution. In breeding programmes the ASV technique is used extensively for estimating GT. GT and cooking time of milled rice are positively correlated (Juliano et al., 1964). Rices with high GT take longer time to cook than do low-GT types. On the contrary Bhattacharya and Sowbhagya (1971) observed that water uptake and cooking time are strongly influenced by size and shape of rice
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grain and only marginally by GT. GT does not correlate with the texture of cooked rice. GT is not associated with other important plant or grain traits except for certain useful correlations with amylose content (Jennings et. al., 1979). Varieties with high GT generally have low amylose content. In hybrid programme hybrids with low GT were obtained when both parental lines had low GT, while intermediate GT were derived when intermediate x Intermediate and intermediate x high types were used. As the grain size and shape does not normally differ in hybrids, it appears that when a bulk sample of low and intermediate GT grains were cooked, low GT grains cooked first and released heat and water, which affects the cohesiveness of cooked rice. Segregation is not desirable, as high GT types remain under cooked and hence not preferred. Therefore to isolate hybrids with intermediate GT, it is important to select especially male parent to have intermediate GT as the two widely used CMS lines IR62829 A and IR 58025 A have high and low GT values (Shivani et al., 2002). Emphasis is not on heterosis for this trait as desirable grain types are those possessing intermediate GT, which again underlines the need for careful choice of parents. It is encouraging to note that 123 hybrids tested during last two years in IHRT trials, alkali spreading value of 46 hybrids were of intermediate type. Gelatinization temperature is a physical property of the starch present in rice and it refers to the range of temperature within which starch granules start swelling irreversibly in hot water. Thus, GT determines the time taken to cook the rice. The quality and quantity of starch and the GT strongly influence the cooking quality of rice (Ghosh and Govindaswamy, 1977). The GT affects the water uptake, volume expansion and linear kernel elongation (Tomar and Nanda, 1985). The rice varieties with intermediate GT is preferred and mostly basmati varieties have intermediate gelatinization temperature. Earlier studies have not given clear picture regarding inheritance pattern. However, the reports on involvement of dominant and additive (Hseih and Wong 1988), digenic (Stansel, 1966) and polygenic (Puri and Siddiq 1980) mode of inheritance for this trait were available. The gelatinization behavior of starch granules in rice was predominantly determined by amylopectin structure (Lanceras et al. 2000; Umemoto et al. 2002). The mechanism underlying the synthesis of amylopectin is highly complicated. Nevertheless, it is known that three classes of enzymes are involved in the synthesis of amylopectin and each class has multiple isoforms. Since many enzymes are involved in the synthesis of rice starch, it is necessary to clarify the contribution of each starch-synthesis enzyme to the rice cooking and eating qualities, so as to breed new rice varieties with desirable palatability. For this purpose, molecular markers tagged to genes encoding major starch-synthesis enzymes viz. GBSS-I, two soluble starch synthases (SSS I and SSS IIa), two starch branching enzymes (SBE I and SBE III), and two starch debranching enzymes (isoamylase and pullulanase) have been developed and evaluated the effects of these genes on different cooking qualities (He et al 2006). There are many reports available on association of these markers with different quality characteristics with rice germplasm. Among these, two SNPs in the exons of Wx gene that resulted in amino acid substitutions which was found to be associated with AC and viscosity characteristics of US rice cultivars (Larkin and Park 2003). However, with indel markers for SBE1, SBE3 and starch debranching enzyme gene, no correlation was observed with the marker alleles and the variation in AAC and paste viscosity characteristics in a segregating population. Association of starch physicochemical
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properties of non waxy genotypes collected mainly from China with different markers (SSR,SNP,STS) revealed that these molecular markers can differentiate almost all the physicochemical properties examined, e.g., AAC, pasting viscosity characteristics and gel textural properties. Wx-SSR and Wx-SNP alone explained more variations for all physicochemical properties than the other molecular markers and hence these two markers would be ideal to be deployed in a MAS programme aimed at quality improvement.

5.2. Amylose content


Amylose Content (AC) is considered the single most Important character for predicting rice cooking and processing behaviour (Juliano, 1979; Webb, B.D. 1985). Many of the cooking and eating characteristics of milled rice are influenced by the ratio of two kinds of starches amylose and amylopectin in the rice grain (Juliano et al., 1964). Amylose is the linear fraction of starch in the non-glutinous varieties, where as amylopectin, the branched fraction, makes up the reminder of the starch. Amylose content correlates negatively with taste panel scores for cohesiveness, tenderness, colour and gloss of rice. Amylose is almost absent from the waxy (glutinous) rices. Such rices does not expand in volume, are glossy and sticky and remain firm when cooked (Juliano, 1979). These rices are the staple food of people in Northern and Northern Thailand and Laos. A great majority of rices from Vietnam, Thailand and Myanmar have high amylose content. High amylose rices show high volume expansion and a high degree of flakiness. They cook dry, are less tender and become hard upon cooling. All of the Japonica varieties of temperate regions have low amylose content. Varieties grown in the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia have intermediate amylose content. Both intermediate and high amylose types are commonly grown in Indian sub continent and the preference is for the former types. Intermediate amylose rices cook moist and tender and do not became hard upon cooling. Rice varieties are grouped on the basis of their amylose content into waxy (0-2%); very low (3-9%), low (10-19%), intermediate (20-25%) and high (>25%). Intermediate amylose rices are the preferred types in most of the rice growing areas of the world except where low-amylose Japonicas are grown. Studies on the inheritance of amylose content have shown involvement of one major gene and several modifiers with high amylose content incompletely dominant over low (Kumar and Khush (1986) reported complete dominance of high amylose content over those of low and intermediate amylose content. Influence of genes of minor effects or modifiers was also noted. The role of at least two complementary genes in addition to the waxy gene was indicated by Stansel (1966). Bollich and Webb (1973) observed a different pattern of inheritance in the crosses, depending upon the differences in amylose content of the parents involved in the crosses. Bimodal segregation and monogenic control of amylose content with gene of high amylose incompletely dominant were reported by Heda and Reddy (1986) and Chang & Li (1981). Kumar and Khush (1986) reported significant differences in amylose content due to differences in doses of amylose genes in the endosperm. They also reported that the mean amylose content of F2 bulk seed sample was between that of the parents in many crosses and the
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more the parents differ the more is the differences in the F2 seeds. But several workers have reported the hybrids between low and high amylose parents show intermediate amylose content. Instances of medium and low amylose parents showing transgression towards high amylose content was also experienced indicating that the inheritance pattern of amylose content may vary according to the cross. Hence for developing hybrids with appropriate amylose content depending on the regional preferences, suitable parents should be selected so that uniformly cooked rice with desirable flakiness, tenderness and cohesiveness is achieved. Among the CMS lines the most widely used IR58025 A and IR 62829 A possess low and intermediate amylose content. In a study of 67 restorers screened for amylose content 15 were endowed with typical intermediate values and especially among the released hybrids, DRRH 1, DRRH 2, ADTRH 1, PA 6201 and Suruchi have shown consistently desirable intermediate alkali spreading value and amylose content indicating good cooking quality (Table 8). Amylose content (AC) is controlled by Waxy gene encoding granule bound starch synthaseI (GBSS I). Studies on the inheritance of amylose content have shown involvement of one major gene and several modifiers with high amylose content incompletely dominant over low amylose content (Somrith, 1974, Chang and Li 1981; Chauhan and Nanda, 1983). In addition to the waxy gene, involvement of two complimentary genes were also reported (Stansel et al., 1966). A difference in AC was observed due to dosage of amylose genes in endosperm (Kumar and Khush 1986) but the AC was not directly proportional to the number of Wx dose (Heu and Park, 1976 Okuno, 1978). Based on the GBSS I enzyme quantity accumulated during the process of grain filling, three alleles, viz., wx, Wxa, and Wxb have been identified for the waxy gene and these alleles were identified in sticky rice, indica and japonica subspecies, respectively (Sano et al. 1986). The SSR marker, which aims the polymorphism with respect to (CT)n repeats present 55 bp upstream (which is the putative 5-leader splicejunction site of the first intron) was reported to be highly correlated with the variation in AC (Bligh et al. 1995). The eight Wx alleles with different (CT)n repeats accounted for more than 80% of the observed AC variation was found (Bligh et al. 1995; Tan and Zhang 2001). The other marker, G/T SNP of the 5leader sequence of intron 1 of Wx gene was reported to explain 79.7% of the total variation in amylose content of 89 nonglutinous US cultivars (Ayres et al., 1997). However, the Wx locus alone was not enough to explain all the observed AC variation among rice cultivars and some minor genes might also be involved. Waxy SSR, CT-SSRs together with G-T SNP may be used by rice breeders to develop rice varieties with desirable range of amylose content.

5.3. Gel consistency (GC)


The main factor that determines the texture of cooked rice is amylose content. However the cohesiveness, tenderness, colour and gloss differ greatly based on gel consistency, when the amylose content is high. Varietal differences in gel consistency exist among varieties of similar amylose content (>25%). The gel consistency test is based on the consistency of the rice paste and differentiates among varieties with high amylose content. The test separates high amylose rices into three categories:
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1) Very flaky rices with hard gel consistency (length of gel, 40 mm or less) 2) Flaky rices with medium GC (length of gel, 41 to 60) 3) Soft rices with soft gel consistency (length of gel more than 61 mm) Typical gel consistency Varieties with softer gel consistency are preferred as the rice cooked would be tender. Gel consistency of rice is normally soft, when the amylose content is less than 25%. It is a rapid, simple test, complementary to the test for amylose content was developed on the consistency of a cold 4.4% milled rice paste in 0.2 N KOH (Cagampang et al., 1973). The length in a culture tube of the cold gel held horizontally for 0.5 to 1 hour measures consistency. In a study of a cross between high and low GC parents, a single major gene was reported to control this character with high GC being dominant (Chang & Li 1981). In the bulk F2 samples of hybrids involving high, Intermediate, or low GC parents Khush et al .,1986 observed a similar situation for GC as for amylose content. In crosses involving parents with hard, soft and medium GC, positive and negative heterosis depending up on the specific combinations was observed. In some cases the hybrids possess hard GC even in soft x soft combinations indicating the influence of modifiers in the expression of this trait. Heterosis in negative direction is not preferable, as it would result in the identification of hard gel consistency types. Positive heterosis resulting in medium and soft GC is desirable. It is also advisable to use female parents with medium gel consistency to obtain hybrids with desirable values for this trait. In a study of 130 CMS, restores and experimental hybrids 78 genotypes recorded soft gel consistency and 13 among them were experimental hybrids. Earlier genetic studies revealed that, this trait follows the monogenic inheritance (Chang and Li 1981). However, involvement of one major gene plus several minor genes have also been reported (Tang et al., 1989). It has also been observed that amylose content (AC) is highly negatively correlated with GC hence the improvement of both quality traits simultaneously becomes difficult (Chang and Lee, 1981). Recent QTL mapping confirmed the presence of locus controlling gel consistency on chromosome 6 (Septiningsih et al, 2003, Li et al, 2003, Huang et al 2004). But till now no perfect marker has been reported for this trait, therefore, identification of tightly linked molecular markers for GC will help the breeder in tracking the flow of soft GC locus in their

breeding material which in turn will be helpful in precision breeding for this trait.

6. Grain Elongation and Aroma


Aromatic long grain basmati rices are known for their pleasant aroma and extra elongation on cooking with least breadth wise swelling. Length wise expansion without increase in girth is considered a highly desirable trait in some high quality rices such as Basmati rices of India and Pakistan, Bahra of Afghanistan, Domsiah of Iran, Bashful of Bangladesh and D 25-4 from Myanmar elongate 100% upon cooking.

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This characteristic which is unique for basmati types is being incorporated into improved germplasm through conventional methods which resulted in the development of several high yielding basmati varieties (Shobha Rani et al 2001). Now preliminary research to develop basmati rice hybrids has been initiated at IRRI as well as at IARI New Delhi. A number of elite basmati rice cultivars bred at IRRI were test crossed to identify maintainer and restorer lines for CMS-WA cytoplasm. There is a paucity of restorers as most of the lines are maintainers. At IARI, in addition to converting Pusa Basmati 1 into Basmati CMS line named as Pusa 3A, a number of basmati restorers have been developed by using special restorer breeding strategy and most of these lines are isocytoplasmic in nature (Virmani and Zaman 1998). Grain elongation appears to be a quantative trait. Preliminary experience indicates that only a few hybrid lines approach the parents in degree of elongation (Dela Cruz et al., 1989). To breed basmati hybrids both parents need to possess basmati quality traits.

6.1. Aroma
The aroma of rice plays a role in its consumer acceptability and it draws a premium price in certain specialty markets. The Middle East consumers preferences with strong aroma. They feel that rice without a distinctive aroma is like food without salt. For consumers in Europe, a trace of aroma is an objectionable trait, because for them any scent signals spoilage and contamination (Efferson, 1985). The scent of aromatic rice is a highly heritable trait and reportedly is under the control of single recessive gene (Sood and Siddiq, 1980; Bollich et al, 1992; Ali et al, 1993; Katare and Jambhale, 1995; Li and Gu, 1997; Dong et al., 2000). More than 100 compounds that contribute to the aroma of rice have been identified (Tsugita, 1985-1986, Widjaja et al., 1996). Some of these volatile compounds contribute to consumer acceptance of certain type of rice where as other compounds contribute to consumer rejection. The popcornlike smell of aromatic rice stemming primarily from its 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) content is considered desirable by many consumers (Buttery et al., 1983, 1988). Quantification of 2-AP in rice has been performed by Buttery et al., (1986) and Lin et al (1990) using a simultaneous stream distillation and solvent extraction methods. Agronomic and post harvest practices influence the levels of 2-AP in aromatic rices (Goodwin et al., 1994 a). However, there is only limited evidence that there are genetic differences associated with the intensity of 2-AP (Pinson, 1994). Initial molecular mapping efforts identified a RFLP marker RG - 28 on chromosome 8 at a genetic distance of 4.5 cM (Ahn et al., 1992) followed by codominant marker (SCU-Rice-SSR-1), (Garland et al., 2000), closely linked SSR markers to a distance to 90 kb (Pandey etal 2007). More recently molecular markers genetically linked to fragrance have the advantage of being inexpensive, simple, rapid and only requiring small amount of tissue have been developed for the selection of fragrant rices. Though, allele specific markers which need multiplex PCR analysis are available for this gene (Bradbury et al., 2005a), the use of four marker-multiplex system is relatively cumbersome in routine MAS programmes. Hence, SSR marker very close to the fragrance gene would be best for MAS (Fig 1). The earlier studies were mainly focused on 2-AP in rice. But some other compounds also associated with specific aspect of rice fragrance are benzyl alcohol (BA), a food flavoring agent; 4-vinyl-2-methoxy phenol, an apple flavour and vanillin, a taste enhancer contribute towards consumers acceptance.
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Most molecular mapping reports advocate for monogenic recessive nature of the gene present on Chromosome 8. Recently, it has been also reported that the deletion in the BAD2 gene is not universal for all fragrant rices (Kuo et al., 2005). Tarunbhog (0.064 ppm) and Ganjeikalli (0.012 ppm) have very less 2-AP compound and hence some other compounds may be contributing for fragrance development. As many compounds are responsible for fragrance apart from 2-AP, there is a strong possibility of the presence of allelic and gene diversity for these fragrant compounds (Saktivel et al., 2007, Muralidhar Rao et al., 2007). Hence, further studies on both biochemical and molecular aspects need to be initiated as these results are useful for rice breeders while making selections from the large number of lines they evaluate each year for their breeding programmes.

Fig.1. Agarose gel showing marker distinguishing between fragrant and non fragrant rice varieties
Fragrant rices
M 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Non-Fragrant rices
13 14 15 16 17

300

PCR assay using fragrance specific SSR marker

In crosses between aromatic male sterile line IR 54758A and non aromatic varieties such as IR 46 and IR 64, the bulk grain simple had moderately weak to slightly strong aroma. If aromatic rice hybrids are preferred at least one of the parent must be aromatic. At present as the most widely used CMS line IR 580245A is aromatic many of the hybrids developed by the public and private sector possess aroma, which is not normally liked by all the consumers. However through special restorer breeding program initiated at IARI, New Delhi, Pusa RH 10 the first super fine grained aromatic hybrid has been developed. Development of such hybrid with superior grain quality is a significant achievement in hybrid rice research in India.

7. Nutritive Quality
Rice is nutritionally superior to many other foods that are rich in carbohydrates. The protein content of the grain, average about 7% in milled rice and 8% in brown rice. Rice contributes 40 to 80 percent of calories and 40 percent of the protein in the Asian diet, where it is the staple food. The amino acid balance of rice protein is exceptionally good, lysine content, for example average about 3.8 to 4.5% of the protein. Increasing the protein content of rice with out losing the yield potential would increase the protein in take of people in Asia. Increasing the glutelin fraction mainly results in the enhancement of protein content. Donors with 16% protein are available in germplasm but studies have shown that inheritance of proteins content is complex with low protein content being dominant. Heritability values are low in the early generation and a large proportion of the total variability in protein content is attributable to environment.

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Rice is primarily consumed as a whole grain. The harvested grains from commercial F1 rice hybrids are F2 seeds which show segregation for some of the grain characteristics which is a matter of concern for garnering consumer acceptance without which the farmer would have little incentive to grow the hybrids despite they having very high yield potential. It is therefore very important to choose only those parents which have an excellent array of grain quality traits and consumer acceptability for developing hybrids. Parental lines having divergent endosperm properties should not be chosen. Hybrids will have enhanced head rice if both the parents have high head rice recovery likewise to produce medium grain size and shape crossing among long-medium and short grained parents can be attempted but to produce long grain basmati hybrids both parents must be long. It is prudent to choose parents with intermediate cooking quality traits even though the bulk F2 sample of different starch characteristics was reported to have posed no problem in the cooking and eating qualities of some of the hybrids.

Biotechnological intervention in precision breeding for desirable quality traits


Rice is now recognized as a model system for genetic analysis and biotechnology applications for improvement of monocots. The genetic map has been prepared for several agronomic and quality traits (Table 7). The most practical important utility of a genetic map is the information on markers detecting loci linked to a flanking simple inherited trait loci (SITMs) and QTLs controlling traits of economic importance. For effective marker assisted selection breeding, however, marker loci should be highly linked with recombination frequency (RF) of 1 %. The intensive gene mining has been paving the way for its utilization for molecular markers assisted breeding. There are two possible methods of breeding for quality (I) either introgression of durable resistance to recipient variety having desirable quality (II) introgression of quality traits into high yielding, biotic tolerant / resistant varieties or through objectively breeding for key quality components not easy to phenotype / or having complex mode of inheritance through marker assisted selection. In addition the two most important applications of molecular marker technology are (a) monitoring the purity standards and (b) development of molecular IDs for export quality basmati, indigenous short grain aromatic and speciality rices. The above three cited successful examples of pyramiding through MAS have been achieved through Ist breeding approach, but for using IInd breeding approach closely linked markers for quality traits will be needed for marker aided introgression. As most of the quality traits either show maternal influence or polygenic nature of inheritance and hence breeder has to face unreliable phenotyping of the segregating material. Here is the need of molecular markers for precision breeding for getting desired quality traits. Many quality traits have been mapped and genes / QTLs have been reported for amylose content (Chrom 6, Bligh et al., 1995, Tan et al., 1999, Aluko et al., 2004, Septingsih et al., 2003) aroma (Chrom. 8, Ahn et al., 1993, Jin et al., 1995, Garland, 2000, Bradbury et al., 2005), kernel length after cooking (KLAC) (Chrom 8, Ahn et al., 2001), gel consistency (GC) (Chrom 6, Huang et al., 2004). Along with these, many QTLs have been reported for head rice recovery (HRR), protein content, grain length and grain length / breadth ratio (Septiningsih et al., 2003, Aluko et al., 2004) spread over the full rice genome. Hence, to exploit these genes / QTLs with tightly linked markers,

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validation for each one is needed before going for molecular assisting breeding for improving the quality in varieties as well as in hybrid breeding programme.

Table 1: Chemical Composition (dry matter basis) and biological data of six whole cereal grains (McCane and Widdowson 1960: Khan and Eggum 1978)
Chemical Composition Protein (N x 6.25) (%) Available Carbohydrate (%) Energy (kcal/100g) Thiamin (mg/100g) Riboflavin (mg/100g) Niacin (mg/100g) Fe (mg/100g) Zn (mg/100g) Lysine (g/16 g N) TD (%) BV (%) NPU (%) Utilizable Protein (%) Digestible Energy (%) Crude fiber (%) HRR (%) 55.3 63.4 60.2 38.7 51.0 37.5 Wheat Corn 12.3 11.4 81.1 74.0 436 461 0.52 0.37 0.12 0.12 4.3 2.2 5 4 3 3 2.3 2.5 96.0 95.0 55.0 61.0 53.0 58.0 6.5 6.6 86.4 87.2 1.2 2.3 L/B ratio 3.57 2.89 3.13 3.07 3.25 2.96 Brown Rice 8.5 74.8 447 0.34 0.05 4.7 3 2 3.8 99.7 74.0 73.8 6.3 96.3 0.9 Barley 12.8 64.9 454 0.12 0.05 3.1 7 3 3.2 88.0 70.0 62.0 7.9 81.0 4.3 GC (mm) 86 94 86 76 78 37 Millet 13.4 73.7 459 0.73 0.38 2.3 8 3 2.7 93.0 60.0 56.0 7.5 87.2 1.8 Sorghum 9.6 67.4 447 0.38 0.15 3.9 10 2 2.7 84.8 50.0 50.0 4.8 79.9 4.8

Table 2: Performance of A lines for key quality characters


A line IR 58025A IR 62829A IR 68886A IR 68888A IR 68897A IR 69628A KL (mm) 6.20 5.69 6.03 5.84 6.29 5.80 Grain type LS MS LS MS LS MS Alk. Val 6.5, 6.5 2.0, 2.0 2.0, 2.0 5.3, 5.3 7.0, 7.0 4.3, 4.0 AC (%) 18.7 24.0 27.1 26.6 26.3 14.8

HRR: Head Rice Recovery; KL: Kernel Length; L/B ratio: Length breadth ratio; GC: Gel Consistency; Alk Val: Alkali Value; AC: Amylose content

Table 3: Experimental hybrids possessing desirable grain, milling and cooking quality traits during 2008
Particulars ARRH 7434 VNR 202 HRI 164 TNRH 173 TNRH 174 KPH 56 MTUHR 2093 MTUHR 2094 27P11 JKRH-1230 JKRH-3333 Hull (%) 80.9 78.3 81.8 78.4 79.9 80.8 77.8 78.2 79.7 79.5 80.5 Mill (%) 71.7 70.2 73.1 68.9 69.6 72.0 69.3 67.1 70.4 70.5 72.3 HRR (%) 53.6 55.8 54.9 65.3 59.9 52.6 64.4 54.6 56.4 59.6 62.2 KL (mm) 6.55 5.65 6.51 5.67 5.54 6.16 5.12 4.89 5.08 5.17 5.17 KB (mm) 1.99 2.24 2.06 1.99 1.96 2.01 1.91 1.85 1.87 2.06 2.06 L/B ratio 3.29 2.52 3.16 2.84 2.83 3.06 2.68 2.61 2.72 2.51 2.51 Grain Type LS MS LS MS MS LS MS MS MS MS MS Grain Chalk VOC VOC VOC VOC VOC VOC VOC VOC VOC VOC VOC

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Table 3: Experimental hybrids possessing desirable grain, milling and cooking quality traits during 2008 (Continuation)
Particulars ARRH 7434 VNR 202 HRI 164 TNRH 173 TNRH 174 KPH 56 MTUHR 2093 MTUHR 2094 27P11 JKRH-1230 JKRH-3333 VER 5.3 5.6 4.6 5.5 4.7 5.5 5.3 5.3 5.6 5.6 5.3 WU (ml) 340 275 295 225 270 305 230 270 285 215 185 KLAC (mm) 10.5 10.7 10.1 8.7 9.0 9.6 8.4 8.6 8.6 9.1 9.1 ER (mm) 1.60 1.89 1.55 1.53 1.62 1.55 1.64 1.75 1.69 1.76 1.76 ASV 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.0 5.2 5.2 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.0 AC (%) 22.64 21.69 21.61 21.47 24.24 24.08 24.58 24.71 24.41 23.94 24.39 GC (mm) 70 58 60 58 63 50 59 60 30 49 47 Aroma NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS

Mill: Milling (%); HRR: Head rice recovery (%); KL: Kernel length (mm); KB: Kernel breadth (mm);L/B: Length and breadth ratio; WU: Water uptake (ml); ASV: Alkali spreading value; AC: Amylose content (%); GC: Gel consistency; Grain Chalk: Grain chalkiness; VER: Volume expansion ration; VOC: Very occasionally present; NS: Non scented; LS: Long slender; LB: Long bold; MS: Medium slender; SB: Short bold

Table 4: Systematic Classification of rice (Ramaiah Classification)


Long Slender (LS) Short Slender (SS) Medium Slender (MS) Long Bold (LB) Short Bold (SB) Length 6 mm and above, length / breadth ratio 3 and above Length less than 6 mm, Length/Breadth ratio 3 and above Length less than 6 mm, Length/Breadth ratio 2.5 to 3.0 Length 6 mm and above, Length/Breadth ratio less than 3 Length less than 6 mm, Length / Breadth ratio less than 2.5 mm.

Source: Rice Research in India, ICAR 1985

Table 5 : Size classification


Scale Size category 1 Very long 3 Long Medium (or) 5 Intermediate 7 Short Length in mm More than 7.5 6.61 to 7.50 5.51 to 6.60 Less than (or) Equal to 5.50

Table 6: Shape classification


Scale 1 3 5 9 Shape category Slender Medium Bold Round Length / width ratio Over 3.0 2.1 to 3.0 1.1 to 2.0 1.0 or less

Source: SES/INGER, IRRI 1996

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Table 7: Reported major QTLs for physicochemical traits S. No References Locus Chrom. No 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 7 6 6 2 8 8 Marker Interval/ Marker Wx Waxy-RM 204 R 2869-R 1962 RM190-RM253 S1084-R1952 CT506-C235 CT201-RZ450 C1478-RZ667 G200-C1478 RM190-RM253 RM253-RM162 G200-R2171 RG171-G243A TCT122-RG769 Waxy-RM225 L688-G200 R712-R1843 RZ562-RZ323 RM 44-RM339 Phenotypic variability (%) 91.1 58.69 80.7 73.3 74.67 82.4 24.6 60.3 69.44 50.1 44.0 64.42 20.2 14.2 53.10 15.41 18.99 13.6 -

I. Amylose content (AC) 1. He et al., 1999 2. Lanceras et al, 2000 3. Li et al, 2003

Wx qAC-6 amy 6 qAC-6 Alk qASS-6 qASS-6a alk6-1 alk6-2 qGT-6

4. Aluko et al, 2004 5 Shiyong et al 2006 II. Alkali spreading value (ASV) 1. He et al.,1999 2. 3. 4. 5 Lanceras et al, 2000 Li et al, 2003 Aluko et al, 2004 Shiyong et al 2006

III. Gel consistency (GC) 1. He et al.,1999

qGC-2 qGC-7 2. Lanceras et al, 2000 3. Li et al, 2003 qGC-6a 4. Shiyong et al, 2006 qGC-2 IV. Kernel length after cooking (KLAC) 1. Ahn et al,1993 2. Biswas et al, 2004
Source: Shobha Rani et al (2008) Indian J Crop Science, Volume 1

Table 8: Quality characteristics of some released hybrids


Hybrid APHR-2 CNRH-3 CORH-2 DRRH 1 DRRH 2 KRH-2 ADTRH1 PHB-71 NSD-2 PA 6201 Pusa RH 10 PSD 1 Suruchi RH 204 Hulling (%) 76.6 77.6 79.0 77.5 75.0 77.6 79.1 79.7 78.3 77.2 81.3 80.1 80.0 80.0 Milling (%) 67.8 70.3 70.9 67.8 70.0 67.3 70.9 71.3 70.5 70.1 67.13 67.6 73.0 72.0 HRR (%) 55.9 51.7 48.0 54.0 60 57.3 48.8 58.6 46.2 59.6 53.43 50.0 71.0 47.3 KL (mm) 6.2 5.8 5.9 6.8 6.55 6.1 6.6 6.5 6.6 6.0 6.74 6.43 5.53 5.64 KB (mm) 2.1 2.3 2.3 2.1 1.92 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1 1.78 1.80 2.06 2.22 L/B ratio 2.9 2.6 2.6 3.3 3.40 2.8 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.8 3.77 3.57 2.71 2.54 Grain Type LS MS MS LS LS LS LS LS LS LS LS LS MS MS KLAC (mm) 10.2 10.9 11.3 11.3 9.2 12.3 11.4 12.4 11.7 10.9 11.89 ER 1.6 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.42 2.0 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.76 WU (ml) 260 220 355 208 220 203 240 223 238 110 245 330 VER 3.8 4.5 4.7 5.3 5.1 4.7 5.0 4.7 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.2 ASV 2.5 3.5 4.1 5.2 6.5 5.0 5.1 6.0 6.1 4.5 4.5 7.0 4.5 7.0 AC (%) 27.8 27.5 25.9 22.4 25.5 20.9 24.5 22.8 21.2 21.3 24.0 18.1 23.3 25.63

Hull: Hulling; Mill: Milling; HRR : Head Rice Recovery; KL : Kernel length; KB : Kernel breadth; L/B ratio: Length / breadth ratio; KLAC : Kernel length after cooking; ER : Elongation ratio; WU : Water uptake; VER : Volume Expansion Ratio; ASV : Alkali spreading value; AC : Amylose content; GC : Gel consistency

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References
Adair, C.R., H.M. Brachell, N.E. Jodon, T.H. Johnston, J.R. Thysell, V.E. Green, B.D. Webb and J.G. Atkins, 1966. Rice Breeding and testing methods in the U.S. In U.S. Department of Agric. Rice in the U.S.: Varieties and Production. USDA Agri. Rs. Serv. Handbook, 289, pp. 19-64. Ahn, S.N., Bolich, C.N. and Tanksley, S.D. 1993. RFLP tagging of a gene for aroma in rice. Theor. Appl. Genet. 84:825-828. Aluko G., C. Martinez, J Tohme, C Castano, C Bergman, JH Oard, 2004. QTL mapping of grain quality traits from the interspecific cross O. sativa x O. glaberima Ther. Appl. Genetics. 109: 630-639. Ayres N.M., McClung A.M., Larkin P.D., Bligh H.F.J., Jones C.A., Park W.D. 1997. Microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphism differentiate apparent amylose classes in an extended pedigree of US rice germplasm. Theor. Appl. Genet., 94:773-781. Bhattacharya, K.R. and C.M. Sowbhagya (1971). Water uptake by rice during cooking. Cereal Sci. Today 16: 420-424. Bhattacharya, K.R. 1980. Breakage of rice during milling : A review. Tropical Science, Volume 22 : 255276. Bligh, H.F.J., Til R.I., Jones, C.A., 1995. A microsatellite seqeuence closely linked to the waxy gene of O.sativa. Euphytica 86: 83-85. Bollich, C.N. and B.D. Webb, 1973. Inheritance of amylose content in two hybrid populations of rice. Cereal Chem. 50: 631-636. Bradbury Luis MT., RJ Henry, Quingsheng Jin, RF Reinke and DLE waters, 2005. A perfect marker for fragrance genotyping in rice Molecular Breeding 16: 279-283. Buttery, R.G., Ling, L.C., Juliano, B.O., and Turnbaugh, J.G. 1983. cooked rice aroma and 2-acetyl-1pyrroline. J. Agric. Food Chem. 31: 823-826. Buttery, R.G., Ling, L.C., and Mon, T.R. 1986. Quantitative analysis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in rice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 34: 112-114. Buttery, R.G., Turnbaugh, J.G., and Ling, L.C. 1988. Contribution of volatiles to rice aroma. J.Agric. Food Chem. 36: 1006-1009. Cagampang, G.B., C.M. Perez and B.O. Juliano 1973. A gel consistency test for eating quality of rice. J.Sci. Food. Agric. 24: 1589-1594. Chang, W.L., and Li W.Y. 1981. Inheritance of amylose content and gel consistency in rice. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sinica, 22:35-47. Chauhan J.S. and Nanda, J.S. 1983. Inheritance of amylose content and its association with grain yield and yield contributing characters in rice. Oryza 20:81-85. Del Rosario, A.R., V. P. Briones, A. J. Vidal, and B.O.Juliano 1968. Composition and endosperm structure of developing and mature rice kernel. Cereal Chem. 45:225.-235. Dela Cruz, N., I. Kumar, R.P. Kaushik and G.S. Khush 1989. Effect of temperature during grain development on stability of cooking quality component in rice. Japanese J. Breeding 39: 299-306. Dhulappanavar, C.V. 1976. Inheritance of scent in rice. Euphytica 25: 659-662. Directorate of Rice Research, 1997. Vision 2020, DRR Perspective Plan, DRR, ICAR 47p. Directorate of Rice Research, 2002. Progress Report, 2001, Volume 1, Varietal Improvement . All India Coordinated Rice Improvement Programme (ICAR), DRR, Hyderabad. Efferson, J.N. 1985. Rice quality in world market. Pages 1-13 in Rice Grain Qualtiy and Marketing, IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines. Garland S., Lewin L., Blakeney A., Reinke R., and Henry R., 2000. PCR based molecular markers for the fragrance gene in rice (O.sativa L) Ther. Appl. Genet. 101: 364-371. Ghosh, A.K. and Govindswamy S. 1997. Inheritance of starch iodine blue value and alkali digestion value in rice and their genetic association. II Riso 21:123-132. Goodwin, H.L., Rister, M.E., Koop, L.L., McClung, A.M., Miller, R. K.bett, K.D., Webb, B.D., Stansel, J.W., Gates, C.E., Dahm, P.F., Cadwallader, K.R., Kohlwey, D., and Dornak, J. 1994a. Impacts of various cultural, harvest and postharvest handling practices on rice quality attributes of Jasmine 85, pages 124-125 in: Proc. 26 Rice Tech. Work Group. Texas Agric. Exp. Stn., Texas A&M University: College Station, TX. Hsieh S.C. and Wang L.H. 1988. Genetical studies on grain quality in rice. Proc. Symp. On Rice Grain Quality. (Song, S. and Hong, M.C., Eds.). pp.117-136. Huang K. 2004. Molecular mapping of QTLs for gel consistency in rice. Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 33(6):1-5. Training Manual on HRPT

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Heda, G.D. and G. Reddy 1986. Studies on the inheritance of amylose content and gelatinization temperature in rice. Genet. Agrar 40: 1-8. Ilyas Ahmed, M., B.C. Viraktamath, M.S. Ramesha and B. Mishra 2001. Hybrid Rice In India. Present Status and Future Prospects, DRR Bulletin 2001-03, DRR, Hyderabad. Jennings, P.R., W.R. Coffman and H.E. Kauffman, 1979. Grain quality In: Rice Improvement. IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines, 101-120. Jin. Q.S., Qui. B., Yan, W. and Luo, R. 1995. Tagging of gene for aroma in rice by RAPD and RFLP(1). Acta. Agric. Zhejiang. 7 (6): 439-442. Juliano, B.O., G.M. Bautista, J.C. Lugay and A.C. Reyes, 1964. Studies on the physico chemical properties of rice. J.Agric. Food. Chem. 12: 131-138. Juliano, B.O. 1971. A simplified assay for milled rice amylose. Cereal Sci. Today 16: 334-338, 340, 360. Juliano, B.O. 1979. The chemical basis of rice grain quality. Pages 69-90 In: Proceedings of the workshop on chemical aspects of Rice Grain Quality, IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines. Kaul, A.K. 1970. Early generation testing for quality characters. II Rice Indian J. Genet 30(1): 237-243. Khush, G.S., C.M. Paule and Dela Cruz, N.M. 1979. Rice grain quality evaluation and improvement at IRRI. In Proceedings of workshop on chemical aspects of Rice Grain quality, IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines pp. 22-31. Khush, G.S., I. Kumar and S.,S. Virmani, 1986. Grain quality of hybrid rice. Paper Presented in the International Symposium on Hybrid Rice, 6-10th October 1986, Changsha, Hunan, China. Kumar, I., Khush, G.S. and Juliano B.O., 1987. Genetic analysis of Waxy Locus in rice. TAG 73 (4): 481488. Kumar, I. And Khush G.S. 1986. Genetics of amylose content in rice. J. Genet. 65 (1-2): 1-11 Lanceras J., Tragoonrung A., Vanavichit A., Naivikul O. 2003. Fine mapping of genes controlling Intermediate amylose content in rice using bulked segregant analysis. In: Advances in rice Genetics (Eds. By Khush. G.S., D.D. Brar, and B. Hardy, IRRI). Pp: 304-306. Little, R.R., G.B. Hilder and E.H. Dawson 1958. Differential effect of dilute alkali on 25 varieties of milled white rice. Cereal Chem 35: 111-126. Lin, C.F., Hsieh, T.C.Y., and Huff, B.J. 1990. Identification and Quantification of the pop-corn like aroma in Louisiana aromatic Della rice (Oryza sativa L.). J. Food Sci. 55:1466-1467, 1469. Liu Q.Q. 2002. Genetically engineering rice for increased lysine. Ph.D. dissertation, Yangzhou University and The Chinese University of Hong Kong Murlidhara Rao B (2007) Studies on flavour impact compounds and Glutelin proteins in aromatic rice using mass spectroscopy ( PhD thesis submitted to JNTU, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India) Okuno K. 1978. Gene dosage effect of waxy alleles on amylose content in endosperm starch of rice. Jpn.J. Genet. 53:219-222. Pandey M.K, Madhav MS, Rajendra Kumar P, Sundaram RM, Prasad GSV and N Shobha Rani. (2007) Identification and mapping of functional SSR marker for aroma in Basmati rice (O. sativa), In : Proc. Research priorities and strategies in rice production system for second green revolution, 20th-22nd Nov, 2007, CRRI, Cuttack, India Pinson, S.R.M. 1994. Inheritance of aroma in six rice cultivars. Crop Sci. 34: 1151-1157. Puri, R.P. and Siddiq, E.A. 1980. Inheritance of gelatinization temperature in rice. Indian J. Genet. Pl. Breed. 40 (2):4610-462. Rani, N.S., M.I. Ahmed and B. Krishna Veni, 1998. Screening Rice Hybrids for Quality Traits, IRRN 23(1): 4-5. Reddy, P.R., and K. Sathyanarayanaiah, 1980. Inheritance of aroma in rice. Indian J. Genet 40: 327-329. Rutger, J.N. and C.N. Bollich 1985. Public Sector research on hybrid rice in USA. Paper presented at the International Rice Research Conference, 1-5, July, 1985, IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines. Saktivel K, Neeraja CN, Shobha Rani N, Kaladhar K, Sundaram RM, Balachandran SM, and N Sarala (2006) Allele mining for aroma gene BAD-2 in Indian Landraces. In Proc. International Rice Congress, New Delhi, 2006, p.186 Septiningsih EM, Trijatmiko KR, Moeljopawiro S, Mc Couch SR, 2003. Identification of quantitative trait loci for grain quality in an advanced backcross population derived from the O.sativa variety IR 64 and the wild relative O.rufipogan. Theor Appl. Genetics. 107: 1433-1441. Shivani, D, N. Shobha Rani, B.C. Viraktamath and S. Sudheer Kumar, 2002. Effects of crossing selected parents on quality of rice hybrids. Poster presented in International Rice Congress, 2002, 16-20, September, 2002, Beijing, China, Page No.203, Abstract No.T1-72. Training Manual on HRPT

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Shobha Rani, N., B. Mishra, G.S.V. Prasad, U. Prasada Rao, S.V. Subbaiah, K.Muralidharan and I.C. Pasalu, 2001. Basmati Rice Heritage of India, DRR Technical Bulletin 2001-02, DRR, Hyderabad, pp: 28 Shobha Rani, N., L.V. Subba Rao, G.S.V. Prasad, A.S.R. Prasad and B. Mishra, 2002. Quality characteristics of promising experimental rice hybrids. Poster presented in 4th International Symposium on Hybrid Rice, 14-17th May, 2002, Hanoi, Vietnam. Somrith B. 1974. Genetic analysis of traits related to grain yield and quality in two crosses of rice. Ph.D. thesis, IARI, New Delhi. Sood, B.G., and Siddiq. E.A. 1978. A rapid technique for scent determination in rice. Indian J.Genet. Plant Breed. 38: 268-271. Stansel, J.W., 1966. The influence of heredity and environment on endosperm characteristics of rice (Oryza sativa L). Dirs. Abstr. B27:48. Tan, YF, Li Jx, Yu, SB, Xing, YZ, Xu CG, Zhang QF, 1999. The three important traits for cooking and eating quality of rice grains are controlled by a single locus, Theor. Appl. Geneicst. 99: 642-648. Tang SX, Khush GS and BO Juliano (1989) Variation and correlation of four cooking and eating indices of rices, Phillippine J Crop Science, 14:45-49. Tomar J.B. and Nanda J.S. 1985. Genetics and association studies of kernel shape in rice. Indian J. Genet. ,45(2):278-283. Tripathi, R.S., and Rao, M.J.B.K. 1979. Inheritance and linkage relationship of scent in rice. Euphytica 28: 319-323. Tsuzuki, E. and Shimokw, E. 1990. Inheritance of aroma in rice. Euphytica. 46: 157-159 Tsugita, T. 1985-1986. Aroma of cooked rice. Food Rev. Intl. 1: 497-520. Tsugita, T., Ohta, T., and Kato, H. 1983. cooking flavour and texture of rice stored under different conditions. Agric. Biol. Chem. 47:543-549. Virmani, S.S. and F.U. Zaman, 1998. Improving grain quality of hybrid rice: Challenges, strategies and achievements In: Advances in Hybrid Rice Technology. Eds: Virmani et al., IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines pp: 177-186. Webb, B.D. 1985. Criteria of rice quality in the U.S. In: Rice Chemistry and Technology pp. 403-442. Widjaja, R., Craske, J.D., and Wootton, M. 1996. Comparative studies on volatile components of nonfragrant and fragrant rices. J.Sc. Food Agric. 70: 151-161

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Hybrid Rice Seed Production-An overview


A.S. Hari Prasad Directorate of Rice research Hyderabd-500030 E-mail: hariprasad34@gmail.com
Success of Hybrid Rice Technology depends on efficient and economic seed production on large scale. It determines whether the heterosis of hybrid rice can be fully exploited or not. It is reported that the yield of F1 hybrids will decrease by 0.8% when the seed purity decreases by 1%, so it is very important to establish a sustainable system of seed production to ensure the purity of hybrid seeds in hybrid rice development. The existing rice hybrids used in commercial production in India are developed by using cytoplasmic genetic male sterility and fertility restoration system (CMS system). This system involves three lines viz., cytoplasmic genetic male sterile line (CMS or `A line), maintainer (`B line) and restorer (`R line) lines for developing rice hybrids. Hybrid Seed Production using the CMS system involves the following two steps. Production of `A line (A x B) Production of Hybrid Seed (A x R)

The `B and `R lines are multiplied in the same way as inbred varieties. Seed Parent A line Maintainer B line Seed Parent A line Pollen parent R line

A line Produces unviable pollen grains

Hybrid Produces viable pollen and sets seeds which are used to plant commercial rice crop

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Thus the procedure of hybrid rice seed production, in which two different lines including male sterile lines (seed parent) and restorer lines (pollen parent) are planted alternatively in a certain row ratio in the same field and the outcrossed seeds are harvested from the male sterile plants, differs from that of inbred varieties, in which only one line is grown and the selfed seeds are harvested. Therefore, in the whole process of hybrid seed production, it requires a set of complicated techniques centering on raising the out crossing rate to obtain a high seed yield. Rice is self-pollinated crop, where the extent of natural out crossing is only 0.3 to 3.0%. Therefore hybrid rice seed production requires specialized techniques, which need to be thoroughly understood before embarking upon this venture. The success of hybrid seed production depends on various factors such as choice of field, isolation, seeding time, planting pattern and weather conditions during the period of flowering, roguing synchronization in flowering of parental lines, supplementary pollination techniques, proper harvesting, processing, packing and effective seed distribution etc.

1. Choice of location:
Choosing a desirable location for hybrid seed production is very important. In the well isolated area, the paddy field with fertile soil, a desired irrigation and drainage system, sufficient sunshine, and no serious disease and insect problems are essentially needed.

2. Isolation:
Rice pollen grains are very small and light, and can travel very far with the wind. In order to ensure the purity of hybrid seed and avoid pollination by unwanted rice varieties, the hybrid seed production plots should be strictly isolated by the following methods. Space isolation: A space isolation of 50 100 m would be satisfactory for hybrid seed production, which implies that within this range no other rice varieties should be grown except the pollen parent. Time isolation: Wherever, it is difficult to have space isolation, a time isolation of over 21 days would also be effective. It means that the heading stage of the parental lines in hybrid seed production plot should be 21 days earlier or later than that of other varieties grown within the vicinity. Barrier isolation: In some places, the natural topographic features such as mountains, rivers, forests can serve as the most effective barrier. A crop barrier with maize, sugarcane, sesbania covering a distance of 30 m would also serve the purpose of isolation. Artificial barrier with polythene sheets of about 2 m height can also be used for small scale seed production. However, the most ideal locations are the areas covered with hillocks and mountains, which act as natural barriers.

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3. Favorable climatic conditions:


Climatic conditions have profound influence on the seed yields. Detailed information on the weather data of a given locality is necessary for fixing the seeding dates. Seeding of the parental lines should be planned in such a way that the flowering coincides with the most favorable climatic conditions, which are as follows: Daily mean temperature of 24 30o c Relative humidity ranging from 70 80 % The differences between day and night temperatures should not be more than 810oc, preferably 5 7oc Sufficient sun shine with moderate wind velocity. There should not be rains continuously for three days during the period of flowering. Seed yields will be adversely affected if the temperature is below 20oc and above 35oc. The Seed Production areas near forest, rivulets and valleys are better for getting higher seed production.

4. Seeding of parental lines in the seedbed


Puddle the seedbed field properly. Puddle the field twice at an interval of 6-7 days to destroy weeds, weed seeds and germinated rice seeds. Prepare raised seedbeds (5-10 cm height) of 1m width of any convenient length. Provide drainage channels in between seedbeds to drain excess water. Apply recommended fertilizer to the nursery beds Sow pregerminated seed uniformly on the seedbed (1-2 kg seed/20m2) Use 15 kg of `A line seed and 5 kg of `R line seed to produce sufficient seedlings to grow one hectare. Manage the seedbed properly for getting healthy and vigorous seedlings for transplanting.

5. Transplanting
Commence transplanting seedlings of A and R lines as and when they attain the age of 21-25 days, which ensures timely heading, and flowering of parental lines. Transplanting of older seedlings delays flowering and transplanting of younger seedlings advances flowering. If the transplanting of seedlings of `A line is delayed, then delay transplanting the `R line seedlings by the same number of days to synchronize flowering. Transplant one or two seedlings per hill of the `A line and two seedlings per hill of `R lines.

5.1 Transplanting in a specific Row Ratio & Row direction: In hybrid rice seed production the seed parent and pollen parent are planted in a certain row ratio at certain spacing. The row ratio and spacing of pollen parent and seed parent have a distinct effect on the hybrid seed yields.
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The row ratio or row proportion refers to the number of rows of the male parent (R line) to that of the female parent (A line) in a seed production plot. Suppose if we plant 2 rows of `R line followed by 8 rows of `A, the row ratio can be taken as 2:8. In hybrid rice seed production plot the recommended male (R) to female (A) row ratio is 2:8. However, the row ratio may vary from region to region, depending on weather, management and parental lines. R and A lines can be planted in several row ratios of 2:8; 2:12; 3:10 etc.

5.2

Factors Influencing Row Ratio: The ratio of pollen parent (R line) to seed

parent (A line) is determined by the characteristics of the parental lines. Plant height of pollinator Growth and vigour of the pollinator Size of the panicles and amount of residual pollen Duration and angle of floret opening in CMS lines Stigma exsertion of CMS lines To facilitate out crossing, the rows of male and female in the seed production plot should be perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction expected at flowering time of the parents.

5.3 Transplanting of the R line


Transplant the seedlings of R line in paired rows Leave a space of 145 cms inside block between paired rows of `R line seedlings for transplanting 8 row blocks of `A line seedlings. Transplant 2-3 seedlings per hill with a row-to-row distance of 30 cms and plant-to-plant spacing of 15 cms.

5.4 Transplanting of CMS line (A line)


Transplant `A line seedlings in blocks of 8 rows in between the paired rows of `R lines Transplant with 1-2 seedlings per hill at a spacing of 15 x 15 cms Leave a 20 cms wide alleyway between A line rows and nearest R line row.

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R line X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Field Layout A line OOOOOOOO OOOOOOOO OOOOOOOO OOOOOOOO OOOOOOOO OOOOOOOO OOOOOOOO OOOOOOOO

R line X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Wind direction

30 cm

15 cm

20 cm

Spacings: Between `R line rows Between `A line rows Between `R & `A line blocks Between hills (`A & `R lines) Row Ratio 5.5 Transplanting Sequence
The transplanting sequence of seed parent and pollen parent in the hybrid rice seed production plot depends on the growth duration of seed parent (A line) and pollen parent (R line) 5.5.1

: 30 cms : 15 cms : 20 30 cms : 15 cms : 2R: 8A

Seed parent (A line) has 10 day longer growth duration than pollen parent (R line): Transplant 25day old seedlings of the `A line, 10 days earlier than the
second `R line seedlings. The seedlings of the R line are transplanted when the seedlings from the second R line seeding are 25 days old. At this time the age of seedlings from the first R line seeding will be 21 days old and the age of seedlings from third R line seeding will be 29 days old.

Table 1: Seeding Sequence and seedlings age for transplanting


S. No. 1 2 3 4 Seed/pollen parent A line First R line Second R line Third R line Seeding sequence 0 day 6th day 10th day 14th day Seedling age for transplanting (days) 25 21 25 29

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5.5.2

Seed parent (A line) has 10 day shorter growth duration than pollen parent (R line): The seedlings of the R line are transplanted when the seedlings
from the second R line seeding are 25 days old. At this time the age of seedlings from the first R line seeding will be 21 days old and the age of the seedlings from the third R line seeding will be 29 days old. Later transplant 25 days old seedlings of the A line 10 days later than the second R line seedlings. Table 2: Seeding Sequence and seedlings age for transplanting Seed/pollen Seeding Seedling age for S. No. parent sequence transplanting (days) 1 First R line 0 day 21 2 Second R line 4th day 25 3 Third R line 8th day 29 4 A line 14th day 25

5.5.3

Seed parent (A line) has same growth duration as pollen parent (R line): The
planting of both R and A lines can be done simultaneously. First complete the A line plantings with 25 day old seedlings followed by R line plantings with the seedlings ages of 21day old first R line, 25 days old second R line and 29days old third R line. Table 3: Seeding Sequence and seedlings age for transplanting Seed/pollen Seeding Seedling age for S. No. parent sequence transplanting (days) 1 First R line 0 day 21 2 Second R line 4th day 25 and A line 3 Third R line 8th day 29

6. Roguing
The purity of hybrid rice seeds used in commercial production must be more than 98%. To meet this requirement, the purity of the restorer and CMS lines must be more than 99%. Therefore, in addition to ensuring strict isolation, it is necessary to remove all rogues from the seed production plots. Roguing is the removal of undesirable rice plants from the hybrid seed production plots. Undesirable rice plants are those plants either in A or R line rows that differ from plants that are true to type. Roguing helps to prevent the off-types from cross pollinating the true to type A line plants and thus enhancing the purity of hybrid seed. The undesirable plants come from many sources. They may be voluntary plants from the previous crop. Contamination due to improper isolation also result in the occurrence of off-types. Admixing during the process of harvesting, threshing, packing and handling are also other sources from which the off-types occurred. Therefore, due care is to be taken to remove the off-types during the cropping season.

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Roguing can be done at any time during the crop stage. Off-type rogues can be removed whenever they are identified earlier the better. The most important stages for roguing are at maximum tillering, flowering and just before harvesting. 6.1 Roguing at maximum tillering: We can identify the off-types by their morphological differences from the true to type plants. Therefore, it is essential to know the characteristic features of parental lines, which help in easy identification of rogues and efficient roguing. As a basic step, any plant found out side the rows has to be removed as they may be volunteer plants. Remove all those plants which are either too tall or too short than the seed or pollen parent. We can also identify the off-type plants by difference in their leaf blade size, shape and leaf sheath colour. 6.2 Roguing at flowering: Roguing at flowering is extremely important as it is the stage when we can identify many off-types which look similar to the parental lines during the early stages of growth. All the off-type plants that flower very early or very late are to be removed. The plants which differ from parental line plants in respect of leaf size, shape, angle, panicle shape, size and pigmentation are to be carefully removed. Remove all the plants from A line that have plumpy yellow anthers. Plants in the A line should not have fertile pollen. The off-types in A lines can also be distinguished from their fully exserted panicles. Care should be taken to remove the plants which are highly infested from pests and diseases. 6.3 Roguing just before harvest: This is the last opportunity to keep away the off-types in order to maintain high purity. Before harvesting, the plants in A line rows are to be thoroughly checked and those plants which show normal seed set are to be removed. It is necessary to remove all the off-types that have different grain characters as compared to that of A line plants. The grain size, shape, colour and pigmentation of A line plants have to be critically examined for effective roguing.

7.

Promotion of exertion of panicle:

Most of the male sterile lines based on WA cytoplasm have imperfect exertion of panicle, with the result as much as 15% spikelets remain enclosed in the flag leaf and are not exposed for out crossing. Through following methods, the exertion of the panicles can be promoted to a great extent. 7.1 Application of gibberellic acid (GA3): It is an efficient and effective growth hormone, which stimulates the cell elongation, thus can be used to enhance panicle exertion in CMS line. Besides, GA3 has the following favorable effects: i. Increases the duration of floret opening ii. Increases stigma exertion and receptivity

iii. iv. v. vi.

Promotes plant height Influences flowering and hence flowering in parental lines can be adjusted Widens the flag leaf angle Promotes exertion and growth rate of secondary and tertiary tillers.

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In hybrid seed production plots of rice, 5-10% panicle emergence stage is most appropriate for first spraying (40%) and the remaining 60% of GA3 should be sprayed on the following day. The ideal time for spraying is from 8 to 10 AM and from 4 to 6 PM. Spraying should be avoided during cloudy weather and when the wind velocity is high. A dose of 45-60 g/ha of GA3 is optimum. The harmone does not dissolve in water and it should be dissolved in 70% alcohol (1 g of GA3 in 25-40 ml of alcohol).
7.2 Flag leaf clipping: Normally the flag leaves are erect and longer than the panicles and they come in the way of easy pollen dispersal thus effecting the out crossing rate. The clipping of flag leaf helps in free movement and wide dispersal of pollen grains to give higher seed production. The flag leaves should be clipped when the main culms are in booting stage. Only half or two-third portion of flag leaf should be removed. However, flag leaf cutting is not advisable in the plots infested with diseases as this operation may spread the disease further.

8. Supplementary pollination:
Rice is basically a self-pollinated crop and hence there is a need to go for supplementary pollination in order to enhance the extent of out crossing. Supplementary pollination is a technique of shaking the pollen parent so that the pollen is shed and effectively dispersed over the A line plants. Supplementary pollination can be done either by rope pulling or by shaking the pollen parent with the help of two bamboo sticks. Timing and frequency of supplementary pollination is very important. The first supplementary pollination should be done at peak anthesis time i.e. when 30-40 % of the spikelets are opened. This process is repeated 3 4 times during the day at an interval of 30 minutes. Supplementary pollination has to be done for 7-10 days during the flowering period.

9. Harvesting, threshing and processing


From the point of view of maintaining high purity, extreme care is needed while harvesting, threshing and processing of the hybrid rice plots.

9.1 Harvesting: Harvest all R lines rows first. Remove the R line harvest and keep it in a safe place separately. Carefully remove the left over R line panicles in the field. 9.2 Threshing: During threshing, the `A line parent and `R line parent harvests must
be kept separate from each other. The A and R lines should be threshed separately. Before starting threshing, all the threshing equipment, threshing floor and tarpaulin to be thoroughly cleaned. Use new gunny bags for storing the seeds. Prepare two labels for each bag one to place inside the bag and one to attach to the bag outside. Each label should contain the following information. 1. Name and Address 2. Name of the parent 3. Name of the location
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4. Season and year 5. Date of harvest

9.3 Seed drying:


Seed drying helps seeds maintain their ability to germinate and their vigour for a longer period. Drying controls mold growth and the activity of the other organisms, that reduce the quality of stored grain Drying reduces seed discoloration

Seeds can be safely stored when they have been dried to a moisture content of less than 13 %.

9.3.1 Seed drying methods: Seeds can be dried by two methods viz., sun-drying and forced air-drying.
Sun drying: The seeds can be dried by placing them on jute bags or on a tarpaulin. Do not dry the seeds directly on the concrete threshing floor. While drying, stir the seeds occasionally to ensure uniform drying. Forced air-drying: Seeds can be dried in a batch type dryer by forced air heated to 4045oc. The seed layer in a batch type drier should not be more than 45 cm deep. Dry the seeds slowly and do not dry abruptly to 13% moisture content.

9.4 Seed Processing: Seed Processing has to be done to remove impurities like trash,
leaves, broken seeds sand etc., weed seeds and to remove immature, shriveled, unfilled and empty spikelets. Seed processing usually done by public and private seed agencies by using Air screen machines. Air screen machines in addition to cleaning the seeds, grading also will be done by separating the seeds of uniform size from over size and under size seeds.
For seed certification standards for paddy hybrids, the manual on Indian Minimum

Seed Certification Standards published by The Central seed Certification Board (Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, New Delhi, July 1988, pp 20-22) may kindly be referred.

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Principles of hybrid rice seed production


P.Senguttuvel, M.S. Ramesha, A.S. Hari Prasad & B.C. Viraktamath Directorate of Rice Research Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030, senguttuvel@gmail.com

1. Introduction
The success of hybrid technology in any crop, largely depends on two essential prerequisites; 1) distinct yield advantage compared to open pollinated varieties and 2) ability to produce hybrid seed on commercial scale at economic level. Unlike other crops, where heterosis has been commercially exploited, rice is basically a self pollinated crop, the requirement of seed per unit area is high. Therefore, development of appropriate seed production technology is essential to exploit heterosis in rice. Hybrid rice seed production practices were standardized initially in China during 1976 which paved the way for commercialization of hybrid rice technology. Rice flowers are not amenable for hand emasculation and pollination to produce hybrid seed on commercial scale. Being a self pollinated crop, rice must involve use of an effective male sterility system to develop and produce hybrids on commercial scale. The three line system of seed production involving CMS, maintainer and restorer lines is being commonly used for large scale hybrid rice seed production in the world. Of late two-line approach involving environmental sensitive genic male sterility is also being practiced in many countries, where photoperiod and temperature is condusive. The general principles of hybrid rice seed production through three and two-line approaches have been outlined in this chapter.

2. Classification of male sterility


It is essential to look at how male sterility manifests in plants before classifying them in to various categories. One of the higher level manifestations is 1) the absence or mal formation of male organs (stamens) in bisexual plants or no male flowers in dioecious plants 2) failure to develop normal microsporogenous tissue anther 3) abnormal microsporogenesis leading to deformed or inviable pollen 4) abnormal pollen maturation : inability to germinate on compatible stigma 5) no dehiscent anthers but viable pollen sporophytic control 6) barriers other than incompatibility preventing pollen from reaching ovule. There are basically, two types of classification of male sterility. One is the phenotypic classification which includes structural, sporogenous and functional male sterility. While, the genotypic classification includes genic male sterility, cytoplasmic male sterility and gene-cytoplasmic male sterility. 1) Structural male sterility : anomalies in male sex organs / missing altogether 2) Sporogenous male sterility : stamens form, but pollen absent or rare due to microsporogenous cell abortion before / during /after meiosis 3) Functional male sterility : viable pollen form, but barrier prevents fertilization (anther indehiscence, no exine formation, inability of pollen to migrate to stigma or other factors that affect fertilization.

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Generally, male sterility classification and its exploitation is crop plants is on genotypic basis which includes 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Cytoplasmic Male Sterility (CMS) Cytoplasmic Genetic Male Sterility (CGMS) Genetic Male Sterilty Genetically Engineered Male Sterility Chemically Induced Male Sterility Environmental sensitive genic male sterility

In rice cytoplasmic genetic male sterility system involving (three-line) CMS, maintainer and restorer lines is commonly used for commercial hybrid seed production in many hybrid rice growing countries of the world. Of late in addition to three line system, hybrid rice seed is being produced in China by using environmental sensitive genic male sterility system (two-line system).

3. Three line system of hybrid seed production


The cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility (genic-cytoplasmic male sterility) system is the result of interaction between specific sterility inducing cytoplasm and the nuclear genes. To get male sterility expression both sterile cytoplasm and recessive (rf) nuclear genes are required. In other words, a combination of sterile (S) cytoplasm and dominant (Rf) nuclear genes or normal (N) cytoplasm and recessive (rf) nuclear genes result in fertile plants. The CGMS system basically consists of three lines viz., a CMS line (A line), a maintainer line (B line) and a restorer (R) line. Hybrid Seed Production using the CGMS system involves the following two steps. Production of `A line (A x B) Production of Hybrid Seed (A x R)

The `B and `R lines are multiplied in the same way as inbred varieties. Seed Parent A line Maintainer B line Seed Parent A line Pollen parent R line

A line Produces unviable pollen grains

Hybrid Produces viable pollen and sets seeds which are used to plant commercial 100

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A CMS line is always multiplied by crossing it with its maintainer (B) line. Restorer or R line possesses dominant fertility restorer genes, when crossed to a CMS line it restores fertility in the derived hybrid. Since this system involves three lines (A, B and R line) it is called as three line system and the hybrids developed by utilizing this system are called as three line hybrids. In this system of seed production, two major steps involved are (1) CMS multiplication (A x B) and (2) Commercial hybrid seed production (A x R).

3.1 Production of nucleus and breeder seed


Parental lines get contaminated at different stages of handling and, it is necessary to regularly purify them through numbers seed production (at least once in three years). Parental lines have to be purified under the direct supervision of the rice breeder. Purification process essentially involves four steps : i) Growing the source material (Source Nursery); ii) Test crossing (Test Cross Nursery); iii) Evaluating the test crosses (Identification Nursery); and iv) Multiplication of the lines (Multiplication Nursery). Breeder seed production involves the further multiplication of A, B and R lines using nucleus seed. The seed material obtained from systematic paired crossing can be used to produce the breeder seed. Breeder seed production has to be taken up in a field where no rice crop is grown during previous crop season. Recommended isolation distance is 300-500 meters. A row ratio of 2 : 4 and 2 : 6 can be adopted for nucleus and breeder seed production. Utmost care is needed for meticulous rouging as the seed has to be very pure. Other practices are similar to those recommended for hybrid seed production. Further multiplication as foundation seed of A-, B- and R- lines can be done in similar fashion. The seed chain of nucleus, breeder, foundation and certified seed production should be maintained regularly with highest standard of genetic and physical purity at each of the stages. Details on purification of parental lines are given in a separate chapter.

3.2 Commercial hybrid (F1) seed production


Exhaustive details on hybrid rice seed production have been presented by Virmani and Sharma (1993), Ahmed and Viraktamath (1995), Ahmed et al (1996), Viraktamath et al (2003) and also in other chapters of this manual.

4. Two-line System of hybrid seed production


Besides CGMS system another new kind of genetic (genic) male sterility i.e. Environment Sensitive Genic Male Sterility (EGMS) has been deployed for developing commercial hybrids particularly in rice. In this system, male sterility condition is due to the interaction of nuclear genes with environmental factors such as photoperiod, temperature or both. A particular range, duration or concentration of environmental
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factor, at sensitive stage of the plant induces male sterility, whereas some other range, duration or concentration induces fertility in the same plant (Virmani and Ahmed, 2001).

EGMS

Photoperiod-sensitive Genic male sterility (PGMS)

Temperature-sensitive Genic male sterility (TGMS)

Micronutrient-sensitive genic male sterility (MGMS)

4.1 Environment-sensitive Genic Male Sterility (EGMS) system


The EGMS comprises of the following three types: i. Photoperiod sensitive genic male sterility (PGMS): The line is sterile when the photoperiod (day light) exceeds 14 hrs and the same line becomes fertile when subjected to photoperiod of < 13 hrs. PGMS system is useful and can be deployed in temperate countries where the day length differs considerably during different seasons. Temperature sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS): It is sterile when temperature exceeds 32C/24C (day/night) and becomes fertile when the temperature is below 24C/18C (day/night). However, in few cases, sterility is observed at lower temperatures and fertility is observed at higher temperatures. Such type of male sterility is referred to as Reverse TGMS type. TGMS system can be utilized in tropical and sub-tropical countries, where there are large temperature differences across locations, regions, seasons and at different attitudes. For a vast country like India, with various regions and seasons and with attitude ranging from sea level to several thousand meters in hilly areas, TGMS system is an ideal one for deployment and development of two-line hybrids. Photo-thermo sensitive genic male sterility (PTGMS): This line is controlled by the interaction of photoperiod and temperature. Most of the PGMS lines earlier discovered such as the classical Nongken 58S were later reported to fall in this category. PTGMS is just similar to the TGMS system in all respects except for the temperature regime in between the CSP and CFP, where the photoperiod sensitivity is observed. At relatively low temperatures, short light hours ensure complete fertility, while at relatively higher temperature, still more short light hours are needed to make it completely fertile.

ii.

iii.

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4.2 Advantages of Two-line v/s Three-line System of Heterosis Breeding Wide choice of parental lines; hence increased chances of identifying heterotic hybrids.
Any genotype can be used as a male parent, unlike in three line system where only those genotypes possessing restorer gene(s) can only be utilized as male parent. Similarly in three line system, only those genotype which show maintainer reaction, can only be converted into CMS lines. Normal frequency of restorers and maintainers in most of germplasm collections, does not exceed 30 percent. So in three line system at best only 30% of the germplasm is useful as parental lines and can be utilized in heterosis breeding. Remaining more than 70% of the germplasm which may posses may useful genes/traits cannot be utilized. There is no such restriction in two-line system. Any genotype can be converted into TGMS line and any other genotype can be utilized as male parent. Hence the chances of developing and identifying heterotic hybrids are greatly increased.

Seed Production system is simpler and more efficient.


In two-line system multiplication of female line is very simple, since it is multiplied as any ordinary genotype through self pollination under fertile phase. There are no problems of alternative rows, synchronization, supplementary pollination etc. unlike in three line system where CMS lines are multiplied or maintained utilizing maintainer line through A x B seed production plots. Risk of outbreak of epidemics associated with large scale use of unitary source of cytoplasm as well as the negative effects of sterility inducing cytoplasm are avoided altogether. One of the major risks in large scale use of unitary source of sterility inducing cytoplasm is the threat of epidemics as has happened in case of maize (susceptibility of T-cytoplasm to leaf blight) and Bajra (susceptibility of Tift 23A cytoplasm to downy mildew). Such risks are avoided altogether in case of two-line system. In Rice, two-line system is specifically useful for developing hybrids in Basmati and Japonica type. Frequency of restorer gene(s) in japonica and basmati type of rices is very low. It is very difficult to find useable restorers in these types. Two-line system can be easily deployed for development of hybrids in Japonica and basmati types, since in this system any genotype can be used as male parent. Magnitude of heterosis in two-line hybrids is 5 to 10% higher than in three line hybrids.

The major constraints to develop and using TMGS lines in the tropics are: Limited availability of stable TGMS germplasm. Insufficient training and experience of researchers in breeding and using TGMS lines.

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The EGMS lines are multiplied by sowing these lines in such a way that the sensitive period coincides with photoperiod/temperature that is conducive for inducing fertility. The extent of reversion to fertility may vary from 30-80%. Hybrid seed production is taken up by sowing these lines in such a way that the sensitive stage coincides with the photoperiod or temperature conducive for inducing complete male sterility. Detailed studies have shown that the period 5 days after panicle initiation to 10 days before flowering is most sensitive to environmental factors. Since the PGMS, TGMS and PTGMS are controlled by recessive gene(s), when these lines are crossed with a fertile line, the hybrids are fully fertile, irrespective of the day length and temperature conditions prevailing during the growth season. Although attractive and potential as a tool for exploiting heterosis, the EGMS system has some problems. During the hybrid seed production, if there is sudden change in the environmental condition, there will be reversion to fertility which may lead to impurity of hybrid seed. Perhaps, this is one of the main drawbacks of EGMS system.

4.3 Seed production of two line hybrids


Seed production of two-line rice hybrids is not much different from that of three line hybrids. Most important consideration is to precisely determine the location or season which is ideal for inducing complete male sterility. Currently the seed yields obtained in two-line hybrid seed production in China range from 2.3 to 3.0 t/ha which is comparable with seed yields obtained with three line hybrids (Virmani and Ahmed 2001). Hybrid seed production with EGMS lines involved two steps. 4.3.1 Multiplication of EGMS lines EGMS lines are multiplied at appropriate locations and seasons where stable fertility inducing environmental (photoperiod/temperature) conditions prevail for a continuous period of 30 days. Let us take the example of TGMS lines which turn to fertility at lower temperature and the most ideal temperature regime to induce higher fertility i9s 27/210C. In this case, the TGMS line has to be planted in such a way that the sensitive stage (5-20 days after planting) occurs in the middle of the fertility inducing phase. The seed yields in EGMS multiplication plots may vary depending upon the critical fertility inducing factors and their duration. If the conditions are highly favourable, seed yields of 4.0 4.5 t/ha could be obtained as experienced in China with the PGMS lilne N 5088 S and 7001 S (Lu et al. 1998). 4.3.2 Maintaining the purity of TGMS lines Maintaining the purity of EGMS lines is extremely important for developing and using two line hybrids. When the EGMS lines are reproduced generation after generation, without any selection, plants in a population segregate with respect to their critical sterility/fertility points. The method of maintaining the genetic purity of EGMs lines is described below by Deng and Fu (1998).

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Selecting about 100 plants with the typical characteristics of the original EGMS lines and planting them separately in pots. Transferring the pots at the sensitive stage into a glasshouse with a controlled temperature or phytotron where appropriate temperature and photoperiod are set. Monitoring pollen sterility critically at the time of heading and selecting plants with 100 percent sterility. Ratooning selected plants in suitable short-photoperiod/low temperature conditions and collecting their selfed seed (nucleus seed). Bulking nucleus seed from each selected plant in a row and comparing the agronomic characters and fertility or sterility traits of the selected rows or lines with those of the original line. Selected those lines that are identical/similar to the original ones and harvesting. The harvested seed is also called nucleus seed. Multiplying nucleus seed to produced breeder seed and multiplying breeder seed to produce foundation seed of EGMs lines. Virmani et al. (1997) have also described a procedure based on field testing for maintaining the purity and production of nucleus seed of TGMS lines in the tropics. Thus by following these procedures purity of EGMS lines can be maintained. Foundation seed of EGMS lines is directly used for producing the hybrid seed. All the procedures are similar to those employed for producing three line hybrids. Important requirement is that sowing of the EGMS line for hybrid seed production has to be taken in location/season in such a way that the sensitive stage of the EGMS lines (5-20 days after planting) occurs during the sterility inducing range of photoperiod (>13.75 hrs) and temperature (> 32/24 0C). The EGMS lines are planted with specified row ratios along with the male parent. All other procedures are similar to the production of three line hybrids.

Suggested Reading
Ahmed, M.I. and Siddiq, E.A. (1998). Rice. In: Hybrid Cultivar Development. (Eds.) S.S. Banga and S.K. Banga, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi. p. 221-256. Kaul, M.L.H. (1998). Male sterility: Classification and concepts. In: Hybrid Cultivar Development. (Eds.) S.S. Banga and S.K. Banga, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi. p. 17-45. Ahmed, M.I. and Viraktmath, B.C. (1995). Hybrid Rice Seed Production Mannual Theory and Practice (eds.), DRR, Hyderabad, p. 101. Ahmed, M.I., Viraktamath, B.C., Ramesha, M.S. and Vijayakumar, C.H.M, (1996). Hybrid Rice Technology (Eds), DRR, Hyderabad, p. 151.

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Genetic purity testing of hybrids/parental lines


R.M. Sundaram, M.S. Ramesha, A.S. Hari Prasad & B.C. Viraktamath Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad 500 030, India E-mail: rms_28@rediffmail.com
Molecular markers add precision to rice breeding. A marker is a signpost linked to the trait of interest and is co-inherited along with the trait. The marker and trait association is a potential tool for selection in crop improvement. DNA based markers revolutionized the entire marker system with their ubiquitous, innumerable, discrete and nondeleterious and environmental neutral nature. These markers are inherited in simple Mendelian fashion, free from epistatic interaction and pleiotropic effects. One of the distinct advantages of molecular markers is their capacity to be assayed at any growth stage of the crop from seed to maturity. Utilizing this unique property of molecular markers, awe have designed PCR-based assays for rapid and reliable assessment of purity of seeds of hybrid rice and their parental lines, which are detailed below.

Assessment of purity of rice hybrids using SSR markers


In India, hybrid rice seed production is generally taken up in the rabi season (January to April). Hybrid crop is raised in the kharif season (June to October). The hybrid seed produced is generally not used immediately for raising the crop as it is necessary to check the purity through a morphological assay called Grow-out test (GOT) in the succeeding season. This entails a lot of cost in terms of locked-up capital and attendant problems of seed storage. Moreover, GOT can be subjective as several aspects of plant phenotype (morphology, yield, etc.) and can be influenced by environmental conditions. Further, there is also a possibility that adverse climatic conditions (like heavy rain or wind) can damage or destroy the crop and make it difficult for collection of data. Thus, there is a need for an assay to assess genetic purity of hybrid seeds that is both accurate and faster, so that the seed produced in the dry season can be released for commercial cultivation in the ensuing wet season. DNA-based markers like SSRs can be applied for this purpose as they can be used in rapid assays for precisely assessing the genotype of a plant. An assay has been designed for assessing the genotypes of the rice lines based on the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). In this assay, specific target DNA molecules are amplified from a pool of DNA using a pair of oligonucleotide primer sequences that are complementary to the target DNA. The principle of this method for hybrid seed purity testing is that the parents have different alleles at the DNA marker locus being tested and that heterozygosity is an indicator of hybridity. It also implies that the markers being scored should be co-dominant in nature. SSR markers are highly suitable for this purpose as they are co-dominant and hyperpolymorphic. Microsatellites (also called as SSRs) are short stretches of DNA possessing repeats of di-, tri- or tetra nucleotide sequences arranged in a tandem (side to side) manner. The polymorphism comes from the fact that different rice lines can have variable number of repeats at a particular locus. The locus containing the microsatellite is amplified by PCR using primers that are
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complementary to the unique sequences, which flank the microsatellite repeats. The polymorphism in repeat number become manifested as different sizes of amplified DNA fragments which can be detected after electrophoresis on agarose gels, staining with ethidium bromide and visualization under UV light. In rice, microsatellites are abundant and well distributed throughout the genome. They are valuable because they are codominant and detect high levels of allelic diversity. In the marker based seed purity assay, purity testing is done with DNA isolated from rice seeds. The DNA isolated from each seed is subjected to PCR using SSR primers, which exhibit unique polymorphism among the parental lines constituting the hybrid (whose seed purity is to be tested). The PCR amplified fragments are separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, stained with ethidium bromide, visualized under UV light and documented (Yashitola et al. 2002). The protocol is explained below in Figure 1. The entire procedure takes only 3-5 hours for completion and any plant material including seed, grain or leaf can be used for DNA isolation and purity analysis.

Figure 1

DNA Test for hybrid seed purity assessments


2-3 day old seedling/seed Tease out shoot and root using sterile forceps Microcentrifuge tube with 200 l of extraction buffer

Use the supernatant as template DNA for PCR

Centrifuge at 10000 g for 2 min

Treat at 100 OC for 10 min

Motorised pestle

Figure 2 given below provides an example of the detection of off types in a hybrid seed lot using this method. Amplification of two fragments (characteristic of the two parental lines) is indicative of hybridity while only one fragment is amplified from the off types.
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Figure 2
Detection of off-types in hybrid seed lots using the DNA test
Parent 2 (Restorer)

Parent 1 (CMS)

Marker (bp)

Off-type

Off-type

Hybrid

Hybrid

Hybrid

Hybrid

Hybrid

500 250

In the conventional method of GOT, a sample of 400 seeds is collected randomly from each seed lot for assessment of seed purity. A similar sample size can be used for determining the seed purity using DNA assay. Estimations show that three technicians working together in a modestly equipped laboratory like ours can complete the assaying of 400 seedlings in approximately thirty man-hours. By deploying a suitable number of personnel and equipment, it should be possible to complete the DNA test within 10-15 days from the time of harvest, so that the seeds can be released in time for commercial cultivation in the immediate season (Yashitola et al. 2002). This will result in considerable savings for the seed industry, as large amounts of capital are locked-up in the form of stored seed. The costs of storage for a whole season and cost of acquiring land and growing the crop for the GOT can also be avoided. Besides, the assay described here would be much more accurate for determining hybrid seed purity than morphological characteristics as they would be directly assessing the genotype. We also characterized 10 each of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and restorer (R) lines along with 10 popular Indian rice varieties using a set of 48 hyperpolymorphic SSRs distributed uniformly across the rice genome to identify SSR markers specific for each public bred hybrid and their parental lines (Sundaram et al. 2008). Twenty-seven SSR markers showed amplification of an allele, which was very specific and unique to a particular parental line and not amplified in any other rice genotype tested. Through multiplex PCR, SSR marker combinations that were unique to a particular parental line or hybrid were also identified. With a set of 10 SSR markers (RM70, RM334, RM475, RM219, RM206, RM336, RM547, RM164, RM335, and RM276), all the public bred Indian rice hybrids along with their parental lines could be clearly distinguished. To utilize these SSR markers effectively for detection of impurities in parental lines, a two dimensional bulked DNA sampling strategy involving a 20 x 20 grow-out matrix has been designed and used for detection of contaminants in a seed-lot of the popular CMS line IR58025A.
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Hybrid

Hybrid

108

A DNA marker based assay for distinguishing CMS lines of rice based on WA-cytoplasm from their cognate maintainer lines
Ensuring the purity of parental lines used in hybrid seed production is an essential prerequisite for ensuring the purity of rice hybrids. Contamination of the CMS lines with seeds of the Maintainer line is a serious cause for concern in hybrid rice production because, being isonuclear lines, they cannot be distinguished from each other prior to flowering. A particular sequence difference between mitochondrial DNA from male sterile CMS lines and male fertile Maintainer lines has been discovered recently. Based on this sequence difference, a DNA marker assay based on a mitochondrial microsatellite marker has been designed by DRR, Hyderabad that can be used to reliably distinguish between CMS and Maintainer lines (Rajendrakumar et al. 2007). This assay can be used to screen seed lots of the CMS line for checking contamination with the Maintainer line. Only those seed lots that have the desired level of purity will be retained and used for hybrid seed production. Thus a major cause for reduction in hybrid seed purity can be eliminated. The assay test involves the use of mitochondrial SSR markers as primers in a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay wherein fragments of different sizes are amplified in DNA samples from CMS lines and maintainer lines (Figure 3) and contaminants can be detected easily. This method has been used in coded tests and found to reliably distinguish WA-CMS lines from their cognate maintainer lines. This assay was also found to reliably distinguish all the different pairs of cognate WA-CMS and maintainer lines of rice that are currently being used in hybrid seed production in India.

Figure 3
A mitochondrial SSR marker (drrcms) based assessment of genetic purity of WA-CMS lines
Screening more sets of CMS and maintainer lines

Amplification of CMS and maintainer line with drrcms marker

CMS and maintainer lines were distinguished based on differential allele sizes

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List of References
R.M. Sundaram, B. Naveenkumar, S.K. Biradar, S.M. Balachandran, B. Mishra, M. Ilyas Ahmed, B.C. Viraktamath, M.S. Ramesha and N.P. Sarma (2008). Identification of informative SSR markers capable of distinguishing hybrid rice parental lines and their utilization in seed purity assessment. Euphytica 163: 215-224 P. Rajendrakumar, A. K. Biswal, S. M. Balachandran, M. S. Ramesha, B. C. Viraktamath, and R. M. Sundaram* (2007). A Mitochondrial Repeat Specific Marker for Distinguishing Wild abortive Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Rice Lines from their Cognate Isogenic Maintainer Lines. Crop Science 47: 207-211 Yashitola, J., Thirumurugan. T., Sundaram. R. M., Ramesha, M. S., Sarma. N. P. and Sonti. R. V (2002). Assessment of purity of rice hybrids and parental lines using microsatellites and STS markers. Crop Science. 42: 1369-1373

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Insect Pests of Rice and their management in India


Gururaj Katti Principal Scientist (Entomology) Directorate of Rice Research Rajendranagar, Hyderabad
Rice is the staple food for more than 65 per cent of the people of India. Among the rice growing countries, India has the largest area under rice in the world ( 44.6 million hectares ) and ranks second in production ( 87 million tonnes). Rice is grown in different enviroments viz., water logged, deep water rices, hilly area, high humid, high temperatures, salinity, alkalinity, flood prone areas. The cropping intensity varies from one environment to the other with a maximum of three rice growing seasons in a year in the fertile deltaic regions where continuous irrigation is available. In order to achieve the target of increasing the productivity levels there is a need to raise productivity particularly in the rainfed rice areas. This requires sustained adoption of modern and intensive agricultural practices by the farmers. However, there is constant pressure due to biotic stresses such as insect pests, nematodes, diseases and weeds which limit the increase in productivity. Among the biotic stresses, insect pests are the most important as they are widespread, vary widely in intensity and are more in number making them difficult to manage in the farmers fields. The tropical warm and humid climate prevalent in the country particularly in the rainfed rice areas is very favourable for their incidence and multiplication. The major insect pests of rice in India are described below:

A. Insect pests of national significance i. Stem borers:


Rice stem borers are a key group of insect pests damaging rice crop. There are five species of stem borers distributed throughout India. Among these, yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk. is the most widespread, dominant and destructive. The other borers are, pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens occurring mostly in rice-wheat cropping systems of north-west, White borer, Scirpophaga innotata common in

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southern regions particularly in Kerala, dark headed stem borer, Chilo polychrysus Meyr. and striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Meyr in eastern and north eastern states of West Bengal and Assam, respectively. The stem borers cause damage to rice crop and affected plants show characteristic symptoms of dead hearts or white ears depending on the stage of the crop. At tillering stage, the stem borer larvae emerge from the egg masses laid on leaves by adult moths and enter the tiller to feed inside. This results in the characteristic damage of dead heart where in the central leaf whorl does not unfold, turns brownish and dries out although the lower leaves remain green and healthy. The affected tillers do not bear panicles. The stem borer damage is seen throughout the crop growth. At reproductive stages, the damage is characterized by whitish empty panicles which are very conspicuous in field and are called white ears. Infestation results in partial chaffiness of the glumes and ill-filled grains.

ii. Gall midge:


Gall midge (Orseolia oryzae) is a key pest of irrigated or rainfed shallow low land rice. It has also been reported in upland and deepwater rice. The pest causes damage mainly during the tillering stage of the rice plant. The adult gall midge is a mosquito like insect and lays eggs on the under surface of the rice leaves or sometimes on the leaf sheaths. The maggots emerging from these egg masses cause damage by feeding on the growing tip resulting in an elongation of the leaf sheath which is called a gall. The gall resembling an onion leaf glistens in the field, hence is often called a silver shoot. Galls appear within a week after the larvae reach the growing point. In some cases there would be no gall development but necrosis of the growing tip is noticed. Profuse tillering and stunting of plants are associated with gall formation

iii. Leaf and planthoppers: a. Green leafhoppers


Green leafhoppers have gained economic significance because of their ability to serve as vectors for transmission of rice tungro virus disease. Two species, Nephotettix virescens and N.nigropictus are predominant.

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The leafhoppers attack all the stages of the plant. Both adults and nymphs cause also direct damage by sucking plant sap leading to stunted growth and reduced tillering. At high population levels their feeding results in the drying of the plants and the infested paddy fields appear blighted. Infestation at the time of panicle emergence affects grain formation. Apart from direct damage the insect is also a carrier of tungro disease causing virus. b. Planthoppers i) Brown planthopper: Nilaparvata lugens ii) Whitebacked planthopper: Sogatella furcifera The brown planthopper (BPH) is common in rainfed and irrigated wetland environments especially during the reproductive stage of the rice plant. In recent times, whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) has emerged as a serious pest in areas particularly where rice varieties resistant to BPH are grown. Adult planthoppers are dimorphic. Winged as well as half winged males and females along with wingless nymphs occur as mixed populations in fields. Both adults and nymphs suck the sap from the base of the tillers, resulting in yellowing and drying of the plants. At early stages, round early patches appear which soon turn brownish due to drying up of the plants. The patches of infestation spreads in concentric circles within the field and in severe cases the affected field gives a burnt appearance. This condition is known as hopper burn. The hopper populations can multply very fast and migrate over long distances causing widespread infestation in short time. damage, BPH is also a vector of grassy stunt virus. Apart from direct

iv. Leaf folder:


Prior to the introduction of nitrogen responsive high yielding varieties, leaf folder was not a serious pest. However, expansion in rice area due to new irrigation systems, multiple rice cropping, high yielding varieties and applications of high levels of nitrogenous fertilisers has resulted in its emergence as a major pest in most rice tracts. Indiscriminate applications of carbofuran and phorate in farmers fields leading to resurgence of leaf folder populations has further compounded problem. There are three species of leaf folder prevalent in India, of which, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, is the dominant species.

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The leaf folder larvae hatching from the flat and oval eggs laid on leaf blades, fold the leaves longitudinally and feed within resulting in a linear pale white stripe damage. In cases of severe infestation, the leaf margins and tips are dried up entirely and the crop gives a whitish appearance.

v. Gundhi bug:
Gundhi bug is another serious pest of rice and among the three species of gundhi bug prevalent, Leptocorisa oratorius and L. acuta are common. In addition to rice, the pest also occurs on many grasses and associated dicotyledonous weeds. The bugs have also been found to feed on Panicum crusgalli and millets and then migrate to paddy crop Among the grasses, Echinocloa colona is a potential alternate host for successful survival and multiplication. The bugs also multiply rapidly and migrate from early to the late flowering varieties in paddy when there is unequal ripening in the fields. The adults and nymphs suck the milk from the developing grains in the early stage of grain formation. Infestation is characterised by the discolouration of the panicles as well as the presence of some empty or ill-formed grains in the panicles.

B. Insect pests of Regional Significance vi. Rice hispa:


Earlier a minor pest, Hispa (Dicladispa armigera) is now a major pest of rice particularly in north eastern, eastern and central regions of India. Both adults and grubs feed on leaves and mainly occur in early vegetative stages. In severe epidemics, the leaves dry up and the crop presents a scorched appearance. The pest is capable of multiplying fast and also migrate over short distances causing damage to adjoining areas.

vii. Termites:
Usually termites (Odentotermes obesus) occur as pests in light soils and under conditions of marginal rainfall and drought. Soils rich in vegetable matter also harbour termites. These social insects build permanent underground nests to avoid light and live in colonies. They feed on roots or move above ground to cut seedlings at ground level during night. Infested plants lodge owing to their tunnelling and feeding on the

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subterranean parts of a plant, viz., stem and roots. Initially, the plants show the symptoms of yellowing and wilting viii. Mealy bug: The pest (Brevennia rehi) is common in upland and dry cultivated areas and in fields with uneven soil surface where the plants grow in relatively dry soil patches. The mealy bug populations can be easily noticed in the field as they are covered by a distinct waxy and powdery coating. Also, ants frequent the mealy bug infested plants and sometimes carry the bugs to uninfested plants. The adults and nymphs suck sap from the plant stem resulting in stunted plant growth and yellowish curved leaves. Under heavy infestation, Individual plant hills may even dry off and the panicles do not emerge completely from the boot. Infestation is localized in patches and is intense when soil moisture stress is high.

ix. Case worm:


This pest (Nymphula depunctalis) is commonly found in in low land and flooded rice fields. Because of continuous water stagnation in fields during floods, this pest can build up and cause severe loss in early vegetative stage. The entire crop may have to be resown or replanted in the damaged areas. The larvae enclose themselves within a tubular leaf case by cutting the leaf blade. Enclosed within the case, the larva attaches itself to the rice plant and feeds on the leaves. Feeding damage includes cutting off the leaf tips to make leaf cases and may result in patches of severe defoliation, stunted growth and death of plants.

x. Rice thrips(Stenchaetothrips biformis):


This is a pest which usually occurs in rainfed rice during the seedling stage or within a fortnight after sowing or in early transplanted crop. Both the nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves. As a result of pest attack, initially yellowish streaks appear on the leaves. Later, the leaves curl longitudinally from the margins inwards leading to sharply pointed leaf tips resembling that of needles, which finally wither. In severely infested areas, the plants become lanky and present a sickly appearance. Infestation at the panicle stage causes unfilled grains or sterility.
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xi. Root aphid(Tetrineura nigriabdominalis):


Rice root aphids are mainly pests of upland rice. Most of the times the populations of aphids are made up of wingless individuals but sometimes under conditions of heavy infestation, winged individuals develop for migration. Perennial grasses and sugarcane serve as alternate hosts. Ants are found frequently in association with aphids feeding on honey excreted by aphids. The aphids remain in the cavities made by the ants around the root system. The soil around the aphid attacked plants becomes loose and the plants appear yellowish with curled and dried up leaf tips.

xii. Cut worm/Ear cutting caterpillar (Mythimna separata ):


Though sporadic in occurrence, this pest causes heavy losses during sudden outbreaks. Serious infestations have been reported from Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. The pest survives on mainly on rice and other related weeds such as Echinocloa colonum and Eleusine coracana during the early part of the season. Damage by cut worms remains unnoticed in the earlier stages of pest infestation and often leads to a serious situation at times of crop maturity. The larvae cut the earheads in addition to damaging the foliage. When the pest population reaches high, there is excessive feeding and complete removal of whole leaves and plants. The rice panicles are cut off from the base, some times leading to complete loss of the crop.

Xiii.

Armyworm/Swarming

caterpillar

(Spodoptera

mauritia

Boisdua, S. litura)
This is also a occasional pest but can cause serious damage to rice crop. The pest is polyphagous and usually attacks the early stages of the crop. It is usually more serious in the dry season. When high populations occur, the army of swarming larvae march in the field (hence, the name armyworm) and feed voraciously on leaves by cutting off the leaf tips, the leaf margins, the leaves, and even the plants at the base. The attacked field gives a grazed appearance.

xiv. White grub (Holotrichia spp.):


White grub has emerged as a major pest in the hilly regions of Uttaranchal state.

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The pest completes its entire life cycle in the soil and the emerging adults make circular holes or emergence holes in infested fields. They are nocturnal and hide in the soil at daytime. They can fly to a distance of from one-half kilometer to 2.5 km. Remaining in the soil, the grubs feed on the main roots, affecting the underground portion of the stalks. Eventually, wilting is observed on the host plant.. They fly and feed on trees or bushes. The pest is a polyphagous one feeding on several hosts such as, Acacia arabica Willd., Achras sapota Linn., Azadirachta indica A. Juss., vegetables, oilseeds, millets, cereals, sugarcane etc. The presence of white grubs in the rice field is characterized by orange-yellow leaves and deadheart symptoms. Roots with feeding damage caused by grubs can also be easily pulled by hand.

C. Emerging insect pests xv. Blue beetle( Leptispa pygmoea):


Recently this pest has emerged as an important defoliator in Kerala, as most of the rice varieties cultivated in this state are found to be susceptible to the pest. The incidence of the beetle is more during the first crop season (July-August) following south west monsoon favoured by low temperature and high relative humidity. The adult beetle is bluish, elongated and lays 30-50 elongated green eggs on the lower surface of the leaves. The yellow grub hatches in 4-5 days and have three larval instars occupying 12-14 days. The adults are weak fliers and live for 18- 35 days

Its damage is characterised by scrapping of leaf matter in parallel lines by both adult and grubs followed by upward curling of leaves. The damage is often confused with leaf folder.

xvi. Black bug (Scotinophora coarctata):


The insect is common in rainfed and irrigated wetland environments during the vegetative stages of the rice crop. It prefers continuously cropped irrigated rice areas

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and poorly drained fields. Damages are observed more frequently in dry season rice crops and densely planted fields are preferred. The newly emerged adult is white and tinged with green and pink. Mature adults are shiny dark brown or black. Different nymphal instars vary in size. They are brown or yellow with black spots on the body. The eggs are rounded and greenish or pinkish in colour. Black bug damage is characterized by chlorotic lesions on leaves, reddish brown or yellowing of leaves, decreased tillering, stunting of plant leadingt no panicle formation or incompletely exerted panicles.

Integrated Pest Management a long term solution


Integrated Pest Management is a system that, in the context of the associated environment and the population dynamics of the pest species, utilizes all suitable techniques and methods in as compatible a manner as possible and maintains the pest populations at levels below those causing economically unacceptable damage or loss (FAO). It is an ecologically based strategy that focuses on long term solution of pests through a combination of techniques such as use of resistant varieties, biological control, modification of agronomic practices and habitat manipulation. Pesticides are carefully selected and applied to minimize the risks to the human health, beneficial and non target organisms and environment. Recommended Integrated Pest Management measures for insect pests of rice (crop stage-wise): STAGE INSECT IPM measures PESTS Nursery Stem borer, For insect pests and nematodes, apply carbofuran 3G gall thrips, knot nematode, root nematode and white nematode, Planting Stem borer to Panicle Clipping of leaf tips of the seedlings at the time of tip midge, root @ 33 kg ha-1 or phorate 10 G @ 12.5 kg ha-1 or fipronil 0.3G @ 33 kg ha-1 of nursery, 5 to 7 days before pulling the seedlings for transplanting. In stem borer endemic areas, install pheromone traps with 5 mg lure @ 8 traps ha-1 for pest monitoring.

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initiation stage

transplanting will help in destruction of egg masses of stem borer Removal of excess nursery and incorporation into soil

Clean cultivation and destruction of stubbles Apply carbofuran 3G @ 25 kg ha-1 (or) phorate 10 G @ 10 kg ha-1 or cartap 4 G @ 25 kg ha-1 or fipronil 0.3 G @ 25 kg ha. 1 or chlorpyriphos 10G @ 10 kg ha-1

Install pheromone traps with 5 mg lure @ 8 traps ha-1 for pest monitoring or 20 traps ha-1 for direct control through mass trapping.

Inundative release of egg parasitoid, Trichogramma japonicum five to six times @ 1,00,000 adults ha-1 starting from 15 days after transplanting

Gall midge

Growing of resistant varieties as mentioned in Table 1 depending on the prevailing biotype in a particular location

Apply carbofuran 3G @ 25 kg ha-1 (or) phorate 10 G @ 10 kg ha-1 or fipronil 0.3 G @ 25 kg ha. 1

Green leafhopper

Growing resistant varieties as mentioned in Table 1 Spray carbaryl 50 WP @ 900 g or monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 850 ml ha-1 or BPMC 50 EC @ 600 ml ha-1 or acephate 50 WP @ 700 g ha-1 or ethofenprox 10 EC @ 500 ml ha-1 or imidacloprid 200 SL @ 125 ml ha-1 or thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 100 g ha-1 or clothianidin 50 WDG 30 g ha-1. Alternatively, apply carbofuran 3G @ 25 kg ha-1or phorate 10 G @ 12.5 kg ha-1or fipronil 0.3 G @ 25 kg ha-1.

Hispa

Spray triazophos 40 EC @ 400 ml ha-1 or phosalone 35 EC @ 850 ml ha-1 or chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 1500 ml

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ha-1or quinalphos 25 EC @ 1200 ml ha-1 or monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 850 ml ha-1or ethofenprox 10 EC @ 450 ml ha-1or fipronil 5 SC @ 600 ml ha-1or apply carbofuran 3G @ 25 kg ha-1. Leaf folder Spray monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 850 ml ha-1or chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 1500 ml ha-1or cartap 50 WP @ 600 g ha-1 or quinalphos 25 EC @ 1200 ml ha-1or acephate 50 WP @ 700 g ha-1or or fipronil 5 SC @ 600 ml ha-1or phosalone 35 EC @ 850 ml ha-1or carbaryl 50 WP @ 900 g ha-1or triazophos 40 EC @ 400 ml ha-1 or apply cartap 4 G @ 25 kg ha-1. Inundative release of egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chilonis five to six times @ 1,00,000 adults ha-1 starting from 15 days after transplanting Whorl maggot Apply carbofuran 3G @ 25 kg ha-1 (or) fipronil 0.3 G @ 25 kg ha-1 or spray monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 850 ml ha-1or chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 1500 ml ha-1 Case Worm Drain water from the field and spray endosulfan 35 EC @ 850 ml ha-1or monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 850 ml ha.-1 or carbaryl 50 WP @ 900 g ha-1or apply carbaryl dust @ 30 kg ha-1. Panicle initiation to booting Stem borer Spray quinalphos 25 EC @ 1600 ml ha-1 or monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1100 ml ha-1or

chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2000 ml ha-1or endosulfan 35 EC @ 1100 ml ha-1or cartap 50 WP @ 800 g ha-1 or fipronil 5 SC @ 800 ml ha-1or acephate 50 WP @ 950 g ha-1. Repeat 7 to 10 days later or apply carbofuran 3G @ 25 kg ha-1or fipronil 0.3 G @ 25 kg ha-1or phorate 10 G @ 10 kg ha-1or cartap 4 G @ 25 kg ha-1 or chlorpyriphos 10G @ 10 kg ha-1

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Brown planthopper Whitebacked planthopper

Apply carbofuran 3G @ 25 kg ha-1or fipronil 0.3 G @ 25 kg ha-1or phorate 10 G @ 10 kg ha-1 or spray

carbaryl 50 WP @ 900 g or monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 850 ml ha-1 or BPMC 50 EC @ 600 ml ha-1 or

acephate 50 WP @ 950 g ha-1 or ethofenprox 10 EC @ 500 ml ha-1 or imidacloprid 200 SL @ 125 ml ha-1 or thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 100 g ha-1 or clothianidin 50 WDG 30 g ha-1 Green leafhopper Spray carbaryl 50 WP @ 900 g or monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 850 ml ha-1 or BPMC 50 EC @ 600 ml ha-1 or acephate 50 WP @ 950 g ha-1 or ethofenprox 10 EC @ 500 ml ha-1 or imidacloprid 200 SL @ 125 ml ha-1 or thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 100 g ha-1 or clothianidin 50 WDG 30 g ha-1 Leaf folder Spray monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1100 ml ha-1or chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2000 ml ha-1or phosalone 35 EC @ 1100 ml ha-1or quinalphos 25 EC @ 1600 ml ha1or

cartap 50 WP @ 800 g ha-1 or fipronil 5 SC @ 800

ml ha-1or triazophos 40 EC @ 500 ml ha-1or apply cartap 4 G @ 25 kg ha-1. Flowering and after Stem borer Spray quinalphos 25 EC @ 2000 ml ha-1or

monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1500 ml ha-1or phosalone 35 EC @ 1500 ml ha-1or chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2500 ml ha-1 or cartap 50 WP @ 1000 g ha-1 or fipronil 5 SC @ 1000 ml ha-1or acephate 50 WP @ 1200 g ha-1. Repeat the spray 7 to 10 days later. Spraying should be done during afternoon hours.

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Brown planthopper and whitebacked planthopper

Spray carbaryl 50 WP

1500 g ha-1 or

monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1500 ml ha-1 or BPMC 50 EC @ 1000 ml ha-1 or acephate 50 WP @ 1200 g ha-1 or fipronil 5 SC @ 1000 ml ha-1 or imidacloprid 200 SL @ 125 ml ha-1 or ethofenprox 10 EC @ 750 ml ha-1 or thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 100 g ha-1 or clothianidin 50 WDG 30 g ha-1 or dust carbaryl 25 to 30 kg of the formulation ha-1. Repeat application if hopper population persists beyond a week after application. If 2 to 3 applications are needed, alternate the recommended insecticides. Do not use the same insecticide repeatedly.

Note : While spraying, nozzle should be directed at the basal portion of the plants. Application should be done during evening hours. Application with power sprayer is preferable. Cut worm Spray thoroughly with chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2500 ml ha-1or dichlorvos 100 EC @ 600 ml ha-1or endosulfan 35 EC @ 1500 ml ha-1or monocrotophos 36 EC @ 1500 ml ha-1 or acephate 50 WP @ 1200 g ha1or

fipronil 5 SC @ 1000 ml ha-1during afternoon

hours. Gundhi bug Spray monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1500 ml ha-1 or endosulfan 35 EC @ 1500 ml ha-1or carbaryl 50 WP @ 1500 g ha-1during afternoon hours. Dust malathion or carbaryl @ 30 kg of the formulation/ha

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WG = Water soluble granules WDG = Water dispersible granules EC = emulsifiable concentrate WP = wettable powder WSC = water soluble concentrate G

} } } } To be mixed with water and sprayed. }

= granules to be broadcast in standing water

General guidelines to be followed in rice IPM: Use disease and insect-free pure seeds Pay more attention to nursery protection Ensure timely planting and crop protection during early growth stage Maintain field sanitation and adopt clean cultivation Provide alleys (30 cm width) every 3 meters in the main field Apply nitrogen fertiliser in splits (3-4 times or adjust when conditions warrant) Monitor incidence of pests and diseases through survey and surveillance programme Exploit biological control by encouraging natural enemies through need based pesticide application. While applying chemicals, maintain constantly the recommended quantity of pesticide per ha Do not apply granules after booting stage of the crop growth. At flowering stage, dust or spray only during afternoon/evening hours. For effective control of brown planthopper and whitebacked planthopper, direct spray or dust towards the basal portion of the plants. Water depth should not be more than 5.0 cm at the time of granular application and water should be kept impounded for 3-4 days. Mix emulsifiable concentrates, wettable powders, water soluble granules and water dispersible granules separately in water and add to the sprayer. If rainfall occurs within 3 hours after spraying, repeat the spray.

Use only the recommended dose of pesticide. Use spray fluid volume depending on the stage of the crop as follows:

For high volume spray (hand compression sprayer):

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For nursery Upto 30 days after planting Upto 50 days after planting 50 days and beyond For low volume spray (power sprayer): 30 days after planting 40 days after planting 60 days after planting

500 to 600 litres ha-1 200 to 300 litres ha-1 500 to 600 litres ha-1 700 to 800 litres ha-1

90 litres ha-1 120 litres ha-1 180 litres ha-1

Table 1: List of varieties resistant to important insect pests of rice Insect pest Released varieties 1. Gall midge Sneha, Pothana, Kakatiya Erramallelu, Kavya, Rajendradhan 202, Karna, Ruchi, Samridhi, Usha, Asha, MDU 3, Bhuban, Samalei, Orugallu, Abhaya, Shakti, Suraksha, Daya, Pratap, Udaya, IR 36, Shaktiman, Tara, Kshira, Sarasa, Neela, Lalat, Phalguna, Mahaveer, Vibhava, Divya, Dhanya Lakshmi, Surekha, Vikram, Kunti, Triguna, Sita, Samleswari, Karma Mahsuri, Dhanarasi, Mahamaya, Jyothi 2. Brown Planthopper Chaitanya, Krishnaveni, Vajram, Pratibha, Makom, Pavizham, Manasarovar, Co-42, Chandana, Nagarjuna, Sonasali, Rasmi, Jyothi, Bhadra, Neela Annanga, Daya, Aruna, Kanaka, Remya, Bharatidasan, Karthika, Vijeta, Cotton Dora Sannalu, KRH2, PA6201, Hybrid 6129, ADT37 Haryana Basmati, HKR120, Laatha , Narendra 2002, Jitendra, Satyaranjan Vikramarya, Lalat, Khaira, Nidhi. GR12, Gr103, Birsa dhan 108, Birsa Dhan 104, Prakash, CoRH1 Ratna, Sasyasree, Vikas, Ravi , Pothana, Dhanya lakshmi, Chandrama

3. White backed planthopper 4.Green Leaf hopper

5. Stem borer

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Disease Management in Hybrid Rice


M. Srinivas Prasad Senior Scientist, Plant Pathology Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad 500 030
At best, the world food outlook for the decades ahead is grave; at worst, it is frightening. Thus stated Forrest F. Hill, Member of the Ford Foundation, before the Trustees of the Foundation in 1959, which was the world food situation at that time. Precisely twenty years later, while expressing concern on the situation of rice crop, Robert F. Chandler Jr., the First Director General of International Rice Research Institute, Philippines, mentioned, So dependent upon rice are the Asian countries that throughout history a failure of that crop has caused widespread famine and death. Since then, there has been a revival of interest among the researchers in finding the reasons for this failure and solutions to save the crop on which many of the rice based countries depend. Rice (Oryza sativa L.), the principle staple food crop in India, holds the key to our countrys ability to produce enough food for our people. Globally rice is cultivated now on 154 million hectares with annual production of around 600 million tons and average productivity of 3.9 tons/ha. In India during the period 2006-07, it was cultivated in an area of 43.7 million hectare with a production of 93.5 million tons of rice, average productivity being 2.14 t/ha. It is estimated that the demand for rice is expected to be 100 million tonnes by 2010 and 130 million tonnes by 2025 in the country to maintain the present level of self sufficiency. Therefore, the major concern in coming years is to increase the productivity and for which the losses due to biotic and a biotic stresses have to be tackled. Among the biotic stresses, it is often mentioned that diseases caused by plethora of microorganisms, take a heavy toll of the crop in the humid tropical rice growing environment. The scars left behind, by the extent of human suffering and famine caused by the Bengal famine during pre independent India, are still vivid in the minds of the people. When administration and civil supplies failed, the severe crop loss caused to rice by Helminthosporium triggered the famine in eastern parts of India. While an average yield losses span from 5 to 15% over large areas, total crop failure due to pests and disease epidemic is regularly encountered in some or the other pockets of the country. In modern India, disease spectrum and intensity are changing continuously because of dynamic nature of rice culture. Before the advent of high yielding varieties, the major disease problems were blast and brown spot. After the introduction of high yielding nitrogen responsive varieties such as TN 1, Padma, IR 8 and Jaya, bacterial blight and rice tungro virus occurred in epidemic proportions in the Indo-Gangetic plains and coastal Indian states. In mid 1980s, sheath blight became economically important in isolated regions of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Kerala, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. Later, consequent to the introduction of highly susceptible varieties
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such as IR 50, Swarna and BPT 5204, blast disease re-emerged as a major production constraint, and altered cropping intensity led to the development of tungro epidemics in peninsular India. As it stands today, the diseases like blast, sheath blight, bacterial blight and tungro are the limiting factors in the successful cultivation. Now, these diseases are continue to be the major problem in many rice growing areas of the country, though at several stages, false smut, grain discoloration and sheath rot are of importance in hybrid rices and location specific in nature. Disease management is one of the major functional components in rice production system in India. It plays a vital role in checking the diseases from flaring up to epidemic proportions or at least in slowing down the epidemics and it can be achieved either by the use of resistant varieties or chemical control or manipulation of cultural practices. The details of the relative importance of diseases in Hybrid Rice, available technology options as on today for the management of these diseases are given below.

Blast
Blast disease aptly named to the damage it causes, is caused by Magnaporthe grisea (anamorph Pyricularia grisea). It can occur at all stages of growth causing heavy and at times a total loss in yield. Farmers in Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and in many parts of India, had to abandon popular susceptible cultivars because of the loss incurred from blast attack. On leaves, symptoms develop from a small, pin head, water-soaked grayish dot that turns within 2 to 3 days into a spindle-shaped spot of ashy appearance and of 1 cm long and 0.5 cm wide. Occurrence of numerous such spots results in drying and death of the leaf. When the node is affected, it turns black and breaks at the nodal junction. The most disastrous stage of the disease is the panicle blast. Its attack results in improper grain filling, poor milling recovery and also chaffy ear heads similar to the damage of white ears by stem borer. Hence, careful surveillance will help in arresting the disease in its initial stages. If not, the disease moves faster from field to field by producing myriad number of spores that are disseminated by wind in all directions. These spores upon falling on rice plant, initiate the disease. The repeated cycles of spore production and infection continues throughout the crop growth and under favourable conditions, the green lush crop growth is turned to burnt up appearance, and all this can happen within a fortnight leaving nothing to harvest. When initial blast spots are seen as small roundish to slightly elongated, necrotic gray spots about 1 to 2 mm in diameter, immediate spraying with effective blasticides like tricyclazole 75 WP @ 0.6 g or carpropamid 30 SC @ 1.0 ml or isoprothiolane 40 EC @ 1.5 ml or kasugamycin-B 3 SL @ 2.5 ml or iprobenphos 48 EC @ 2.0 ml or broadspectrum fungicides like carbendazim 50 WP or thiophanate-methyl 75 WP @ 1.0 g / L of water, has to be resorted to intercept further development of the disease. Nitrogen split dose can succeed the spray and it is advisable not to top dress with nitrogen
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fertilizer until the spray is given. Hence, nitrogen management with need-based application of fungicide can control the diseases on a susceptible variety. The commercial varieties and hybrids resistant to blast disease are Sasyasree, Rasi, IR 36, IR 64, Vikas, Tulasi, Aditya, Srinivas, Swarnadhan, DRRH 2, KRH 2, NSD 2 and PA 6201.

Sheath blight
Sheath blight disease caused by the fungus Thanetophorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani) is widely prevalent but seldom assumes epidemic proportions. The disease affects all plant parts above water-line viz., sheaths, inter-node, upper leaves and panicles. On sheaths, the spots are greyish-grey with ellipsoid or ovoid shape. The leaf of the affected sheath dries up and under humid conditions, white threads of fungal body can be seen over the surface of leaf sheaths. The infected leaves and internodes turn grey to straw colour with lateral brown bands resembling snake-skin. The pathogen has a wide host range and occurs on all grasses and broad leaved weeds grown on rice bunds causing similar symptoms and producing sclerotial bodies. These sclerotial bodies fall in paddy water and initiate infections on rice crop. Even if leaves of rice plants come in contact with infected weeds on bunds, they pick-up infection and spread the disease. Hence, keeping bunds clean of weeds will help in checking the disease spread from primary sources. The disease spread is very slow and a change in environment from humid to dry weather will alleviate the crop from disease. Otherwise, if the humid weather is likely to persist for prolonged time and disease is noticed, a spray of either validamycin 3 L @ 2.5 ml or hexaconazole 5 EC @ 2.0 ml or thifluzamide 24 SC @ 0.75 ml or propiconazole 25 EC @ 1 ml or thiophanate-methyl 70 WP or carbendazim 50 WP @ 1.0 g / L of water will prevent the spread of the disease.

Bacterial leaf blight


Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae, shot into prominence after the introduction of nitrogen responsive, high yielding variety T(N)1, in mid-sixties. It also resulted in the withdrawal of this variety from cultivation due to its vulnerability under high nitrogen management. It is a monsoon disease and its incidence and severity is very much influenced by rainfall, number of rainy days, susceptibility of the cultivar and nitrogen fertilizer application. The disease initially starts from either one or both sides of leaf margin, mostly at upper half of the leaf. The margins will become water-soaked and turns yellow to straw color in a wavy pattern. As the disease progresses, the drying spreads downwards and inwards of leaf blade causing drying and death of the leaf. In the absence of chemical control, actual breeding for disease resistance at many rice research stations has been carried out fruitfully resulting in resistant commercial cultivars. Some of the commercially cultivated resistant varieties are Ajaya, PR 114, Swarna, MTU 4870, HKR 120, IR 36, IR 64 and Saket 4. Among the hybrids, Sahyadri,

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NSD 2, PHB 71, PA 6444, Pusa RH 10 and RH 204 were found moderately resistant to bacterial blight.

Rice Tungro Disease


Among the virus diseases that affect rice, tungro disease is widely prevalent, particularly, in the north eastern and eastern coastal region of peninsular India. The word tungro in tagallo, a language in The Philippines, means degenerated growth, causing leaf discoloration which varies from light green to orange yellow leaves, reduction in tiller number and stunted plant growth. Two viral particles namely spherical (RTSV an RNA virus) and bacilliform (RTBV- a DNA para retrovirus) particles were considered to be associated with the tungro disease. The virus spreads by green leafhoppers (GLH), Nephotettix virescence and N.nigropictus, for which rice is the preferred host. Viruliferous green leafhoppers introduce the virus into rice leaves when they probe to suck nutrients. Thus, a tungro infected plant suffers from damage caused by both virus and the insect. The disease can occur at any stage from nursery onwards. The disease spread depends upon the availability of virus infected plants, the insect vector population and the susceptibility of the variety. To control tungro virus, the ideal method is to grow resistant varieties, especially in the endemic areas to cut down the primary infection and primary infected areas, so that moderately resistant varieties can be harvested with minimum damage and little loss in yield. The important resistant verities for rice tungro virus are Vikramarya and Nidhi. The other strategy is to monitor the insect populations and indexing for the rice tungro disease, and keeping the bunds and vicinity free of weeds. If insect population is found on increase (two insects/hill), it should be controlled by the application of insecticides such as carbofuran 3 G or phorate 10 G @ 0.75 or 1 kg a.i. ha-1 or spraying monocrotophos 36 EC or phosalone 35 EC @ 0.5 kg a.i. ha-1.

Sheath rot
Sheath rot incited by Sarocladium oryzae, has become widespread in Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, West Bengal and North Eastern States, causing significant losses in yield. The disease appears during heading to maturity stages and the pathogen generally attacks the upper most leaf sheath enclosing the young panicles. Oblong or irregular spots with chocolate brown coloration may develop on the boot leaf sheath. If the pathogen attacks before the panicle emergence, the young panicles may not emerge and rot completely or emerge only partially. Grains inside the choked panicles and on the partially emerged panicles may be chaffy, light to darkbrown and covered by a white to light-pink mat of mycelium and spore mass. If the pathogen attacks after the panicle emergence, the grains may be partially or completely filled and the glume discoloration is caused. Generally, it was observed that susceptibility of a variety is associated with poor panicle emergence.

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Application of carbendazim, twice at fortnightly intervals commencing from boot leaf stage would be effective. Other products found useful in reducing the sheath rot infection are thiophanate-methyl, ediphenphos, hexaconazole, propiconazole and mancozeb. Of the hybrids, KRH 2, NSD 2, PA 6444 and Indam 100-003 were found moderately resistant to sheath rot of rice.

Glume / Grain Discoloration:


Various organisms may infect rice grains before or after harvest, causing discolouration. The discolouration may appear externally on glumes or internally in kernels, or on both glumes and kernels. A high seedling mortality occurred when seed discoloration was in both embryo and endosperm regions. On glumes, symptoms vary depending upon the organism involved and the degree of infection. Sometimes there are distinct black dots, usually caused by fungal reproductive structures on normal or bleached areas of the glumes. Often the lesions are pale or grayish in centre with a dark brown margin. The kernels internally and sometimes also externally are stained with distinct colours. Monascus purpureus (Went) causes a red colour. Wolkia decolorans Van der Wolk is the cause of yellow grain. Pencillium puberulum Bain stains the grain orange. Erwinia herbicola (Lohnis) Dye causes black rot. Pink spots are caused by Fusarium. On glumes green and blue colored spore appear due to infection with Aspergillus and Pencillium spp. The organisms associated with grain discolouration are Drechslera oryzae and Alternaria padwickii (Ganguly) Ellis, Gibberella fujikuroi (Sawada) Ito, Nigrospora oryzae (Berk. & Br.) Petch. Epicoccum spp., Curvularia spp., Phoma sorghina (Sacc.) Boerema et al and Alternaria. Some of the fungi could also develop as saprophytes on harvested grains during storage when conditions are abnormal. These storage fungi are Aspergillus spp., A.flavus, Penicillium and others. High atmospheric humidity and rainfall accompanied by cloudy days during flowering favors grain discoloration. When infection is by field fungi, the main effects are reduced viability and grain quality. Seedling blights and other diseases may occur when the seeds are planted. When the infection is by storage fungi, besides a reduction in viability and grain quality, there may also be production of toxins. Injuries from insects in the field, or from wind and rain storms during storage, may also increase grain discolouration. Spikelet sterility and grain discoloration in Andhra Pradesh was suspected to be associated with mite, saprophytic fungal species and white-tip nematode. Glume / grain discolouration is a serious problem in hybrid rice seed production plots. This might be due to the clipping-off of flag leaf and foliar application of gibberellic acid to encourage pollination and obtain a higher hybrid seed-set in cytoplasmic male sterile female parental lines. The hybrid seed production plots can be protected from grain dicolouration by application of propiconazole 25 EC (1ml/l) in the evening hours around panicle initiation to flowering period. This application can be limited to cover only emerging panicles.

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False smut
False smut is more prevalent in seasons favourable for good growth and high yields, and the farmers consider its incidence as an indication of good harvest. However, severe outbreaks have been reported from Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab. In the years of severe incidence, losses equaled bacterial blight and sheath rot. The symptoms of false smut are visible only after flowering. The pathogen, Ustilaginoidea virens, grows in the ovary and transforms it into large, yellowish and velvety green balls, which become greatly enlarged at later stage. The spore balls are covered by a membrane in the early stages, which bursts with further growth and the loose velvety pseudomorphs become visible. Generally, the disease is common and serious in temperate and cooler mountainous areas than in hot tropical regions. In North western part of the country, it was reported be serious in many of the hybrid rice growing areas. It occurs more frequently in upland rice areas when a spell of wet weather synchronizes with the heading time. High moisture favours the development of the disease. The number of rainy days during flowering period influences the disease incidence more than the amount of rainfall. Though little is known about the varietal resistance to false smut, varieties like Bala, Cauvery, Sabarmati, Prakash and Pankaj were found not infected when they were grown in between severely infected Mahsuri plots. Among the fungicides, propiconazole, copper oxychloride, mancozeb and chlorothalonil effectively reduced the incidence of the disease.

Brown spot
Although brown spot is much more widely distributed than blast, except during epiphytotic years, it is unlikely to cause appreciable loss in yield. Serious damage is generally associated with other primary problems such as nutrition and physiological disorders. The disease occurs more or less every year in mild to severe form in many upland and rainfed low land rice growing areas. It is widely distributed thorough out the country, especially along the eastern parts of Uttar Pradesh, Gangetic Plains of north Bihar, Chattisgarh plains of Madhya Pradesh, Tarai region of West Bengal, eastern parts of Orissa, Assam, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. The fungus, Helminthosporium oryzae, causal agent of brown spot of rice, may also cause glume discolouration., reducing the market value. On the leaves, first the spots appear as small brown margins and grayish centre. These spots frequently run together so that the entire leaf surface withers and dries up. The spots may also be distinct, isolated and scattered through out the leaf surface. On the glumes, the disease appears as black or brown spots, and in severe cases the greater portion of the glume may be covered by these spots. Since the disease is seed-borne, seeds should be obtained from disease free areas. If affected seeds are to be sown, fungicidal seed treatment will be useful in reducing the
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disease on seedlings. If the disease is observed in the later growth stages of the crop, iprodione (2 g/L) or mancozeb (2.5 g/L) can be sprayed for controlling the disease. Among released varieties, Rasi, IR 36 and Jagannath are resistant to the disease. Other methods suggested and tried for the control of this disease include, field sanitation, crop rotation, proper fertilization, good water management and use of soil amendments. Table 1. Importance diseases of Hybrid Rice and distribution pattern in India. Disease Pathogen Plant parts affected Distribution (States)

Major diseases: Blast Pyricularia grisea Leaves, nodes, panicle base and seed Sheath, stem, leaves and panicles Leaf, sheath and panicle Andaman islands, A.P., Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, H.P., J & K, Karnataka, Kerala, M.P., Maharashtra, Orisssa, T.N., U.P., W. Bengal, and all North Eastern states. Andaman Islands, A.P., Assam, J & K, Kerala, Orissa, Punjab, T.N., U.P., W.Bengal. Andaman islands, A.P., Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala, M.P., Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, T.N., U.P., W. Bengal. A.P., Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, T.N., U.P., W.Bengal. Andaman Islands, A.P., Assam, Bihar, Kerala, Karnataka, Orissa, T.N., U.P., W.Bengal.

Sheath blight Bacterial blight

Rhizoctonia solani

Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae

Tungro

Virus transmitted by Nephotettix spp. Emerging diseases: Sheath rot Sarocladium oryzae

Leaf, stem and sheath Sheath (especially flag leaf sheath), panicle, seed Seed

Glume discoloration

False smut

Sarocladium oryzae, Helminthosporium oryzae, and saprophytic fungi Ustilaginoidea virens

Panicles

Andaman islands, A.P., Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana. H.P., J & K, Karnataka, Kerala, M.P., Maharashtra, Orisssa, T.N., U.P., W.Bengal, and all North Eastern states. Andaman islands, A.P., Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Uttaranchal, U.P., W. Bengal, N.E. States. A.P., Assam, M.P., Orissa, Punjab, T.N., U.P., W. Bengal Haryana, Punjab, Tamil Nadu

Minor Diseases: Brown spot Helminthosporium oryzae Stem rot Sclerotium oryzae

Leaves, sheath and panicle Stem

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Table 2. Available technological options for the management diseases in Hybrid Rice. Resistant varieties Blast: Rasi, IR 36, IR 64, Sasyasree, Srinivas, Tikkana, Simhapuri, Parijatha, Salivahana, Gauthami, DRRH 2, KRH 2, NSD 2, PA 6201 (Resistant); Samarat, Arize 6444 (Moderately Resistant) Sheath blight: Swarnadhan, Vikramarya, Radha, Pankaj, Manasarovar (Moderately Resistant). Cultural practices Select healthy seed. Apply moderate nitrogen levels (80 100 kg/ha) in 3 to 4 splits. Avoid excess nitrogen; skip final nitrogen in blast infected fields. Destroy stubbles / weeds, etc Chemical control practices Seed Treatment (/ Kg seed): Tricyclazole 75 WP @ 2 g Carbendazim 50 WP @ 2 g Spray (/ L water): Tricyclazole 75 WP @ 0.6 g Carpropamid 300 EC @ 1 ml Iprobenphos 48 EC @ 2 g Carbendazim 50 WP @ 1g Thiophanate-methyl 75 WP @1g Propiconazole 25 EC @ 1 ml Spray (/ L water): Validamycin 3 L @ 2.5 ml Hexaconazole 5 SC @ 2 ml Propiconazole 25 EC @ 1 ml Thifluzamide 24 SC @ 0.75 ml Iprobenphos 48 EC @ 2 g Carbendazim 50 WP @ 1g Thiophanate-methyl 75 WP @ 1g Bitertanol 25 WP @ 2 g Iprodione 50 WP @ 2 g Chlorathalonil 75 WP @ 3 g

Avoid using infested seed. Select healthy seed. Apply moderate nitrogen levels (80 100 kg/ha) in 3 to 4 splits. Avoid excess nitrogen; skip final nitrogen in sheath blight infected fields. Destroy stubbles / weeds, etc. Check brown plant hopper, if any, which predisposes the crop to sheath blight infection. Avoid using infected seed. Select healthy seed. Apply moderate nitrogen levels (80 100 kg/ha) in 3 to 4 splits, in bacterial blight prone areas. Avoid excess nitrogen; skip final nitrogen application in bacterial blight infected fields. Avoid field to field irrigation. Avoid shade in the field. Avoid insect damage to the crop. Destroy stubbles / weeds, etc. Destroy tungro infected
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Bactereial blight: Ajaya, IR 64, Sona Mahsuri, Swarna, Radha, Janaki, Sujata, Asha, Udaya, PR 4141, Prasad, Gobind, Co 43, Biraj, Suraj (Resistatant), Sahyadri, NSD 2, PHB 71, PA 6444, Pusa RH 10, RH 204 (Moderately Resistant).

No chemical control method is being recommended.

Tungro: Vikramarya, Nidhi,

Nursery (Granular application):

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Radha, Annapurna, Triveni (Resistant).

plants, stubbles, weeds, etc. Avoid ratooning. Introduce non-rice crop such as pulse / oilseed crops in tungro endemic areas. Avoid electrical lighting near paddy nurseries.

Carburfuran 3 G @ 25 Kg / ha Fipronil 0.4 G @ 25 Kg / ha Main Field (Spray): Monocrotophos 36 EC (1 L / ha) Carbaryl 50 WP (1.5 Kg / ha) Fipronil 5 EC (1 L / ha) Imidaclopropid 17.8 SL (125 g /ha) Thiomethoxam 25 WG (100 g /ha)

Sheath rot: Bala, Cauvery, Kakatiya, Janaki, Tella Hamsa, Sabarmati, KRH 2, NSD 2, PA 6444, Indam 100-003 (Moderately Resistant).

Select healthy seed. Apply moderate nitrogen levels (80 100 kg/ha) in 3 to 4 splits. Avoid excess nitrogen; skip final nitrogen in sheath rot infected fields. Avoid insect / mechanical injury to the crop and also check other diseases, which actually predispose the crop to sheath rot. Select healthy seed. Apply total amount of nitrogen in split doses. Give adequate and balanced nutrition to the crop. Correct soil deficiency of K2O, Ca, Zn, Mn or low pH, by suitable amendments. Apply total amount of nitrogen in split doses. Avoid excess nitrogen application. Skip final nitrogen application in stem rot infected fields. Check brown plant hopper damage to the crop, which in turn reduces the stem rot incidence. Destroy infected stubbles, infected plants, weeds, etc.
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Seed Treatment (/ Kg seed): Mancozeb 75 WP @ 2.5 g Captan 50 WP @ 2 g Spray (/ L water): Propiconazole 25 EC @ 1 ml Carbendazim 50 WP @ 1g Thiophanate-methyl 75 WP @ 1g Hexaconazole 5 SC @ 2 ml

Brown spot: Rasi, Jagannath, IR 36 (Moderately Resistant).

Seed Treatment (/ Kg seed): Mancozeb 75 WP @ 2.5 g Iprodione 50 WP @ 2 g Spray (/ L water): Mancozeb 75 WP @ 2.5g Iprodione 50 WP @ 2g Carbendazim 50 WP @ 1g Chlorathalonil 75 WP @ 2g Spray (/ L water): Captan + hexaconazole 75 WP (Taqat 75 WP) @ 1 g Iprobenphos 48 EC @ 2ml Carbendazim 50 WP @ 1g Thiophanate-Methyl 70 WP @ 1g

Stem rot: Jagannath, Sabarmati, Pankaj (Moderately Resistant).

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Extension strategies to popularize Hybrid rice technology


Dr. P.Muthuraman Senior Scientist, DRR, Hyderabad
Extension workers are essentially educators whose job is to make farmers to know, understand, accept and adopt recommended farm practices in order to increase agricultural production. There are certain basic and proven methods of extension. A proper understanding of these methods is essential in carrying out the extension programme. A number of extension methods that can be employed by the extension workers are a farm and home visit, field day, result demonstration, group meetings, radio talks etc., which are classified into individual contact, group contact and mass contact methods based on the number and nature of conduct. Extension agencies are employing various extension methods to promote hybrid rice among the farming community. Both public the department of agriculture (DOA) and the directorate of extension (DOE) State agricultural universities and the central institutes and private seed companies have been promoting hybrid rice technology. Proper selection and use of extension methods either singly or in combination is considered as critical in popularizing the hybrid rice technology.

1. Understanding the Adoption of Rice Technologies


To enhance the earning potential of the rice farmers, government and private agencies have developed various rice technologies (including varieties/hybrids/other management practices). These technologies are supposed to help farmers improve crop quality, productivity, and there by realize a better value for their produce. To manage the extension activities in rice regions effectively, there is a need to understand the process of adoption of new technologies by farmers. As a popular definition goes, adoption is the process of making use of a new technology as the best course of action available to a farmer. The adoption process should be preceded by a diffusion process of communicating the innovations over a period of time among the members of the social system. This definition clearly shows that there are four essential components of the diffusion of rice technologies. One is Innovation viz., rice technologies in this case. Second is time dimension, third communication channels and finally the farmers in a social system. Innovation: An innovation is a technology/variety/ a procedure that is perceived as new by the farmers. Here perceived newness is important compared to the absolute newness. Rice technology as an innovation has different attributes that influence the adoption. These attributes include relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability,
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predictability and divisibility. All these attributes contribute to the way rice technologies are being adopted by the farmers.

Time Dimension
With respect to the diffusion, there are two time dimensions. Time taken by a rice technology to reach out to the average individual of a farming community - is measured by the rate of diffusion. For all the technological innovations, the rate of diffusion follows a sigmoid curve. And the point inflection signifies the take off stage of the technology in a society. The diffusion curve will be slow in the initial stages and will move fast in the later stages and finally will be slowed down at the end. Another dimension of the time is the rate of adoption of the rice technologies by the individual farmers. The rate of adoption will take a normal curve with different categories such as innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards. All these categories represent the farmers based on their readiness to accept the rice technologies as the best course of action available. It may be understood here that these categories only represent different farmers based on their adoption levels. Each category of farmers represents different socio-economic and contextual background and no category is superior to other category.

Communication channels
Effective technology dissemination is one of the most crucial components in the diffusion process. There are several communication channels available for popularizing the rice technologies different regions. The extension functionaries of state department of agriculture form the basis for communicating the knowledge, skill and favourable attitude of the rice technologies to the farmers. However there are other channels such as private sector agencies, dealer networks, peer groups, farmers organizations, nongovernmental agencies, and market agencies, millers who keep influencing the farmers adoption behaviour. All these channels make use of one or combination of few extension methods for popularizing the rice technologies technologies. Different extension communication methods are available for both public and private agencies. These include Individual contact-Farm and Home visit, Mini-kit trials, Group contactGroup meeting, result demonstration, method demonstration, study tour, field days, small group training, dealers networking. Mass contact- Campaign, Newspaper, Radio, Television, Films, Exhibition, Printed materials, Seminar, Printed materials. Effective extension strategies should take into account these methods and the stages of adoption and when to use what.

Farmers related Factors


The important but often neglected component in the whole chain of technology development and transferring the technology is the farmers related factors. The characteristics of the farming system, socio-economic, political, institutional factors influence the adoption of technologies in any region. But these are the factors that were never taken into account in developing the sound extension strategies. Another factor is that assessment and refinement of the rice technologies suitable to a particular farming system. Most of the time we tend to be ambitious in blanket recommending the rice

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technologies for entire region/state. This could be easily taken care of once we have details of the farming systems and the above-mentioned factors. Based on literature and the study conducted during 2003-05, various extension strategies followed are listed in three categories, namely, individual methods, group methods and mass methods. As no single method is effective in popularizing hybrid technology, hence combination of two or more extension methods is to be used for popularizing the hybrid. There is a need to generate awareness, develop conviction and evolve a strong case for hybrid rice through out the hierarchical levels of the extension agencies both public and private. For this a rigorous campaign for disseminating the availability of new hybrid and the advantages of hybrids at a macro and micro level and simultaneously countervailing the myths generated due to the initial hiccups need to be taken up on a war footing basis. Here some of the conventional extension methods are discussed.

Farm and home visits


The extension workers (from both public and private sector) at the village level generally use farm and home visits to popularize the technologies. Within the constraint imposed by lack of sufficient time and personnel efforts may be made to meet as many farmers as possible. Extension personnel feel that this gives them an opportunity to know the personal opinion about the hybrid rice technology and also establishing good rapport with the farmers. It is established that farm and home visit would help to change the attitude of the farmers towards the hybrid rice, if put in proper perspective. In case of private seed companies owing to the limited availability of their personal farm and home visit is limited only to dealers of their brand. Extent of involvement and bringing about the coordination of different agencies are to be chalked out well in advance in future endeavors.

Adoptive trials
Adaptive or mini kit trial is a method of determining the suitability or otherwise of a new practice in farmers situation. Both the public and private agencies are disturbing the hybrid seed at the subsidized rates. Both farmers and extension workers will feel more confident to deal with the hybrid rice once they go for adoptive trial. Here care should be taken to pre evaluate the hybrids suitable for a district or a cluster of villages. Looking out for a hybrid suitable for entire state may prove to be detrimental. Hence, the hybrid rice suitability may be confined to level of district/cluster of blocks.

Result demonstration
Result demonstration is used extensively to popularize the technology. This method of motivation the people of new practices by showing than distinctly superior
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results. For last few years the government of India with the coordination from the DRR, had been conducting hybrid rice FLDs to show the superiority of the hybrids over th high yielding varieties. These have been very successful in convincing the farmers and in increasing the area under hybrid rice. It helps the farmers in making up their mind to adopt the hybrid rice technology. Similarly extension personnel need more result demonstration to get strong conviction. It is observed that the other farmers around these demonstrations consulted the farmers exposed to demonstration to adopt recommended practices.

Focus group meetings


A group meeting is an extension method in which a general topic is discussed among the participants. There is a need to conduct the group meetings on hybrid rice enabling scientists and farmers to exchange information on various aspects of hybrid rice cultivation. Successful hybrid rice growing farmers should be invited to share their experience with other participants. Creating awareness about the benefits of the technology and imparting necessary skills to the persons involved in various activities is an important pre-requisite for the large scale adoption of any new technology and hybrid rice is not an exception. Hybrid rice production involves many intricacies and hence the seed production personnel and the seed growers need to be trained on various aspects.

Farmers tours
Interstate/Inter district tour of farmers encourage the prospective/interested hybrid rice farmers to interact with the other farmers who are engaged in hybrid rice cultivation and seed production in the other regions of the country . through conducted tours it is possible to bring significant changes breaking farmers resistance while promoting complex and newer technologies. This type of extension method not only provides opportunity for observations but also sharing of ideas, problems relating to production and marketing among fellow farmers.

Field days
The field days are conducted at different frontline demonstration sites. This is also taken up during krishi mela. Farmers from nearby villages attending these field days may be motivated to take up the hybrid rice adoption. private seed companies are also organizing field days and should continue to organize such field days in the fields of successful farmers.

Mass media
Mass media can be extensively used by the public agencies to create awareness and also to pass on the information on hybrid rice cultivation. This is very much required to regenerate interest towards the hybrid rice. Apart from this, films on successful hybrid rice growers may be shown in he programs. Radio talks by the subject
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matter specialists, university scientists and successful farmers may be aired. Printed media such as local newspapers, pamphlets, folders and small booklets need to be used to further popularize the hybrid rice.

Campaign
Campaign is an important mass method to reach a large number of farmers in a short period of time. Campaign, to popularize the hybrid rice need to be organized in large areas with well tested hybrids in hand. The DOA, NGOS, KVKs, Farmers organizations and private seed companies need to jointly organize campaign in the main rice growing districts of the country.

Conclusions
The extension approaches discussed in this lecture may give some insights to the extension professionals working in the rice regions of the country. The situation analysis should act as the guiding force for evolving a suitable extension strategy suitable to a particular rice region. The innovative extension approaches as discussed in the lecture may be helpful in replicating the same in rice regions for effective transfer of technology and knowledge. These platforms were found to have their own advantages in the given situations. While extension approaches continue to evolve for the benefit of the farmers and the rice traders, there are some guiding principles that need to be followed. A blend of these extension approaches may prove to be beneficial in enhancing the quality and productivity of the rice in the farmers fields.

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Innovative methods of technology transfer with special reference to hybrid rice


Shaik N.Meera Senior Scientist (Agricultural Extension), Transfer of Technology and Training Directorate of Rice Research
The essence of agricultural extension is to facilitate interplay and nurture synergies within a total information system involving agricultural research, agricultural education and a vast complex of information-providing businesses. For the purpose of rice regions one can have extension as a series of embedded communicative interventions that are meant, among others, to develop and/or induce innovations, which supposedly help to resolve (usually multi-actor) problematic situations. In this lecture an attempt is made to bring about the innovative extension approaches that could be blended with the traditional extension approaches. As the fundamentals of extension as a service are going to be same, it is up to the extension professionals to make use of these different methods, systems and approaches suitable for their own work place. More over an attempt is made to describe the emerging extension approaches such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Based Extension, Community Radio, Participatory Extension Approaches, ICT business model, Contract farming etc., which could be useful to enhance the production and productivity of rice crop in the farmers fields.

1. Understanding the Adoption of Rice Technologies


To enhance the earning potential of the rice farmers, government and private agencies have developed various rice technologies (including varieties/hybrids/other management practices). These technologies are supposed to help farmers improve crop quality, productivity, and there by realize a better value for their produce. To manage the extension activities in rice regions effectively, there is a need to understand the process of adoption of new technologies by farmers. As a popular definition goes, adoption is the process of making use of a new technology as the best course of action available to a farmer. The adoption process should be preceded by a diffusion process of communicating the innovations over a period of time among the members of the social system. This definition clearly shows that there are four essential components of the diffusion of rice technologies. One is Innovation viz., rice technologies in this case. Second is time dimension, third communication channels and finally the farmers in a social system.

1.1. Innovation:
An innovation is a technology/variety/ a procedure that is perceived as new by the farmers. Here perceived newness is important compared to the absolute newness. Rice technology as an innovation has different attributes that influence the adoption. These attributes include relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability, predictability and divisibility. All these attributes contribute to the way rice technologies are being adopted by the farmers.
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1.2. Time Dimension:


With respect to the diffusion, there are two time dimensions. Time taken by a rice technology to reach out to the average individual of a farming community - is measured by the rate of diffusion. For all the technological innovations, the rate of diffusion follows a sigmoid curve. And the point inflection signifies the take off stage of the technology in a society. The diffusion curve will be slow in the initial stages and will move fast in the later stages and finally will be slowed down at the end. Another dimension of the time is the rate of adoption of the rice technologies by the individual farmers. The rate of adoption will take a normal curve with different categories such as innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards. All these categories represent the farmers based on their readiness to accept the rice technologies as the best course of action available. It may be understood here that these categories only represent different farmers based on their adoption levels. Each category of farmers represents different socio-economic and contextual background and no category is superior to other category.

1.3. Communication channels:


Effective technology dissemination is one of the most crucial components in the diffusion process. There are several communication channels available for popularizing the rice technologies different regions. The extension functionaries of state department of agriculture form the basis for communicating the knowledge, skill and favourable attitude of the rice technologies to the farmers. However there are other channels such as private sector agencies, dealer networks, peer groups, farmers organizations, nongovernmental agencies, and market agencies, millers who keep influencing the farmers adoption behaviour. All these channels make use of one or combination of few extension methods for popularizing the rice technologies technologies. Different extension communication methods are available for both public and private agencies. These include Individual contact-Farm and Home visit, Mini-kit trials, Group contactGroup meeting, result demonstration, method demonstration, study tour, field days, small group training, dealers networking. Mass contact- Campaign, Newspaper, Radio, Television, Films, Exhibition, Printed materials, Seminar, Printed materials. Effective extension strategies should take into account these methods and the stages of adoption and when to use what.

1.4. Farmers related Factors:


The important but often neglected component in the whole chain of technology development and transferring the technology is the farmers related factors. The characteristics of the farming system, socio-economic, political, institutional factors influence the adoption of technologies in any region. But these are the factors that were never taken into account in developing the sound extension strategies. Another factor is that assessment and refinement of the rice technologies suitable to a particular farming system. Most of the time we tend to be ambitious in blanket recommending the rice technologies for entire region/state. This could be easily taken care of once we have details of the farming systems and the above-mentioned factors.
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2. Traditional Extension Approaches


The goals of extension may vary, within the overall system as well as between different extension organizations working in the rice areas. In addition, specific objectives may sometimes contradict each other. While smaller systems, as practiced by some private companies may come close to pursuing a consistent set of objectives, largescale organizations must work on a compromise basis. What ever may be the case, the success of an agricultural extension programme tends to be directly related to the extent to which its approach fits the programme goals for which it was established. In such case, the methodologies of the extension programme aimed by different agencies (government agencies, NGOs, private corporate agencies, export houses etc.,) should be chalked out accordingly. The extension approaches that are relevant in this regard are below;

2.1 Ministry-Based General Extension 2.2 Training and Visit Extension (T&V) 2.3 The Integrated (Project) Approach 2.4 University-Based Extension 2.5. Client-Controlled Extension

3. Rice Technology and Extension Methods


Extension professionals are essentially educators whose job is to make farmers to know, understand, accept and adopt recommended farm practices in order to increase agricultural production. At the same time they have the responsibility to pass on the feed back of the technological adoption and their constraints to the scientific community for strategic research. To facilitate the transfer of knowledge and skills related to rice technologies few extension methods could be useful. There are certain basic and proven methods of extension teaching. A proper understanding of these methods is essential in carrying out the extension programme. Extension agencies employ various extension methods to promote rice technologies among the farming community. Both public-the department of agriculture (DOA) and the directorate of extension (DOE), state agricultural universities and the central institutes, and private companies have been vigorously promoting these technologies. Proper selection and use of extension methods either single or in combination is considered as critical in popularizing the rice technologies technology. As no single method is most effective, a combination of two or more extension methods is to be used for popularizing the rice varieties/hybrid/technologies. There is a need to generate awareness, develop conviction and evolve a strong case for rice technologies through out the hierarchical levels of the extension agencies both public and private. For this a rigorous campaign for disseminating the availability of new technologies and the advantages of rice technologies at macro and micro level need to be taken up. Some of the widely used extension methods that could be useful in Rice regions are; Farm and Home Visits, Adaptive Trials, Result Demonstrations, Method Demonstrations, Focus Group Meetings, Farmers Tours, Field days, Mass media, Campaign.
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4. Innovative Extension Approaches for Rice Regions


Having discussed about the traditional extension approaches, there is a need to acquaint ourselves to emerging extension approaches such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Based Extension, Community Radio, Participatory Extension Approaches, ICT business model, Contract farming etc., While the case studies and the insights of innovative extension approaches are promising when applied in the rice regions, it is essential to understand how to incorporate them into the existing set up of the rice extension strategies. It is up to the Extension decision makers, professionals to make use of these insights for the betterment of the Rice Extension Strategies.

4.1. Market-led Extension with existing Extension Systems:


In rice areas perhaps the existing extension mechanisms may take up Market led extension approaches for the benefit of the farmers. The existing extension systems may have to reorient by taking up the following activities; To begin with, SWOT analysis of the market vis a vis rice varieties, may be taken up. Strengths (demand, high market ability, good price etc.), Weaknesses (the reverse of the above), Opportunities (export to other places, appropriate time of selling etc.) and Threats (imports of the products etc.) need to be analyzed about the markets. Accordingly, the farmers need to be made aware of this analysis for planning of their production and marketing. This should be followed by organization of Farmers Interest Groups (FIGs) on rice and building their capabilities with regard to management of their farm enterprise. Extension systems may support and enhance the capacities of locally established groups under various schemes/programmes like watershed committees, users groups, SHGs, water users associations, thrift and credit groups. These groups need to be educated on the importance, utility and benefit of self-help action. Enhancing the interactive and communication skills of the farmers to exchange their views with customers and other market forces (middlemen) for getting feedback and gain the bargaining during direct marketing. Farmers need to be informed about the benefits of direct marketing. Now a days the retail boom is making strides everywhere and the bring retail chains like Reliance Fresh, Walmart, etc., may procure the Rice directly from the Rice farmers. Capacity building of FIGs in terms improved production, post harvest operations, storage and transport and marketing is another dimension to be taken care of. The extension system may acquire complete market intelligence regularly on various aspects of markets and informa the same to the farmers. Traditional extension system in rice regions may reorient towards market-led extension system establishing its position by helping the farmers realize high returns for the produce and minimize the production costs and improve the product value and marketability. In order to be successful in the liberalized market scenario they have to shift their focus from supply driven to market driven and produce according to the market needs and earn high returns.

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4.2. Contract Farming for Rice Regions:


Contract farming can be defined as a system for the production and supply of agricultural/horticultural produce under forward contracts, the essence of such arrangements being a commitment to provide an agricultural commodity of a type, at a time and a price, and in the quantity required by a known buyer. In fact, contract farming can be described as a halfway house between independent farm production and corporate/ captive farming. It basically involves four aspects - pre-agreed price, quality, quantity or acreage (minimum/maximum) and time. As a developmental intervention, in which the contracting firm supplies and manages all the inputs on the farm and the farmer become just a supplier of land and labor. For different reasons, both farmers and farm product processors/distributors may prefer contracts to complete vertical integration or open market transaction, as they are flexible and easy to terminate. They also get an access to new technology and inputs which otherwise may be outside their reach. For a processor, contracts make smaller demands on scarce capital resources and impose less of an additional burden on management. In fact, contract farming is likely to develop more in situations of lack of price protection to farmers by the state or producers organizations, distant location of producing centers from the market, or lack of rigorous quality/grading standards which are absolutely must for processors/marketers. Contract farming generally involves: a pre-agreed price between the company and the farmer, along with measures of quality, quantity, acreage to be farmed, or duration of the contract. In this system, the contractor supplies all the inputs required for cultivation, while the farmer supplies land and labour. However, the terms and nature of the contract vary according to the crops grown, the agencies involved, the farmers themselves, and technologies and the context in which contract farming is taken up. Generally, the farmers' participation is limited to production in the fields. With debt rampant, and soaring seed and fertilizer costs, contract farming appears a blessing, since all the inputs along with the know-how will be provided by the corporate entity, and there is also a guarantee of purchase of the produce after harvest. With agriculture increasingly seen as a risky proposition, the promise of economic security within the contract farming system may be very attractive. The health of soil is a legitimate concern, but many farmers may ignore this to ensure their more immediate gains from contracting with companies. A report by the National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management, Hyderabad is quite candid about the risks for farmers. The report says, "Contract farming models can sustain in the long run only if the initiative for empowerment comes from the farmers rather than the user (corporate). Another moot point is that in the existing models, farmers are largely 'price takers', while the contracting firm 'makes' the price." The report also says that the contract farming is "very promising in its early years. Farmers benefit from improved technology and higher productivity, quality and
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production. The contract price does not matter much in the early years. Once the farmers are confident of being able to deploy new technology, problems start cropping up." The enforceability of the contracts too is uncertain. The MANAGE report observed that "if the market price is more advantageous than the contract price, farmers renege on the contract." These and other known problems notwithstanding, it appears that contract farming is soon set to become much more common in Rice areas in particular. Earning the farmer trust is crucial to successful technology transfer. A host of small, timely and regular steps can help built trust of mutuality of benefits. These steps include prompt payments, being available on site, sharing and updating farm practices and being fair in dealing with the farmers. The firms should invest sufficiently in the area to make the farmers feel that they are there to stay and work with them. Market assurance is must in new technology crops as they are costly to adopt, which was achieved in this case through contracting. It must also lead to tangible benefits for farmers in terms of yield and income improvement. The farmer must be convinced of technology edge and benefits. For this, effective extension and follow up in terms of demonstrations in nurseries and fields is a must. All this involves a combination of technology, service, and networking. Technology involves providing the best inputs and proper harvest and post-harvest conditions. Service ensures that the resources are made available in time and the post harvest off take is efficient. Networking assures government support, infrastructure, banking facilities, etc.

4.3. ICT Business Models and Implications for Rice Regions


ICT has potential to make significant inroads in a traditional agrarian economy like India. Indian agro-sector has been exploiting the benefits to ICT. Private sector players in conjunction are creating innovative ICT application platforms with local farmers. One such private initiative has been by ITC Ltd in the state of Madhya Pradesh in Soybean sector. It has helped the farmers in many ways, such as developing of local leadership, shared ownership of the assets created in this initiative, access to the latest knowledge for the agro-sector, sustainable income levels and skill development for productivity improvement. This initiative from ITC has become a benchmark today in the ICT initiatives in agro-sector. Several best practices can be learned from this initiative that may be tried out in rice technologies sector also. In the conventional systems of marketing, farmers bring their produce to Mandis (regional market yards) in small multiple lots throughout the year, where their produce is auctioned to the traders and agents of the processing companies in an open outcry method. The Government, to facilitate fair price discovery and enable aggregation of goods, regulates these market yards. Successful bidders then bag the produce, weigh them, pay cash to the farmers, and transport the cargo to the processing units (to whom it would have been sold through a broker). Many intermediaries carry out this whole activity, each one acting as a principal with the next leg in the transaction chain. In such case, farmers are squeezed to the maximum without the benefits of their labor accruing to them but to the intermediaries.
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To address this kind of bottleneck, ITC started the new initiative namely echoupal (village meeting place on an electronic platform). E-choupal is a virtual market place where farmers can transact directly with a processor and can realize better price for their produce. e-choupal has the advantages of the market but spans very large varieties of vendors and customers. Geographical distances do not restrict participation in the e-choupal. The main disadvantage of conventional market is that information asymmetry is inherent in the market where as e-choupal provides for transparent transactions. This enables the participation of smaller as well as larger players. Elimination of some layers of intermediaries allows for larger share of profits to reach the lower end of value chain. The main attractiveness of e-choupal is that it can be used for connecting large producers/small producers and small users/large users, thereby eliminating the need for hierarchy of brokers. Internet is used as a low transaction cost backbone for communication. Physical delivery of produce to the processor is still done through the existing intermediaries. e-choupal does not attempt total elimination of intermediaries, as intermediaries are indispensable in economy like India where intermediaries are adding value to the every step of value chain at a low cost. Intermediaries have the expertise in storage, transportation, quality assessment and counter party risk reduction, which are difficult to replicate. e-Choupal provides farmers with all the market information and this helps them to become market oriented.

4.4. Kisan Khet Schools (KKS)


In an initiative to motivate farmers to take up export quality rice crop, the Punjab Agriculture Department in collaboration with Central Integrated Pest Management Center (NCIPM) opened "Kisan Khet School" at the Dyalpur Village in Jalandhar. Various agricultural experts have been roped in to provide tips and information to farmers at the specially opened "Kisan Khet Schools". Farmers attending these specially organized classes are motivated to take up crop cultivation besides being provided the high quality seed on subsidized rates under the scheme. Under this methodology, few villages are selected and training is being imparted about the methods of cultivating export quality Rice technologies. Farmers are informed how the new Rice crop would nearly double their present income from the routine paddy cultivation. The programme lasts 14 weeks with both departments training farmers during a two-hour weekly class. During the classes, the farmers are given live demonstrations about the equipments used in the Rice cultivation. They are taught how local farmers could market the crop at a high price through private agencies. They can up scaled to other regions also.

4.5. Community Radio


Rural Radio signifies a two-way process, which entails the exchange of views from various sources and the adaptation of media for use by the communities. It allows members of a community to gain access to information, education and entertainment and offers an opportunity for the community to participate actively in the media as planners, producers and performers. It is the means of expression of the community rather than for the community. It is different from urban radio in that it is directed specifically to rural people and to their information needs.
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Community participation is a fundamental characteristic of rural radio - live public shows, village debates and participation in the actual management of the radio station are just a few examples. This approach empowers rural people to participate in the dialogue and decision - making processes essential for them to control their own economic, social and cultural environment and play an active part in development activities". Apart from Indias own experiences in rural broadcasting, many of these could also serve as models for similar initiatives in India outside the state framework. The Supreme Courts reaffirmation in 1995 that the airwaves are public property has reenergized the movement towards a media based on community participation in a nonprofit mode. The Bangalore Declaration on Radio of September, 1996 has stressed how community radio would: besides educating and entertaining people, connect people with people through participatory or circular communication, connect with organizations and communities, and finally, connect people with government and public service agencies. Rural radios may have many forms. It can be a radio station targeting a particular community operating in that community and managed by that community. It can be a radio broadcast specially made for particular group of people, owned and controlled by them. Cassette based broadcast operated in a radio listener ship group. Vital information for agricultural development can be passed on through the use of radio for example information on better farming methods, improved seeds, timely planting, agro-forestry, better harvesting methods, soil conservation, marketing, post harvest handling and diversification. Mana Radio is a community radio station run by members of the womens Self Help Groups (SHG) in Orvakal village, Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The topics the women plan to cover are diverse--education, gender and caste sensitization, agriculture, health, history and culture. And they plan to use various methods to convey their messages--documentaries, plays, songs, jokes, humour and interviews. Local happenings and news; localized news on health; local agricultural news and weather updates; local commodity prices; folk songs, myths, stories: commercial media broadcasters would never air this content, dealing specifically with a particular village. But all these topics would find a place on Mana Radio. The information, being region specific, would therefore be more reliable and accurate In Indian context there has been very limited number of initiatives to harness the potential of rural radios and to readily incorporate the Information and Communication technologies in the Rural Radio systems, as tried out by other countries. There may be several factors responsible for this state of conditions. In this context, the Agricultural Extension system of the country will have to take stock of various international initiatives in this regard and should try to develop ways and means of harnessing the Community based Rural Radios for sustainable agricultural development.

4.6 Retail Boom: Extension from Farm to Market


Organized retailing is bound to have impacts on the farming sector of the Indian economy. In several developing countries such as Latin America, South America, Africa, food retail chains have begun to play an important role in the marketing of horticultural
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products, particularly fruits and vegetables. The food retail chains are having a significant impact on the supply chain involving methods of production, processing and marketing of these crops. These chains have the potential not only to increase the income of farmers through direct procurement, but also by linking them directly to external markets through exports. Retailing in India is becoming the next boom industry, which may have far reaching consequences. The whole concept of shopping is changing fast with regard to format and consumer buying behavior, thanks to retailing revolution in India. Modern retail is evident with sprawling shopping centres, multi-storeyed malls and huge complexes offering shopping, entertainment and food all under one roof. It is aid that Indian retailing sector is at an inflexion point where the growth of organized retailing and growth in the consumption by the Indian population is going to take a higher growth trajectory. On the other hand, India is the seat of millions of small and marginal farmers operating in complex, diverse and risk pone environments. The marketable surplus of majority of the farmers is low. Extension systems may have to reorient in this regard for creating and enhancing the opportunities for the rice farmers. As in case of other sectors, rice millers and traders are enthusiastic over the future of branded rice and expect its sales to grow manifold aided by a booming retail sector. With paddy processors shifting their focus to branded rice, its sales are growing fast through retail chains. At present with a growth of 6 per cent per annum, branded rice contributes about 41 per cent of the total domestic and overseas rice sales. The share of branded rice in the non-rice segment, which is largely unbranded and dominated by unorganized regional players, is a mere 2 per cent. There could be huge opportunity, if the replacement of loose and unbranded with branded rice in the organized sector. In such cases retail boom will push the branded non-rice technologies as in case of branded basmati. The transformation from branded rice to branded non-rice varieties, already initiated by many companies (like Karnool Sona in Andhra Pradesh), promises new business opportunities if streamlined and harnessed. In direct marketing the share of producer is generally 10-20 per cent higher as compared to the traditional channels. For instance it is estimated that with Rs.650/- per quintal rice, for the 5.40 million tons of rice that is directly marketed will result in the price realization of Rs.3867 crores of rupees. If the retail boom successfully taps the marketed surplus of the rice by way of direct marketing by the farmers, both rice producers and consumers will benefit enormously. Failing which, the millers and other intermediaries will dominate the scene, as is the present case and the benefits for farmers will significantly drop down. The retail boom, if has to benefit the (rice) farmers three possible strategies are suggested. Direct marketing of rice from farmers and limiting the role of intermediaries to bare minimum. The chances of establishing the local milling/processing facilities will have far reaching consequences.

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Value addition activities such as cleaning, grading, packing, primary processing and storage should take place nearer to the farm and linking up these facilities to retail chains. Organization of the farmers into farmers associations/Rice groups/Self Help Groups to ensure the participation of diversely located small and marginal farmers who produce small amounts of marketable surplus. Government should be proactive in evolving the direct marketing (sourcing) models comprising the farmers associations/commodity groups, which provide maximum benefits to the farmers. The retail chains should not evolve their own sourcing models that may prove to be detrimental to the farming communities. Efforts may be made to enhance the quality consciousness amongst the rice farmers in handling their produce. Promotion of organic rice for branded rice is another option that may prove beneficial for the farmers. Value addition of rice and promoting the value added products amongst the urban consumers would also indirectly benefit the millions of rice farmers. The parboiled rice in Tamil Nadu, Orissa and in eastern Indian states may be branded and sold through retails chains. Similarly, capacity building of the rice farmers in taking up brown rice, puffed rice etc. will also be helpful.

4.7 Transforming Rice Farming through ICT Based Extension


Globalization, competitive market forces, need for value added farming and more sustainable use of natural resource base demand a radical transformation of agriculture across the developing world. New agricultural paradigm necessitates the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs). Agricultural Extension, in the current scenario of rapidly changing world, has been recognized as an essential mechanism for delivering knowledge (information) and advises as an input into modern farming (Jones, 1997). Agricultural Extension has to reorient itself beyond the narrow mindset of Transfer of Technology Packages. Instead, it has to rejuvenate its vigour for transferring knowledge (or) Information Packages as the input for modern farming. An important aspect of converging ICTs with agricultural extension is the complete transformation of the organizational set ups working towards reaching farm communities. Broad basing the agricultural extension activities, development of farming system research and extension, location specific modules of extension content, market extension, sustainable agricultural development, participatory research, Geographic Information Systems for coordination among the stakeholders etc., are some of the numerous areas where ICTs can play an important role. The pre-requisites for incorporating ICTs in Agricultural development are many, which are to be explored by the extension scientists. Several researches conducted on extension organizations have revealed that the delivery of goods is effective when the grass root level extension worker covers a small area of jurisdiction, with multiple purposes (broad basing). The existing system of large
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jurisdictions with limited / narrow range of activities is less effective. Hence, in future the grass root level extension worker may have to cover wide range of activities but in the limited area of jurisdiction. This requires the grass root level worker at the cutting edge and master of many trades, which is not quite possible. In such conditions, the ICTs can help an extension worker to be more effective in meeting the information needs. The ICTs can enable an extension worker to gather, store, retrieve and disseminate a broad range of information needs of farmers, thus transforming the very nature of extension worker as Knowledge worker. The emergence of knowledge worker in place of extension worker will augur the realization of much talked about Bottom up and Demand driven technology generation, assessment, refinement and transfer. Use of ICTs in support of agricultural and rural development, applications fall into five main areas, as given by Don Richardson (FAO, 1996). These are: economic development of agricultural producers, community development, research and education, small and medium enterprises development, and media networks. The framework of the ICT based extension approach is guided by the following extension services/information provision:

ICT based Services


1. Provision of up to date information services, to the farmers, such as on package of practices, market information, weather forecasting, the input supply, credit availability etc., can be provided at the earliest possible time. 2. E-commerce, for linking the local commercial and production activities directly to retailer and the trade purchases, and to suppliers. 3. Providing the interaction among the researchers, extension (knowledge) workers, and farmers. 4. Provide a question and answer services where experts respond to the queries on the specialized subjects. 5. Provision of ICTs services to the Block level and District level developmental officials leads to efficiency in delivering the services for overall agricultural development. 6. Creation and use of databases of local resources of villages and the villagers, sitespecific information systems, expert systems etc. 7. Information services on disease/pest early warning systems, information regarding rural development programs and crop insurances, post harvest technology, etc. 8. ICTs can extend services regarding farm business and management information to the farmers. 9. Increasing the efficiency and the productivity of the cooperative societies can be possible with the computer communication network and latest database technology. 10. Providing tele-education to the farmers is another area where ICTs can be effectively used.

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To investigate into agricultural ICT initiatives, and to assess the e-readiness of agricultural extension systems, a study was carried out by Shaik N. Meera (2003). Survey research design was adopted for analysing the ICT initiatives at micro-level and Delphi technique was used for analyzing the macro-level issues. Thirty two variables for survey research design and 18 e-readiness parameters (adapted from Mc Connel International Institutes e-readiness parameters) for Delphi technique, were used for the study. Three ICT projects viz., Gyandoot, Warna and ikisan were studied in detail, from three states of India. About 23 other projects were analysed on several parameters. The ICTs were found to have impact on provision and usage of agricultural information services. Analyses of process impacts (a tool to study impact of ICTs) revealed that these projects have made effective contribution in generating the awareness among the farmers. It was found that majority of the users of ICT services were small and marginal farmers. The study outlined the important information needs of farmers and the extent of integration of these needs into the ICT projects. It also revealed that irrespective of computer illiteracy, ICTs could be harnessed effectively with the effective human interfaces in the form of knowledge workers. The study also revealed how ICT based information services can be provided at three levels viz., at region (state), district and block levels. It was found that the project based initiatives have different constraints in catering the needs of farmers. Based on the study it is recommended that, ICT should be incorporated in Extension systems for improving the access to agricultural information. Assessment of e-readiness of agricultural extension systems revealed that availability of local language software, attitude towards ICTs, extent of skills among workforce in extension systems and connectivity were projected to be not limiting factors in the next two decades. However, projections were not so encouraging in case of generating agricultural content, incorporating ICTs into structural and functional components of extension systems, development of extension strategy for harnessing ICTs, incorporation of ICTs in agricultural curricula, affordable and easy access by farmers and assured supply of electricity at village level. Based on the findings, it is suggested that there is a great need to evolve ICT based extension systems to facilitate interplay and nurture synergies within agricultural information systems. The indicators and factors suggested in the study will be of immense utility for doing so. A large range of media are available for distance education in Agriculture that needs to be harnessed (FAO 1989, Ray 1987). But without more representative content, there is less incentive for farmers to harness the ICTs for agricultural prosperity. Hence the content development for Open and Distance Learning (ODL) is essential (Shaik.N.Meera 2003). In Extension, distance education may possibly be carried out in one of the following three ways: through a single medium: this was more commonly used in the past where the learning message was prepared in a single medium and the learner taught themselves through that medium; through a master medium and with other reinforcing medium: where all messages are delivered through one medium, with another medium used to reinforce complex or difficult messages delivered by the master
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medium; and Through multi-media: where two or more media are used simultaneously to communicate the learning messages (Elliot 1989). In recent years, there have been some examples of institutions in developing countries using ODL strategies to address the challenges of agricultural development and rural poverty reduction. A more recent FAO development, as part of its World Agriculture Information Centre (WAICENT) initiatives, has been the Virtual Extension, Research and Communication network or VERCON, designed as an open network to improve communication between research and extension and farmers. When it comes to the application of Distance Education in Agriculture in India, very few initiatives have been taken up in the country so far. International Crop Research Institute for Semi Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) initiated a Virtual Academy for the Semi-Arid Tropics (VASAT) for developing participatory content for dry land crops such as Jowar. Some modules have been in place. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), has also ventured into Distance Education by developing a certificate courses in Agriculture. There is a need to fortify the efforts in applying Open and Distance Learning modules in all the aspects of agricultural extension. The DRR has already undertaken a project to develop ODL content for all the rice related technologies for the country.

5. Conclusions
The extension approaches discussed in this lecture may give some insights to the extension professionals working in the rice regions of the country. The situation analysis should act as the guiding force for evolving a suitable extension strategy suitable to a particular rice region. The innovative extension approaches as discussed in the lecture may be helpful in replicating the same in rice regions for effective transfer of technology and knowledge. These platforms were found to have their own advantages in the given situations. While extension approaches continue to evolve for the benefit of the farmers and the rice traders, there are some guiding principles that need to be followed. A blend of these extension approaches may prove to be beneficial in enhancing the quality and productivity of the rice in the farmers fields.

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