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Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE

Complete Study Notes

HSC Core 1: HEALTH PRIORITIES IN AUSTRALIA


Critical Question 1 - How are priorit issues !or Australia"s #ealt# i$enti!ie$%
&easurin' Healt# Status
Role o! Epi$e(iolo' The collection and analysis o the data used to make this assessment is kno!n as Epidemiology" #easures o Epidemiology #orbidity$ The rates% distribution and trends o illness% disease and in&ury in a gi'en population" #ortality$ The number o deaths or a gi'en cause in a gi'en population% o'er a set time( period" )n ant #ortality$ The number o deaths in the irst year o li e per 1000 li'e births" *i e E+pectancy$ ,n estimate o the number o years a person can e+pect to li'e at any particular age"

I$enti! in' Priorit Healt# Issues


Social )ustice Principles E-uity Di'ersity Supporti'e en'ironments Priority Population .roups Pre'alence o condition Potential or pre'ention and early inter'ention Costs to the indi'idual and community Direct indi'idual costs include the inancial burden that is associated !ith illness and disability such as ongoing medical costs /hospital charges% medical pro essional ees% medications% tra'el etc"0 and loss o employment )n(direct indi'idual costs include persistent pain and loss o -uality o li e% possible e+clusion rom social acti'ities% increased pressure on amilies to o er support and the emotional toll o chronic illness Direct community costs include the 'ast unding o the ,ustralian health care system /!hich is pro&ected to markedly increase !ith an ageing and gro!ing population0" #ost o this supports primary health care and pharmaceuticals% and the nature o chronic illness tends to re-uire high degrees o medical inter'ention to manage them )n(direct community costs include the premature loss o contributing and 'aluable members o society and the cost or employers in absenteeism% decreased producti'ity and re(training

Critical Question * - +#at are t#e priorit issues !or i(pro,in' Australia"s #ealt#%
These determinants can be categorised as either$ Sociocultural determinants /E"g" amily% peers% media% religion and culture0 Socioeconomic determinants /E"g" education% employment and income0 En'ironmental determinants /E"g" geographical location and access to health ser'ices
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Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE

Complete Study Notes

and technology0

-roups e.periencin' #ealt# ine/uities


,boriginal and Torres Strait )slander peoples Socioeconomically disad'antaged /*o! SES0 People li'ing in rural and remote communities 4'erseas(born people Elderly People !ith disabilities

Hi'# le,els o! pre,enta0le c#ronic $isease1 in2ur an$ (ental #ealt# pro0le(s
Car$io,ascular 3isease Nature Cardio'ascular Disease /C5D0 re ers to all diseases o the heart and blood 'essels% caused by a build up o atty tissue inside the blood 'essels /i"e" atherosclerosis0 and the hardening o the blood 'essels /i"e" arteriosclerosis0 6 types o C5D include Coronary heart Disease% Cerebro'ascular Disease% Peripheral 5ascular Disease E+tent The leading cause o death and sickness 7oth mortality and morbidity is decreasing or males and emales 8isk 9actors and Protecti'e 9actors Non-&o$i!ia0le Ris4 &o$i!ia0le Ris4 5actors 5actors ( ,ge$ rates increase sharply ( Smoking and alcohol abuse o'er :; years o age ( Diet high in at% salt and ( 7eing male sugar ( 9amily history ( *o! physical acti'ity le'els ( High blood pressure and cholesterol le'els ( 7eing o'er!eight Determinants Sociocultural 3eter(inants ( 9amily history ( )ndigenous$ higher rates o all risk actors ( #ales$ less likely to engage in pre'entati'e health measures Socioecono(ic 3eter(inants ( *o! le'els o disposable income ( 1nemployed ( *o! le'el o education Protecti,e 5actors ( Nutritious and balanced diet ( Daily physical acti'ity ( 8esponsible use o alcohol ( No smoking ( #aintain healthy !eight ( Control stress le'els

En,iron(ental 3eter(inants ( People !ho li'e in rural and remote communities

.roups at 8isk )ndigenous ,ustralians Socioeconomically disad'antaged communities People !ho li'e in rural and remote regions o ,ustralia Elderly

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Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE

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Cancer Nature , group o diseases leading to the uncontrolled gro!th o abnormal body cells" Skin% 7reast and *ung cancers are o most concern to health authorities E+tent #ortality and morbidity rates are both increasing" The most commonly occurring cancer is non(melanoma skin cancer /!hich is mostly non( li e threatening0" The most common li e threatening cancers include$ #en$ prostate% colorectal% lung and melanoma and <omen$ breast% colorectal% lung and melanoma 8isk 9actors and Protecti'e 9actors Non-&o$i!ia0le Ris4 &o$i!ia0le Ris4 5actors 5actors ( .ender$ speci ic cancers ( E+posure to carcinogens ( ,ge$ leads to increased /cancer causing agents0% risk such as smoke% asbestos% ( 9amily history 15 radiation rom the sun ( .enetic makeup e"g" being ( *i estyle beha'iours% such air skinned as smoking% alcohol misuse and poor dietary habits Protecti,e 5actors ( ,'oid carcinogen e"g" Slip% Slop% Slap% <rap ( Personal screening habits e"g" breast and testicular ( Public screening e"g" breast mammograms and prostate blood test ( Seeking early medical inter'ention En,iron(ental 3eter(inants ( People !ho !ork outdoors ( People !ho li'e in rural and remote communities ( E+posure to chemicals in the !orkplace

Determinants Sociocultural 3eter(inants ( Smoking amongst young emales ( Tanning habits% such as e+cessi'e sun e+posure

Socioecono(ic 3eter(inants ( 1nemployed$ higher rates o smoking ( *o! le'els o education e"g" a!areness o !arning signs and personal testing

.roups at 8isk )ndigenous ,ustralians Socioeconomically disad'antaged communities People !ho li'e in rural and remote regions o ,ustralia #ales and 9emales 4ther minor groups include smokers% outdoor !orkers% young adults and people !ith air skin 3ia0etes Nature , disease that a ects the body=s ability to take glucose rom the bloodstream to use it or energy Caused by a mal unctioning o the pancreas leading to insu icient insulin le'els% the hormone responsible or regulation o blood glucose le'els /7.*0 6 types$ 1" )nsulin Dependent Diabetes /)DD#0 > ?no!n as Type 1 > usually presents early in li e and patients re-uire insulin in&ections and must monitor diet and physical acti'ity to maintain a sa e 7.*

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2" Non()nsulin Dependent Diabetes /N)DD#0 > ?no!n as Type 2 > usually presents later in li e% as a result o long(term poor health beha'iours related to diet and e+ercise" 8e-uires medication and li estyle modi ications 6" .estational Diabetes /.D0 > occurs during pregnancy The long(term e ect s o each type include 'ision problems% kidney disease% circulatory issues in arms and legs and a strong link to C5D /similar risk actors0 E+tent <orld=s astest gro!ing disease > similar issues are e'ident in ,ustralia Pre'alence increases !ith age% especially N)DD# Type 2 The age o onset is decreasing !hich is a gro!ing concern% especially or young people" Due to unhealthy li estyles 6";@ o all ,ustralians ha'e Diabetes 8isk 9actors and Protecti'e 9actors &o$i!ia0le Ris4 5actors Non-&o$i!ia0le Ris4 5actors ( High blood pressure ( 4'er ;; years o age ( Ha'ing C5D or its risk ( 9amily History actors ( 4'er A; years !ith C5D ( Ha'ing diabetes in risk actors pregnancy ( 4'er 6; and being o ( 7eing o'er!eight ,boriginal% Chinese% )ndia or Paci ic )slander descent Determinants Sociocultural 3eter(inants ( )ndigenous > 10(60@ may ha'e diabetes > much is undiagnosed ( 7eing Chinese% )ndian or Paci ic )slander ( Social acceptance o binge drinking ( ,geing population ( 7eing Btime poor= > leads to increased reliance on Bcon'enient= ood Protecti,e 5actors ( #aintaining a healthy !eight ( , balanced and nutritious diet% ull o *o! .) oods" Eating ;(: smaller meals per day ( Healthy use o alcohol ( Daily physical acti'ity En,iron(ental 3eter(inants ( Technology has lead to a more passi'e society e"g" popularity o 'ideo games ( People rom rural and remote and )ndigenous > ha'e di iculty in accessing medical ser'ices ( Cunk ood ad'ertising to children

Socioecono(ic 3eter(inants ( *o! SES > more likely to ha'e poor diet% drink e+cessi'e alcohol% be physically inacti'e and be o'er!eight ( *o! education > less a!areness o pre'ention strategies and health li estyle beha'iours

.roups at 8isk Elderly )ndigenous ,ustralians Socioeconomically disad'antaged People rom rural and remote regions &ental Healt# Pro0le(s Nature ,ny illness that negati'ely a ects a person=s emotional stability% perceptions% beha'iour and social !ell(being% such as depression% an+iety% addictions% obsessi'e compulsi'e disorder% bipolar disorder% eating disorders and dementia

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E+tent 20@ o people su er orm a mental health problem at some stage o li e Pre'alence is increasing and much is unreported 1D(2A years olds ha'e the highest rates% especially substance abuse and depression 8isk 9actors and Protecti'e 9actors &o$i!ia0le Ris4 5actors Non-&o$i!ia0le Ris4 5actors ( Drug use ( ,ge > increased risk o ( Chronic disease e"g" dementia arthritis ( #ales su er mostly ( Percei'ed sel (!orth and depression and addictions sense o identity /substance abuse0 ( Coping skills ( 9emales su er mostly Stress ul situations e"g" depression and an+iety amily breakdo!n and ( 1ncontrolled li e changes occupational stress e"g" death or abuse ( .rie ( 9amily history Determinants Sociocultural 3eter(inants ( 9amily breakdo!n > lack o support ( Di icult li e circumstances e"g" abuse ( ,7TS) > )ncreased alcohol and drug abuse% and di icult li e circumstances ( Elderly people > increased social isolation and grie Protecti,e 5actors ( Social acceptance as legitimate health concerns ( ,!areness o social support structures e"g" .P% online help% telephone counseling ( Strong sense o connectedness !ith amily% riends% !ork mates and neighbours ( Personal resiliency skills

Socioecono(ic 3eter(inants ( 1nemployed > higher rates o depression ( *o! education > risk actors ( People in inancial distress e"g" armers during a drought

En,iron(ental 3eter(inants ( *i'ing in remote regions > lack o support and medical ser'ices ( Stigma amongst males as !ell as common stoical attitudes ( *ack o emotional support e"g" amily breakdo!n

.roups at 8isk Elderly )ndigenous ,ustralians Socioeconomically disad'antaged People rom rural and remote regions People born o'erseas% especially re ugees People !ith a disability Respirator 3iseases Nature Common diseases that a ect the respiratory system include$ ,sthma% Chronic 4bstructi'e Pulmonary Diseases% Hay e'er E+tent : million ,ustralians ha'e a long(term respiratory disease #orbidity rates are no! decreasing% a result o reduced smoking #ortality is also decreasing% due to e ecti'e education programs ,sthma is the leading burden o disease amongst children
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8isk 9actors and Protecti'e 9actors &o$i!ia0le Ris4 5actors Non-&o$i!ia0le Ris4 5actors ( 1se o pre'entati'e ( En'ironmental changes e"g" medication or asthma pollen in spring and cold and ( E+posure to en'ironmental dry !eather patterns haEards% e"g" chemicals ( Stress ( Passi'e smoking in homes and cars Determinants Sociocultural 3eter(inants ( )ndigenous ,ustralians > higher rates o smoking ( 9amily history Socioecono(ic 3eter(inants ( )ncreased smoking amongst lo! SES ( *o! income > less money or pre'entati'e medication ( *o! SES > more likely to be e+posed to occupational haEards

Protecti,e 5actors ( ,!areness o personal asthma triggers e"g" e+ercise ( Education about personal pre'ention strategies and plans or asthma attacks ( No smoking

En,iron(ental 3eter(inants ( Higher rates o pollution in cities ( People !ho li'e in remote region are urther rom emergency ser'ices ( Children=s e+posure to passi'e smoke

.roups at 8isk )ndigenous ,ustralians Socioeconomically disad'antaged People rom rural and remote regions Smokers In2ur Nature There are many types o in&uries% !hich a ect all stages o li e" They o ten result in ling( term harm o one=s physical% emotional and social !ell being" E+amples include$ 1" 8oad in&uries and #otor 5ehicle ,ccidents /#5,=s0 2" Suicide and sel (harm 6" )n&uries around the home e"g" poisonings% alls% dro!ning% cuts% ires A" <orkplace accidents ;" ,cts o 'iolence :" Sports and recreational in&uries E+tent *eading cause o death in 1(AA years age group /particularly #5,=s and suicide amongst males0 .reatest cause o potential li e lost under :; years #a&or cause o hospitalisation Deaths rom in&uries are decreasing in re-uency% especially #5,=s The elderly are prone to in&uries such as alls% !hich has a signi icant impact on their -uality o li e

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8isk 9actors and Protecti'e 9actors &o$i!ia0le Ris4 5actors Non-&o$i!ia0le Ris4 5actors ( Dri'ing beha'iour and ( ,ge > elderly are more at attitudes risk o alls ( )nade-uate super'ision o ( .ender > higher rates o children risk taking beha'iour and 4ccupational haEards suicide 1nsa e home en'ironment e"g" chemicals% pool encing and trip haEards ( Sa e roads and e ecti'e road la!s ( Sa e use o alcohol Determinants Sociocultural 3eter(inants ( )ndigenous people su er more in&uries ( ,ttitudes to!ards dri'ing and risk taking amongst males ( 9amily breakdo!n% leading to social isolation o young people ( Societal pressure or tougher road la!s e"g" P plate regulations ( Societal a!areness o haEardous en'ironments

Protecti,e 5actors ( #inimising dri'ing distractions e"g" #obile phones and .PS ( E ecti'e dri'er education ( Positi'e attitude to!ards road and 4HS rules and regulations ( Home modi ications or the elderly ( Strong social support to pre'ent suicide

Socioecono(ic 3eter(inants ( *o! SES > higher rates o hospitalisation rom in&uries ( *o! education > less a!areness o dangers around the home ( *o! income > makes it harder to purchase sa ety e-uipment ( #5,=s are highest amongst lo! SES populations

En,iron(ental 3eter(inants ( <orkplace in&uries are most common in agricultural settings ( Suicide is highest amongst males rom rural and remote regions ( 1nsa e home en'ironment o elderly people and children can lead to increased risk o in&ury

.roups at 8isk Elderly /9alls0 )ndigenous ,ustralians /#5,=s and sel (harm0 People rom rural and remote regions /occupational in&uries0 Children /poisoning and dro!ning0 Foung ,dults /#5,=s% sport and recreational in&uries and sel (harm0 #ales /Suicide and #5,=s0

A 'rowin' an$ a'ein' population


, number o signi icant trends ha'e been obser'ed in ,ustralia=s population in the last ;0 years$ , decrease in the birth rate o'er this time , decline in mortality rates% along !ith an increase in li e e+pectancy Sustained rates o immigration rom o'erseas The percentage o people aged o'er G0 years is set to double to 20@ o'er the ne+t orty years" ,lso% the total population is e+pected to double to A0 million people in the same time"

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Healt# A'ein' Enabling and empo!ering people to li'e a healthy% producti'e and contributing li e or as long as possible% is a key strategy o the go'ernment" Increase$ Population Li,in' wit# C#ronic 3isease an$ 3isa0ilit , larger elderly population ine'itably leads to more people li'ing !ith chronic disease and disability" 3e(an$ !or Healt# Ser,ices an$ +or4!orce S#orta'es To meet the demands placed upon our go'ernment and society by a gro!ing and ageing population% the ull range o health ser'ices !ill need to e+pand dramatically" This increase needs to includeH more specialist health pro essionals and .P=s% more primary and emergency health ser'ices such as ambulances and public hospitals and more housing and accommodation or people !ho re-uire assistance !ith basic li'ing needs" A,aila0ilit o! Carers an$ 6olunteers Carers pro'ide in ormal care o people li'ing !ith chronic diseases and disability" The contribution o 'olunteers is also recognised as essential in meeting the demands o our ageing population" They assist !ith acti'ities such as transport% shopping% meals on !heels and social acti'ities"

Critical Question 7 - +#at role $o #ealt# care !acilities an$ ser,ices pla in ac#ie,in' 0etter #ealt# !or all Australians%
Healt# care in Australia
Ran'e an$ t pes o! #ealt# !acilities an$ ser,ices Cate'or E.a(ples Public health ser'ices Cancer screening )mmunisation programs Primary and community health care .P=s ,mbulance ser'ices 8oyal 9lying Doctor Ser'ice Dental Hospitals Public Pri'ate #ental Specialised health ser'ices Specialised medical practitioners 8eproducti'e health #ental health Palliati'e care Responsi0ilit !or #ealt# !acilities an$ ser,ices Healt# care pro,i$er 5acilities an$8or ser,ices pro,i$e$ Common!ealth .o'ernment 9ormation o national health policies Collection o ta+es to inance the health system Pro'ision o unds to stateIterritory go'ernments Special concern or ,TS) Pharmaceutical unding StateITerritory .o'ernment Hospital ser'ices #ental health

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*ocal .o'ernment

Pri'ate organisations

Community groups

Home and community care 9amily health ser'ices Dental health <omen=s health Health promotion 8egulating health industry pro'iders 5ary rom state to state En'ironmental control ,ntenatal clinics #eals on <heels Pri'ate hospitals Dentists ,lternati'e health ser'ices /physiotherapy% chiropractor% etc0 *ocal needs basis Cancer Council% Dads in Distress% Diabetes ,ustralia% etc

E/uit o! access to #ealt# !acilities an$ ser,ices ,ll ,ustralians should ha'e e-ual access to health care acilities and ser'ices" This is achie'ed in ,ustralia through #edicare" Healt# care e.pen$iture ,ersus e.pen$iture on earl inter,ention an$ pre,ention Health(care e+penditure incorporates pri'ate health insurance% households% indi'iduals and all le'els o go'ernment" )n 200G(0D Health(care e+penditure !as J106": billion /,ustralia=s Health 2010% ,)H<0" *ess than 2@ o this igure !as spent on pre'entable ser'ices or health promotion" 8easons or increasing unding or pre'entati'e health strategies include$ Cost e ecti'eness )mpro'ement to -uality o li e Containment o increasing costs 1se o e+isting resources 8ein orcement o indi'idual responsibility #aintenance o social e-uity 8educed mortality and morbidity I(pact o! e(er'in' new treat(ents an$ tec#nolo'ies on #ealt# care1 e9'9 cost an$ access1 0ene!its o! earl $etection Ne! treatments and technologies ha'e the potential to signi icantly impro'e the health status o ,ustralians" E+amples o de'elopments in emerging treatments and technologies include$ de'elopment o ne! machinery% image technology in keyhole surgery% impro'ement in materials% drug ad'ancements% prosthetic limb de'elopment% arti icial organs and transplant technology" Healt# insurance: &e$icare an$ pri,ate Health care in ,ustralia is pro'ided by the public sector /#edicare0 or through pri'ate health insurance" #edicare is the health(care system or all ,ustralians" )ts aim is to pro'ide e-uity in terms o cost and access or health care ser'ices" 9unding or #edicare comes rom income ta+ /1";@ o ta+able income0 and the #edicare le'y surcharge /1@ or high income earners0" E'ery ,ustralian is co'ered or D;@ o the scheduled ee"
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7ulk 7illing allo!s patients to pay nothing and the doctor recei'es the scheduled ee rom #edicare" People ha'e the option o increasing the health insurance they ha'e by taking out pri'ate health insurance" The e+tra insurance co'ers pri'ate hospital and ancillary or e+tras /dental% physiotherapy% naturopathy% etc0" 8easons or choosing pri'ate health insurance include$ - Shorter !aiting times - Hospital choice - 4!n doctor o choice - ,ncillary bene its such as physiotherapy - Peace o mind - Pri'ate rooms in hospital - Health co'er !hile o'erseas - ,'oiding increase ta+ To combat alling pri'ate health insurance numbers the Common!ealth .o'ernment has implemented se'eral schemes" - 60@ ta+ rebate or people !ith pri'ate health insurance - 1@ #edicare le'y surcharge - *i etime health(care incenti'e !ith lo!er premiums to those !ho &oin be ore age 60 &e$icare Pri,ate #ealt# insurance Payment Common!ealth .o'ernment Common!ealth .o'ernment Ta+payers )ndi'iduals and amilies Payment type )ncome ta+ ,nnual% monthly% ortnightly *e'y surcharge premiums 7ene its 7asic public hospital ser'ices Hospital co'er 7asic medical ser'ices - Hospital ser'ices Some specialist ser'ices - Choice o doctor D;@ o scheduled ee - Choice o hospital ,'ailability o bulk billing - Pri'ate or public hospital ,mbulance co'er ,ncillary co'er - Physiotherapy - Chiropractor - Naturopathy% etc Some special bene its such as gym membership 4'erseas co'er

Co(ple(entar an$ alternati,e #ealt# care approac#es


Reasons !or 'rowt# o! co(ple(entar an$ alternati,e #ealt# pro$ucts an$ ser,ices <orld Health 4rganiEation recognition 8ecognition o Eastern cultures #arketing strategies Pro'en results or many !hen traditional medicine had ailed Desire or natural medicines Holistic nature ,ddition to ancillary bene its by pri'ate health insurers Societal changes !ith multiculturalism Societal changes !ith globalisation Societal changes !ith demographics

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9ormal -uali ications enhancing credibility Ran'e o! pro$ucts an$ ser,ices a,aila0le Alternati,e #ealt#-care approac# ,cupuncture ,romatherapy 7o!en therapeutic techni-ue Chiropractic Herbalism Homeopathy )ridology #assage #editation Naturopathy

3escription )n'ol'es inserting needles into skin 1se o pure essential oils to in luence the mind% body or spirit System o muscle and connecti'e tissue mo'ements that realigns the body and balances energy lo! ,d&ustments are made to the spine to realign correct body unction 1ses plants and herbs System that recognises the symptoms are uni-ue to an indi'idual ,nalysis o the human eye to detect signs o !ellbeing or other!ise )ncludes remedial% S!edish% sports State o inner stillness Holistic treatment aiming to treat the underlying cause as !ell as the symptoms o the illness

How to (a4e in!or(e$ consu(er c#oices )t is important to in'estigate and criti-ue health(care pro'iders and ser'ices" This can include$ !hat is it they o er% !hat are the bene its% e+perience% -uali ications% go'erning body and cost"

Critical Question : - +#at actions are nee$e$ to a$$ress Australia"s #ealt# priorities%
Healt# pro(otion 0ase$ on t#e !i,e action areas o! t#e Ottawa C#arter
The i'e action areas o the 4tta!a Charter are$ - De'eloping personal skills - Creating supporti'e en'ironment - Strengthening community action - 8eorienting health ser'ices - 7uilding healthy public policy Le,els o! responsi0ilit !or #ealt# pro(otion The ,ustralian go'ernment% state and local go'ernments% non(go'ernment organisations% communities and indi'iduals are all responsible or promoting health" T#e 0ene!its o! partners#ips in #ealt# pro(otion The chance o success ul health promotion is greatly increased !hen all le'els o go'ernment% non(go'ernment organisations% communities and indi'iduals !ork together to!ards one common goal" How #ealt# pro(otion 0ase$ on t#e Ottawa C#arter pro(otes social 2ustice Health promotion to be e ecti'e needs to address the social &ustice principles /e-uity% di'ersity and supporti'e en'ironments0"

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E/uit De'eloping personal skills Creating supporti'e en'ironments Strengthening community action 8eorienting health ser'ices 7uilding healthy public policy #andatory PDHPE ? ( 10 Pro'ision o health enhancing items *obby groups Health ser'ices or ,TS) 7ulk billing P7S

3i,ersit ,ccess to #edicare Community based support Destigmatising health conditions *obby groups *anguage assistance ,bstudy Health care card

Supporti,e en,iron(ent #edia campaigns *egislati'e bans Pro'ision o health enhancing items *obby groups Partnerships !ith the community Health campaigns

T#e Ottawa C#arter in action ,pplication o the 4tta!a Charter re-uires critical analysis o the ; areas o the 4tta!a Charter$ de'eloping personal skills% strengthening community action% creating supporti'e en'ironments% reorienting health ser'ices% building healthy public policy" E+amples o health promotions that are based on the 4tta!a Charter to an e+tent include$ Closing the .ap% 9resh Tastes L School% National Tobacco Strategy% National ,ction Plan on #ental Health% #easure 1p and S!ap )t > Don=t Stop )t"

HSC Core *: 5ACTORS A55ECTINPER5OR&ANCE


Critical Question 1 - How $oes trainin' a!!ect per!or(ance%
Ener' S ste(s
Alactaci$ s ste( ;ATP8PC< Creatine phosphate *ess than 1 ,TP molecule ; ( 10 seconds Depletion o PC None PC replenishment in 2 > ; minutes Lactic Aci$ s ste( Carbohydrate .lycogen ,ppro+imately 2 ,TP molecules 60 ( A; seconds )ncreased accumulation o hydrogen ions *actic acid 8emo'al o lactic acid !ith acti'e reco'ery in 1; > 60 mins Aero0ic s ste( Carbohydrate 9at Protein .lucose > 6: ,TP molecules 9atty acid > 160 ,TP molecule 1nlimited depending upon intensity Depletion o uel sources Carbon dio+ide !ater 8estoration o glycogen > up to AD hours

Source o! !uel E!!icienc o! ATP pro$uction 3uration Cause o! !ati'ue = -pro$ucts Process an$ rate o! reco,er

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Complete Study Notes

T pes o! trainin' an$ trainin' (et#o$s


Aero0ic ,erobic training generally ollo!s the 9)TT principle" 9 M re-uency > at least 6 sessions per !eek are re-uired or aerobic training to be e ecti'e" Serious athletes may complete 12 sessions" ) M intensity > usually measured using heart rate" ,erobic training usually occurs bet!een G0@ and D;@ o ma+ H8" T M time > !ill depend upon the intensity but needs to be at least 20 minutes duration" T M type > there are a range o training types one can utilise to de'elop aerobic capacity Continuous training > re-uires training !ithout rest or at least 20 minutes" 9artlek training > or Bspeed play= in'ol'es continuous e+ercise !ith sprints or a higher intensity e ort /e"g" Hill climb0 interspersed throughout the session" ,erobic inter'al training > in'ol'es alternating repetitions o an e+ercise and a period o rest or reco'ery" Circuit training > in'ol'es a series o e+ercises that are per ormed one a ter the other !ith little or no rest in bet!een each e+ercise" Anaero0ic ,naerobic training in'ol'es e+ercise o high intensity and there ore short duration" )nter'al training is a 'ery common orm o anaerobic training usually re-uiring ma+imal e ort" .enerally the reco'ery rate ratio !ill determine the type o training and aims o the sessions" Speed% acceleration and agility are components that can be de'eloped through anaerobic training" Plyometrics is a 'ery common training style to de'elop anaerobic po!er" Plyometrics in'ol'es e+ercises that produce an e+plosi'e muscular contraction" 5le.i0ilit 9le+ibility is the ability to mo'e a muscle through its ull range o motion" .ood le+ibility !ill assist$ ( Pre'ention o in&ury ( )mpro'ed coordination ( #uscular rela+ation ( Decreasing muscle soreness Static stretching > the muscle is slo!ly and smoothly taken to the end o its range o motion and held or appro+imately 60 seconds" This method is use ul or rehabilitation% !arm up and cool do!n" Dynamic stretching > in'ol'es a series o mo'ements that replicate game mo'ements and take the muscle through its ull range o motion" )t is popular or !arm(ups" 7allistic stretching > in'ol'es a bouncing action at the end o the range o motion" This orm o stretching acti'ates the stretch re le+" The orce o the mo'ement takes the muscle beyond its pre erred length" There ore% this type o stretching has risks and is only recommended or elite athletes" PN9 stretching > propriocepti'e neuromuscular acilitation in'ol'es lengthening a muscle against a resistance" .enerally it in'ol'es a static stretch% ollo!ed by an isometric contraction then a period o rest be ore being repeated" 1sed o ten during rehabilitation" Stren't# trainin' Strength is the ma+imal orce generated by a single muscular contraction" Hypertrophy > an increase in the siEe o the muscle ibres and connecti'e tissues )sotonic > in'ol'es e+ercises !here the muscle shortens and lengthens )sometric > in'ol'es e+ercises !here the muscle does not change length )sokinetic > in'ol'es e+ercises !here the load remains constant throughout #achine !eights > 'ery popular method allo!ing or isotonic contractions and are 'ery

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simple to use" )t is 'ery easy to isolate muscle groups using this method o training" 9ree !eights > include dumbbells% barbells% medicine balls and kettlebells" ,llo! a !ide range o e+ercises% muscle groups and types o contractions to be catered or" .ood techni-ues are needed to a'oid in&ury" 8esistance bands > are o ten used in rehabilitation but ha'e become a popular orm o training lately due to their con'enience" They allo! or a range o contractions and a !ide range o muscle groups" Stability balls > ha'e become popular o late" Their ocus is to de'elop the core muscles and ma&ority o ree !eight e+ercises can be adapted to be per ormed incorporating the stability ball" Hydraulic resistance > e ort is made against an opposing orce" 8esistance is constant through the entire mo'ement"

Principles o! trainin'
Pro'ressi,e o,erloa$ To continue to ha'e training impro'ements% progressi'e o'erload needs to occur" The body adapts to the training it undergoes" <hen this adaptation occurs the training needs to be increased to stress the body beyond its current capabilities to achie'e urther training gains" )t also needs to be progressi'e so that the stress placed on the athlete does not cause in&ury or atigue" 4'erload can be achie'ed by increasing intensity% resistance% repetitions% duration% re-uency% etc" Speci!icit E+ercise needs to be speci ic or the energy systems% muscles% mo'ement patterns% etc re-uired or the athlete=s sport" Re,ersi0ilit Training adaptations are lost once training ceases or lo!ers belo! the current capacity o the athlete" , detraining e ect results in the physiological adaptations gained through training being Bre'ersed=" 6ariet Completing the same or similar acti'ities can lead to boredom !hich in turn may result in a reduced training e ort" There ore it is important or training sessions to incorporate a range o training types% settings% acti'ities and drills" Trainin' t#res#ol$s Training thresholds are the upper limits o a training Eone and !hen passed take the athlete to a ne! le'el" The aerobic threshold /*actate transition 10 is appro+ G0@ o #H8" This le'el is su icient to cause a training e ect" The aerobic training Eone is !hen athlete is !orking abo'e the aerobic threshold and belo! the anaerobic threshold" The anaerobic threshold /*actate transition 2 or 4nset 7lood *actate ,ccumulation 47*,0 is appro+ D;@ o #H8" E+ercise beyond this point !ill see a marked increase o lactic acid build up and there ore atigue and the cessation o e+ercise" +ar( up an$ cool $own 9or most sports a !arm up !ill last appro+imately 20 minutes" This !ill incorporate a general !arm up ollo!ed by a more speci ic !arm up" The aim o the !arm up is to prepare the body both physically and mentally or optimal per ormance" The general !arm up !ill contain some running or aerobic acti'ities and dynamic stretching" The speci ic component o the !arm up !ill contain acti'ities relating to the sport"

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The cool do!n is recommended to orm part o the acti'e reco'ery or the athlete" .enerally this !ill in'ol'e lo! intensity e+ercise" The aim o the cool do!n is to decrease blood lactate le'els and to minimise muscle soreness"

P# siolo'ical a$aptations in response to trainin'


Restin' #eart rate Stro4e ,olu(e Car$iac output O. 'en upta4e Lun' capacit Hae(o'lo0in le,el &uscle # pertrop# E!!ect on slow-twitc# (uscle !i0res A$aptation Decreased resting heart rate due to more e icient stroke 'olume )ncreased at rest and throughout e+ercise )ncreased ma+imal cardiac output )ncreased due to an increase in capillaries% myoglobin% mitochondria and enEyme acti'ity )ncreased ma+imal 'entilation but remains relati'ely unchanged )ncreased due to an increase in blood plasma and 87C numbers )ncreased siEe !ith resistance training No change to percentage )ncreased hypertrophy% capillary supply% mitochondrial unction% myoglobin content enEymes and glycogen stores No change to percentage )ncreased ,TP and PC supply% enEymes% hypertrophy and lactic acid tolerance

E!!ect on !ast-twitc# (uscle !i0res

Critical Question * - How can ps c#olo' a!!ect per!or(ance%


&oti,ation
Positi,e an$ ne'ati,e Positi'e moti'ation is the desire to be success ul in a pursuit that !ill result in happiness% satis action and pleasure" ,n e+ample o this is or a high &umper to hope to compete at the 4lympics" Negati'e moti'ation is the desire to be success ul !ith the aim o a'oiding unpleasant conse-uences" The moti'ation is to a'oid something Bbad= happening as opposed to a positi'e outcome" ,n e+ample is training hard and playing trying to a'oid being dropped rom the team" Intrinsic an$ e.trinsic )ntrinsic moti'ation is internal moti'ation" )t is emphasised by eelings o satis action and en&oyment" )t is sel (sustaining and is usually associated !ith an orientation to!ards the task" This type o moti'ation promotes longe'ity as e+ternal actors are not dri'ing the athlete% or e+ample continuing to play ootball despite regularly being in a lo!er grade and losing" E+trinsic moti'ation is moti'ation that comes rom e+ternal sources" This includes things like trophies% money and praise" )t tends to ha'e an outcome orientation" This generally does not promote longe'ity as the money and praise are not o ten sustainable" E+trinsic re!ards can deter rom intrinsic moti'ation"

An.iet an$ arousal


Trait and state an+iety ,n+iety is a negati'e emotional state" )t is the result o percei'ing situations as threatening" State an+iety is eelings o tension related to a speci ic e'ent or moment in time" 9or e+ample an athlete prior to the start o a 100m race eels ner'ous and an+ious" The tension

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and an+iousness is related to the e'ent% the bigger e'ent the bigger the an+iety" Trait an+iety is a beha'ioural or personality disposition to display an+iety and to percei'e 'arious situations as threatening" , person !ith high trait an+iety o ten displays high state an+iety in competiti'e situations" Sources o! stress Stress is the imbalance bet!een !hat is e+pected o a person and their percei'ed ability to meet those e+pectations" <hen there is a large imbalance then the person becomes stressed" There are many sources o stress and these include$ inancial concerns% selection concerns% in&ury concerns% contract concerns% cro!ds% preparation and e+pectations" Opti(al arousal 4ptimal arousal is the physical and emotional response related to a speci ic moment or e'ent" ,rousal is important or success ul sporting per ormance% ho!e'er% not all athletes or sports re-uire the same le'el o arousal" ,n archer re-uires a di erent le'el o arousal /calm and -uiet0 compared to a !eightli ter /pumped up0" 4ptimal arousal is generally described utilising the in'erted u hypothesis" ,s arousal increases so does per ormance until optimal arousal and this per ormance is reached" ) arousal continues past this point /o'er arousal0 then per ormance declines" High Per ormance *o! *o! High *e'el o arousal

Ps c#olo'ical strate'ies to en#ance (oti,ation an$ (ana'e an.iet


Concentration8attention s4ills ;!ocusin'< The ability to ocus on appropriate cues is essential or an athlete" Shutting out distractions and irrele'ant cues !ill assist the athlete to per orm at a higher le'el" Strategies or ocusing or regaining ocusing can include music% cues% set routines% training or distractions and ocus training" ,thletes o ten train to replicate as much as possible the same en'ironment as Bgame day= to ensure their ocus is on the important cues at the crucial time" &ental re#earsal8,isualisation8i(a'er This in'ol'es creating mental images or pictures o the upcoming e'ent% action or skill" This allo!s the athlete to e+perience /success0 prior to the actual e'ent" This allo!s the athlete to eel con ident due to the act that it is as i the athlete has been in this position pre'iously and there ore kno!s ho! to eel and react and more importantly can picture a success ul outcome" ,thletes may use 'arious methods o mental rehearsal" 4ne method is as spectators !atching themsel per orm the skill and the other is rom their internal 'ie! as they are actually per orming the skill" #ental rehearsal needs to be as realistic as possible or it to be e ecti'e" There ore the detail% timing and settings all need to replicate the real e'ent"

Rela.ation tec#ni/ues 4'er(aroused and an+ious athletes bene it greatly rom ha'ing a range o rela+ation

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strategies a'ailable to them" 8ela+ation !ill lo!er breathing rates% heart rate% blood pressure and muscle tension leading to greater control and ocus" E+amples o rela+ation include listening to music% massage% !atching T5 or a mo'ie% controlled breathing e+ercises% yoga% Pilates% meditation and hypnosis" -oal-settin' Setting long term and short term goals can assist an athlete greatly to remain ocused" The goals o an athlete can be about the outcome o their per ormance /e"g" !inning gold at the 4lympics0 or the process /e"g" s!imming a personal best at the 4lympics0"Short term goals should contribute to achie'ing the long term goal"

Critical Question 7 > How can nutrition an$ reco,er strate'ies a!!ect per!or(ance%
Nutritional Consi$erations
,ll athletes must ensure that the ood and drink they consume !ill support ma+imum per ormance" These considerations are as important or both training and actual competition" They also apply to both be ore and a ter intense physical acti'ity" The primary aims o good nutrition are$ ,de-uate uel reser'es% such as ma+imum glycogen stores or triathletes 8epair o damaged body tissue rom training% such as increasing protein intake or strength training Pre'ention o dehydration% through ade-uate luid intake 4ptimal unctioning o all body systems /e"g" )mmune System0% by meeting the recommended dietary intakes or all nutrients% such as 'itamins and minerals Pre-per!or(ance Nutrition Changes to an athlete=s regular diet may be necessary in the days and hours leading up to an intense training session and competition" This is to ensure the re-uired uel reser'es are ull and the athlete is !ell hydrated" ?no!ing !hat and ho! much to eat% as !ell as !hen to eat% !ill enable the body to per orm intense physical acti'ity" The last signi icant meal should be eaten 6(A hours prior to the e'ent" )t should contain at least 100 grams o carbohydrates% be lo! in at and ibre and ha'e a small amount o protein" ,t least ;00 m* o !ater should also be consumed" , light meal can also be eaten 1(2 hours prior% !hich should consist o some high .) Carbohydrates% as !ell as more luid" Carbohydrate *oading Endurance athletes re-uire more carbohydrates than other athletes% and may need to increase their intake or 6(A days leading up to an e'ent" 7y ma+imising muscle and li'er glycogen reser'es% they ensure that glycogen is used as a primary uel or as long as possible" H $ration To a'oid the negati'e e ects o dehydration on sporting per ormance% athletes should o'er( compensate or their pro&ected luid needs" 9or a normal person% 2 litres o luids should be consumed dailyH there ore a person !ho is e+pecting to per orm intense physical acti'ity should drink at least 6 litres in the 2A hours leading up to an e'ent" 3urin' Per!or(ance Continued hydration is the main priority during physical acti'ity" Small amounts o luid should be consumed at all possible times% such as time(outs% hal time and stoppages /1;0m* per 1; minutes0" 9or endurance e'ents% lasting longer than :0 minutes% re uelling may also be necessary" This is best achie'ed by eating concentrated orms o glucose such

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as energy gels% bananas% sports bars or sports drinks" Post Per!or(ance The primary aim o post(e+ercise reco'ery is to return all body systems as -uickly as possible to their pre(e'ent condition" The speci ic details o !hat to eat and !hen !ill depend on the duration and intensity o the acti'ity itsel " The primary aims o the irst 12 > 2A hours a ter intense e+ercise are$ 8estore depleted glycogen 8epair damaged muscle tissue 8ehydrate the athlete

Supple(entation
Supplementation is the process o eating additional nutrients= to account or a de iciency in an athlete=s diet" )n most cases% sports nutritionists generally pre er to make regular dietary modi ications" 6ita(ins an$ &inerals 5itamins are chemical compounds% !hich can only be sourced through dietary intake" They enable the normal unctioning o the body and promote gro!th and de'elopment" 5itamins are a'ailable in a !ide range o oods% !hich is !hy a di'erse range o ood is needed to meet the 8D)=s o each one" #inerals are also chemical compounds% !hich play a similar role in the body" They are also normally sourced through the ood eaten in a regular diet% but can be supplemented i needed" De iciencies o some minerals can ha'e a direct and ad'erse e ect on the health and per ormance o certain athletes" #inerals o signi icance include$ )ron Calcium Protein Protein is re-uired or the gro!th% repair and maintenance o muscle tissue" ,thletes must ensure they eat su icient amounts o protein to aid reco'ery and promote gro!th o muscle tissue" This is especially important or athletes !ho are undertaking strength training or high( intensity inter'al training" .ood ood sources o protein include lean meat% dairy products% nuts and eggs" Ca!!eine Ca eine is a stimulant% !hich speeds up the Central Ner'ous System" )t is normally consumed through chocolate% co ee% cola drinks and ad'ertised energy drinks" )t is also a'ailable in the orm a ca eine tablets" The supposed bene its o ca eine or athletes include increased alertness% decreased perception o atigue and the mobilisation o at cells leading to Bglycogen(sparing=" Possible negati'e side e ects include an ele'ated heart rate% o'er( arousal and uncontrolled muscle t!itches leading to decreased ine(motor control" )n high( doses% it also acts as a diuretic% leading to dehydration" Creatine Creatine is a uel source% !hich is stored in skeletal muscles" )t is produced partly in the body cells% but regular intake o protein% especially rom meat sources% ensures the 8D) or Creatine is achie'ed" )ts role is to assist in the production o Creatine Phosphate% !hich is the uel source or the replenishment o ,DP back into ,TP" This is commonly kno!n as the ,TP(CP Energy System% !hich pro'ides or ,TP regeneration during short bouts o po!er ul% high(intensity e+ercise% such as 100m sprints or shot(put" ,thletes !ho either train or these types o sports or undertake a hea'y resistance(training program% may achie'e training bene its such as increased lean muscle mass and impro'ed per ormance le'els"

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Reco,er Strate'ies
P# siolo'ical Strate'ies 7oth acti'e reco'ery e+ercises and appropriate nutrition are important actors in restoring the body to a pre(e'ent condition% allo!ing the athlete to prepare or the ne+t training session or game as -uickly as possible" E+amples include$ Hydration Nutrition Cool Do!n Stretching Neural Strate'ies )ntense physical acti'ity is 'ery ta+ing on the muscular system% but also the Central and Peripheral Ner'ous System" These neural strategies are aimed at rela+ing the body and muscles% reducing the perception o localised muscle atigue as !ell as decreasing general mental atigue" Hydrotherapy #assage Tissue 3a(a'e Strate'ies 9ollo!ing intense physical acti'ity and competition% it is common or athletes to su er rom a 'ariety o le'els o tissue damage" This can range rom microscopic muscle tears as a result o hea'y resistance training% to bruises and minor sprains and strains% right through to more signi icant so t(tissue in&uries" Cryotherapy Ps c#olo'ical Strate'ies The pressure in'ol'ed in participating in elite sport can be immense% and this can come rom both internal and e+ternal sources" 9or an athlete to maintain good mental and emotional health% as !ell as manage their le'els o moti'ation and an+iety% a range o personal strategies can be employed to achie'e this 8ela+ation Sleep

Critical Question : - How $oes t#e ac/uisition o! s4ill a!!ect per!or(ance%


Sta'es o! S4ill Ac/uisition
Co'niti,e Sta'e This stage is characterised be the learner de'eloping an understanding o the task re-uirements" Associati,e Sta'e This stage is characterised by the need or the athlete to practise the skill% until a correct motor pattern is established in the mind and body" Autono(ous Sta'e )n this stage% the athlete is able to per orm the skills automatically% !ithout intentional thought about the task re-uirements" C#aracteristics o! t#e Learner

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Personality )nnate personality traits can ha'e a signi icant e ect on an athlete in all stages o skill ac-uisition" E+amples o rele'ant traits include con idence% moti'ation% a positi'e outlook% sel (discipline% ocus% enthusiasm% competi'eness and !hether you are an intro'ert or an e+tro'ert" Heredity Certain genetic eatures can pro'ide a 'arying degree o ad'antage !ith regard to the potential or success" Speci ic inherited actors% !hich may be in luential% include$ #uscle 9ibre Type

7ody Shape .ender

Con idence <hilst this is a personality trait% it stands alone as making a signi icant contribution to sporting success at the elite le'el Prior E+perience Certain sports ha'e common characteristics% !hich can enable a person to trans er their ability rom one sport% and -uickly adapt and learn the speci ic skills and tactics in another sport" Some actors that can be trans erred rom one sport to another include$ #otor patterns

Tactics and strategies Skills Components o 9itness

,bility Some people seem to ha'e a natural ability at sport% !hich is most e'ident in the rate that they mo'e through the stages o skill ac-uisition" They almost seem to be dominant in any game they play" Some o the actors that may underpin this phenomenon include spatial a!areness /a!areness o !ho and !hat is around them0% kinaesthetic sense /a!areness o the body=s position in space0% tactical a!areness /a!areness o !hat e-uipment should eel like as it makes contact !ith the body0% coordination /ability to mo'e multiple limbs !ith timing and precision e"g" hand(eye or oot(eye coordination0% ast reaction time and percepti'e senses /enhanced sensiti'ity o the senses% especially during ast(paced sports0

T#e Learnin' En,iron(ent


T#e Nature o! S4ill Skills can be categorised based on the ollo!ing" Closed Skills are per ormed in a leaning en'ironment !hich is unchanging% stable and predictable 4pen Skills are per ormed in a leaning en'ironment !hich is changing% less stable and some!hat unpredictable .ross #otor Skills re-uire the use o large muscle groups to produce a less re ined mo'ement 9ine #otor Skills re-uire the use o small muscle groups to produce a precise and accurate mo'ement Sel (paced skills are per ormed !hen the athlete chooses to% such as !hen to bo!l the cricket ball or !hen to commence a high &ump attempt

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E+ternally paced skills are not at the discretion o the athlete% and they must per orm the skill based on orces out o their control% such as hitting a baseball or being a goalkeeper in hockey Discrete skills ha'e a clearly de ined beginning and end% such as a gol shot% a 100m sprint or a pass in ootball Serial Skills are a combination o a range o discrete skills into one !hole mo'ement" Team sports are re-uire serial skills as an athlete is constantly using a 'ariety o skills in competition Continuous Skills ha'e no clear beginning or end% and the point at !hich they start or end is at the discretion o the athlete% such as going or a run or s!im

T#e Per!or(ance Ele(ents Decision making

Strategic and tactical de'elopment

T#e Practice &et#o$ #assed Practice is characterised by periods o continuous practice !ith short rest inter'als" This is suitable or acti'ities that are un% o moderate intensity or or highly moti'ated athletes" Suitable e+amples include gol putting or goalkeeping Distributed Practice is characterised by shorter periods o !ork !ith more regular periods o rest" This is suitable or monotonous or di icult acti'ities% or high(intensity acti'ities that cause e+cessi'e or !here moti'ation is lo!" This !ould suit acti'ities such as !ater( skiing or tackling in rugby league <hole Practice in'ol'es practicing the complete skill in its entirety" This suits ad'anced learners or or skills that cannot be broken do!n into sub(components that can be practiced in isolation% such as archery or sailing Part Practice in'ol'es isolating the 'arious sub(components% practicing each and then combining it all together in a complete mo'ement" This is suitable or 'ery comple+ skills such as pole 'ault% or or beginners !ho are in the cogniti'e stage 5ee$0ac4 )ntrinsic 9eedback > in ormation that is recei'ed internally through the senses by the per ormer" ,s a learner continues to impro'e% they should be de'eloping the ability to detect and correct their o!n errors" , 8e ined kinaesthetic sense is critical in enabling them to analyse the eel o the mo'ement E+trinsic 9eedback > in ormation that is recei'ed rom an e+ternal source% such as a coach% the cro!d or 'ideo analysis Concurrent 9eedback > is eedback that is recei'ed during the per ormance% and is closely aligned !ith intrinsic eedback" The athlete may be able to ad&ust the current mo'ement as it is being e+ecuted% such as a batter ad&usting their shot selection as the ball s!ings une+pectedly" 4r they can ad&ust the skill the ne+t time it is e+ecuted Delayed 9eedback > is eedback that is recei'ed a ter the completion o the skill" )t can be either intrinsic% 'ia 'ideo analysis% or through an e+trinsic source such as a coach" Sometimes this eedback can arri'e days later during a 'ideo analysis session ?no!ledge o 8esults > in ormation concerning the outcome or success o the skill% such as !hether ball !as in or not" This in ormation can then be used to analyse !hy the skills !as success ul or not" This is most use ul or beginners as the de'elop their basic motor patterns ?no!ledge o Per ormance > in ormation concerning the actual techni-ue or the patterns

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o play" This is used more so by learners in the autonomous stage and can arri'e rom both e+trinsic and e+trinsic sources" Coaches o elite athletes must be 'ery competent in care ully analysing per ormances to detect and help correct e'en minor errors" ,lso in team sports% the coach must be 'ery good at analysing the play and identi ying areas o strengths and !eakness in both teams% and communicating rele'ant eedback and strategies or the team

Assess(ent o! S4ill an$ Per!or(ance


C#aracteristics o! a S4ille$ Per!or(ance There are a number o obser'able di erences bet!een a skilled and unskilled per ormance" ?inaesthetic Sense ,nticipation Consistency Techni-ue #ental ,pproach O02ecti,e an$ Su02ecti,e Per!or(ance &easures There are a range o tests that can be used in order to make a measurement or an appraisal as to the -uality o per ormance" 4b&ecti'e #easurement > <here an assessment is not based on human interpretation or analysis% the test is described as ob&ecti'e" Sporting e+amples include high &ump% the 100m sprint and the score in a team sport" These measurements are the most air and reliable in terms o !ho the !inner !as" Ho!e'er% they may not pro'ide enough in ormation or a complete analysis o the techni-ue or per ormance Sub&ecti'e #easurement > ,ssessment that relies on personal opinions and &udgment is described as sub&ecti'e" Some sports rely solely on a sub&ecti'e measurement% such as in di'ing or gymnastics" The analysis o techni-ue or tactical per ormance also relies on sub&ecti'e measures% as the coach makes a personal interpretation 6ali$it an$ Relia0ilit o! tests The assessment o sporting per ormances must measure !hat it actually intends to measure /'alidity0 and also ensure the same results are achie'ed regardless o !ho% !here or !hen the test is administered /reliable0" Personal ,ersus Prescri0e$ )u$'in' Criteria <hen a sub&ecti'e measurement is to be made o any sporting per ormance% some degree o criteria is used !hich enables a more complete and air appraisal" To increase the ob&ecti'ity re-uired or o icial competition% prescribed criteria are de'eloped by the &udges or go'erning body" These in'ol'e rating scales% checklists and scoring systems that minimise the chance o error or bias a ecting the results" Commitment and degree o di iculty

HSC Option 1: THE HEALTH O5 ?OUNPEOPLE


Critical Question 1 > +#at is 'oo$ #ealt# !or oun' people%
T#e Nature o! ?oun' People"s Li,es
How t#e 3e,elop(ental Sta'e can ,ar in &oti,ations1 6alues1 an$ Sociocultural =ac4'roun$

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The )n luence o The )n luence o The )n luence o The )n luence o

9amily and Peers Pre'ailing Fouth Cultures .lobal E'ents and Trends Technology

Epi$e(iolo' o! t#e Healt# o! ?oun' People Patterns o #orbidity and #ortality Comparisons o Health Status !ith that o 4ther ,ge .roups T#e E!!ects o! t#e 3eter(inants o! Healt# on ?oun' People )ndi'idual 9actors Sociocultural 9actors Socioeconomic 9actors En'ironmental 9actors 3e,elop(ental Aspects t#at A!!ect t#e Healt# o! ?oun' People 8e'ising roles !ithin relationships Clari ying sel (identity and sel (!orth De'eloping sel (su iciency and autonomy Establishing education% training and employment path!ays Determining beha'ioural boundaries

Critical Question * > To w#at e.tent $o Australia"s oun' people en2o 'oo$ #ealt#%
T#e &a2or Healt# Issues t#at I(pact on ?oun' People
&ental #ealt# pro0le(s an$ illnesses ,lcohol consumption 5iolence 8oad sa ety Se+ual health 7ody )mage 4ther rele'antIemerging health issues that impact on the health young people include gambling% cyber(bullying% party crashes and drink spiking"

Critical Question 7 > +#at s4ills an$ actions ena0le oun' people to attain 0etter #ealt#%
S4ills in Attainin' =etter Healt#
=uil$in' Sel! Concept De'eloping Connectedness and Support Net!orks De'eloping 8esilience and Coping Skills De'eloping Health *iteracy Skills De'eloping Communication Skills ,ccessing Health Ser'ices 7ecoming )n'ol'ed in Community Ser'ice Creating a Sense o 9uture Actions Tar'etin' Healt# Issues Rele,ant to ?oun' People Social ,ction *egislation and Public Policy

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26

2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012

Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE

Complete Study Notes

Health Promotion )nitiati'es

HSC Option *: SPORT AN3 PH?SICAL ACTI6IT? IN AUSTRALIAN SOCIET?


Critical Question 1 > How #a,e (eanin's a0out sport an$ p# sical acti,it c#an'e$ o,er ti(e%
T#e 0e'innin's o! (o$ern sport in 1@t# centur En'lan$ an$ colonial Australia
*inks !ith manliness% patriotism and character The meaning o amateur and pro essional sport <omen=s historical participation in sport

Sport as a co((o$it
The de'elopment o pro essional sport Sport as big business Sponsorship% ad'ertising and sport The economics o hosting ma&or sporting e'ents Conse-uences or spectators and participants

Critical Question * > +#at is t#e relations#ip 0etween sport an$ national an$ cultural i$entit %
Australian sportin' i$entit
National and regional identity through sporting achie'ements .o'ernment unding Politics and sports

T#e (eanin' o! p# sical acti,it an$ sport to In$i'enous Australians


Traditional acti'ities and sports *inks bet!een community and identity

P# sical acti,it 1 sport an$ cultural i$entit


The role o competition *inks to cultural identity 8elationships to health <ays o thinking about the body

Critical Question 7 > How $oes t#e (ass (e$ia contri0ute to people"s un$erstan$in'1 ,alues an$ 0elie!s a0out sport%
T#e relations#ip 0etween sport an$ t#e (ass (e$ia
T#e representation o! sport in t#e (e$ia Economic considerations o media co'erage and sport

3econstructin' (e$ia (essa'es1 i(a'es an$ a(ount o! co,era'e


Di erences in co'erage or di erent sports across 'arious print and electronic media The emergence o e+treme sports as entertainment

Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press

2A

2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012

Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE

Complete Study Notes

Critical Question : > +#at are t#e relations#ips 0etween sport an$ p# sical acti,it an$ 'en$er%
Sport as a tra$itionall (ale $o(ain
Sport an$ t#e construction o! (asculinit an$ !e(ininit )mplications or participation Sponsorship% policy and resourcing The role o the media in constructing meanings around emininity and masculinity in sport

HSC Option 7: SPORTS &E3ICINE


Critical Question 1 > How are sports in2uries classi!ie$ an$ (ana'e$%
+a s to Classi! Sports In2uries
3irect an$ In$irect So t and Hard Tissue 4'eruse So!t Tissue In2uries Tears% Sprains and Contusions Skin ,brasions% *acerations and 7listers )n lammatory 8esponse Har$ Tissue In2uries 9ractures Dislocations Assess(ent o! In2uries T4T,PS

Critical Question * > How $oes sports (e$icine a$$ress t#e $e(an$s o! speci!ic at#letes%
C#il$ren an$ ?oun' At#letes
&e$ical Con$itions 4'eruse )n&uries Thermoregulation ,ppropriateness o 8esistance Training

A$ult an$ A'e$ At#letes


Heart Conditions 9ractures and 7one Density 9le+ibility and Coint #obility

5e(ale At#letes
Eating Disorders )ron De iciency 7one Density

Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press

2;

2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012

Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE

Complete Study Notes

Pregnancy

Critical Question 7 > +#at role $o pre,entati,e actions pla in en#ancin' t#e well0ein' o! t#e at#lete%
P# sical Preparation
Pre-Screenin' Skill and Techni-ue Physical 9itness <arm(up% Stretching and Cool Do!n Sports Polic an$ t#e Sports En,iron(ent 8ules o Sports and ,cti'ities #odi ied 8ules or Children #atching o 4pponents 1se o Protecti'e E-uipment Sa e .rounds% E-uipment and 9acilities En,iron(ental Consi$erations Temperature 8egulation Climatic Conditions .uidelines or 9luid )ntake ,cclimitisation Tapin' an$ =an$a'in' Pre'entati'e Taping Taping or )solation o )n&ury 7andaging or the )mmediate Treatment o )n&ury

Critical Question : > How is in2ur re#a0ilitation (ana'e$%


Re#a0ilitation Proce$ures
Pro'ressi,e &o0ilisation .raduated E+ercise Training 1se o Heat and Cold Return to Pla )ndicators o 8eadiness or 8eturn to Play #onitoring Progress Psychological 8eadiness Speci ic <arm up Procedures 8eturn to Play Policies and Procedures Ethical Considerations

HSC Option :: I&PRO6IN- PER5OR&ANCE


Critical Question 1 > How $o at#letes train !or i(pro,e$ per!or(ance%

Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press

2:

2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012

Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE

Complete Study Notes

Stren't# trainin'
Resistance trainin' <eight training )sometric training Aero0ic trainin' ContinuousIuni orm 9artlek *ong inter'al Anaero0ic trainin' ;power an$ spee$< De'eloping po!er through resistanceI!eight training Plyometrics Short inter'al 5le.i0ilit trainin' Static Dynamic 7allistic S4ill trainin' Drills practice #odi ied and small(sided games .ames or speci ic outcomes

Critical Question * > +#at are t#e plannin' consi$erations !or i(pro,in' per!or(ance%
Initial plannin' consi$erations
Per!or(ance an$ !itness nee$s Schedule o e'entsIcompetitions Climate and season Plannin' a trainin' ear ;perio$isation< Phases o competition Subphases Peaking Tapering Sport(speci ic subphases Ele(ents to 0e consi$ere$ w#en $esi'nin' a trainin' session Health and sa ety considerations Pro'iding an o'er'ie! o the session to the athletes <arm up and cool do!n Skill instruction and practice Conditioning E'aluation Plannin' to a,oi$ o,ertrainin' ,mount and intensity o training

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2G

2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012

Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE

Complete Study Notes

Physiological considerations Psychological considerations

Critical Question 7 - +#at et#ical issues are relate$ to i(pro,in' per!or(ance%


Use o! $ru's
T#e $an'ers o! per!or(ance en#ancin' $ru's 9or strength 9or aerobic per ormance To mask other drugs 7ene its and limitations o drug testing Use o! tec#nolo' Training inno'ation Some training inno'ations include$ E-uipment ad'ances

HSC Option A: EQUIT? AN3 HEALTH


+# $o ine/uities e.ist in t#e #ealt# o! Australians%
5actors t#at create #ealt# ine/uities
3ail li,in' con$itions Qualit o! earl ears o! li!e ,ccess to ser'ices and transport Socioeconomic actors Social attributes .o'ernment policies and priorities

Critical Question * > +#at ine/uities are e.perience$ 0 population 'roups in Australia%
Populations E.periencin' Healt# Ine/uities
,boriginal and Torres Strait )slander Peoples Homeless People *i'ing !ith H)5I,)DS )ncarcerated ,ged Culturally and *inguistically Di'erse 7ackgrounds 1nemployed .eographically 8emote Populations People !ith Disabilities

Critical Question 7 > How (a t#e 'ap in #ealt# status 0e 0ri$'e$%


5un$in' to I(pro,e #ealt#
9unding or Health

Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press

2D

2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012

Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE

Complete Study Notes

9unding or Speci ic Populations *imited 8esources

Actions t#at I(pro,e Healt#


Enable /1sing ?no!ledge and Skills or Change0 #ediate /<orking or Consensus0 ,d'ocating /Speaking up or Speci ic .roups% their Needs and Concerns0

A Social )ustice 5ra(ewor4 !or A$$ressin' Healt# Ine/uities


Empo!ering )ndi'iduals in Disad'antaged Circumstances Empo!ering Disad'antaged Communities )mpro'ing ,ccess to 9acilities and Ser'ices Encouraging Economic and Cultural Change

C#aracteristics o! E!!ecti,e Healt# Pro(otion Strate'ies


<orking !ith the Target .roup in Program Design and )mplementation Ensuring Cultural 8ele'ance and ,ppropriateness 9ocusing on Skills% Education and Pre'ention Supporting the <hole Population !hile Directing E+tra 8esources to those in High 8isk .roups )ntersectoral Collaboration

Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press

2K

2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012