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VOLUME5,2012

FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE'S MOTIVATION IN THE FAST FOOD INDUSTRY: THE CASE OF KFC UK LTD.
MohammadKamalHossainI,AnowarHossainII,
NationalUniversity,Gazipur,Bangladesh;I BrunelUniversity,Uxbridge,UnitedKingdomII

Thestudyattemptedtoidentifyfactorsaffectingandassess thelevelofmotivationofemployeesworkingatKFCUKltd. The study was carried out based on both primary and secondary data. With a view to collect primary data, a structuredquestionnaire,mostlyclosedstyled,wasprovided to 70 employees of three KFC's food shop located at London. The study identified six broad categories of motivationfactorssuchas(1)workitselfandenvironment, (2)supervisorrelations,(3)companyitselfandmatters,(4) recognition,(5)developmentandgrowthandfinally(6)pay andbenefits.Thestudyfindsthatnonfinancialfactorshave asignificantlyhigherimpactontheemployee'smotivation than the financial factors. Moreover, there are identical sources of motivation and demotivation, however, the extent of motivation provided by a factor is not the same extentofdemotivationforthatfactori.e.thesamefactors have an effect on motivation and demotivation of employeesindifferentextentandmanner.Finally,thestudy concludedthattheemployeesworkingatKFCUKltdare adequatelymotivated,thoughasignificantdifferenceoflevel of motivation was noticed among gender, different age groups, working status, working position and length of employmentcomparison.
< L66 < M5M12 < M12 < FAST FOOD INDUSTRY < MOTIVATION <WORKSATISFACTION

theemployeesleadstopoorperformance,highemployee turnover which makes the attainment of goals of organizationunrealisticandunachievable. Research indicates that every year organizations are investingplentyofmoneyforincentiveprogramstomotivate people work within, though all efforts have not achieved desiredresults.However,successfulprogramshavebeen abletoboostperformancetotheextentof44%(Lia,2009). The unsuccessful programs were attributed to the lack of knowledge, poor design and inappropriate incentives provided(ibid),buttheimportanceofmotivationdid,byno means, not lessen rather the necessity of it retained undeniable. AimsandObjectivesoftheStudy The purpose of the study is to identify factors affecting motivationofemployeesworkingatKFCUKltdandassess theleveloftheirmotivation.Thestudyhasbeencarriedout on the employees working in the line position (operation level)whoaredirectlyinvolvedindaytodayfoodmaking and selling operations at KFC's food shops. Employees involvedinstaffmanagement(strategicandtacticallevel) have not been included in the study. In order to gain an understandingandassessemployees'motivation,thisstudy emphasizestoexploreresultsofanumberofquestions: 1. 2. What are the reasons employees choose to work in KFC? What are the most important factors that affect the willingnessoftheKFC'semployeestoexertmoreeffort inthejob?Andfinally TowhatextenttheKFC'semployeesaremotivatedto achievethecompany'sobjectives?

Employeesarethekeydrivingforceofanyorganizationwho givesendlessefforttoputacompany'sdecisionsintoaction with a view to achieve the goals of the organization. Employees,therefore,areregardedasanunsurpassedvital resource of organization, and the issue of employee's motivationhasbecomeanindispensablepartofthehuman resourcestrategyofanorganization."Motivationistheforce thatmakespeoplechoosesaparticularjob,staywiththat job and work hard in that job" (Lin, 2007). Conventional theories of motivation suggest that people tend to be motivated with the intention of fulfilling their unsatisfied needs,i.e.theyexertefforthopingthattheirneedswillbe satisfied (ibid). However, contemporary theorists do not focus only on the needbased concept but also they emphasize on long term goal, sense of fairness, and employee'svalues(SimonsandEnz,2006).However,both conventional and contemporary theories of motivation recognize the significance of employee motivation in the workplace.Providingexcellentservicecanbepossibleby the motivated employees that "can create lasting positive experiences for customers" (Petcharak, 2002). The outcomesofmotivatedemployees,inaddition,includelow turnover, loyalty and harmony, high performance that contributesignificantlytothegrowthanddevelopmentofthe company(Lai,2009).Conversely,lackofmotivationamong
Ikarunu2003@yahoo.com

3.

Theories of motivation focused on explaining people's behavior (Lin, 2007), which affects their motivation. The study of work motivation was started by the Hawthorne's study(19271932),whichshowedthatworker'sproductivity seemedtoimprovewhenchangesweremadewithinterest beingshownonthem(Latham,2007)..Theresultsledto the realization that the productivity, satisfaction, and motivation of workers were interrelated (Roethlisberger, 1977inLatham,2007).Sincethen,differenttheoriesofwork motivationhasemergedandchangedtimetotimebased on the changes of employee's attitude and needs of companies. DefiningMotivation Motivationcanbedefinedasadrivingforcewithinaperson which stimulates the individual to do something up to the target level in order to fulfill some need or expectation (Mullins,2007).Itisacomplexissueofhumanbehavior whichvariesfrompersontoaperson;asaresult,different people are motivated in different ways (Kressler, 2003). Everyone has motives inspired by certain factors that 21

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FACTORSAFFECTINGEMPLOYEE'SMOTIVATIONINTHEFASTFOODINDUSTRY:THECASEOFKFCUKLTD.

encourage the desire to enhance performance (ibid). People's behavior is determined by what motivates them andtheirperformanceistheproductofbothabilityleveland motivation(Mullins,2007). Sourcesofmotivationcanbeintrinsicandextrinsic(Jones and George, 2004). Intrinsic motivated behavior is reinforcementofbehaviorwhichleadstofeelthenecessity offindingajob,findthejobinteresting,etc.Extrinsicsources ofmotivatedbehaviorarereferredtogainrewardsasextra holidayandmoneyortoavoidpunishments. Several theories of motivation were developed to identify thefactorsofmotivationthatinfluencehumanbehaviorin different ways. The theories of motivation can be divided intotwobroadcategories,viz.contenttheories,andprocess theories. ContentTheories Contentstheoriesattempttoexplainwhatdrivesindividuals to act in a certain manner based on a universal understanding that all human beings have needs, which pursuethemtosatisfytheseneedsleadtomotivation. Maslow (1943) identified five human needs categorized thembasedonthepriorityofneedsfulfillment.Accordingto Maslow, the fulfillment of physiological needs chases to meetsecurityneeds,whichchasestomeetbelongingness needs.Havingmetbelongingnessneeds,individualdrives to meet esteem needs, this chase to meet the self actualizationneeds.Maslowstatedthat"lowerlevelneeds mustbesatisfiedbeforethenexthigherlevel"(Petcharak, 2002).Whenlowerlevelofneedissatisfiedonlythennext levelofneedsiscreatedamongthem. Alderfer (1969), however, revised the hierarchy needs theorybyrevampingfivehumancoreneedsintothreebroad groups, such as "existence", "relatedness", and "growth", which is known as ERG theory. The "existence need" is concerned with providing the basic materials similar to Maslow's physiological needs and security needs. The "relatednessneed"referstoapersonalrelationship,which aresimilartoMaslow'sbelongingnessandesteemneeds and "growth needs" is about intrinsic desire for personal development,whichissimilartoMaslow'sselfactualization need.ERGtheory,however,contrastwithhierarchytheory in few aspects. According to ERG theory, sometimes multipleneedsmightbeactedasmotivationdriversatthe sametimewhereoneneedappearstobemoredominant than others (Lai, 2009), and higher levels of needs might comeforwardbeforefulfillingthelowerlevelofneeds. Herzberg's(1959)twofactortheorystatesthattherearetwo distinctsetsoffactorviz."motivational"and"hygiene"factors influence human behavior. Motivational factors (such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, work itself, advancement,personalgrowth)arerelatedtoworkcontent while hygiene factors (such as company policies and administration,interpersonalrelations,workingconditions, salary,jobsecurity,status,benefits)arerelatedtothework environment (Griffin, 2008). According to Herzberg, satisfaction and dissatisfaction in the job are based on different attributes and are independent of each other (Habib,etal.,2010).Herzbergconsideredhygienefactors asextrinsicfactors,whichhaveadisruptingeffectonthe employee's work attitude and make them ultimately dissatisfied in their jobs when these needs are not adequatelymet.Ontheotherhand,motivationalfactorsare known to be intrinsic factors, which make employees satisfiedwhenthesearemet,however,donotmakethem dissatisfiedintheabsenceofthese(Wong,SiuandTsang, 1999). www.researchjournals.co.uk 22

ProcessTheories Process theories of motivation concentrate on how employee's needs influence their own behavior. In this perspective, "need" accounts for one component of the processthroughwhichindividualsdecideshowtobehave. According to Vroom (1964), people are motivated to do thingstoreachagoaliftheybelieveintheworthofthatgoal (Kootzetal,2007).Thistheorysuggeststhatemployee's motivationdependson"expectancy","instrumentality"and "valence".Expectancytheoryexplainshowrewardcanlead one'sbehaviortoachievethecompany'sgoal.Anemployee iswillingtoperformwithahighlevelofeffortwhenheorshe believes that this will lead to desired rewards (Robbins, 2005).Thetheorystatesthatthatmotivationispresentonly when employees realize a positive correlation that effort leads to job performance and job performance leads to rewards(Griffin,2008). Locke Edwin (1968) suggests the Goalsetting theory of motivation.Thetheoryemergedfromtheideaofexpectancy theorywhereagoalsettingisavitaltool,whichactsasan "immediateregulatorofhumanaction"(Lockeetal.,1981) thatleadsemployeestowardsachievingthegoal."Goals affectperformancebydirectingattention,mobilizingeffort, increasing persistence, and motivating strategy development"(ibid).Settingaspecificandchallenginggoal caused higher performance than no or not specific or did simplegoal(ibid).Settinggoalgenerallydoesnotinclude motivational needs but enforce employees to be more productivetoachievethetasktheyhavegivenandasan obvious result it leads to some reward. In the case of complextasks,however,thistheoryisnoteffectiveandif thegoalsetforindividualsisnotalignwiththegoalsofthe organization, conflict may crop up, which causes lack of motivationandultimatelyimpairindividuals'performance. The equity theory (1963) of motivation presumes that an individualisstronglymotivatedbyabalancedresultofinput (suchaseffort,loyalty,hardwork,commitment,skill,ability, adaptability, tolerance, determination, personal sacrifice, etc.) and output (such as pay, salary, other benefits, recognition,reputation,praiseandthanks,promotion,etc.) i.e.whatanemployeecontributesandreceivesagainstof it.Thetheoryisusedtoexplainhowemployeesjudgethe fairness of rewards received in proportion to resources invested for completing a task by assessing one's own investmentrewardratio,andcomparingitagainstofanother colleagueholdingasimilarposition(McShaneetal.,2000). The study was carried out based on both primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected from three different KFC stores (sample unit) located at Brixton, ClaphamandVictoriaStationinLondonduringtheperiod of20thSeptemberto29thSeptember2011.Astructured questionnaire, mostly closed styled, was provided to 70 employees of three stores to collect primary data. Out of them, only 57 sample respondents (81%) out of them participatedbyfillingthequestionnaireandsendingitback to me. However, 48 out of 57 (68% of 70 sample respondents) sample respondents participated actively in surveyactivitiesbyansweringtoallquestionsdulyandrest ofthemansweredpartlyandwasexcludedtheirresponses fromthestudy.Thereweretwopartsofthequestionnaire; partoneconsistedofdemographicinformationofthesample respondents.Thesecondpartcomprisedfourquestionsin relationtoemployee'smotivation. Secondary data, on the other hand, was used as well to describedifferentmotivationtheoriesandfactors.Theywere

FACTORSAFFECTINGEMPLOYEE'SMOTIVATIONINTHEFASTFOODINDUSTRY:THECASEOFKFCUKLTD.

collected from different books, journal articles, website, publisheddissertationpapersofthegraduatesetc. Acombinedapproached(mixofqualitativeandquantitative techniques)wasusedtoachievetheobjectivesofthestudy. The qualitative approach was used to explore sample respondent'sinterpretationsofeventsandthequantitative approach to quantify their attitudes, beliefs, feelings, behaviors that seemed immeasurable in qualitative techniques. 4point Likert scale was used in all questions of the questionnaire ranging from 1 to 4point, where point1 representsnegativeresponses(suchasnotimportant/not motivated/ not demotivated) of the sample respondents. On the other hand, point2, 3 and 4 represents gradual rankingofpositiveanswers(suchasleast,moderateand highlyimportant/motivated/demotivatedrespectively)ofthe samplerespondents. Primarydatacollectedfromfieldsurveywastabulatedusing Microsoft Office Excel, and all data was recorded using numericalcodes.Variousstatisticalmeasuressuchastally, frequencydistribution,meanandstandarddeviationwere usedindescribingthevariables. Thissectionhasbeendividedintofivephases.Inthefirst phase,demographicinformationofthesamplerespondents andreasonstochooseworkatKFChasbeendescribedin the second phase. Factors affecting the motivation and demotivationoftherespondentshavebeendiscussedin thethirdphase.Inthefinalphase,thelevelofmotivationof employeeshasbeenassessedbasedonthedatacollected fromthefieldsurvey. DemographicInformationoftheSampleRespondents ThecultureoftheUnitedKingdom(UK)isadiversifiedand multi cultural. The evidence of the multicultured is observedinthejobmarketwheredifferentcountry'speople belonging to unlike cultured get assembled that develops anexceptionalmultifariousworkingenvironment.According toThomasandPekerti(2003)thereisamoderateimpact of national culture on the relationship between job satisfactionandemployees'exchangebehaviors.Thestudy shows that 18 country's people are represented in the sample respondents (table1), out of them, the male is dominant(56%)overfemale.Thestatistics(table1)ofthe fieldsurveystudyshowsthatalargeportion(96%)ofthe employee'sageliesbetween21to35years.Aninsignificant percentoflowerorhigheragedemployeeisseentowork atKFC.Thestudyfoundthat67%oftheemployeesarepart time (table1). In the case of work experience of employment, the study shows that (table1) period of employmentofthesamplerespondentsisbetween<1year tomaximum9years.Thetableillustratesthatasubstantial portion(71%)ofemployeeshasbeenworkingbetween1to 6 years. However, nobody has been found working more than9yearsamongthesamplerespondents. TherearethreeworkstationsinafoodshopofKFC,such askitchen(forcookingfoods),middle(forpackingfoods), andfrontwherecashierreceivesorderfromanddeliverto customers.Thereisamanagementteamineachshopthat supervises, directs and guides the task of other sections and maintains liaison with corporate head office. The number of workers deployed in each section depends on thespanoftaskrelatedtoeachsection.Thisstudyshows that 67% of the respondents (table1) work in the front sectionasacashierfollowedbythemiddlesection(23%) andveryminorportion(10%)worksinthekitchen. www.researchjournals.co.uk 23

ReasonstochoosetheworkatKFC Thestudydiscovered11reasonstochooseworkatKFC (table2)andthereasonshavebeenrankedbythemean value. The most favorable reason (ranked 1) is the "opportunity to interact with different cultured people" followed by "best work place" (ranked 2) followed by "flexible working hours" (ranked 3). Interestingly, non financialreasonswereplacedinthetopoftherankinglist rather than financial reasons. Accordingly, "salary" and "other fringe benefits" were ranked 4th and 10th respectively.Ontheotherhand,"opportunitytodevelopa career at KFC permanently" was ranked 9th. "Providing freemeals"isthemostlessimportantreasonrecognized bythesamplerespondentswhichisrankedbottominthe list. MotivatingFactors Human beings are motivated by satisfying their different kindofneeds.Needsdependonmanyfactorsandvaryby the person, situation, organization, nature of works, risk, educational background of employees, experiences and skills, position of work etc. The factors affecting the employee'smotivationworkingatKFCmightbedifferent fromthefactorsofothercategorizedoforganization;even thesecouldbeunliketosomeextentfromotherfastfood restaurantssuchasMcDonalds,BurgerKing,Subway,Eat, PretAManger etc. All employees, therefore, have their ownmotivationalfactorstomotivatethemtoperformtheir bests(Lin.,2007).Inthisstudy,themotivationfactorshave beencategorizedundersixmajorheadingsandrankedby combined mean value (table3) which indicates that unequalinfluenceoffactorsonmotivation. MotivatingFactor:WorkitselfandEnvironment Natureofworkanditssurroundingenvironmentisthefactor thataffectsthelevelofmotivationofemployeesignificantly. Tyilana(2005)suggeststhatthreemotivationalfactorssuch asachievement,recognitionandworkitselfcause88%job satisfaction. According to Maslow's Hierarchy of needs theory, safety and security needs come after fulfilling biologicalandphysiologicalneeds.Appropriatejobsecurity assurance,challengingwork,workthatyieldsasenseof personal accomplishment, increased responsibility are factorscausemotivation(DaschlerandNinemeier1989,in Petcharak, 2002)). However, "good working conditions cannot motivate the employees in themselves, but can determine the employee's performance and productivity" (Lin,2007). Inthisstudy,"workitselfandenvironment"isidentifiedas thefactorthatmotivateemployeeshighly(table3)compare tootherfactors(ranked1inoverallrankinglist).Thestudy identifiednineissuesundertheheadingof"workitselfand environment"todeterminehowdifferentissuesrelatingto work and environment shakes motivation level of the sample respondents. The result suggests (table4) that "overalljobsecurity"isrankedfirstthataffectsthelevelof motivationhighly(meanvalue3.37)followedby"availability oflogisticsupporttocarryouttheworkandthe"workitself that makes a difference" are ranked jointly in second position (mean value 3.17). On the other hand, factors "flexible working hour", "involvement in decision making" and "enjoyable working condition" have an impact on motivation.However,"clearjobrequirements","challenging work"and"reasonablenessofwork"affecttheemployee's motivationnotasmuchofotherfactors,resultsuggests. MotivatingFactor:SupervisorRelations Goodrelationshipbetweensupervisorandtheworkerisa convincing issue which causes work satisfaction.

FACTORSAFFECTINGEMPLOYEE'SMOTIVATIONINTHEFASTFOODINDUSTRY:THECASEOFKFCUKLTD.

employee's bad feelings to their immediate authority do impact on their job performance which leads to dissatisfactionandlackofmotivation.AccordingtoTyilana (2005) unfavorable supervision, company policy and administration and interpersonal relationship with supervisorcause60%jobdissatisfaction.Thereisavariety ofwaystodeveloptherelationshipsuchas,throughtask (giving feedback, taking ideas from employee, giving consultation etc.) and nontask (showing respect, caring employeesasindividualetc.). "Supervisorrelation",inthisstudy,isidentifiedasanother motivationfactorrankedsecond(table3)inoverallranking list. The sample respondents recognize some aspects relatingtosupervisorrelationship(table5)ofthesedohave animpactontheemployee'smotivation.Theresultshows thatthe"supervisor'sfeedback"totheworksofemployees is an influential factor that helps them to improve their performance (ranked 1). Employees who receive performance feedback are willing to exert more effort at workbecauseitmakesthemfeltimportantandcaredfor (Lai,2009)."Acceptingmistakespositively"occurredduring thecourseofworkandgivingemphasisonemployeesby acceptingtheir"commentsandsuggestions"inrelationto thejobareidentifiedothersignificantfactorsofmotivation (rankedjointly2).Ontheotherhand,somenontaskrelated issuescontributetodevelopadurablerelationshipbetween supervisors and employees. In this study, "showing respect"toemployeesbythesupervisorisrecognizedto be another motivation factor. Likewise, "remembering something personal" about employees such birthday, "showinginterestabouttheirpersonalneedsandproblems' and "caring" them as an individual are recognized to be factorsdohaveanimpactonmotivationbutnotasmuch ofotherfactors(meanvalueliesbetween2.03.0). Employeesattempttofindthemeaningoftheirjobsand thereasonsforbeingatwork(Lin,2007).Whenmanagers treat employees as an individual, they begin to care for employeeswithrespect(Glanz,2002).Whenemployees realize that they are being treated as human beings, companyarecaringfortheirpersonalneedsorlackingand helpingtofulfilltheseneeds,employeesbecomeloyalto thecompanyandtherefore,becomemoremotivatedtoward theirworks. MotivatingFactor:CompanyitselfandMattersrelatingto theCompany "Companyitselfandmatters"relatingtothecompanyhave aneffectontheemployee'smotivation.Employeesusually feelproudbeingapartofamarketleaderandfinancially soundcompany,whichleadthemtobesatisfied.Basically, satisfactioncomes,inthiscase,havingfeltsecuredintheir job,longtermexistenceofthecompanyandbeensound financially.AccordingtoHerzberg'stheory,companypolicy and administration is considered to be hygienic factors (extrinsic factors), which have a disrupting effect on employees work attitude and make them ultimately dissatisfied in their jobs when these needs are not adequatelymet. The study finds that "Company itself and matters", is a factor that affects KFC's employee's motivation following thefactorsof"workitselfandenvironment"and"Supervisor relation"(ranked3inoverallrankinglist,table3).Thestudy explored few aspects relation to the company and its policies(table6)dohaveanimpactonmotivation.Results showthatemployeesbecomemotivatedhighlyastheysee "success of the company" (ranked 1); company clearly "communicatesitsgoalsandstrategies"tothem(ranked 2).Ontheotherhand,aspectssuchas,"company'smarket www.researchjournals.co.uk 24

position, financial performance" and understanding the "company'smissionstatement,vision&values"affectthe employee'smotivationaswell. MotivatingFactor:Recognition Appreciationisoneofthemosttopdesiresofemployees whichmotivateandkeepthemproductive(Glanz,2002)by enhancingtheemployee'smorale,which"allowsthemto think better of themselves and their ability to contribute towards organization goals. Employees with high self esteemaremoreintrinsicallymotivated,optimistic,willing toworkharder,participativeatwork,workefficiently,have lower absenteeism rate and are generally more satisfied with their jobs" (Lai, 2009). Herzberg two factors theory describedtherecognitionasamotivatingfactorthatmakes employeessatisfied. Thereareseveralwaystorecognizeemployeesincluding greetingforbetterjobs,attachthankstotheirpaychecks, acknowledgeemployeemilestones,staffgatheringoutside the organization, highly appreciation for coming up with new ideas, holding celebrations for success, arranging frequent contests and other team building activities etc. However, few important matters should be kept in mind whenrecognizingemployeessuchasequalrecognitionfor all,recognizeimmediateaftertheydeserveit,exaggeration isunexpected(McConnell,2006). Thestudyspotted"Recognition"tobeafactordoeshave an impact on the KFC's employee's motivation ranked fourth(table3)inoverallrankinglistofmotivationfactors. The sample respondents assessed how some events in relationtorecognitionaffecttheirmotivation.Result(table 7)suggeststhat"managementappreciationasemployee comesupwithnewandbetterideas,""holdingcelebrations for success", and "informal praise and appreciation for better performance" have a significant effect on their motivation (mean values are 3.27, 3.27 and 3.10 respectively).Ontheotherhand,factorssuchas,"holding regularsocialevents,supportingfrequentcontests&team buildingactivitiesandevaluatingperformancefairly"bythe companyleadsthemtobecomemotivatedaswell. MotivatingFactor:DevelopmentandGrowth Skills development, training, growth opportunities and promotionareconsideredtobepowerfulmotivationfactors for employees to satisfy their need for esteem and self actualization (Lai, 2009). According to the Herzberg two factortheory,personalgrowthandadvancementareknown to be intrinsic factors, which make employees satisfied when these are met, and they, thereafter, become motivated.However,criteriamustbesetcorrectlyforthe purpose of promotion and growth, so that employees becomemotivatedbyfulfillingthose(Brewsteretal.,2003). Promotion and growth policy should be matched to the needofemployees(HoagandCooper,2006),andthere shouldbeapositivecorrelationbetweengoodperformance andpromotionandgrowth(CummingsandWorley,2001 inLin,2007). "Development and Growth", in this study, is identified as another motivating factor that does have effect on the employee'ssatisfactionrankedfifth(table3)intheoverall rankingofmotivatingfactors.Thesamplerespondentswere asked to answer to five questions in relation to training, development and growth. Result (table8) indicates that factors "training of the employee" (ranked 1) and "opportunities for growth and development" (ranked 2) make employees highly motivated. Moreover, factors "willingness of the managers and immediate supervisors toinvestinthedevelopment"and"growthofemployees"

FACTORSAFFECTINGEMPLOYEE'SMOTIVATIONINTHEFASTFOODINDUSTRY:THECASEOFKFCUKLTD.

haveanimpactontheirmotivationaswell(ranked3&4 respectively).Ontheotherhand,having"promotionand developmentpolicy"ofthecompanyalsomakeemployees motivated(ranked6). MotivatingFactor:PayandBenefits Moneyisconsideredtobeapanaceausedtohavesolved to the most problems. Money, therefore, is the most motivating factor to all. It is a part of the total incentive packageofanorganization.Salaryisthoughttobeoneof thekeyfactorsinfluencingcareerchoices(Lai,2009).One employeedescribesalaryas,"thesalarypaidmeiswhat the company thinks of me. The lower salary, the less appreciated"(Bokorney,2007).Goodincentives,therefore, should provide with the aim of attracting and retaining qualifiedpeopleandmotivatingthemtoachievegoalsof the organization. However, organization should not rely solely on salary, bonus or other monetary and non monetaryincentivestomotivatethediverseworkforcedue tothelimitationsitbrings(Lai,2009). "Pay and benefits", in this study, is spotted as a least motivatingfactor(ranked6)liesinthebottomoftheoverall ranking list of motivating factors (table3). It is, however, notamostpowerfulfactorlikeothersthatdohavehigher effect on the employee's motivation, the study revealed. ThisresultsubstantiateHerzberg'stwofactortheorywhich statesthatsalaryandbenefitsarethehygienefactorwhich can prevent employee's dissatisfaction only but do not necessarily motivate them. However, job security is classified by Maslow as a basic need to guarantee an employee'ssafety. The sample respondents graded how different kind of incentivesaffectstheirmotivation.Result(table9)suggests thatthefactor"goodwagesalongwithotherbenefits'does have a significant effect on the employee's motivation followed by the factor "matching payment with responsibilities" (ranked 1 & 2 respectively). The factor "providing free meals", however, does not significantly affect the motivation level of employees and lies in the bottom of the list. This is the factor which identified by employeesastheleastrankedreasontochooseworkat KFC(table8). DemotivatingFactors Factors that cause demotivation can be referred as the oppositeofmotivationfactors.Thatis,employeesbecome motivatedwhentheirneedsarefulfilled,andconversely, they become demotivated when their needs are not fulfilled. Therefore, the source of motivation and de motivationaresamei.e.needsfulfillment.Herzberg'stwo factortheory,however,describeddifferentsourcesofjob satisfaction and dissatisfaction and both sources are independent of each other. Hygiene factors therefore reduce job dissatisfaction but do not encourage job satisfaction whereas motivating factors result in job satisfaction. Thestudyidentifiedthirteenfactors(table10)thatcaused demotivation and weighed them thereafter as being "highly", "moderately", "least" or "not at all" demotivating factor.Resultshowsthatfactorsthatcausesdemotivation as their presence is insignificant in the employee's work andthesamefactorsmakethemmotivatedaswellwhen their presence are significant in work. However, it is perceivedthattherankingpositionoffactorsbasedonthe meanvaluemightbeornotidenticalasdemotivatingand motivating factors. That is, the extent of motivation for a specificfactormightbesameorvariedfromtheextentof demotivation for the same factor. For instance, "lower www.researchjournals.co.uk 25

scaleofsalary"(table10)causesdemotivationand"good wages and other benefits" causes motivation (table9) significantlyhigh(bothranked1)aswell.Ontheotherhand, "lessinteresting&challengingjob"(table10)donothave as much impact on motivation as (ranked 7) it causes demotivation(ranked2),astheresultsuggests. Other demotivating factors are identified as "absence of equal opportunity (ranked 3), "less recognition of good work" and "less job security" (ranked 4), "less fringe benefits"(ranked5),lackoftraining(ranked6),lessflexible workinghours(ranked7),"hugepressureofwork"(ranked 8), "unequal treatment of management" (ranked 9), "unconstructivecriticismofworkperformed"(ranked10), "insufficient logistic support" and "unfriendly colleagues" (ranked 11), and the factor that makes them least de motivatedisidentified"lessopportunitytodevelopcareer atKFC".However,thesamefactorsdonotmotivatethem inthesameextentormannerwhenthesearepresentin work,resultsuggests.Thisindicatesthatjobsecurity,fringe benefits,workpressure,lackofflexibilityinworkinghours and unfriendly colleagues are not strong motivators and can prevent dissatisfaction but do not always result in satisfaction. This means that employees who feel their colleaguesarefriendlywillnotnecessarilyperformbetter than employees who do not feel their colleagues are friendly. In order to motivate employees, it is, therefore, essentialtoconcentrateonprovidingemployeeswiththe opportunity for career progression at KFC and consequently a sense of achievement, recognition, and responsibility. ExtentofMotivationofEmployeesWorkingatKFCUKLtd Assessment of the employee's motivation of an organization is a quite complex matter. Because, a wide variety of issues have an impact on motivation such as, natureofjob,employeespersonalperceptionandvalues, local and international regulations, risk of work, how differentmotivationfactorsidentifiedandmetandsoon. Assuch,themotivationlevelofemployeesworkingatKFC mightnotbesamethemotivationlevelofitscompetitors suchasMcDonald's,BurgerKingorEat. Result of the study in relation to what extent employees were motivated to assist KFC in achieving its objectives aimingtoascertaintheirmotivationlevelshows(table11) that overall mean value and standard deviation of motivationlevelofemployeesis3.60and0.568(basedon Likert4pointscale)respectively.Table11illustratesthat 65%(31outof48)respondentsarehighlymotivated(Likert scale4point),31%(15outof48)aremoderately(Likert scale 3point), only 4% (2 out of 48) are least motivated (Likertscale2point),however,nobodyisfoundtobenot motivated(Likertscale1point)atall. Further analysis of results, however, suggests that a significant difference in the level of motivation between genders, different age groups, working status, working positionandlengthofemployment(table12).Bygender comparison, female employees are more motivated compare to male employees. By age group comparison, 4145agegroupemployeesaremoremotivated(though only1respondentreportsashighlymotivated),followedby 3135 age group followed by 2630 and then 2125 age group.Theleastmotivatedagegroupemployeeis3640 (basedon1respondent'sreportasmoderatelymotivated). By working status comparison, full time employees are moremotivatedcomparedtoparttime.Byworkingposition comparison,employeesworkingatthemiddlepositionof the shop are more motivated followed by cashiers (till).

FACTORSAFFECTINGEMPLOYEE'SMOTIVATIONINTHEFASTFOODINDUSTRY:THECASEOFKFCUKLTD.

However,employeesworkingatkitchensectionareleast motivatedcomparetoemployee'sworkingsothersections. Meanwhile, by length of employment comparison, employeesworking79yearsaremoremotivatedfollowed by46yearsfollowedbyemployeesworkinglessthanone year(<1).However,employeesworking13yearslength arelessmotivatedcomparetoother. Thestudyattemptedtoidentifykeyfactorsandindicators thataffecttheemployee'smotivationworkingatKFCUK ltdandassesstheirmotivationlevel.Resultssuggestthat thereareelevenreasonschoosetoworkatKFC;however, financialbenefitssuchassalaryandotherfringebenefits donotreceiveasmuchofpriorityasnonfinancialbenefits. Ontheotherhand,thestudyidentifiedsixbroadcategories of motivation factors such as (1) work itself and environment, (2) supervisor relations, (3) company itself andmatters,(4)recognition,(5)developmentandgrowth andfinally(6)payandbenefits.Theresearchrevealsthat nonfinancialfactorshaveasignificantlyhigherimpacton theemployee'smotivationthanthefinancialfactorssuch aspayandbenefitswhichsubstantiatetheresultinrelation toreasonschoosetoworkatKFC.ThisindicatesthatKFC needstofocusonnonfinancialfactorsalongwithfinancial factorstoensurethatitsworkforceiseffectivelyengaged andconsequentlymotivated.EmployeesatKFCaremore motivated by factors relating to the work itself and the environment.ThismeansthatKFCneedstocreateagood working environment and employees receive recognition andfeelvalued.Astheneedfordevelopmentandgrowth isalsoidentifiedasamotivatingfactor,KFCshouldprovide adequatetraininganddevelopmenttoensureemployees are motivated. The study also indicates that there are identical sources of motivation and demotivation which contrastwiththeresultofHerzbergtwofactortheorywhere motivation and demotivation sources as being different and independent. However, the extent of motivation providedbyafactorisnotthesameextentofdemotivation for that factor i.e. the same factors have an effect on motivation and demotivation of employees in different extent and manner. For example, lower scale of salary results in high level of demotivation but good wages of salary causes motivation employees not as much as demotivatethem. Finally, the results show that overall mean value and standarddeviationofmotivationlevelofemployeesis3.60 and 0.568 (based on 4point Likert scale) respectively; which indicates that the motivation level of employees workingatKFCUKLtdliesinbetweenmoderateandhigh level.However,asignificantdifferenceoflevelofmotivation isnoticedbetweengender,differentagegroups,working status, working position and length of employment comparison.Resultsindicatethatfemaleemployeesare moremotivatedcomparetomaleemployees,employees inthe4145yearagegrouparemoremotivatedthanother age groups, full time employees are more motivated compare to part time, employees working at the middle positionoftheshoparemoremotivatedthanworkingattill andkitchen,andemployeesworking79yearsaremore motivatedthanshorterlengthofemployment.Thisindicates thattherearedifferencesinperceptionofmotivationbased ondemographicfactorsandthatnotalljobrelatedfactors promote employees to have satisfied in their jobs. According to Herzberg's theory, jobs related factors that onlypreventdissatisfactionare,therefore,calledhygiene factors. Therefore, KFC should ensure that intrinsic and extrinsicrewardsarerelatedtospecificpreferences.The www.researchjournals.co.uk 26

research results also indicate that motivation is dynamic andisaffectedbypersonalcircumstancesandsituational andsocialfactorssuchasgender,age,workingfulltimeor part time. Employees at KFC are motivated by needs, preferences and thought processes as well as expectations.Results,basedontherestrictedsamplesize oftheemployeesworkingattheoperationallevel,suggest that 65% of respondents are highly motivated, 31% are moderately,4%areleastmotivated,and,nobodyisfound tobenotmotivatedatall.Itcan,therefore,beconcluded thattheemployeesworkingatKFCUKltd.areadequately motivated.
1.Alderfer,ClaytonP.,(1969).AnEmpiricalTestofaNewTheoryof HumanNeeds; OrganizationalBehaviourandHumanPerformance, vol.4,no.2,retrievedfrom:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030 5073(69)90004X,(Accessedon:23/10/2012) 2.Bokorney,J.(2007).SalariesStillRising,retrievedfrom: http://www.archive.evaluationenginering.com/archive/articles/0407/040 7salaries.asp,(Accessedon11/10/2011) 3.Brewster,L.Carey,P.Dowling,P.Grobler,P.HollandandS. Warnich(2003).ContemporaryIssuesinHumanResource Management:GainingaCompetitiveAdvantage.2ndedition.Cape Town:OxfordUniversityPress. 4.Glanz,B.A.,(2002). HandlewithCARE:motivatingandretaining employees,NewYork:McGrawHill 5.Griffin.R,(2008), Management,Boston:HoughtonMifflinCompany 6.Habib,M.N.,Mukhtar,S.,Jamal,W.(2010).FactorsInfluencingthe TeachersIntentionstoQuiteinPrivateSectorHigherEducational InstitutionsofPakistan. InterdisciplinaryJournalofContemporary ResearchBusiness, vol.1,p.12. 7.Herzberg,Frederick(1959), TheMotivationtoWork,NewYork: JohnWileyandSons 8.Hoag,B.,&Cooper,C.L.(2006). Managingvaluebased organisations:it'snotwhatyouthink.(Newhorizonsinmanagement). Cheltenham:EdwardElgar. 9.Jones,G,andGeorge,J,(2004), ContemporaryManagement,Boston: McGrawHill 10.Koontz,H.,andWeihrich,H.(2007). EssentialsofManagement. NewDelhi: TataMcgrawHill. 11.Kressler,H.(2003). MotivateandReward:PerformanceAppraisal andIncentiveSystemforBusinessSuccess. NewYork:Palgrave Macmillan. 12.Lai,C.(2009), MotivatingEmployeesthroughIncentive programmes, DissertationThesisofBachelorDegree,Jyvaskyla UniversityofAppliedSciences,retrievedfrom: https://publications.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/17561/jamk_1237 444488_5.pdf?sequence=2,(Accessedon:11/09/2011) 13.Latham,G.(2007). WorkMotivation:History,Theory,Research, andPractice. California: SagePublications 14.LinPY(2007), TheCorrelationBetweenManagementand EmployeeMotivationinSASOLPolypropyleneinBusiness,South Africa, DissertationThesisofMasterDegree,UniversityofPretoria, SouthAfrica,retrievedfrom:http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd 0804200892827/unrestricted/dissertation.pdf,(Accessedon: 10/09/2011) 15.Locke,EdwinA.(1968).TowardaTheoryofTaskMotivationand Incentives; Organizationalbehaviorandhumanperformance,vol.3, No.2,retrievedfrom:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/00305073(69)90004 X,(Accessedon:23/10/2012) 16.Locke,EdwinA.;Shaw,KaryllN.;Saari,LiseM..;Latham,GaryP. (1981),GoalSettingandTaskPerformance:19691980, Psychological Bulletin(AmericanPsychologicalAssociation),vol.90,no.1,pp.125 152,retrievedfrom: http://datause.cse.ucla.edu/DOCS/eal_goa_1981.pdf,(Accessedon 22/06/2012). 17.Maslow,A.H.(1943).ATheoryofHumanMotivation(online), http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Maslow/motivation.htm,(Accessedon 23/10/2012)

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18.Maslow'sneedhierarchy(1954).[Online]retrievefrom: www.union.umd.edu/GH/basic_needs/index.html(Accessedon: 02/01/2012) 19.McConnell,C,(2006).EmployeeRecognition:What,Whyand How,retrievefrom:http://www.nfib.com?object/IO_31334.html, (Accessedon21/04/2012) 20.MCShane.S,L.,andVonGlinow.M,A.,(2000), Organizational Behavior, NewYork,McGrawHill 21.Mullins,J.(2007). ManagementandOrganizationalBehavior. New Jersey:FTPrenticeHall. 22.Petcharak,P.(2002), TheAssessmentofMotivationinthesaint PaulHotelEmployees, ThesispaperofMasterDegree,Universityof WisconsinStout,retrievedfrom: http://www2.uwstout.edu/content/lib/thesis/2002/2002petcharakp.pdf, (Accessedon:12/09/2011) 23.Robbins,S.(2005). Organizationalbehavior, 11thedition,Pearson EducationalInstitution. 24.Simons,TandEnz,C.A(2006), MotivatingHotelEmployees: BeyondtheCarrotandtheSticks, retrievedfrom:

www.allbusiness.com/periodicals/articles/4898731.html,(Accessedon: 12/09/2011) 25.Thomas,D.C.,andPerkerti.A.A.(2003).Effectofcultureon SituationalDeterminantsofExchangeBehaviorinOrganizationA ComparisonofNewZealandandIndonesia. JournalofCrossCultural Psychology, Vol.34(3),retrievedfrom: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022103034003002.(Accessedon 06/07/2012) 26.TyilanaX(2005), TheImpactofMotivationonJobSatisfaction amongEmployeesofaNationalBroadcaster,DissertationThesisof MasterDegree,UniversityofJohannesburg,SouthAfrica,retrieved from:http://elmurobbie.files.wordpress.com/2009/01/theimpactof motivationonjobsatisfaction.pdf,(Accessedon:15/10/201) 27.Wong,S.,Siu,V.,&Tsang,N.,(1999).Theimpactofdemographic factorsonHongKonghotelemployees'choiceofjobrelatedmotivators. InternationalJournalofContemporaryHospitalityManagement,vol. 11(5),pp.230241.Retrievedfrom: http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20001804674.html;jsessionid=56B00 80542E23B43C3FDBFC62637D55A,(accessedon:02/01/2012)

(numbersareroundedtothenearestwholenumber)
Table1:DemographicInformationtableofthesampleRespondents Nationalities Frequency numberof respondents 1 12 1 1 1 5 1 1 2 1 6 6 1 1 1 1 5 1 WorkingStatus FullTime PartTime Total 16 32 48 33 67 100 33 100 % Cumulative percentage 2 27 29 31 33 44 46 48 52 54 67 80 82 84 86 88 98 100 <1 1.3 4.6 7.9 Total LengthofEmploymentinyears 10 19 15 5 48 20 39 31 10 100 20 59 90 100 Kitchen Middle Cashier Total 5 23 20 48 2125 2630 3135 3640 4145 Total 14 20 12 1 1 48 Gender Frequency % numberof respondents 27 21 48 56 44 100 AgeGroup 29 42 25 2 2 100 Workplace 10 48 42 100 10 58 100 29 71 96 98 100 Cumulative percentage 56 100

Armenian Bangladeshi Chadian French Greek India Malaysia Nepali Nigerian Norwegian Pakistani Polish SierraLeonean SouthAfrican SouthKorean Spanish SriLankan Sudanese

2 25 2 2 2 11 2 2 4 2 13 13 2 2 2 2 10 2

Male Female Total

Source:Authors(Questionnaire2011results)
Table2:ReasonstochooseworkatKFC Reasonstochoose Opportunitytointeractwithdifferentculturedpeople Bestworkplace Flexibleworkinghours Salary/wages Icouldnotfindanyotherjob Closetomyhouse InterestingJob Friend/relativeworkshere OpportunitytodevelopmycareeratKFC Fringebenefit(otherfinancialbenefits) Freemealsareprovided Source:Authors(Questionnaire2011results) Meanvalue 3.33 2.9 2.69 2.29 2.29 2.21 2.13 1.92 1.85 1.81 1.42 StandardDeviation 0.59 0.94 1 0.78 1.07 0.93 0.99 1.67 1.14 1.01 0.81 MeanRanking 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

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FACTORSAFFECTINGEMPLOYEE'SMOTIVATIONINTHEFASTFOODINDUSTRY:THECASEOFKFCUKLTD.

Table3:MajorHeadingofMotivationFactorsandtheirRanking MajorHeadingsofMotivation Factors WorkitselfandEnvironment SupervisorRelation CompanyitselfandMatters Recognition DevelopmentandGrowth PayandBenefits CombinedMeanValue 3.01 2.98 2.97 2.88 2.81 2.8 CombinedStandardDeviation 0.905 0.923 0.936 0.969 0.993 1.08 CombinedMeanRanking 1 2 3 4 5 6

Source:ResultsofQuestionnaire2011 Table4:Motivatingfactor:WorkitselfandEnvironment Factors Overalljobsecurity. Workmakesadifference Availableoflogisticsupport Flexibleworkinghour Involvementindecisions making Enjoyableworkingenvironment Clearjobrequirements Challengingwork Reasonablenessinwork(not high/lowpressure) MeanValue 3.37 3.17 3.17 3.1 3.06 3.05 2.94 2.83 2.4 StandardDeviation 0.857 0.656 0.874 0.963 1.049 1.117 0.689 1.178 0.729 MeanRanking 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Source:ResultsofQuestionnaire2011 Table5:Motivationfactor:Relationswithsupervisor(s) Factors Givingfeedbacktowork Acceptsmistakespositively Acceptscommentsand suggestions Understandstheproblemfacing atwork Showsrespecttoemployees Availableforconsultation Rememberssomething personal,suchasbirthdays Showsinterestaboutmy personalneedsandproblems Allowtimetomeetandlistento me Caringemployeesasan individual MeanValue 3.37 3.23 3.23 3.15 3.15 3.02 2.98 2.75 2.62 2.27 StandardDeviation 0.725 0.714 0.941 0.707 0.54 0.595 0.989 1.164 0.999 1.047 MeanRanking 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8

Source:Authors(Questionnaire2011results) Table6:MajorHeadingofMotivationFactorsandtheirRanking Factors Successofthecompany Communicationofcompanys goalsandstrategies Informedcompany's,market position Achievementofcompany's targetprofit Understandthecompany's missionstatement,visionand values MeanValue 3.52 3.4 2.67 2.46 2.46 StandardDeviation 0.645 0.784 0.825 0.789 1.098 MeanRanking 1 2 3 4 5

Source:Authors(Questionnaire2011results)

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FACTORSAFFECTINGEMPLOYEE'SMOTIVATIONINTHEFASTFOODINDUSTRY:THECASEOFKFCUKLTD.

Table7:Motivationfactor:Recognition Factors Managementappreciateas employeecomeupwithnew andbetterideas Holdscelebrationsforsuccess Receiveinformalpraiseand appreciationforbetter performance Holdingmonthlyoryearlysocial events Evaluatingperformancefairly Supportingfrequentcontests, andteambuildingactivities CombinedMeanValue 3.27 CombinedStandardDeviation 0.499 CombinedMeanRanking 1

3.27 3.1

0.699 0.918

1 2

2.77 2.48 2.37

1.065 1.112 0.949

3 4 5

Source:Authors(Questionnaire2011results) Table8:Motivationfactor:DevelopmentandGrowth Factors Trainingofemployees Opportunityforgrowthand developmente.g.promotion Managerswillingnessof managertoinvestinthe development Willingnessofsupervisorto promoteme Havingpromotionor developmentpolicyofcompany CombinedMeanValue 3.37 3.29 2.81 CombinedStandardDeviation 0.841 0.826 0.858 CombinedMeanRanking 1 2 3

2.54 2.06

0.84 0.852

4 5

Source:Authors(Questionnaire2011results) Table9:Motivationfactor:PayandBenefits Factors Goodwagesandotherbenefits Matchingpaymentwith responsibilities Providingfreemeals CombinedMeanValue 3.08 2.98 2.35 CombinedStandardDeviation 1.037 1.163 0.878 CombinedMeanRanking 1 2 3

Source:Authors(Questionnaire2011results) Table10:ComparativeRankingofFactorsCausesDemotivationandMotivation Demotivatingfactors LowerscaleofSalary/wages comparetohardwork LessInterestingandchallenging job Lessrecognitionofgoodwork Lessjobsecurity Lessfringebenefits(e.g.pension, bonusetc.) Lackoftraining Lessflexibleworkinghours Hugepressureofwork Unequaltreatmentby management Unconstructivecriticismofwork performed Insufficientlogisticsupport Unfriendlycolleagues(coworkers) Mean Value 3.12 3 2.96 2.96 2.94 2.9 2.83 2.8 2.69 2.67 2.65 2.65 Standard Deviation 1.13 1 1.12 1.31 1.21 1.12 1.04 1.06 1.38 1.18 1.13 1.44 1.06 Rankingas demotivating factor 1 2 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 11 12 MotivatingFactors Goodwages Challengingwork Recognition(overall) Overalljobsecurity Otherbenefits Trainingofemployees Flexibleworkinghour Reasonablenessinwork(not high/lowpressure) Evaluatingperformancefairly Acceptsmistakespositively Availabilityoflogisticssupport N/A Opportunityforgrowthand developmente.g.promotion Rankingas motivating factor 1 7 4 1 1 1 3 8 4 2 2 2

LessOpportunitytodevelopcareer 1.92 atKFC Source:Authors(Questionnaire2011results)

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FACTORSAFFECTINGEMPLOYEE'SMOTIVATIONINTHEFASTFOODINDUSTRY:THECASEOFKFCUKLTD.

Table11:OverallMotivationLeveloftheEmployeesWorkingatKFCUK LevelofMotivation NotMotivated LeastMotivated ModeratelyMotivated HighlyMotivated Total Frequencynumber ofrespondents 0 2 15 31 48 % 0 4 31 65 100 Cumulative Percent 0 4 35 100 3.6 0.568 OverallMean OverallStandardDeviation

Source:Authors(Questionnaire2011results)

Table12:MotivationLevelBasedonDemographicFactors MotivationLeveloftheEmployeesbyGenderComparison LevelofMotivation Gender Notmotivated Male Female Total 0 0 0 Least motivated 1(4%) 1(5%) 2(4%) Moderately motivated 9(33%) 6(28%) 15(31%) Highly motivated 17(63%) 14(67%) 31(65%) MeanRanking Standard Deviation 0.562 0.575 Ranking

3.59 3.62

2 1

MotivationLeveloftheEmployeesbyAgeGroupComparison AgeGroup 2125 2630 3135 3640 Total 0 0 0 0 0 2(15%) 0 0 0 2(4%) 4(31%) 7(33%) 3(25%) 1(100%) 15(31%) 7(54%) 14(67%) 9(75%) 0 31(65%) 3.38 3.67 3.75 2 4 0.738 0.471 0.433 1 0 4 3 2 5 1

MotivationLeveloftheEmployeesbyWorkingStatusComparison Working Status Fulltime Parttime Total 0 0 0 0 2(6%) 2(4%) 3(19%) 12(38%) 15(31%) 13(81%) 18(56%) 31(65%) 3.81 3.5 0.39 0.612 1 2

MotivationLeveloftheEmployeesbyWorkingPositionComparison Working Position Cashier Middle Kitchen Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 2(40%) 2(4%) 7(35%) 7(30%) 1(20%) 15(31%) 13(65%) 16(70%) 2(40%) 31(65%) 3.65 3.7 3 0.477 0.46 0.894 2 1 3

MotivationLeveloftheEmployeesbyLengthofEmploymentComparison Lengthof Employment (years) <1 1.3 4.6 7.9 Total 0 0 0 0 0(0%) 0 1(5%) 1(7%) 0 2(4%) 4(44%) 7(37%) 3(20%) 1(20%) 15(31%) 5(56%) 11(58%) 11(73%) 4(80%) 31(65%) 3.55 3.53 3.67 3.8 0.45 0.595 0.596 0.4 3 4 2 1

Source:Authors(Questionnaire2011results)

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