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Safiq Islam HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ID: 10971

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Task 1: Introduction: This assignment is based on Unilever. Throughout this assignment, human resource management functions, policies and practices to manage people. For Unilever people management is the key to success because this is a service organisation and therefore human resource manager make all functions, policies and procedures to make sure employees are valued and contributing to the achievement of organisational goals and objectives. In fact, winning people is the core of their strategic approach. 1.1: Distinguish between personnel and human resource management (P1) ccording to !ullins "#$$%& human resource management and personnel management is key the same in terms of managing people. 'owever, they are uni(uely different the way they manage their people. )ersonnel management means applying activities to achieve organisational objectives by using people skills in an agreed contract. *hilst, human resource management is about putting a systematic approach to define, and implement human resource strategies to achieve organisational performance by training and developing people, policies and procedure. ccording to Torringtong, et al "#$$+& )! and ',! have following differences From time and planning perspective, )ersonnel !anagement ")!& is short, reactive and applies ad hoc approach to managing people. In contrast, human resource management "',!& is more long-term, applies proactive, strategic and integrated approach to people management. In ',!, psychological contract is gained through employees. commitment, trust and respect. In )! psychological contract is gain through compliance with rules and regulations of the company. In )!, employers have to apply e/ternal control such as close supervision and put rules, policies and procedure to follow whereas in ',! employees are encouraged to take own responsibilities and self-controlled.

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In ',!, employees and employer have high level of trust and respect because people are treated as human being but in )!, employees are regarded as a means to the end and treated as machine. In )! management uses bureaucratic organisational structure, decisions are made by higher level management without consulting line managers and employees. 0ut in ',! management involved line managers, employees in decision making process. ', provides fle/ible roles and responsibilities. In )! management focus on reducing the cost of operations such as downsi1ing whereas in ',! management emphasises on ma/imum utili1ation of people. 1.2: Functions o !uman "esource #anagement (P2) 'uman resource management plays important part in managing people. !ullins "#$$%& says that ', manager carries out following functions as mentioned below. 'uman ,esource )lanning2 Unilever plans in advance about the number of employees re(uired for specific roles on right time with right skills, e/perience and knowledge. It is essential for Unilever to have plan about human resource so that goals and objectives can be achieved. ,ecruitment and selection2 3nce ', planning is carried out Unilever recruit about the vacant position in different channel such as online, agencies, graduate fair etc. recruitment is essential to attract pool of candidates. fter receiving candidates applications Unilever select the best employees to fill the vacancies. Induction, Training and development2 Unilever provides induction to all newly join employees. The company also provide training to develop job related skills and knowledge. This helps employees to perform the duties as e/pected as a result employees contributes to achieve organisational goals and ojectives. 4alary and rewards2 Unilever provide very competitive salary and reward to keep their employees motivated and satisfied. !otivated and happy employees work with heart and mind and complete the job on time. 5nsure health and safety, and welfare2 Unilever ensures that employees are safe in the workplace. 6ine manager play vital role to make sure that employees are working Safiq Islam HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ID: 10971 Page 7

with less fear and stress in the workplace. 6ine managers provides guidance and support to all employees. 1.$: "oles and "esponsibilities o a line manager in !" department (P$) ccording to !int1berg, line managers plays vital roles in any organisation. The key functions of line managers are as follows Interpersonal role2 6ine manager leads the team, liaison with people in the organisation and represent the higher management as well as bottom level employees. Informational role2 6ine manager communicates information, receive information and play the role of spokesperson. 8ecisional role2 6ine manager works closely with employees and takes responsibilities to provide re(uired resources, support and manage conflicts in the workplace. The above mentioned role and responsibilities are related to implementation of policies and procedure of the higher management. 4pecifically, human resource managers design people related policies and process. For e/ample, we have seen from the previous section that ', 8epartment carries out ', planning. In ', planning line manager provide information about the number of people the department re(uired. 9ot only that line manager also provides feedback on what skills and knowledge is essential for the job. 0ecause line manager carries out performance appraisal and able to know what skills employees have and what further training and development need to be in place to improve employees knowledge and e/perience. This means line manager helps to design training and develop programmes. 1.:2 Impact o the %& legal and regulator' that a ects on !"# (P() U; has very specific and clear legal and regulatory framework for employment in the workplace. 4ome rules and regulations are 8iscrimination on human resource management practices. <I)8 "#$1#& found that, ', functions such as recruitment and selection, management are not allowed to discriminate any potential employees on the ground of age, gender, se/, race, disability. cts, 5uropean *orking Time 8irectives, !inimum *age, and 8ata )rotection. These legal frameworks have huge impact

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', managers must make sure that employees are paid a minimum national wage. This minimum wage is reflected on employees pay slips. Furthermore, ', manager ensures that regardless of their age and gender they are getting e(ual pay for e(ual work. That is according to e(ual pay act "1=>$& employees with same work are paid e(ually regardless of their gender or race. In fact, discrimination law covers basic areas such as age, gender, disability, race, religious and se/ual orientation. In performance management, line manager carries out performance appraisal and make sure that they are fairly appraised. This means line manager has roles in all areas of human resource management functions. Task 2: 2.1: Importance o human resource planning or %nile)er (P*) ccording to <I)8 "#$1#& human resource planning "',)& is a systematic process of ensuring that a company has right number of people, in right place on right time with right skills, knowledge and skills. For Unilever, ',) is critically important because the company has goals and objectives to achieve. ccording to Unilever.s website, company aims to double the business. Therefore, Unilever needs people to work in different departments including marketing, finance, research and development, human resource management, and production. If business e/pands, then Unilever must plan in advance to make sure they do have enough people to carry to different tasks. In Unilever, many people should be retiring, leaving from the job and waiting for promotion. In such situation ',) helps to take decisions such as to whom to promote. If #$$$ employees are promoted then those #$$$ vacancies need to be filled up with new employees. This leads to recruitment and selection process. dditionally, ', managers need to conduct training and development for new promoted staffs. This clearly reflect that ',) has a clear line with other functional areas of ',!. ',) helps to determine supply and demand of employees from inside and outside of the company. s business environment is changing all the time and therefore Unilever may not find people with right skills and e/perience. Therefore, ',) planning is essential to respond the changes in the labour market. In the U;, though there is high unemployment rate but Safiq Islam HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ID: 10971 Page %

lacking in skills and knowledge. This means a proper ',) helps Unilever to take many decisions. 2.2: +tages o !uman "esource Planning (!"P), Pccording to rmstrong "#$$%&, these are the stages of ',) 8efine organisational strategy- In this stage a company carefully considers vision, mission and strategic objectives to achieve. The strategic objectives many be improving market share by 1$? over the five years. In fact in initial stage it is all about business strategy and business plan for medium and long term. ssessment of business environment2 This is integral part of ', planning. 3rganisations carries out )54T56 and 4*3T analysis. )54T65 stands for political, economical, socio-cultural, technological, environmental and legal factors. )5T56 information helps to understand labour market situations, purchasing power of customers and changes in employment rules and regulations. Internal environment helps to assess company.s strengths such as finance, high (uality products or services, or weaknesses such as lack of advance technology or high turnover. Forecast 8emand2 The first and second stages provide information about number of people re(uired. 8emand forecast also emphasi1es on the (uality aspects of ',). 4upply Forecasting2 In this stage ', manager assess the number of people available internally in the first place. 'owever, sometimes it may not be possible to supply re(uires staffs internally then ', managers forecast e/ternal supply. 2.$: "ecruitment and +election Process o %nile)er and Tesco (P.) ,ecruitment and selection process at Unilever The process begins as mentioned below2 /ob 0nal'sis: In the first stage Unilever determines roles, responsibilities, skills, knowledge and e/perience. The roles and responsibilities is known as job description and competency framework which lists knowledge, e/perience, skills and set of behaviour to carry out the specific job. This is known as person specification. Therefore, in first stage Unilever define job description and person specification. Safiq Islam HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ID: 10971 Page @

0d)ertise the )acancies: In second stage, Unilever, advertises the vacancies in different media such as company website, internal maga1ine, notice board and word of mouth. Unilever also conducts job seminars and fair, advertise on local newspapers and trade maga1ines, University recruitment etc. The main aim is to attract potential talents. It is important for Unilever to attract a pool of talent people. Therefore, Unilever has provided re(uired information on career website. +hort listing and selection process: fter receiving application, the ', system fter short-listing and do online

automatically shortlisted based on job roles and skill fits.

psychometric test. This stage helps to filter possible potential candidates. ', manager then conduct a series of interview process such as telephonic interview, panel interview, and assessment centre. Aob offer and Induction2 induction programme. "ecruitment and +election at Tesco ccording to the corporate website, Tesco is one of the largest supermarkets in the U;. It employs %7$$$$ employees. It has hundreds of established brands and its own value brand. It serves millions of customers in a week and serve in more than 1# countries. It has very sophisticated recruitment and selection process. Tesco need people in different department such as store, supply chain, and head offices. fter selection Unilever offers job to the candidates and arrange for

Safiq Islam HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ID: 10971

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4ource2 Times1$$ ccording to Times1$$ case study, Tesco firs publish their vacancies on *ebsite and local newspaper as well as ask potential employees to drop <B in stores. 4hortlist2 Tesco screen all the applicants <B to find the best candidates from the pool of the talented people. Interview2 3nce the candidates are shortlisted then they are invited for the first round interview. Invitation for attend assessment centre2 The selected candidates are invited to attend assessment centre while unselected candidates are send an unsuccessful letter. 4econd round interview2 fter successful completion of assessment centre, candidates are

invited for second round interview. Aob offer2 The successful candidates are then receive job offer and contract 2.(: 1 ecti)eness o "ecruitment and +election o %nile)er and Tesco (P2) ccording to such as 5fficient- It should be cost effective in terms of methods and sources 5ffective- It should produce enough number of suitable candidates without e/cess and ensure identify the best match with organisational culture and candidate job profile Fair- This is the process is right in terms of decision making are on merit and free from favouritism Importantly, both organisations have used human resource planning "',)&. ',) helps to assess future supply and demand, formulate training and development programmes, and fle/ible work pattern such as part time, full time, contract etc. In terms of 5fficient, Unilever uses online application system that helps in reducing advertising and administrative costs. 4imilarly, Tesco has also online recruitment and short listing system that eventually fastened the process. Safiq Islam HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ID: 10971 Page + < 4, an effective recruitment and selection depends upon several factors

0oth companies have successfully attracted a pool of potential candidates that matched with companies culture and beliefs. It is better for both companies to have employees matching with norms and values. Finally, both companies have used a wide range of selection methods such as assessment centre, panel interview and final interview which ensure a fair selection. Unilever and Tesco have considered the legal aspects of employment such as e(ual opportunity and diversity. 0oth companies provide e(ual opportunity regardless of their age, gender, and disabilities. This clearly indicates that both companies have an effective recruitment and selection policies and procedure. Task $: $.1: 3ink between moti)ational theor' and reward (P4) There are many motivational theories such as !aslow.s, 'ert1berg, Taylor.s theory, and Broom 5/pectancy theory. ccording to !ullins "#$$%& all motivation theories have link with reward. In other word, rewards has a link with motivation theories. rmstrong "#$$@& suggested that the reward can be financial and non-financial. The financial rewards includes salaries and benefits. The non-financial rewards includes sick leave, training and development, promotion, challenging task, recognition, trust and respect. 4pecifically, motivational theory of Taylor argues that employees are motivated by financial rewards. Taylor proved that if employees are provided money then employees are motivated. !oney motivates concept is further supported by the work of !aslow. !aslow says that human has % levels of needs. The first need is more related with financial rewards. 'owever, once the first needs are fulfilled, money no longer motivates people. The second level of needs related to job security and social needs. !aslow also suggested that non-financial rewards such as tam work, sense of belongings, and challenging tasks. The financial and non-financial reward is supported by 'ert1berg two factors theories. The first set of factors includes relationships with supervisors and colleagues, salary, security, and personal life. 'ygiene factors are more related to financial rewards. dditionally, motivators are recognition, responsibilities, and sense of achievement. !otivators are non-financial

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rewards. From the above e/amples we can see that motivational theories have link with rewards.

$.2: /ob e)aluation and other actors determining pa' (P15)

ccording to !ullins "#$$%& job evaluation is the process of determining a basis of the relative importance of jobs. In simple term, job evaluation is the assessment of the relative worth of various jobs based on jobs contents and person specification. The aim of job evaluation is to determine relative pay. Aob evaluation is carried out by using different methods such as job ranking and job grading. Aob evaluation helps to reduce ine(ualities in salary structure because people would like to know how they are paid in the company. Therefore, job evaluation provides consistency in pay structures. In the workplace individuals are working with specialisation such as <hange management or !erger and ac(uisition e/pert or redundancy e/pert. ccording to <I)8 "#$17&, the pay structure is determined by so many factors such as 6ine pay with business 4trategy for e/ample encourage high performance Increase pay according to career progression 5nsure the fairness and lawfulness in pay structure !atch with number of grades, level or bands )ay can be match with the width or span of each grade

$.$: The e ecti)eness o reward s'stems in two di erent work conte6ts (P11)

Safiq Islam HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ID: 10971

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ccording to

rmstrong "#$$%& an effective reward system is a strategic approach. This

means strategic reward should based on designing and implementing for long term policies and practices to support business effectiveness and employees motivation. *e have discussed in previous section that reward has linked with motivation which means company has to think about develop total rewards. The key elements of effective reward system is <learly communicate with all stakeholder about the reward system 8efine performance related pay and measurement criteria 5nsure rewards helps to attract, motivate and retain talent Use total rewards such as fle/ible benefits, career development, autonomy at work, recognition of achievement, motivating workplace environment, fle/ible working hours, challenging work It should be contingency approach which means rewards should be tailored to the match with organisational culture, and meet the needs and e/pectations of employees ,eward should be to improve good employees behaviour It should focus on people that is reward should recogni1e that people are key for company In fact, specifically in two different conte/t 'igh performance2 In high performance conte/t, management should reward according the performance related pay. This means management should have clearly mentioned how performance is going to be measured and accordingly will be paid. For e/ample, in some sales company, sales representatives have to meet sales target and they are paid based on percentage. Underperformance conte/t In this situation, management can offer for training and development. This is also a part of reward. 'owever, management must make sure that employee will achieve performance after Safiq Islam HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ID: 10971 Page 11

training. 4upervisor should provide continuous feedback and support and engage employee to achieve the target. $.(: #onitor emplo'ee per ormance (P12)

ccording to

rmstrong "#$$%& performance management is a continuous process.

)erformance management should aimed at performance improvement, development and manage behaviour. )erformance is measured through performance appraisal. It is a formal assessment and rating of employees performance on regular basis. )erformance appraisal is generally carried out by line managers. In performance review, line manager first discussed with the agreed individual objectives. Individual has a clear idea about what is being e/pected. The popular method of performance is 7@$ degree feedback. 7@$ degree feedback involves gathering information from individual.s self assessment, feedback from line manager, feedback from line manager of line manager, peer review. In performance appraisal, line manager focuses on five key elements. !easurement- In this stage line manager assess performance against agreed objectives, behaviour and attitude Feedback- In this stage line manager provides information on individual performance and progress. 6ine manager also provides information on what went well and what went wrong as well as what improvement is re(uired. )ositive reinforcement- line manager positively encourage and support individual. line manager provides a constructive feedback on what might be improved. 5ncourage two way communications- line manager encourages individual to talk and e/change information. 6ine manager asks individual on how he can improve performance, and the support heCshe re(uire to improve the performance Det agreement- line manager and employee get into agreement on what need to improve and sustain performance. Safiq Islam HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ID: 10971 Page 1#

Task (:

(.1: Identi ' the reasons or cessation o emplo'ment with 'our chosen organisation (P1$)

In Unilever the company will terminate employees for any one of the reason as mentioned below2 If employees have not capacity such as mental problem, skills and behavioural problems !isconduct such as miss behave with colleagues, line manager and customers etc 6egally not fit for job 8ismissal from the job for any reasons such as wrongful, unfair or justified Termination from the job for many reasons such as resignation for personal and professional reason, termination of contract, and redundancy In Unilever all employees receives staff handbook. 5mployees have been given all the information about the miss conduct and gross conduct. The gross conduct pushes management to terminate employees from the employment. 'owever, handbook also provided information about appeal procedure if they believe unfairly dismissed from the job.

(.2: Describe the emplo'ment e6it procedures o two di erent organisations including 'our chosen compan'. (P1()

16it procedure o %nile)er

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The e/it procedure of Unilever is clearly mentioned in contract paper. Unilever has standard procedure in place. 3nce employee resign from the company, ', manager invites for attend e/it interview. Unilever provides two options. First, they invite to attend e/it interview with ', manager and the line manager. 4econd they sent an e/it interview (uestionnaires which employees needs to fill up and send to the ', 8epartment. In both cases Unilever focuses on gathering information such as when employees started thinking to leave the organisation, about positive and negative about the management practices, working environment etc. ', manager manages consultation session and training session to convince and persuade employees. 6ine manager asks the leaver to train other employees before he leaves the company. ', manager asks the leaver to handover all the properties to ', department ', manager clear the account. 16it procedure at Tesco In Tesco, 6ine manager first does informal interview with employees regarding reason for leaving from the company. ', manager asks individual in writing the intention to leave from the company. 6ine manager then does informal meeting with people and provides consultation. 5mployees have to train other employees heCshe leaves the company 5mployees have to handover all property.

(.$: 7onsider the impacts o the %& regulator' ramework on emplo'ment cessation arrangements. (P1*)

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U; has regulatory framework on employment cessation. The regulation is to ensure employers do not terminate wrongfully or unfairly. U; has given right of law of contract and statutory protection to all employees. 5mployment ,ight in terms of unfair or wrongful dismissal. 5mployer must ensure that employees are terminated with a valid reason to avoid any unpleasant conse(uences such as tribunal or damage of reputation. There is two specific situations employees leave a company. Boluntary cessation is situation where employees resign from the employment on own willing. Involuntary situation where employee are terminates because of downsi1ing or rightsi1ing, disciplinary action, closure of branches etc. ccording to 5mployment ct #$1#, employers must provide e(ual opportunity and not ct #$1# has supported employees

discriminate on the basis of age, gender, se/ and se/ual orientation etc. This means it is unlawful to discriminate any employees in employment practices of recruitment, selection, training and development and dismissal. rmstrong "#$$%& suggests that employer should follow a series of steps to make sure the cessation is lawful. 5mployer should provide information verbal warning 4end formal written warning letter 4end formal final written warning letter llowing employees to appeal

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"e erence: rmstrong, !. "#$$%&, A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practices, 1$th 5d, 6ondon2 ;ogan )age <I)8 "#$1#& http2CCwww.cipd.co.ukChr-resourcesCemployment-law-fa(sCe(ual-pay-

provisions.asp/ <I)8 "#$1#& http2CCwww.cipd.co.ukChr-resourcesCfactsheetsCworkforce-planning.asp/ ;ona ;ai "#$17&, E3nlineF #$17F !ullins, 6. A. "#$$%&, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 6ondon2 )earson 5ducation 6imited Torrington, et al "#$$+&, Human Resource Management, 6ondon2 )earson 5ducation 6imited. http2CCwww.cipd.co.ukChr-resourcesCfactsheetsCdismissal.asp/ http2CCwww.cipd.co.ukChr-resourcesCfactsheetsCrecruitment-overview.asp/ http2CCwww.cipd.co.ukChr-resourcesCfactsheetsCstrategic-reward-total-reward.asp/ vailable at http2CCwww.konakai.co.ukC E ccessed on 1+ Aune

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