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2 hemispheres 2 types of cells Glial (structure) Neurons (info) 10-100B AH: No more than the electrochemical activit of the

cells AP: electro-chemical change that travels dow the axon


Seeing something is a result of action potentials in the visual cortex, whereas perception of being touched is a result of action potentials in the somatosensory cortex.

Penfield experiment: stimulation in different brain areas/ cortical homonclus


CAT (A): bones/tumors/cells absorb xrays MRI (A): atoms give off radio frequency in high magnetic field/mri detects these rfs Fmri (P): increase in neural/increase blood flow/ changes in local ratio oxygenated/deoxygenated hemoglobin/changes magnetic properties/ Detects H atoms Animal studies/brain damage patients

Right hemisphere left field of vision and vice versa Neural signals processed in area 17 Different areas of the brain devoted to different functions Binding problem: How are different areas of the brain connected?

Experiments with brain damage patients (see how patients with brain damage respond to stimuli) Behavioral experiment with healthy individuals Fmri/pet scar with healthy individuals Split brain fmris Language located in left hemisphere Broca area Fmri show for both left handed and right handed mostly in left if not both What neurological processes underlie the perception of both sound and vision? Both are a result of brain (neural) activity, action potentials (information transfer within a neuron) and synaptic activity (communication between neurons).

Local vs Global: o Brain damage (forest/trees), normal patients (left plane of vision to right plane of vision letters) o Facial recognition: agnosia examination (most of them are right or both), normal (left/left 69% right right), fmri (facial recognition shows in left side) o Interpreter interprets brain behavior, it is located in left hemisphere, single consciousness Popular claim: complex behavior/skill are largely due to activity in one hemisphere WRONG Hemispheres do not function the same way TRUE
Time dilation is the difference of elapsed time of event measured by different observers Trajectory of moving clock is diagonal, so longer distance longer time Lorentz contraction in moving objects Energy of motion increases the mass of an object E=mc^2 shows that energy is always relativistic to mass in whatever form the energy takes

Speed of light is constant relative to anything. Special relativity theory of Einstein People moving relative to one another dont agree on simultaneity (time moves slower for the person moving relative to the other) = simultaneity is in the eye of the beholder Train peace treaty

Newton gravity: F=Gmm/r^2 Flawed because gravity cannot be faster than c Newton had no idea how gravity exerted its influence Einstein: Space and time communicate force of gravity Equivalence principle: mass of an object is the same for being in a state of gravity and state of accelerated motion Accelerated motion = warped space (vortex ruler) Gravity = warped space Eclipse of star

Blackhole is a mass squeezed into the Schwarzchild radius Time stops because gravity slows the passage of time Speed of light = speed of gravity Universe is expanding/ galaxies farther away are receding at higher speeds Big bang states that our universe was created when a tiny, super dense and hot mass exploded and began expanding rapidly, eventually cooling and forming into stars Evidence of blackholes, heat xrays of dust on the outside of blackholes

Water waves passing through double slits form interference patterns bc of overlapping waves Electrons also make interference pattern because of overlapping waves/ diffraction pattern Intereference pattern formed even when electrons fired one by one because of probability wave Heisenberg uncertainty- you cannot know exactly know both location and speed at the same time

Einstein view was that probability arises in quantum mechanics just as weather and casinos A result of incomplete knowledge On the contrary Bohr believed that based on probabilities, the act of observation itself had a role in producing a single definite reality out of a fuzzy, indefinite one. => Entanglement When 2 objects interact with each other and then are separated one must describe them as a unit/ intertwined

Experiment of Bell show of 3d spinning show that the recorded spin would be opposites 50% of the time and not 55% according to Einstein Podolsky Rosen. Thus the particles are not definite. Bohr was right: particles don't have definite properties when not being measured When looking at something, producing a single definite reality out of an indefinite one. Many different dimensions of reality (schrodinger's cat) Electron caught in a haze of uncertain position until the point when you measure which is when it snaps into place Collapses all possible position and electron snaps into one position or one spin. A hypothesis must have the potential to be experimentally disproven. In other words, a scientific hypothesis must be falsifiable, that is, it must encapsulate specific predictions that can be tested Revise a hypothesis in order to prove it then it becomes a theory

Random error: Human mistakes, lack of precision Systematic Error: error in measurement (m instead of cm)

The concept of a controlled experiment is simple: change exactly one factor and keep all other conditions constant. While experiments can sometimes identify causal factors, they still have limitations. Despite efforts to control for important variables, confounding variables can impact results.

Observation is made to establish correlation Correlation does not imply causation The model is an abstract human construction incorporates the essential ingredients of a system to make predictions about future behavior. However a lot of assumptions have to be made. Proxy is a substitute measurement Selection must be very random in order to eliminate bias