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Han Chinese
/
/
Cao Xueqin Du Fu Qiu Jin Zhu Xi
Chien-Shiung
Wu
Yang Liwei Terence Tao Tsung-Dao
Lee
Qin Shi Huang Sun Yat-
sen
Lee Kuan
Yew
Liu Bang
Zhou Xuan Confucius Yo-Yo Ma Bruce Lee
Total population
c. 1.310 billion
China 1.240 billion[1]
Taiwan 22,575,365[1]
Indonesia 2,832,5107,670,000[2][3]
Thailand 7,053,240[4]
Malaysia 6,960,000[5]
Hong Kong 6,593,410[1]
United States 3,794,673[6]
Singapore 3,684,936[7]
Han Chinese
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Han people" redirects here. For the aboriginal North American people, see Hn people. For other
uses, see Han (disambiguation).
The Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to East Asia.
They constitute approximately 92% of the population of
Mainland China, 94% of the population of Hong Kong, 95%
of the population of Macau, 98% of the population of
Taiwan, 74% of the population of Singapore, 24.5% of the
population of Malaysia, and about 20% of the entire global
human population, making them the largest ethnic group in the
world. There is considerable genetic, linguistic, cultural, and
social diversity among the Han, mainly due to thousands of
years of immigration and assimilation of various regional
ethnicities and tribes within China.
[18]
The Han Chinese are a
subset of the Chinese nation (Zhonghua minzu). Sometimes
Han and other Chinese refer to themselves as the
"Descendants of the Yan and Huang Emperors".
Contents
1 Terms and etymology
2 Distribution
2.1 Mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau
2.2 Taiwan
2.3 Other locations
3 History
3.1 Prehistory and the Huaxia
3.2 Early history
3.3 Imperial history
3.4 Recent history
4 Culture
4.1 Language
4.2 Names
4.3 Dress
4.4 Family
4.5 Food
4.6 Literature
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Singapore 3,684,936[7]
Canada 1,364,215[4]
Peru 1,300,000[4]
Vietnam 1,263,570[4]
Cambodia 1,180,000[8]
Philippines 1,146,250[4]
Burma 1,101,314[4]
Russia 998,000[4]
Australia 866,200[9]
Japan 655,377[10]
Macau 433,641[1]
Venezuela 400,000[11]
South Africa 350,000[12]
United Kingdom 296,623[4]
France 230,515[4]
Spain 197,214
India 189,470[4]
Laos 185,765[4]
Italy 162,000
Brazil 151,649[4]
New Zealand 147,510[13]
Netherlands 144,928[4]
South Korea 137,790[14]
Panama 135,000[15][16]
Languages
Chinese
Religion
Non-religious, Chinese folk religion (including
Taoism, ancestral worship and others), Mahayana
Buddhism
, and other faiths.[17]
4.7 Contributions to humanity
4.8 Religion
5 DNA analysis
6 References
7 Further reading
8 External links
Terms and etymology
The name Han comes from the Han Dynasty, which
succeeded the short-lived Qin Dynasty. The Han Dynasty's
first emperor Liu Bang was originally known as the king of
the region of Hanzhong after which the dynasty was named.
The name Hanzhong, in turn, is derived from the Han River,
which flows through the Hanzhong Plain (zhong means
middle).
Prior to the Han Dynasty, Chinese scholars used the term as
"Huaxia people" (, interpreted to mean "civilized
society"), citing the ancient text description of China proper
as an area of magnificent prosperity and culture. The Han
Dynasty was considered a classical period in Chinese
civilization, in that it was able to expand its power and
influence over Central Asia, Southeast Asia and Northeast
Asia. As a result of the Han Dynasty's prominence, many
Chinese began addressing themselves as "people of Han" (
), a name that has since been carried down. In the English
language, the Han are often referred to as simply
"Chinese".
[19]
Whether or not use of the term "Chinese"
correctly or incorrectly refers only to Han Chinese is often a
subject of debate.
Among some southern Han Chinese, in dialects such as
Cantonese, Hakka, Minnan and Teochew a different term
exists Tngrn (, literally "the people of Tang"). This
term is derived from a later Chinese dynasty, the Tang
Dynasty, regarded as another zenith of Chinese civilization.
The term is used in everyday conversation and is also an
element in the Cantonese word for Chinatown:
(Tngrnji); literally meaning "Street of the people of Tang".
Another term commonly used by Overseas Chinese is
Huaren (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ;
pinyin: hurn), derived from Zhonghua (simplified Chinese:
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Han Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
Transcriptions
Hakka
Romanization Hn-tshu k
Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin Hnz
WadeGiles Han-tzu
IPA [xnts]
Yale Romanization Hndz
Bopomofo
Min
Hokkien POJ Hn-cho k
Min-dong BUC Hng-ck
Teochew Peng'im Hng-tsk
Wu
Romanization Hoe zoh
Cantonese
Jyutping Hon3 zuk6
IPA [hn ts

k]
Yale Romanization Hon juhk
1983 Map of ethnolinguistic groups in
mainland China and Taiwan (Han is in
olive green)
; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: zhnghu), a literary
name for China. The usual translation is "ethnic Chinese". The
term refers to "Chinese" as a cultural and ethnic affiliation and
is inclusive of both Chinese in China, and persons of Chinese
descent residing abroad.
Distribution
Mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau
The vast majority of Han Chinese over 1.2 billion live in
areas under the jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China
(PRC), where they constitute about 92% of its population.
Within the People's Republic of China, Han Chinese are the
majority in every province, municipality, and autonomous
region except for the autonomous regions of Xinjiang (41%
as of 2000) and Tibet (6% as of 2000). Han Chinese also
constitute the majority in both of the special administrative
regions of the PRC, about 95% of the population of Hong
Kong
[20]
and about 96% of the population of Macau.
[21]
Taiwan
Over 22 million Han Chinese are in Taiwan. The Han
Chinese began migrating from southeastern coastal provinces
of mainland China to Taiwan in the 17th century.
[22]
At first, these immigrants chose to settle in locations that bore
a resemblance to the areas they had left behind in mainland
China, regardless of whether they arrived in the north or
south of Taiwan. Hoklo Han immigrants from Quanzhou settled in coastal
regions, and those from Zhangzhou tended to gather on inland plains,
while Hakka Han immigrants inhabited hilly areas. Clashes between these
groups over land, water, and cultural differences led to the relocation of
some communities, and, as time passed, varying degrees of intermarriage
and assimilation took place.
[22]
Recent scientific research conducted by
Chen Shun-sheng of the Kaohsiung Hospitals psychiatric department
claims DNA studies of Taiwans people revealed a large percentage of
the population has mixed Han Chinese and aboriginal bloodlines.
[23]
Other locations
Main article: Overseas Chinese
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Of about 40 million "overseas Chinese" worldwide, nearly 30 million live in Southeast Asia. Singapore has the
largest majority overseas Chinese population at 74%. Christmas Island also has a Chinese majority at 70%. Large
Chinese populations also live in Malaysia (25%), Thailand (14%), Indonesia (7%), and the Philippines. Elsewhere
in the world, 3 million people of Chinese descent live in the United States where they constitute about 1% of the
population, over 1 million in Canada (3.7%), over 1.3 million in Peru (4.3%), over 600,000 in Australia (3.5%),
nearly 150,000 in New Zealand (3.7%), and as many as 750,000 in Africa.
[24]
History
Main article: History of China
Because of the overwhelming numerical and cultural dominance of the Han people in China, most of the written
history of China can be read as "a history of the Han Chinese", with only passing references to the ethnic minorities
in China.
[25]
Prehistory and the Huaxia
Main article: Huaxia
The prehistory of the Han Chinese ethnic group is closely intertwined with their history. Han Chinese trace their
ancestry from the Huaxia people, who lived along the Huang He or Yellow River in northern China.
[26][27]
Writers
during the Western Zhou and Han periods derived ancestral lineages from the Huaxia (later known as Xia) based
on Shang-era legendary materials.
[28][29]
The famous Chinese historian Sima Qian's Records of the Grand
Historian places the reign of Huang Di (also known as the Yellow Emperor), the legendary ancestor of the
Huaxia, at the beginning of Chinese history. He is traditionally considered to have united the Huaxia following the
Battle of Banquan.
Although study of this period of history is complicated by the absence of contemporary records, the discovery of
archaeological sites has enabled a succession of Neolithic cultures to be identified along the Yellow River. Along
the central reaches of the Yellow River were the Jiahu culture (ca. 7000 BCE to 6600 BCE), Yangshao culture
(ca. 5000 BCE to 3000 BCE) and Longshan culture (ca. 3000 BCE to 2000 BCE). Along the lower reaches of
the river were the Qingliangang culture (ca. 5400 BCE to 4000 BCE), the Dawenkou culture (ca. 4300 BCE to
2500 BCE), the Longshan culture (ca. 2500 BCE to 2000 BCE), and the Yueshi culture.
Early history
Main articles: Xia Dynasty, Shang Dynasty and Zhou Dynasty
The first dynasty to be described in Chinese historical records is the Xia Dynasty, a legendary period for which
scant archaeological evidence exists. They were overthrown by peoples from the east
[citation needed]
, who founded
the Shang Dynasty (16001046 BCE). The earliest archaeological examples of Chinese writing date back to this
period, from characters inscribed on oracle bone divination, but the well-developed oracle characters hint at a
much earlier origin of writing in China.
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During the Shang Dynasty, people of the Wu area, in the Yangtze River Delta, were considered a different tribe,
and were described as being scantily dressed, tattooed and spoke a distinct language.
[30][31]
Later Taibo, elder
uncle of King Wen of Zhou, realising that his younger brother, Jili, was wiser than him and deserved to inherit the
throne, fled to Wu
[32]
and settled there. Three generations later, King Wu of Zhou defeated the last Yin emperor,
and enfeoffed the descendants of Taibo in Wu,
[32]
this mirrors
[citation needed]
the later history of Nanyue, where a
Chinese king and his soldiers ruled a local non-Han population, and mixed with the local inhabitants who were
sinicized over time. By the Tang Dynasty, however, this area had become part of the Han Chinese
heartland
[citation needed]
. The Shang were eventually overthrown by the people of Zhou, which had emerged as a
state along the Yellow River in the 2nd millennium BC.
[31]
The Zhou Dynasty was the successor to the Shang
[citation needed]
. Sharing the language and culture of the Shang
people, they extended their reach to encompass much of the area north of the Yangtze River.
[33][34]
Through
conquest and colonization, much of this area came under the influence of sinicization and this culture extended
south.
[31][34]
However, the power of the Zhou kings fragmented, and many independent states emerged. This
period is traditionally divided into two parts, the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States period. This
period was an era of major cultural and philosophical development known as the Hundred Schools of Thought.
Among the most important surviving philosophies from this era are the teachings of Confucianism and
Taoism
[citation needed]
.
Imperial history
Main article: Qin Dynasty
Many Chinese scholars such as Ho Ping-Ti believe that the concept of a Han ethnicity is an ancient one, dating from
the Han Dynasty itself.
[35]
The era of the Warring States came to an end with the unification of China by the Qin
Dynasty after it conquered all other rival states. Its leader, Qin Shi Huang, declared himself the first emperor, using
a newly created title, thus setting the precedent for the next two millennia. He established a new centralized and
bureaucratic state to replace the old feudal system, creating many of the institutions of imperial China, and unified
the country economically and culturally by decreeing a unified standard of weights, measures, currency, and writing.
Main article: Han Dynasty
However, the reign of the first imperial dynasty was to be short-lived. Due to the first emperor's autocratic rule, and
his massive construction projects such as the Great Wall which fomented rebellion into the populace, the dynasty
fell soon after his death. The Han Dynasty (206 BC 220 AD) emerged from the succession struggle and
succeeded in establishing a much longer lasting dynasty. It continued many of the institutions created by Qin Shi
Huang but adopted a more moderate rule. Under the Han Dynasty, arts and culture flourished, while the dynasty
expanded militarily in all directions. This period is considered one of the greatest periods of the history of China,
and the Han Chinese take their name from this dynasty.
Main articles: Three Kingdoms, Sixteen Kingdoms, Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui Dynasty and
Tang Dynasty
The fall of the Han Dynasty was followed by an age of fragmentation and several centuries of disunity amid warfare
by rival kingdoms. During this time, areas of northern China were overrun by various non-Han nomadic peoples
which came to establish kingdoms of their own, the most successful of which was Northern Wei established by the
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A female servant and
male advisor dressed in
silk robes, ceramic
figurines from the
Western Han Era
Han Chinese man wears a
queue in compliance with
Manchu custom during
the Qing era
Xianbei. Starting from this period, the native population of China proper began to be
referred to as Hanren, or the "People of Han", to distinguish from the nomads from
the steppe; "Han" refers to the old dynasty. Warfare and invasion led to one of the
first great migrations in Han population history, as the population fled south to the
Yangtze and beyond, shifting the Chinese demographic center south and speeding up
Sinicization of the far south. At the same time, in the north, most of the nomads in
northern China came to be Sinicized as they ruled over large Chinese populations
and adopted elements of Chinese culture and Chinese administration. Of note, the
Xianbei rulers of the Northern Wei ordered a policy of systematic Sinicization,
adopting Han surnames, institutions, and culture.
The Sui (581618) and Tang Dynasties (618907) saw the continuation of the
complete Sinicization of the south coast of what is now China proper, including what
are now the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. The later part of the Tang Dynasty,
as well as the Five Dynasties period that followed, saw continual warfare in north
and central China; the relative stability of the south coast made it an attractive
destination for refugees.
Main articles: Song Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty
The next few centuries saw successive invasions of non-Han peoples from the north,
such as the Khitans and Jurchens. In 1279 the Mongols (Yuan Dynasty) conquered
all of China, becoming the first non-Han to do so. The Mongols divided society into
four classes, with themselves occupying the top class and Han Chinese into the
bottom two classes. The Song and Yuan dynasties banned emigration, seen as
disloyalty to ancestors and ancestral land, and foresaw severe penalties for it.
[36]
In 1368 Han Chinese rebels drove out the Mongols and, after some infighting,
established the Ming Dynasty (13681644). Settlement of Han Chinese into
peripheral regions continued during this period, with Yunnan in the southwest
receiving a large number of migrants.
In 1644, Beijing was captured by Li Zicheng's peasant rebels and the last Ming
Emperor Chongzhen committed suicide. The Manchus (Qing Dynasty) then allied
with Ming Dynasty general Wu Sangui and seized control of Beijing. Remnant Ming
forces led by Koxinga fled to Taiwan, where they eventually capitulated to Qing
forces in 1683. Taiwan, previously inhabited mostly by non-Han aborigines, was
Sinicized via large-scale migration accompanied with assimilation during this period, despite efforts by the Manchus
to prevent this, as they found it difficult to maintain control over the island. In 1681, the emperor ordered
construction of the Willow Palisade to prevent Han Chinese migration to the three northeastern provinces, which
nevertheless harbored a significant Chinese population for centuries, especially in the southern Liaodong area. The
Manchus designated the provinces as "Manchuria", to which the Manchus could hypothetically escape and regroup
if the dynasty fell.
[37]
But because of increasing Russian territorial encroachment and annexation of neighboring
territory, the Qing later reversed its policy and allowed the consolidation of a demographic Han majority in
northeast China.
In the 19th century, Chinese migrants went in large numbers to other parts of the world, including Southeast Asia,
Australia, and North America. See Overseas Chinese.
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Han women in traditional dress
Recent history
Main articles: Republic of China and People's Republic of China
Prior to the 20th century, some Chinese-speaking groups such as the
Hakka and the Tanka were not universally accepted as Han Chinese,
while some non-Chinese speaking peoples, such as the Zhuang, were
sometimes considered Han.
[38]
During the Qing Dynasty, Han Chinese
who had entered the Eight Banners military system were considered
Manchu, while Chinese nationalists seeking to overthrow the monarchy
stressed Han Chinese identity in contrast to the Manchu rulers. Upon its
founding in 1912, the Republic of China recognized five major ethnic
groups: the Han, Hui, Mongols, Manchus, and Tibetans
Today, Hui are considered a separate ethnic group, but aside from their
practice of Islam, little distinguishes them from the Han; two Han from
different regions might differ more in language, customs, and culture than
a neighboring Han and Hui. Today, the People's Republic of China
(which succeeded the ROC on the mainland in 1949) now recognizes
fifty-six ethnic groups. Since 1949, the Republic of China has retreated
to Taiwan, bringing about one million refugees with it, further augmenting the population of Taiwan. In the 1980s,
the one-child policy was introduced in People's Republic to regulate population growth, which only applies to the
Han.
[39]
Chinese migration overseas has also continued into the 20th and 21st centuries. The returning of Hong Kong to
Chinese sovereignty in 1997 prompted large waves of Hong Kong Chinese migration to North America, Australia,
and elsewhere.
[40]
Chinese presences have also been established in Europe as well as Russia, especially the
Russian Far East.
Culture
Main article: Chinese culture
China is one of the world's oldest and most complex civilizations. Chinese culture dates back thousands of years.
Han Chinese maintain cultural affinities to Chinese lands outside of their locale by ancestor worship and Chinese
clan associations, which often identify famous figures from Chinese history or myth as ancestors of current
members.
[41]
Such patriarchs include the Yellow Emperor and Yan Emperor, who according to legend lived
thousands of years ago and gave Han people the sobriquet "Descendants of Yan and Huang Emperor" (
; ), a phrase which has reverberative connotations in a divisive political climate, as in that between
mainland China and Taiwan.
Throughout the history of China, Chinese culture has been heavily influenced by Confucianism. Credited with
shaping much of Chinese thought, Confucianism was the official philosophy throughout most of Imperial China's
history, institutionalizing values like filial piety which implied the performance of certain shared rituals. Thus, villagers
lavished on funeral and wedding ceremonies that imitated the Confucian standards of the Emperors.
[41]
Mastery of
Confucian texts provided the primary criterion for entry into the imperial bureaucracy, but even those degree-
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Along the River During the Qingming
Festival captures the daily life of
people from the Song period at the
capital, Bianjing, today's Kaifeng.
holders who did not enter the bureaucracy or who left it held increased social influence in their home areas,
contributing to the homogenizing of Han Chinese culture. Other factors contributing to the development of a shared
Han culture included urbanization and geographically vast but integrated commodity markets.
[41]
Language
Main article: Chinese language
Han Chinese speak various forms of the Chinese language that are
descended from a common early language;
[41]
one of the names of the
language group is Hanyu (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese:
), literally the "Han language". Similarly, Chinese characters, used to
write the language, are called Hanzi (simplified Chinese: ; traditional
Chinese: ), or "Han characters".
In the late imperial period, more than two thirds of the Han Chinese
population used a variant of Mandarin Chinese as their native tongue.
[41]
However, there was a larger variety of Chinese dialects in certain areas
of southeast China, like Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Guangxi.
[41]
Since the
Qin dynasty which standardized the various forms of writing that existed
in China, a standard literary Chinese emerged with vocabulary and grammar that was significantly different from the
various forms of spoken Chinese. A simplified and elaborated version of this written standard was used in business
contracts, notes for Chinese opera, ritual texts for Chinese folk religion, and other daily documents for educated
people.
[41]
During the early 20th century, written vernacular Chinese based on Mandarin dialects, which had been developing
for several centuries, was standardized and adopted to replace Literary Chinese. While written vernacular forms of
other languages of China exist, such as written Cantonese, written Chinese based on Mandarin is widely
understood by speakers of all Chinese languages and has taken up the dominant position among written Chinese
languages, formerly occupied by Literary Chinese. Thus, although the residents of different regions would not
necessarily understand each other's speech, they generally share a common written language.
Beginning in the 1950s, Simplified Chinese characters was adopted in mainland China and later in Singapore, while
Chinese communities in Hong Kong, Macau, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and overseas countries continue to
use Traditional Chinese characters. While significant differences exist between the two character sets, they are
largely mutually intelligible.
Names
Main articles: Chinese name and List of common Chinese surnames
Chinese names are typically two or three syllables in length, with the surname preceding the given name. Surnames
are typically one character in length, though a few uncommon surnames are two or more syllables long, while given
names are one or two syllables long. There are 4,000 to 6,000 surnames in China, of which about 1,000 surnames
are most common.
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A Song Dynasty Chinese
painting Night Revels of Han
Xizai showing scholars in
scholar's robes and musicians
dressed in a Hanfu variant,
12th-century remake of a
10th-century original by Gu
Hongzhong.
In historical China, hundred surnames () was a crucial identity of Han people. Besides the common culture
and writings, common origin rooted in the surnames was another major factor that contributed towards Han
Chinese identity.
[42]
Dress
Main article: Hanfu
Today, Han Chinese usually wear Western-style clothing. Few wear traditional
Hanfu on a regular basis. It is, however, preserved in religious and ceremonial
costumes. For example, Taoist priests dress in fashion typical of scholars of the
Han Dynasty. The ceremonial dress in Japan, such as those of Shinto priests, is
largely in line with ceremonial dress in China during the Tang Dynasty. The
Hanbok in Korea were heavily influenced by traditional Chinese Hanfu during
Ming Dynasty. Now, the most popular traditional Chinese clothing worn by
many women on important occasions such as wedding banquets and New Year
is called the qipao. However, this attire comes not from the Han Chinese but
from a modified dress-code of the Manchus, the ethnic group that ruled China
between the 17th (1644) and the early 20th century (1911).
Family
Han Chinese families throughout China have traditionally had a certain set of prescribed roles, such as the family
head (, jizhng), who represents the family to the outside world; and the family manager (, dngji),
who is in charge of the earnings. Because farmland was commonly bought, sold, or mortgaged, families were run
like enterprises, with set rules for family division (, fnji) of pooled earnings and assets.
[41]
Han Chinese houses are different from place to place. Chinese Han people in Beijing traditionally commonly lived
with the whole family in large houses that were rectangular in shape. This house is called a siheyuan. These houses
had four rooms in the front: the guest room, kitchen, lavatory, and servants' quarters. Across the large double doors
was a wing for the elderly in the family. This wing consisted of three rooms, a central room where the four tablets,
heaven, earth, ancestor, and teacher, were worshipped. There the two rooms attached to the left and right were
bedrooms for the grandparents. The east wing of the house was inhabited by the eldest son and his family, while the
west wing sheltered the second son and his family. Each wing had a veranda, some had a "sunroom" made from a
surrounding fabric supported by a wooden or bamboo frame. Every wing is also built around a central courtyard
used for study, exercise, or nature viewing.
[43]
Food
Main article: Chinese food
China's cuisine varies from Sichuan's famously spicy food to Guangdong's Dim Sum and fresh seafood. Analysis
reveals the main staple of China to be rice. During China's neolithic period, southernwestern rice growers
transitioned to millet in the northwest when they could not find a suitable northwestern ecology, where it was
typically dry and cold, to sustain the generous yields for their staple as well as it could in other areas such as along
the eastern Chinese coast.
[44]
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Literature
Main article: Chinese literature
Chinese has a rich history of classical literature dating back several thousand years. Important early works include
classics texts such as Analects of Confucius, the I Ching, Tao Te Ching, and the Art of War. Some of the most
important Han Chinese poets in the pre-modern era include Li Bai, Du Fu, and Su Dongpo. The most important
novels in Chinese literature, or the Four Great Classical Novels, are: Dream of the Red Chamber, Water Margin,
Romance of the Three Kingdoms, and Journey to the West.
Contributions to humanity
See also: List of Chinese inventions and List of Chinese discoveries
Han Chinese have played a major role in the development of the arts, sciences, philosophy, and mathematics
throughout history. In ancient times, the scientific accomplishments of China included seismological detectors,
multistage rocket, rocket for recreational and military purposes, gunpowder, firearms, fire lance, cannon, landmine,
naval mines, continuous flame thrower, fire arrow, trebuchet, crossbow, fireworks, pontoon bridge, matches,
paper, printing, paper-printed money, insurance, civil service examination system, the raised-relief map, biological
pest control, the multi-tube seed drill, rotary winnowing fan, blast furnace, cast iron, petroleum and natural gas as
fuel, deep drilling for natural gas, oil drilling, porcelain, lacquer, lacquerware, silk fabric, dry docks, the pound lock,
Grand Canal, the magnetic compass, south-pointing chariot, odometer, fishing reel, Su Song water-driven
astronomical clock tower, chain pump, escapement, sliding calipers, trip hammer, kites, sunglasses, toothbrush,
inoculation etc. Paper, printing, the compass, and gunpowder are celebrated in Chinese culture as the Four Great
Inventions. Chinese astronomers were also among the first to record observations of a supernova.
Chinese art, Chinese cuisine, Chinese philosophy, and Chinese literature all have thousands of years of
development, while numerous Chinese sites, such as the Great Wall of China and the Terracotta Army, are World
Heritage Sites. Since the start of the program in 2001, aspects of Chinese culture have been listed by UNESCO as
Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
Throughout much of history, successive Chinese Dynasties have exerted influence on their neighbors in the areas of
art, music, religion, food, dress, philosophy, language, government, and culture. In modern times, Han Chinese form
the largest ethnic group in China, while an overseas Chinese diaspora numbering in the tens of millions has settled in
and contributed to countries throughout the world.
In modern times, Han Chinese have continued to contribute to mathematics and sciences. Among them are Nobel
Prize recipients Steven Chu, Samuel C. C. Ting, Chen Ning Yang, Tsung-Dao Lee, Yuan T. Lee, Daniel C. Tsui,
Roger Y. Tsien, and Charles K. Kao (known as the "Godfather of Broadband" and "Father of Fiber Optics");
[45]
Fields Medal recipients Terence Tao and Shing-Tung Yau, and Turing Award recipient Andrew Yao. Tsien Hsue-
shen was a prominent rocket scientist who helped to found NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
[46]
Chien-Shiung
Wu, nicknamed the "First Lady of Physics" contributed to the Manhattan Project and radically altered modern
physical theory and changed the accepted view of the structure of the universe.
[47]
Ching W. Tang was the inventor
of the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and hetero-junction organic photovoltaic cell (OPV) and is widely
considered the "Father of Organic electronics".
[48]
Others include David Ho (scientist), one of the first scientists to
propose that AIDS was caused by a virus, thus subsequently developing combination antiretroviral therapy to
combat it. Dr. Ho was named Time Magazine Person of the Year in 1996.
[49]
Min Chueh Chang was the co-
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inventor of the combined oral contraceptive pill and is known for his pioneer work and significant contributions to
the development of in vitro fertilization at the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology.
[50][51]
Choh Hao Li
discovered Growth hormone (and subsequently used it to treat a form of Dwarfism caused by Growth hormone
deficiency), Beta-endorphin (the most powerful of the body's natural painkillers), Follicle-stimulating hormone and
Luteinizing hormone (the key hormone used in Fertility testing, an example is the ovulation home test).
[52][53][54]
Joe
Hin Tjio was a cytogeneticist renowned as the first person to recognize the normal number of human chromosomes,
a breakthrough in karyotype genetics.
[55][56]
The HPV Vaccine was co-invented by a researcher of Chinese
ethnicity in Australia.
[57]
The first-generation modern electronic cigarette was invented by Chinese pharmacist in
China
[58]
David T. Wong was one of the scientists credited with the discovery of the ground-breaking drug
Fluoxetine as well as the discovery of atomoxetine, duloxetine and dapoxetine.
[59][60][61]
Yuan-Cheng Fung, an
American of Chinese descent is regarded as the "Father of modern biomechanics" for pioneering the application of
quantitative and analytical engineering principles to the study of the human body and disease.
[62][63]
Thomas Chang,
a Chinese-born Canadian was the inventor of the world's first artificial cell
[64][65]
Shiing-Shen Chern was one of the
leaders in differential geometry of the 20th century and was awarded the 1984 Wolf Prize in mathematics. The
antimalarial drug Artemisinin
[66][67]
and anti-IgE antibody Omalizumab
[68]
for treatment of asthma was discovered
and developed by ethnic Chinese scientists. The new non-invasive prenatal diagnostic testing for Down's
Syndrome, hailed as a breakthrough, was discovered by Chinese researchers in Hong Kong.
[69]
Chinese and US
researchers have recently developed stem cell educator therapy, a new treatment of obtaining stem cells from
human cord blood to re-educate misbehaving immune cells and offers hope for Type 1 diabetics and potentially
other autoimmune diseases.
[70][71][72]
China's system of Barefoot doctors was among the most important
inspirations for the World Health Organisation conference in Alma Ata, Kazakhstan in 1978, and was hailed as a
revolutionary breakthrough in international health ideology emphasizing primary health care and preventive
medicine.
[73][74]
Religion
Main article: Religion in China
Chinese culture has been long characterized by religious pluralism. The Chinese folk religion has always maintained
a profound influence. Indigenous Confucianism and Taoism share aspects of being a philosophy or a religion, and
neither demand exclusive adherence, resulting in a culture of tolerance and syncretism where multiple religions or
belief systems are often practiced in concert, along with local customs and traditions. Han Chinese culture has also
been long influenced by Buddhism, while in recent centuries, Christianity has also gained a foothold in the
population.
Confucianism, a governing philosophy and moral code with some religious elements like ancestor worship, is deeply
ingrained in Chinese culture and was the official state philosophy in China from the Han Dynasty until the fall of
imperial China in the 20th century.
The Chinese folk religion is the set of worship traditions of the ethnic deities of the Han people. It involves worship
of various figures in Chinese mythology, folk heroes such as Guan Yu and Qu Yuan, mythological creatures such as
the Chinese dragon, or family, clan and national ancestors. These practices vary from region to region, and do not
characterize an organized religion, though many traditional Chinese holidays such as the Duanwu (or Dragon Boat)
Festival, Qingming, and the Mid-Autumn Festival come from the most popular of these traditions.
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A traditional representation of
The Vinegar Tasters, an
allegorical image representing
Buddhists, Confucianists, and
Taoists
Taoism, another indigenous religion, is also widely practiced in both its folk
religion forms and as an organized religion, and has influenced Chinese art,
poetry, philosophy, medicine, astronomy, alchemy and chemistry, cuisine,
martial arts, and architecture. Taoism was the state religion of the early Han
Dynasty, and also often enjoyed state patronage under subsequent emperors
and dynasties.
In Han Dynasty, Confucian ideals were the dominant ideology. Near the end of
the dynasty, Buddhism entered China and later gained popularity. Historically,
Buddhism alternated between state tolerance and even patronage, and
persecution. In its original form, Buddhism was at odds with the native Chinese
religions, especially the elite, as certain Buddhist values often conflicted with
Chinese sensibilities. However, through centuries of assimilation, adaptation,
and syncretism, Chinese Buddhism gained an accepted place in the culture.
Buddhism would come to be influenced by Confucianism and Taoism,
[75]
and
exerted influence in turn, such as in the form of Neo-Confucianism.
Though Christian influence in China existed as early as the 7th century,
Christianity did not begin to gain a significant influence in China until contact with
Europeans during the Ming and Qing dynasties. Chinese practices at odds with
Christian beliefs resulted in the Chinese Rites controversy, and subsequent
reduction in Christian influence. Christianity grew considerably following the
First Opium War, after which foreign missionaries in China enjoyed the protection of the Western powers, and
widespread proselytism took place.
DNA analysis
Y-chromosome haplogroup O3 is a common DNA marker in Han Chinese, as it appeared in China in prehistoric
times. It is found in more than 50% of Chinese males, and ranging up to over 80% in certain regional subgroups of
the Han ethnicity.
[76]
However, the mitochondrial DNA of Han Chinese increases in diversity as one looks from
northern to southern China, which suggests that male migrants from northern China married with women from local
peoples after arriving in Guangdong, Fujian, and other regions of southern China.
[77][78]
Despite this, tests
comparing the genetic profiles of northern Han, southern Han and southern natives determined that haplogroups
O1b-M110, O2a1-M88 and O3d-M7, which are prevalent in southern natives, were only observed in some
southern Hans (4% on average), but not in northern Hans. Therefore, this proves that the male contribution of
southern natives in southern Hans is limited.
[18][77]
In contrast, there are consistent strong genetic similarities in the
Y chromosome haplogroup distribution between the southern and northern Chinese population, and the result of
principal component analysis indicates almost all Han populations form a tight cluster in their Y chromosome.
Additionally, the estimated contribution of northern Hans to southern Hans is substantial in both paternal and
maternal lineages and a geographic cline exists for mtDNA. As a result, the northern Hans are the primary
contributors to the gene pool of the southern Hans. However, it is noteworthy that the expansion process was
dominated by males, as is shown by a greater contribution to the Y-chromosome than the mtDNA from northern
Hans to southern Hans. These genetic observations are in line with historical records of continuous and large
migratory waves of northern China inhabitants escaping warfare and famine, to southern China. Aside from these
large migratory waves, other smaller southward migrations also occurred during almost all periods in the past two
5/6/2014 Han Chinese - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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millennia.
[77]
Moreover, a study by the Chinese Academy of Sciences into the gene frequency data of Han
subpopulations and ethnic minorities in China, showed that Han subpopulations in different regions are also
genetically close to the local ethnic minorities, and it means that in many cases blood of ethnic minorities has mixed
into Han, while at the same time, blood of Han also has mixed into the local ethnicities.
[79]
A recent, and to date the
most extensive, genome-wide association study of the Han population shows that geographic-genetic stratification
from north to south has occurred and centrally placed populations act as the conduit for outlying ones.
[80]
Ultimately, with the exception in some ethnolinguistic branches of the Han Chinese, such as Pinghua, there is
coherent genetic structure in all Han Chinese populace.
[81]
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5/6/2014 Han Chinese - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Further reading
Yuan, Haiwang (30 March 2006). The Magic Lotus Lantern and Other Tales from the Han Chinese
(http://books.google.com/books?id=UBHQC_Iz6OMC). Westport, Conn.: Libraries Unlimited.
ISBN 9781591582946. OCLC 65820295 (https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/65820295).
External links
How the Han Chinese became the world's biggest tribe
(http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200409/16/eng20040916_157308.html) People's Daily Online Sept 16,
2004
Map share of ethnic by county of China
(http://www.360doc.com/content/12/0813/22/276037_230028707.shtml)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Han_Chinese&oldid=607016159"
Categories: Han Chinese Subgroups of the Han Chinese
This page was last modified on 4 May 2014 at 12:03.
77. ^
a

b

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