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PROGRAM SARJANA MUDA PENGAJARAN (PENDIDIKAN RENDAH)

DENGAN KEPUJIAN

KOD KURSUS : HBML 2103
TAJUK KURSUS : CHEMISTRY 1
SEMESTER : SEPTEMBER 2012 (SMP KHAS)


NAMA : AMRI BIN NIBIN
NO. KP : 720206-12-5251
NO. KAD METRIK : 720206125251001


NAMA TUTOR
EN. ADRIAN R. GAISAN

NAMA E-TUTOR
KUMARAN A/L LECHIMI KANTHAN



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CONTENT
Page
INTRODUCTION 2 - 3
SALTS SOLUBILITIES 3
Preparation and solubility 3 - 4
Solubility curves 5 - 6
SALTS CHEMICAL TESTS 6
Metal ions 6 - 8
Non-metal ions 8 - 9
Gases 9
SALTS METHODS OF PREPARING SALTS 10
Insoluble Salts 10 - 12
Soluble Salt 13 - 15
LEAD CARBONATE PREPARATIONS AND PRINCIPLES 15 - 17
REFERENCES 18







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INTRODUCTION
Lead(II) nitrate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Pb(NO3)2. It
commonly occurs as a colourless crystal or white powder and,unlike most other lead (II) salts,is
soluble in water.Known since the Middle Ages by the name plumb dulcis,the production of
lead(II) nitrate from either metallic lead or lead oxide in nitric acid was small-scale,for direct use
in making other lead compounds.In the 19th century lead(II) nitrate began to be produced
commercially in Europe and the United States.Historically, the main use was as a raw material in
the production of pigments for lead paints,but such paints have been superseded by less toxic
paints based on titanium dioxide.Other industrial uses included heat stabilisation in nylon and
polyesters,and in coatings ofphotothermographic paper.Since around the year 2000, lead(II)
nitrate has begun to be used in gold cyanidation.
Lead(II) nitrate is toxic,an oxidising agent,and is categorised as probably carcinogenic to
humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.
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Consequently,it must be handled
and stored with the appropriate safety precautions to prevent inhalation,ingestion and skin
contact.Due to its hazardous nature,the limited applications of lead(II) nitrate are under constant
scrutiny.
Lead carbonate is the chemical compound PbCO3.It is prepared industrially from lead(II)
acetate and carbon dioxide.There are a number of basic lead carbonates and related
compounds,including:
i. White lead,a basic lead carbonate, 2PbCO3Pb(OH)2
ii. Shannonite, PbCO3PbO
iii. 3PbCO3Pb(OH)2PbO
2

iv. PbCO32PbO

1
Patnaik, Pradyot .(2003). Handbook of Inorganic Chemical Compounds. McGraw-Hill. p. 475.
2
S.V. Krivovichev and P.C. Burns, "Crystal chemistry of basic lead carbonates. II. Crystal structure of synthetic
'plumbonacrite'.Mineralogical Magazine, 64(6),December 2000. pp. 1069-1075.

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v. NaPb2(OH)(CO3)2
vi. Leadhillite, 2PbCO3PbSO4Pb(OH)2
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the formula KNO3.It is an ionic salt of
potassium ions K+ and nitrate ions NO3.It occurs as a mineral niter and is a natural solid source
of nitrogen.Potassium nitrate is one of several nitrogen-containing compounds collectively
referred to as saltpeter.Major uses of potassium nitrate are in fertilizers, food additive, rocket
propellants and fireworks; it is one of the constituents of gunpowder.
Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt,soluble in water (insoluble in
alcohol),which forms a strongly alkaline solution.It can be made as the product of potassium
hydroxide's absorbent reaction with carbon dioxide.It is deliquescent,often appearing a damp or
wet solid.Potassium carbonate is used in the production of soap and glass.
SALTS - SOLUBILITIES
The first measure that we use to test the substance whether it was either lead nitrate, lead
carbonate, potassium nitrate or potassium carbonate is using the solubility rules.
(1) Preparation and solubility :
Salts are prepared by reacting an acid with a metal or a base,such as a metal carbonate,
hydroxide or oxide.
The acid provides the non-metal ion for the salt,e.g. chloride or sulphate or nitrate ions.
The metal or base provides the metal ion for the salt,e.g.sodium or copper.
The method used to produce a particular salt depends on two factors -
(i) the solubility of the base used and
(ii) the solubility of the salt to be made.
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Since all acids are aqueous solutions the acid needed does not directly affect the method of
preparation.
The following table summarises the solubilities of the various bases and salts,
compound metal compound soluble in water insoluble in water
hydroxide sodium,potassium,ammonium calcium all others
oxide sodium,potassium,calcium (all dissolve to give hydroxide) all others
carbonate sodium, potassium, ammonium all others
nitrate all possible none
sulphate all others lead,barium
chloride all others silver,lead
There are three main methods of preparing salts: -
(i) for a metal or insoluble base reacting with an acid to produce a soluble salt filtration is used,
e.g. reacting copper(II) oxide with sulphuric acid to make copper(II) sulphate.
(ii) for a soluble base reacting with an acid to produce a soluble salt titration is used,e.g. reacting
sodium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid to make sodium chloride.
(iii) for an insoluble base reacting with an acid to produce an insoluble salt a two stage process
involving filtration and then precipitation is used, e.g. reacting lead(II) oxide firstly with nitric
acid to produce lead(II) nitrate and then reacting the lead(II) nitrate with aqueous iodide ions to
produce lead(II) iodide.




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(2) Solubility curves :
A solubility curve is a graph showing the solubility of a particular compound in a solvent at
various temperatures.
For example -

The data for this graph can be gathered by performing a series of experiments at different
temperatures.
A beaker of water is heated to the required temperature and an excess of solid is added to the
eater,with stirring.The excess is filtered off,dried and weighed and the mass dissolved can be
calculated by subtraction.
The graph can be used to calculate how much solid is needed to make a saturated solution at a
particular temperature.



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For example -

SALTS CHEMICAL TESTS
Experimental sheet for chemical ion tests.
(1) Metal ions :
When metal ions are reacted with hydroxide ions a displacement reaction generally occurs,since
most metal hydroxides are insoluble in water.Group I hydroxides,e.g. sodium hydroxide,are all
soluble in water and so if a solution of sodium hydroxide is mixed with a solution of another
metal ion a precipitate is formed.
The transition metal hydroxides produced tend to be uniquely coloured and so they allow easy
identification of the particular metal ion that is present, e.g. iron(II) hydroxide is green, iron(III)
hydroxide is red and copper(II) hydroxide is blue.




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Below is a table summarizing the precipitates formed with common metal ions - .
Cation Reaction with NaOH
(aq)
Reaction with NH
4
OH
(aq)

aluminium,
Al
3+
(aq)

white precipitate, soluble in
excess
white precipitate, insoluble in excess
ammonium,
NH
4
+
(aq)

ammonia produced on heating
calcium, Ca
2+
(aq)

white precipitate, insoluble in
excess
no precipitate
copper, Cu
2+
(aq)

light blue precipitate, insoluble
in excess
light blue precipitate, soluble in excess giving
a dark blue solution
iron(II), Fe
2+
(aq)

green precipitate, insoluble in
excess
green precipitate, insoluble in excess
iron(III), Fe
3+
(aq)

red-brown precipitate,
insoluble in excess
red-brown precipitate, insoluble in excess
zinc, Zn
2+
(aq)

white precipitate, soluble in
excess
white precipitate, soluble in excess
Exemplar equation -
2NaOH
(aq)
+ CuSO
4(aq)
Na
2
SO
4(aq)
+ Cu(OH)
2(s)

These equations can also be represented only by the reacting ions, simplifying the equation -
2
-
OH
(aq)
+ Cu
2+
(aq)
Cu(OH)
2(s)

As can be seen in the table above if ammonium hydroxide,NH
4
OH, is used instead of sodium
hydroxide some differences occur.Ammonium hydroxide is a weaker base than sodium
hydroxide, i.e. there are fewer hydroxide ions in solution.
For calcium ions this means that there aren't enough hydroxide ions to form any calcium
hydroxide,so no precipitate is seen.
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The addition of excess hydroxide ions allows more differentiation between ions,such as
aluminium and zinc.Normally hydroxides are bases,i.e. they react only with acids; however,
some metal hydroxides are amphoteric,i.e. they react with both acids and bases. This is the case
with aluminium hydroxide and zinc hydroxide.If excess sodium hydroxide is added to the
precipitate a reaction occurs that forms a soluble product.
Exemplar equation -
sodium hydroxide + aluminium hydroxide sodium aluminate
3NaOH
(aq)
+ Al(OH)
3(s)
Na
3
Al(OH)
6(aq)

Ammonium hydroxide is too weak a base to allow this reaction to occur, so the aluminium
hydroxide does not dissolve in excess ammonium hydroxide.
With zinc hydroxide and copper(II) hydroxide the precipitates do dissolve in excess ammonium
hydroxide, not because of an acid-base reaction,but because the molecules of ammonia surround
the metal ions in solution, making them soluble.
(2) Non-metal ions :
There is no particular pattern for testing non-metal ions.The halide ions,chloride,bromide and
iodide,are tested for by adding nitric acid followed by aqueous silver nitrate and noticing the
colour of the precipitate formed.
Carbonate ions react with acids to liberate carbon dioxide gas,which can be tested for by passing
the gas through limewater.
Sulphate ions will undergo a displacement reaction when added to acidified aqueous barium
chloride, BaCl
2
.A white precipitate fo barium sulphate is formed.


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Ammonium ions are also non-metal ions and are tested for by warming the ammonium
compound with aqueous sodium hydroxide,or some other strong base.This produces ammonia
gas,which can be tested for by placing damp red litmus paper in the gas.If it turns blue then a
basic gas has been given off and that must be ammonia.
Exemplar ionic equation -
NH
4
+
(aq)
+
-
OH
(aq)
NH
3(g)
+ H
2
O
(l)

Below is a table summarizing the observations for the common non-metal ion tests -
Anion Reaction
carbonate, CO
3
2-
(aq)
CO
2
liberated when reacted with dilute acids
chloride, Cl
-
(aq)
gives white precipitate with acidified silver nitrate,AgNO
3(aq)

iodide, I
-
(aq)
gives yellow precipitate with acidified lead nitrate,Pb(NO
3
)
2(aq)

nitrate, NO
3
-
(aq)
ammonia,NH
3
,liberated on heating with NaOH
(aq)

sulphate, SO
4
2-
(aq)
gives white precipitate with acidified barium chloride,BaCl
2(aq)


(3) Gases :
Below is a table summarizing the various gas tests.
Gas Test
ammonia, NH
3
turns damp red litmus paper blue
carbon dioxide, CO
2
gives a white precipitate with limewater
chlorine, Cl
2
bleaches damp litmus paper
hydrogen, H
2
explodes with a 'pop' with a lighted splint
oxygen, O
2
relights a glowing splint
Thefore,we can use those respective test or the solubilities rules to determine whether the
substance being given was either lead nitrate,lead carbonate,potassium nitrate or potassium
carbonate.
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SALTS METHODS OF PREPARING SALTS
The procedure of preparation salt depends to the type of salt (any of these are suitable for
preparation of lead carbonate).
a. Insoluble salt is prepared through precipitation reaction.
b. Soluble salt is prepared by one of these reactions;
i. Acid and alkali
ii. Acid and metal oxide
iii. Acid and metal carbonate
iv. Acid and reactive metal

a. Insoluble Salts
i. Preparing Insoluble Salts
1. Insoluble salts can be prepared through precipitation reactions or double decomposition
reactions.
2. Precipitation or double decomposition reaction involves;
a) two aquoues solutions/soluble salts were mix together.
b) one of the solutions contains the cations of the insoluble salt.
c) one of the solutions contains the anions of the insoluble salt.
d) the ions of the two aqueous solutions above interchange to produce two new compound
which is insoluble salt or precipitate, and aqueous solution.
e) the precipitate produced is obtained by filtration.The residue left in the filter paper is the
insoluble salt.The filtrate is soluble salt.




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f) the residue/precipitate (insoluble salt) then rinsed with distilled water to remove any other
ions as impurities.









Na
+
Na
+

NO
3
-

NO
3
-

PbCl
2

Pb
2+
ions combined with
Cl
-
ions to form white
precipitate
Na
+
ions and NO
3
-
ions do not take
part in the reaction and are free to
move in the solution
Ionic equation: Pb
2+
+ 2Cl
-
PbCl
2

Anion
(Non-metal ion)
Cation
(Metal ion)
n n m m
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Chemical and ionic equations
Chemical equation : MX(aq) + NY(aq) MY(s) + NX(aq)
solution solution precipitate solution

Ionic equation : M
+
(aq) + Y
-
(aq) MY(s)
In the formation of the precipitate of barium sulphate, BaSO4, the chemical equation can be
written:
BaCl
2
(aq) + Na
2
SO
4
(aq) BaSO
4
(s) + 2NaCl (aq)


Ions Ba
2+
+ Cl
-
+ Na
+
+ SO
4
2-
BaSO
4
+ Na
+
+ Cl
-


Ionic equation : Ba
2+
+ SO
4
2-
BaSO
4

(shows the ions that take part in the reaction to form precipitate/insoluble salts)

Glass rod
Residue/precipitate
(Insoluble salt)
Filtrate
(Soluble salt)
Mixture of solutions
Filter funnel
Filter paper
Retort stand
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b. Soluble Salt
a. Sodium, potassium or ammonium salts prepared from acid and alkali reaction.
Salt Alkali Acid Chemical equation
NaCl NaOH HCl NaOH + HCl NaCl + H
2
O
K
2
SO
4
KOH H
2
SO
4
2KOH + H
2
SO
4
K
2
SO
4
+ 2H
2
O
NH
4
NO
3
NH
3
/NH
4
OH HNO
3
NH
3
+ HNO
3
NH
4
NO
3
+ H
2
O
CH
3
COONa NaOH CH
3
COOH
NaOH + CH
3
COOH CH
3
COONa +
H
2
O

Note: To prepare the above salts, titration technique is use.
b. Soluble salt (except sodium,potassium and ammonium salt) is prepared using these methods
- Acid and metal
- Acid and metal oxide
- Acid and metal carbonate
Name of Salt
Acid that must be
used
Substance that can be use to react with acid
Metal Metal oxide Metal carbonate
ZnCl
2
HCl Zn ZnO ZnCO
3

Mg(NO)
3
HNO
3
Mg MgO MgCO
3

CuSO
4
H
2
SO
4
CuO CuCO
3

Pb(NO
3
)
2
HNO
3
PbO PbCO
3


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1. Metal that is less reactive from hydrogen such as copper,lead and silver/argentum did not
react with dilute acid.
2. Metal, metal oxide and metal carbonate above is a solid that cannot dissolves in water, hence
during reaction that solid must be added excessively to make sure all hydrogen ions in acid is
completely reacted. Excess solid can be expelling through filtration.
3. Impure soluble salt can be purified through crystallization process.
A. Preparing soluble salt through reaction between acid and alkali.
E.g, Preparation of Soluble Sodium,Potassium and ammonium Salts
Soluble salts of sodium, potassium and ammonium can be prepared by the reaction between
an acid and alkali.
Acid (aq) + alkali (aq) Salt (aq) + Water (l)

Procedure :
Using pipette, 25 cm
3
of alkali solution is measured and
transferred into a conical flask.
Two drops of phenolphthalein are added to the alkali solution.
Dilute acid is place in a burette.The initial reading is recorded.
Acid is added slowly into the alkali solution while shaking
the conical flaks, until the pink solution turn colourless.
The final reading of the burette is recorded.
The volume of acid added, V cm
3
is calculated.
The experiment is repeated by adding V cm
3
of acid to
25 cm
3
of alkali solution in a beaker without using phenolphthalein as an indicator.
The mixture is transferred into a evaporating dish.
The mixture is heated until saturated and the saturated solution
is allowed to cool at room temperature.
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Salt crystals formed are filtered and rinsed with a little of cold distilled water.
Salt crystals are dried by pressing it between filter papers (or in oven)

LEAD CARBONATE PREPARATIONS AND PRINCIPLES
As we know white lead,in the basic carbonate form,was used extensively as white
pigment in paint until its toxic properties became known.At present,most of its pigment
applications are as red-reflecting pigment in plastic sheets; in UV light-reflecting paints; in
ceramic glaze; and in many temperature-sensitive inks that cause color change.Other applications
include use as a catalyst in terephthalic acid reactions with diols; as a heat-sensitive stabilizer for
polyvinyl chloride polymers; in lubricating grease, and as a curing agent to improve polyethylene
wire insulation.Many commercial processes have been developed for manufacturing basic lead
carbonate.These include: Thomson-Stewart process,Carter process,and Dutch process.
The method of preparation involves treating lead with acetic acid vapors in the presence
of carbon dioxide at 60C.In the Thomson-Stewart process,finely divided lead monoxide or lead
metal is mixed with water to give aqueous slurry,which is then mixed with acetic acid in the
presence of air and carbon dioxide.All these processes are slow, taking weeks to obtain products
of desired composition.Basic lead carbonate also is precipitated by dissolving lead monoxide in
lead(II) acetate solution,and treating the solution with carbon dioxide.It also is produced by
electrolysis of sodium nitrate or sodium acetate using lead anode and then precipitating out the
product by adding sodium carbonate.The basic carbonates have varying compositions.They may
be characterized by elemental analysis, x-ray methods and also by their physical properties.

Procedure To Prepare A Salt Through Reaction Between Acid And Lead Carbonate

50 cm
3
of acid is measured using a measuring cylinder and poured into a beaker. The
acid is heated slowly.
Using a spatula,metal / metal oxide / metal carbonate powder is added a little at a time
while stirring the mixture with a glass rod.


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The addition of the solid powder is stopped when some solids no longer dissolve
anymore. (the solid is excess and all the acid is completely neutralised by the solid)







The mixture is filtered to remove the excess solid powder.







The filtrate is transferred to an evaporating dish.
The filtrate is heated until saturated. (The filtrate is evaporated to about one-third (1/3) of
the original volume)
The saturated solution is then allowed to cool to room temperature and the salt crystals
are formed.








Heating
Acid
Powder
of :
Metal oxide
Metal carbonate
Metal
Excess of solid powder
Filtrate (Salt solution)
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The crystals are filtered and rinsed with a little cold distilled water.
Salt crystals are then dried by pressing it between filter papers.






Unreactive metal such as lead (Pb),copper (Cu),and silver (Ag) cannot react with dilute asid.So
to prepare salt contains lead ions (Pb
2+
), copper ions (Cu
2+
) or silver ions (Ag
+
), we must use
either oxide powder or carbonate powder only.


(2685 words)
















Heating
Saturated solution
Crystals
Filtrate
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REFERENCES

A. Adamson .(1982).Physical Chemistry of Interfaces, 4th ed.New York:Wiley- Interscience.
Barker, V (2004).Students misconceptions about Basic Chemical Idea. Institute Of
Education:University Of London.
Chang, R.(2003). General Chemistry: The Essential Concepts, 3rd ed.Boston:McGraw-Hill.
Mayne, J. E. O.,The Problem of Painting Rusty Steel, Journal of Applied Chemistry,
Volume 9, December 1959.
Nor Jihan Bt. Mohammad.(2003).Keberkesanan Aktiviti Permainan dalam Tajuk Persamaan
Kimia & Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Tahap Pencapaian Pelajar Tingkatan IV.
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Patnaik, Pradyot .(2003). Handbook of Inorganic Chemical Compounds. McGraw-Hill.
S.V. Krivovichev and P.C. Burns, "Crystal chemistry of basic lead carbonates. II. Crystal
structure of synthetic 'plumbonacrite'.Mineralogical Magazine, 64(6),December 2000.