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SECTION 24

Thermodynamic Properties
This section contains thermodynamic charts, correlations,
and calculation procedures.

trating the use of the associated charts. Also included is a


quicker, approximate method for enthalpy determinations by
the use of total enthalpy charts. An entropy correlation and an
example calculation showing its use are also presented.

The enthalpy correlation presents a rigorous method for calculation of enthalpy, followed by an example calculation illus-

FIG. 24-1
Nomenclature

















H = enthalpy at desired conditions, kJ/kmole, or


kJ/kg
H0 = ideal gas state enthalpy
H00 = enthalpy datum at zero pressure and zero
temperature
H0T = ideal gas state enthalpy at temperature T
HPT = enthalpy at desired pressure and temperature
K = Absolute temperature, kelvin, (C + 273.15)
MW = molecular mass
P = absolute pressure, kPa
Pc = critical or pseudocritical pressure, kPa (abs)
Pr = reduced pressure = P/Pc
Pk = convergence pressure for multi-component
systems, psia
T = absolute temperature, K
Tc = critical or pseudocritical temperature, K
Tr = reduced temperature = T/Tc
R = gas constant, Fig. 1-4
S = entropy, kJ/kmole K or kJ/(kg K)
S0 = ideal gas state entropy
V = specific volume, m3/kg

hf
hg
hfg
sf
sg
sfg

= enthalpy of liquid, kJ/kg (Steam Tables)


= enthalpy of gas, kJ/kg
= enthalpy of vaporization (hg hf) at vapor pressure
= entropy of liquid,kJ/(kg K)(Steam Tables)
= entropy of gas, J/(kg K)
= entropy change on vaporization (sg sf) at vapor
pressure
= specific volume of liquid, m3/kg (Steam Tables)
= specific volume of gas, m3/kg
= specific volume change on vaporization (vg vf) at
vapor pressure
= mole fraction of component i in liquid phase
= mole fraction of component i in vapor phase

vf
vg
vfg

xi
yi

DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND


PHRASES USED IN THERMODYNAMIC
PROPERTIES

Irreversibility: The degree of heat or work that is lost when a


system is taken from one pressure and temperature to another pressure and/or temperature and returned to its original condition.
Mole(s): The mass of substance divided by its molecular weight,
expressed as moles.
Phase envelope: The boundaries of an area on the P-T diagram for the material which encloses the region where both
vapor and liquid coexist.
Quality: The weight fraction of vapor in a vapor-liquid mixture.
Reduced pressure: The ratio of the absolute pressure to the
critical pressure.
Reduced temperature: The ratio of the absolute temperature
to the critical temperature.
Saturated water: Water at its boiling temperature for the
pressure exerted on it.
Saturated steam: Steam at the boiling temperature of water
for the pressure exerted on it but containing no liquid water.
Specific volume: The volume of a substance per unit mass.
(Inverse of density.)
Thermodynamics: The science which deals with the energy of
systems and its changes and effects.

Greek


= relative density, dimensionless


i = summation for all components
= acentric factor

Subscripts

Acentric factor: A factor frequently used in correlating thermodynamic properties defined by = log Pvr 1.00 where
Pvr = reduced vapor pressure at Tr = 0.7.
Corresponding states: The theory that proposes pure components and mixtures have the same relative thermodynamic
properties when at the same relative thermodynamic state.
Critical pressure: The vapor pressure at the critical temperature.
Critical temperature: The temperature at which vapor and
liquid properties become identical.
Datum: A reference point.
Density: Mass per unit volume of a substance.
Enthalpy: Heat content, H, composed of internal energy, E,
and PV. Usually expressed as H = E + PV.
Entropy: A thermodynamic quantity, S, defined by the equation dS = dQ/T where Q is the amount of heat entering or
leaving the system reversibly at absolute temperature, T.
Ideal gas: A gas which follows the equation PV = nRT where n
= number of moles, and V is volume per mole.
24-1

m = mixture property
i = any one component in a multicomponent mixture

ENTHALPY BEHAVIOR
The change of enthalpy with temperature and pressure is
complex. Predicting the enthalpy for a pure component or mixture is a multi-step procedure that requires information that
can only be obtained by experimental measurement. For pure
components, use of a P-H diagram like those shown in Figs. 2415 to 24-26 is recommended.
The enthalpy behavior of mixes can be predicted through
thermodynamic correlations. Use of a good contemporary equation of state is recommended for mixture enthalpy predictions.
Fig. 24-2 shows graphically the change in enthalpy of three gas
streams and two liquid streams as pressure is changed at constant temperature. Values for the plot were calculated by the
Soave10 version of the Redlich-Kwong equation of state11. The
curves in Fig. 24-2 are for no phase change and show typical
behavior of gas phase enthalpy decreasing and liquid phase enthalpy increasing with increasing pressure.
Enthalpies for mixtures of real gases and liquids can be predicted by hand calculation methods. The ones recommended for
use are based on an extension of the principle of corresponding
states and are shown graphically in Fig. 24-6 and 24-7.

by the enthalphy difference between the ideal gas state enthalpy and the enthalpy at the
desired pressure, both quantities at the specified temperature, kJ/kmole.
Since H00 is zero at the chosen datum, zero absolute temperature, Equation 24-1 can be written:
HTP = HT0 (HT0 HTP)
Which can be simplified to:
H = H0 (H0 H)

Many natural gas streams contain undefined, or pseudo,


components. Ideal gas enthalpies for pseudo components are
shown in Fig. 24-5. To use Fig. 24-5 the relative density, molecular mass and temperature must be known. Fig. 24-5 is for
paraffinic mixtures and should not be used for pseudo components derived from aromatic crude oils.
The enthalpy datum chosen is zero enthalpy at zero absolute pressure and zero absolute temperature, the same datum
as used in API Project 44.1 The choice of datum is arbitrary and
a matter of convenience. Enthalpy differences, the values of interest, are not affected by the datum chosen. However, the same
enthalpy datum should be used for all components in any one
calculation.

CHANGE OF ENTHALPY WITH


PRESSURE
For purposes of correlation and calculation, the ideal and
real gas behaviors are treated separately. The mixture ideal gas
enthalpy at a specified temperature is calculated; the enthalpy
change of the real gas mixture is calculated from a correlation
prepared from experimental enthalpy measurements on a variety of mixtures. This relation can be expressed as:
HTP H00 = (HT0 H00) (HT0 HTP)

Eq 24-1

(H0 H) (0)
(H0 H) ()
+
(H
0 H) = RTc

RTc
RTc

(HT0 HTP) the change of enthalpy with pressure, given

Eq 24-4

where:

[(H0 H) / RTc] (0) t he change of enthalpy of a simple fluid


with pressure from Fig. 24-6.
 eviation from the change for a simple
[(H0 H) / RTc] () d
fluid from Fig. 24-7

Figs. 24-6 and 24-7 can be used for gas and liquid mixtures.
If the mixture is a gas, use the lower chart in each figure. For
liquids read the value from the isotherms at the top of the chart.
The units of (H0 H) will depend on the units of the universal
gas constant, R, and Tc. For (H0 H) in kJ/mole, R = 8.3145
kJ/kmole K) and Tc is in K.
The reduced temperature and pressure are defined as Tr =
T/Tc and Pr = P/Pc, where absolute temperature and pressure
must be used. Values for pure component critical temperature,
pressure and acentric factor are in Section 23 Physical Properties. Section 23 also contains graphs relating ASTM distillation
temperature, molecular weight, specific gravity (relative density), critical temperature, and critical pressure for undefined
fractions. The fraction acentric factor can be estimated from Eq
23-17.
To use Figs. 24-6 and 24-7, the mixture composition must be
known. The mole fraction average (pseudo) critical temperature
and pressure are calculated using Kays Rule4 as illustrated in
Fig. 23-7 (TCm = yiTCi and PCm = yiPCi). The mole fraction average mixture enthalpy is calculated from:
Hm0 = yi H0i

Eq 24-5

are obtained by multiplying the enthalpy


The values of
value from Figs. 24-3 and 24-4 by the molecular weight of the
individual component.
H0i

The mole fraction average acentric factor is calculated:

where:
(HT0 H00) the ideal gas state enthalpy above the datum,
H0, at the desired temperature (subscript T),
kJ/kmole

Eq 24-3

Values for the change of enthalpy with pressure for a real


gas or liquid are obtained from a correlation based on the principle of corresponding states.2 The original correlation was extended to low reduced temperatures3 to cover low temperature
gas processing applications. The correlation shown in Figs. 24-6
and 24-7 consists of two parts. One part gives the change of
enthalpy with pressure for a simple fluid (fluid with zero acentric factor). The second part is a correction for deviation of a real
fluid from the ideal fluid change of enthalpy with pressure. The
value of (H0 H) in Eq. 24-3 is calculated by:

Ideal Gas State Enthalpies


Enthalpies for pure component gases are readily correlated
as a power series of temperature for a wide range of components
including all of those that occur in natural gas streams. Typical
values for natural gas components are plotted in Figs. 24-3 and
24-4 for temperatures from 130 to 500C. Enthalpies for gas
mixtures can be obtained as the mole fraction average if molar
enthalpies are used, or the weight fraction average if mass enthalpies are used.

Eq 24-2

m = yii

Eq 24-6

The information necessary to evaluate enthalpies for the


mixture from Figs. 24-3 to 24-7 is now known. Use of the method will be clearer after study of the following illustrative calculation.

24-2

EXAMPLE CALCULATION
USING ENTHALPY CORRELATION

ENTHALPY AND ENTROPY DATA


Pure CO2

A gas with the composition shown in Fig. 24-8 is at 50C and


7000 kPa(abs). Using Figs. 24-3 and 24-4 calculate the enthalpy of
the gas. Following the example in Fig. 23-6, the mole fraction average critical temperature is calculated as 205.9K, and the pseudo
critical pressure as 4613.3 kPa(abs). Following the same procedure, the mixture acentric factor is 0.02476 and the molar ideal
gas state enthalpy 11419.8 kJ/kmole. With a reduced temperature
of 1.569 and a reduced pressure of 1.517, the reading from Fig.
24-6 is 0.70 and from Fig. 24-7 is 0.020, which give a mixture enthalpy at 50C and 7000 kPa(abs) of 10220.6 kJ/kmole.

The Pressure-enthalpy chart for CO2 in Fig. 24-15 gives a


general picture of enthalpy and entropy changes through the
phases and in the critical region, and allows rough values to be
picked off.
Dr. J. Ely, has published many relevant papers, most recently References 12, 13 and 14. More recent work, which also
covers mixtures with H2S, was summarized in a 2011 paper22
from which the two following quotes were taken; to see them in
full context, see Section 23.

Ideal gas enthalpy values for each pure normal paraffin


component were calculated and used to calculate the ideal gas
mixture enthalpy. The ideal gas state enthalpy equation used
for methane, ethane and propane was a curve fit of the data
shown in Fig. 24-3. For butane and heavier components a fourth
order polynomial with coefficients taken from the API Data
Book, Table A1.29 was used. The fifth coefficient reported in the
API table was dropped to convert to the 0 K, 0 kPa enthalpy
datum.

While the GERG-2008 equation is clearly the best available


EOS, its limitations and unreliable convergence (within a simulator) make it impractical for facility modeling.
The GERG-2008 equation should then be used to validate
specific points to validate final equipment design and vendor offerings design and performance data.
References 15, 16, 17 and 18 contain much of the experimental data used by NIST in their EOS development in REFPROP.
Current work is expected to be published later in 2011 by Kunz
and Wagner.

Ideal gas enthalpies were corrected for pressure changes by


interpolating the tabular data used to compile Figs. 24-6 and
24-7. Pressure calculations were made from reduced pressures
of 0.2 to 13800 kPa. Temperatures ranged from 160C to Tr =
0.35 minimum to 320C maximum.

Mixtures of CO2 with H2S


References 15, 16, 17 and 18 (see above) contain experimental data. REFPROP, and the Gerg-2008 equation, appear to offer the best current predictions of mixtures data.

Caution: Some mixtures encountered in the calculations fell inside the phase envelopes of Figs. 24-6 and 24-7.
Rather than extrapolate into the phase envelopes of Figs.
24-6 and 24-7 for enthalpy pressure corrections, the total
enthalpies were first generated, plotted, and then extrapolated.

A current (2011) GPA Research Project, Project 042, is to measure physical properties (including heat capacity) in high pressure acid gas streams. H2S contents will range from 2080 mol%,
temperatures from 10176C, and pressures 350035 000 kPa
(abs).

Vapor enthalpies at 1000 kPa were extended to lower temperatures by assuming the relative enthalpy change with temperature to be the same as for the ideal gas.

Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Helium


These gases are now more commonly being used, or produced,
in gas processing operations. Their use in rocket launch facilities
led to extensive work to measure and model thermodynamic,
and the data from the 1970s still provides one of the best sources.
References 19, 20 and 21 contain extensive tabulations (more
than 100 pages each) that include enthalpy and entropy values.

ENTROPY CORRELATION
Entropy is most used as a guide for interpreting the behavior of gases and liquids in compression and expansion processes.
The entropy of a multicomponent mixture may be calculated by
combing ideal gas state entropies from API 441 with the Curl
and Pitzer2 tables of values for the change of entropy with pressure. Entropy equations for undefined mixtures (pseudo components) are not available but, for most uses where the pseudo
components are present in small concentration, they can satisfactorily be approximated by the nearest molecular weight paraffin hydrocarbon.

USES FOR P-H CHARTS


Fig. 24-13 and Fig. 24-14 show near-isenthalpic paths for
CO2 blowing down out of a pipeline, and a typical CO2 compression path.22 Other charts and text in the same referenced work
discuss (a) the nearer-isentropic path for the fluid remaining in
a pipeline that is being blown down and (b) recycle and discharge cooler features of compression in more detail.22 Generally, marking such paths on the P-H chart is useful in explaining and reviewing options for design and operations.

EXAMPLE CALCULATION USING


ENTROPYCORRELATION
The same gas as in the enthalpy example (shown in Fig. 249) is at 50C and 7000 kPa(abs). The pseudo criticals, acentric
factor, reduced temperature, and reduced pressure have the
same values as in the enthalpy example. The mixture ideal gas
state entropy is 218.6 kJ/(kmole K). The value read from Fig.
24-11 is 0.338 and that from Fig. 24-12 is 0.065. These combine
to give (remember P in lnP must be in atmospheres) a real gas
entropy of 184.5 kJ/(kmole K).

Physical properties of CO2 are discussed in more detail in Section 23. Note that the two examples copied here use the previous
GPSA Data Book chart version (12th Edition).
Another common use for a P-H chart is to plot refrigeration
cycles (using, say, the propane or ethylene charts). Such illustrations are frequently found in refrigeration text books.
Figures 24-13 and 24-14 show examples using a P-H diagram to display a process path.

24-3

REFERENCES










1. API Research Project 44, Data on Hydrocarbons and Related


Compounds, A & M Press, College Station, Texas.
2. Curl, R. F., Jr. and Pitzer, K. S., Ind. Eng. Chem., 50, 1958, p. 265.
3. Chao, K. C. and Greenkorn, R. A., GPA Research Report RR-3,
Gas Processors Association, Tulsa, Oklahoma, April 1971.
4. Kay, W. B., Ind. Eng. Chem., 28, 1936, p. 1014.
5. Jacoby, R. H. and Yarborough, L., Technical Report to GPA, 1966.
6. ASME Steam Tables, 3rd Ed., Amer. Soc. of Mech. Eng., New
York, N.Y., 1967.
7. Keenan, J. H., Keyes, F. G., Hill, P. G. and Moore, J. G., Steam
Tables, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1969.
8. Ely, J. F., Private Communication, 1985.
9. Technical Data Book Petroleum Refining, 3rd Ed., American
Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C., 1977.
10. Soave, G., Equilibrium Costants from a Modified Redlich-Kwong
Equation of State, Chem. Eng. Sci., Vol 27, No. 6, pp. 1197-1203,
1972.
11. Maddox, R.N. and Moshfeghian, M., Private Communication, 1996.

12. Kiselev, S.B. and J.F. Ely, Thermodynamic Properties in the


Critical Degion, in JSRAE Thermodynamic Tables. 2007. p. 4044.
13. Kiselev, S.B. and J.F. Ely, HRX-SAFT Equation of State for
Fluid Mixtures: New Analytical Formulation. J. Phys. Chem. B,
2007. 111(43): p. 15969-15975.

19. McCartney, R. D. and Weber, L. A., Thermophysical Properties


of Oxygen From the Freezing Liquid Line to 600R for Pressures
to 5000 psia. NBS Technical Note 384, 1971
20. McCartney, R. D., Thermophysical Properties of Helium-4 from
2 to 1500 K with Pressures to 1000 Atmospheres NBS Technical
Note 631, 1973.
21. Jacobsen, R. T., Stewart, R. B., McCarty, R. D., and Hanley, H. J.
M., Thermophysical Properties of Nitrogen from the Fusion
Line to 3500R (1944 K) for Pressures to 150,000 psia (10342 x
105 N/m2). NBS Technical Note 648, 1973.
22. Cunningham, C.R., Miller, T, and Friedman, B., CO2 Compression Facility and Pipeline Design 91st Annual GPA Convention
2011.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Canjar, L. N. and Manning, F. S., Thermodynamic Properties and Reduced Correlations of Gases, Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas,
1967.
Kesler, M. G. and Lee, B. I., Improve Prediction of Enthalpy of Fractions, Hydrocarbon Processing, 55, 1976, pp. 153-158.
Lee, M. C., Ratcliffe, A. E., Maddox, R. D., Parham, W. F. and Maddox,
R. N., Heat Capacity Determined for Crude Fractions, Hydrocarbon
Processing, June 1978, pp. 187-189.
Maddox, R. N. and L. Lilly, Gas Conditioning and Processing, Vol. 3,
Campbell Petroleum Series Inc., Norman, Oklahoma, 1990.

14. Kiselev, S.B. and J.F. Ely, Generalized Crossover Description of


the Thermodynamic and Transport Properties in Pure Fluids II.
Revision and modifications. Fluid Phase Equilib., 2007. 252(1): p.
57-65.

Properties for Light Petroleum Systems, Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas, 1973.

15. Kellerman, S.J., Stouffer, C.E., Gammon, B.E., Marsh, K.M.,


Hall, K.R. and Holste, J.C. PVT, Phase Equilibria and Derived
Thermodynamic Properties for CO2 + H2S Mixtures.

Reid, R. D., Prausnitz, J. M. and Sherwood, T. K., The Properties of


Gases and Liquids, 3rd Ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, N.Y.,
1977.

16. Bailey, D.M., Liu, C.-H., Holste, P.T. and Eubank, P.T. Energy
Functions for H2S, Part 3: Near-equimolar Mixture with CO2,
Hydro. Process. Pet. Ref., Volume 67, Number 1, pp. 73-74,
1987.
17. Liu, C.H. Experimental Densities, Entropies and Energies for
Pure H2S and Equimolar Mixtures of H2S/CH4 and H2S/CO2 Between 300 and 500K, B Master of Science, Graduate College of
Texas A&M University, 1985.
18. Bailey, D.M., Liu, C.-H., Holste, J.C., Hall, K.R., Eubank, P.T.,
Marsh, K.M., Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Hydrogen Sulfide and Mixtures Containing Hydrogen Sulfide with Methane,
Carbon Dioxide, Methylcyclohexane and Toluene, GPA Research Report No. 107, 1987.

Technical Data Book Petroleum Refining, 3rd Ed., American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C., 1977.

Starling, K. E., Fluid Thermodynamic Properties for Light Petroleum


Systems, Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas 1973.
Van Ness, H. C. and Abbott, M. M., Classical Thermodynamics of NonElectrolyte Solutions, McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1982.
Weber, J. H., Predict Latent Heats of Vaporization, Chemical Engineering, Jan. 14, 1980.
Wormald, C. J., Thermo Data for Steam/Hydrocarbons, Hydrocarbon
Processing, May 1982, pp. 137-141.
Yu, W. C., Lee, H. M. and Ligon, R. M., Predicted High Pressure Properties, Hydrocarbon Processing, Jan. 1982, pp. 171-178.

24-4

FIG. 24-2
Influence of Pressure on Enthalpy for Typical Natural Gas Streams

24-5

FIG. 24-3
Ideal-Gas-State Enthalpy of Pure Components

24-6

FIG. 24-4
Ideal-Gas-State Enthalpy of Pure Components

24-7

FIG. 24-5
Ideal-Gas-State Enthalpy of Petroleum Fractions

24-8

FIG. 24-6
Effect of Pressure on Enthalpy (Simple Fluid)

24-9

FIG. 24-7
Effect of Pressure on Enthalpy (Correction for Real Fluids)

24-10

FIG. 24-8
Example Enthalpy Calculation
Mole Fraction

Molecular
Mass

Critical
Temp. K

Critical
Pressure kPa

Acentric Factor

Ideal Gas
Enthalpy kJ/kg

Methane

0.9010

16.04

190.6

4599.0

0.0108

682

Component

Carbon Dioxide

0.0106

44.01

304.1

7374.0

0.2667

234

Ethane

0.0499

30.07

305.4

4880.0

0.0972

442

Propane

0.0187

44.10

369.8

4240.0

0.1515

381

i-Butane

0.0065

58.12

407.8

3640.0

0.1852

357

n-Butane

0.0045

58.12

425.1

3784.0

0.1981

381

i-Pentane

0.0017

72.15

460.4

3381.0

0.2286

357

n-Pentane

0.0019

72.15

469.7

3365.0

0.2510

370

Hexane

0.0052

86.18

506.4

3030.0

0.2990

326

IDEAL GAS STATE ENTHALPY kJ/kmole


11419.8

PSEUDO CRITICAL TEMPERATURE K 205.9

REDUCED TEMPERATURE
1.569

PSEUDO CRITICAL PRESSURE kPa (abs)


4613.3

REDUCED PRESSURE
1.517

MOLE FRACTION AVERAGE ACENTRIC FACTOR


0.02476

[(H0 H) / RTC](0) from Fig. 24-6

0.70

[(H0 H) / RTC]()from Fig. 24-7

0.02

[(H0 H)m / RTC] = [(H0 H) / RTC](0) + [wm [(H0 H) / RTC]()

0.7005

(H0 H)m, kJ/kmole

1199.2

H, kJ/kmole

10220.6

NOTE: Ideal Gas Enthalpy for Hexane from the 12th Edition of the Data Book (Fig. 24-9).

Wichert and Aziz correction not applied to critical properties.

24-11

FIG. 24-9
Example Entropy Calculation
Component

Mole Fraction

Molecular
Weight

Critical
Temp. K

Critical
Pressure kPa

Acentric Factor

Ideal
Gas Entropy
kJ/(kg K)

Methane

0.9010

16.04

190.6

4599.0

0.0108

13.19

Carbon Dioxide

0.0106

44.01

304.1

7374.0

0.2667

4.90

Ethane

0.0499

30.07

305.4

4880.0

0.0972

8.50

Propane

0.0187

44.10

369.8

4240.0

0.1515

6.80

i-Butane

0.0065

58.12

407.8

3640.0

0.1852

5.83

n-Butane

0.0045

58.12

425.1

3784.0

0.1981

5.58

i-Pentane

0.0017

72.15

460.4

3381.0

0.2286

5.29

n-Pentane

0.0019

72.15

469.7

3365.0

0.2510

5.20

Hexane

0.0052

86.18

506.4

3030.0

0.2990

5.02

IDEAL GAS STATE ENTROPY kJ/(kmole K)

PSEUDO CRITICAL TEMPERATURE K

REDUCED TEMPERATURE

PSEUDO CRITICAL PRESSURE kPa (abs

REDUCED PRESSURE

MOLE FRACTION AVERAGE ACENTRIC FACTOR


[(S0 S) / R](0) from Fig. 24-11

218.6
205.9
1.569
4613.3
1.517
0.02476
0.338

[(S0 S) / R]() from Fig. 24-12 0.065


ln P (P in atmospheres)

4.2353



(S0 S) (0)
(S0 S) ()
38.025
(S
0 S) = R


+w
+ ln P

R
R

R yi ln (yi)

3.935

Smo = ( yi Soi R yi ln yi )

222.5

Sm =[Smo (Smo Sm)]

184.5

NOTE:

Entropy for Hexane was estimated.


Wichert and Aziz correction not applied to critical properties.

24-12

FIG. 24-10
Ideal-gas-state Entropy of Pure Components

24-13

FIG. 24-11
Effect of Pressure on Entropy (Simple Fluid)

24-14

FIG. 24-12
Effect of Pressure on Entropy (Correction for Real Fluids)

24-15

24-16

CARBON DIOXIDE

Note that blowdown from higher temperatures, represented by the righthand path, remains within the vapor region, while blowdown from colder
temperatures, represented by the lefthand path, may cross the vapor-liquid envelope boundaries and generate liquid. Additionally, extending the lefthand
path below about 75 psia will result in the formation of solids (e.g., enters the vapor-solid equilibrium region).

Span, R. and Wagner, W., A New Equation of State for Carbon


Dioxide Covering the Fluid Region from the Triple-Point Temperature
to 1100 K at Pressures up to 800 MPa, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data,
25(6):1509-1596, 1996.

Sample Isenthalpic Blowdown Paths

FIG. 24-13

24-17

Last stage
recycle will form
liquid in
interstage
scrubber

Span, R. and Wagner, W., A New Equation of State for Carbon


Dioxide Covering the Fluid Region from the Triple-Point Temperature
to 1100 K at Pressures up to 800 MPa, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data,
25(6):1509-1596, 1996.

CARBON DIOXIDE

Sample Multi-Stage Compression Path with Interstage Cooling and Recycle

FIG. 24-14

24-18

FIG. 24-15

Carbon Dioxide P-H Diagram

24-19

FIG. 24-16

Nitrogen P-H Diagram

Span, R., Lemmon, E.W., Jacobsen, R.T, Wagner, W., and Yokozeki, A. A Reference Quality
Thermodynamic Property Formulation for Nitrogen, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 29(6):1361-1433,
2000.

24-20

NITROGEN

FIG. 24-17

Methane P-H Diagram

Setzmann, U. and Wagner, W., A New Equation of State and Tables of Thermodynamic
Properties for Methane Covering the Range from the Melting Line to 625 K at Pressures up to
1000 MPa, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 20(6):1061-1151, 1991.

24-21

METHANE

FIG. 24-18

Ethane P-H Diagram

Friend, D.G., Ingham, H., and Ely, J.F., Thermophysical Properties


of Ethane, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 20(2):275-347, 1991.

24-22

ETHANE

FIG. 24-19

Ethylene P-H Diagram

Smukala, J., Span, R. and Wagner, W. A New Equation of State for Ethylene Covering the Fluid
Region for Temperatures from the Melting Line to 450 K at Pressures up to 300 MPa, J. Phys.
Chem. Ref. Data, 29(5):1053-1122, 2000.

24-23

ETHYLENE

FIG. 24-20

Propane P-H Diagram

Miyamoto, H., and Watanabe, K., A Thermodynamic Property Model for Fluid-phase Propane, Int.
J. Thermophys., 21(5):1045-1072, 2000.

24-24

PROPANE

FIG. 24-21

Propylene P-H Diagram

Angus, S., Armstrong, B., and de Reuck, K.M., International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid
State-7 Propylene, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Pergamon Press, Oxford,
1980..

24-25

PROPYLENE

FIG. 24-22

i-Butane P-H Diagram

Miyamoto, H. and Watanabe, K. A Thermodynamic Property Model for Fluid-Phase Isobutane,


Int.
J. Thermophys., 23(2):477-499, 2002.

24-26

I-BUTANE

FIG. 24-23

n-Butane P-H Diagram

Miyamoto, H. and Watanabe, K. A Thermodynamic Property Model for Fluid-Phase n-Butane, Int.
J. Thermophys., 22(2):459-475, 2001.

24-27

N-BUTANE

FIG. 24-24

i-Pentane P-H Diagram

Lemmon, E.W. and Span, R., preliminary equation, 2003.

24-28

I-PENTANE

FIG. 24-25

n-Pentane P-H Diagram

Span, R., Multiparameter Equations of State An Accurate Source of Thermodynamic Property


Data, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2000.

24-29

N-PENTANE

FIG. 24-26

Oxygen P-H Diagram

Schmidt, R. and Wagner, W.,A New Form of the Equation of State for Pure Substances and its
Application to Oxygen, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 19:175-200, 1985.

24-30

OXYGEN

24-31

TPT
NBP
TC
PC

90.6941
90.352
85.48
113.56
134.87
112.65
143.47
103.986
87.95
63.151
54.361
216.592

TPT
K

NBP
K
4599.2
4871.8
4247.09
3640.0
3796.0
3396.0
3370.0
5041.8
4664.6
3395.8
5043.0
7377.3

PC
kPa
10.139
6.87
4.95514
3.860
3.920
3.271
3.2156
7.637
5.3086
11.1839
13.63
10.6249

182.80
182.46
210.00
56.56
169.16
187.67
173.15
159.59
138.28
159.90
129.68
218.79

Ethane
Methane
N2
CO2
Ethylene
Propane
Propylene
I-Butane
n-Butane
I-Pentane
n-Pentane
Oxygen

NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
TRC
NIST
NIST

Reference Temperature
Value (C)
Database

TRC
TRC
TRC
TRC
TRC
TRC
TRC
TRC
TRC
TRC
TRC
TRC

Reference Pressure
Value (kPa) Database
1.131E03
1.170E+01
1.252E+01
5.187E+02
1.260E01
1.685E07
9.332E07
1.206E05
6.736E04
1.214E07
7.632E05
1.500E01

TMAX
K

90.6941
625
90.352
625
85.48
623
113.56
573
134.87
589
112.65
600
143.47
600
103.986
450
100.0
600
63.151
2000
54.361
1000
216.592
1100

TMIN
K
1000000
70000
103000
35000
69000
1000000
100000
260000
200000
2200000
82000
800000

PMAX
kPa

40.072
22.419
17.41
12.90
13.15
10.93
10.57
26.67
17.95
53.15
43.348
37.24

RHOMAX
Mol/L

PMAX
Maximum Recommended
Pressure
RHOMAX Maximum Recommended Density

.01142
.0993
.1524
.185
.2
.2296
.251
.0866
.1408
.0372
.0222
.22394

RHOC
ACEN
Mol/L

Critical Density
Acentric Factor
Minimum Recommended Temperature
Maximum Recommended Temperature

190.564
305.33
369.825
407.817
425.125
460.35
469.7
282.35
365.57
126.192
154.581
304.1282

TC
K

RHOC
ACEN
TMIN
TMAX

111.667
184.552
231.06
261.48
272.6
300.97
309.21
169.379
225.46
77.355
90.1878
194.75

Triple point temperature


Normal Boiling Point
Critical Temperature
Critical Pressure

Methane
Ethane
Propane
Isobutane
n-Butane
Isopentane
n-Pentane
Ethylene
Propylene
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Carbon Dioxide

Substance

Virtual Materials Group gratefully acknowledges the assistance provided by Dr. Eric Lemmon and Dr. Michael Frenkel from the National Institute
of Standards and Technology (NIST) for their assistance in the preparation of the P-H Diagrams presented in Fig. 24-15 through Fig. 24-26 and as the
basis for Figs. 24-13 and 24-14.

Acknowledgments

FIG. 24-27
Thermodynamic Properties of Water

24-32

FIG. 24-28
Thermodynamic Properties of Water

24-33

FIG. 24-29
Saturated Steam: Temperature Table
Temp.
C
T

Press.
kPa
P

Specific Volume
Sat.
Sat.
Vapor
Liquid
vg
vf

Internal Energy
Sat.
Liquid
uf

Evap.
ufg

0.01
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
185
190
195
200
205
210
215
220
225
230
235
240
245
250
255
260
265
270
275
280
285
290
295
300
305
310
315
320
330
340
350
360
370

0.6113
0.8721
1.2276
1.7051
2.339
3.169
4.246
5.628
7.384
9.593
12.349
15.758
19.940
25.03
31.19
38.58
47.39
57.83
70.14
84.55
101.35
120.82
143.27
169.06
198.53
232.1
270.1
313.0
361.3
415.4
475.8
543.1
617.8
700.5
791.7
892.0
1002.1
1122.7
1254.4
1397.8
1553.8
1723.0
1906.2
2104.
2318.
2518.
2795.
3060.
3344.
3618.
3973.
4319.
4688.
5081.
5499.
5942.
6412.
6909.
7436.
7993.
8581.
9202.
9856.
10547.
11274.
12845.
14586.
16513.
18651.
21030.

0.001 000
0.001 000
0.001 000
0.001 001
0.001 002
0.001 003
0.001 004
0.001 006
0.001 008
0.001 010
0.001 012
0.001 015
0.001 017
0.001 020
0.001 023
0.001 026
0.001 029
0.001 033
0.001 036
0.001 040
0.001 044
0.001 048
0.001 052
0.001 056
0.001 060
0.001 065
0.001 070
0.001 075
0.001 080
0.001 085
0.001 091
0.001 096
0.001 102
0.001 108
0.001 114
0.001 121
0.001 127
0.001 134
0.001 141
0.001 149
0.001 157
0.001 164
0.001 173
0.001 181
0.001 190
0.001 199
0.001 209
0.001 219
0.001 229
0.001 240
0.001 251
0.001 263
0.001 276
0.001 289
0.001 302
0.001 317
0.001 332
0.001 348
0.001 366
0.001 384
0.001 404
0.001 425
0.001 447
0.001 472
0.001 499
0.001 561
0.001 638
0.001 740
0.001 893
0.002 213

206.14
147.12
106.38
77.93
57.79
43.36
32.89
25.22
19.52
15.26
12.03
9.568
7.671
6.197
5.042
4.131
3.407
2.828
2.361
1.982
1.6729
1.4194
1.2102
1.0366
0.8919
0.7706
0.6685
0.5822
0.5089
0.4463
0.3928
0.3468
0.3071
0.2727
0.2428
0.2168
0.194 05
0.174 09
0.156 54
0.141 05
0.127 36
0.115 21
0.104 41
0.094 79
0.086 19
0.078 49
0.071 58
0.065 37
0.059 76
0.054 71
0.050.13
0.045 98
0.042 21
0.038 77
0.035 64
0.032 79
0.030 17
0.027 77
0.025 57
0.023 54
0.021 67
0.019 948
0.018 350
0.016 867
0.015 488
0.012 996
0.010 797
0.008 813
0.006 945
0.004 925

.00
20.97
42.00
62.99
83.95
104.88
125.78
146.67
167.36
188.44
209.32
230.21
251.11
272.02
292.95
313.90
334.86
355.84
376.85
397.88
418.94
440.02
461.14
482.30
503.50
524.74
546.02
567.35
588.74
610.18
631.68
653.24
674.87
696.56
718.33
740.17
762.09
784.10
806.19
828.37
850.65
873.04
895.53
918.14
940.87
963.73
986.74
1009.89
1033.21
1056.71
1080.39
1104.28
1128.39
1152.74
1177.36
1202.25
1227.46
1253.00
1278.92
1305.2
1332.0
1359.3
1387.1
1415.5
1444.6
1505.3
1570.3
1641.9
1725.2
1844.0

2375.3
2361.3
2347.2
2333.1
2319.0
2304.9
2290.8
2276.7
2262.6
2248.4
2234.2
2219.9
2205.5
2191.1
2176.6
2162.0
2147.4
2132.6
2117.7
2102.7
2087.6
2072.3
2057.0
2041.4
2025.8
2009.9
1993.9
1977.7
1961.3
1944.7
1927.9
1910.8
1893.5
1876.0
1858.1
1840.0
1821.6
1802.9
1783.8
1764.4
1744.7
1724.5
1703.9
1682.9
1661.5
1639.6
1617.2
1594.2
1570.8
1546.7
1522.0
1496.7
1470.6
1443.9
1416.3
1387.9
1358.7
1328.4
1297.1
1264.7
1231.0
1195.9
1159.4
1121.1
1080.9
993.7
894.3
776.6
626.3
384.5

374.14

22090.

0.003 155

0.003 155

2029.6

Enthalpy
Sat.
Vapor
ug

2375.3
2382.3
2389.2
2396.1
2402.9
2409.8
2416.6
2423.4
2430.1
2436.8
2443.5
2450.1
2456.6
2463.1
2469.6
2475.9
2482.2
2488.4
2494.5
2500.6
2506.5
2512.4
2518.1
2523.7
2529.3
2534.6
2539.9
2545.0
2550.0
2554.9
2559.5
2564.1
2568.4
2572.5
2576.5
2580.2
2583.7
2587.0
2590.0
2592.8
2595.3
2597.5
2599.5
2601.1
2602.4
2603.3
2603.9
2604.1
2604.0
2603.4
2602.4
2600.9
2599.0
2596.6
2593.7
2590.2
2586.1
2581.4
2576.0
2569.9
2563.0
2555.2
2546.4
2536.6
2525.5
2498.9
2464.6
2418.4
2351.5
2228.5
2029.6

24-34

Sat.
Liquid
hf
.01
20.98
42.01
62.99
83.96
104.89
125.79
146.68
167.37
188.45
209.33
230.23
251.13
272.06
292.98
313.93
334.91
355.90
376.92
397.96
419.04
440.15
461.30
482.48
503.71
524.99
546.31
567.69
589.13
610.63
632.20
653.84
675.55
697.34
719.21
741.17
763.22
785.37
807.62
829.98
852.45
875.04
897.76
920.62
943.62
966.78
990.12
1013.62
1037.32
1061.23
1085.36
1109.73
1134.37
1159.28
1184.51
1210.07
1235.99
1262.31
1289.07
1316.3
1344.0
1372.4
1401.3
1431.0
1461.5
1525.3
1594.2
1670.6
1760.5
1890.5
2099.3

Entropy

Evap.
hfg

Sat.
Vapor
hg

Sat.
Liquid
sf

Evap.
sfg

Sat.
Vapor
sg

2501.3
2489.6
2477.7
2465.9
2454.1
2442.3
2430.5
2418.6
2406.7
2394.8
2382.7
2370.7
2358.5
2346.2
2333.8
2321.4
2308.8
2296.0
2283.2
2270.2
2257.0
2243.7
2230.2
2216.5
2202.6
2188.5
2174.2
2159.6
2144.7
2129.6
2114.3
2098.6
2082.6
2066.2
2049.5
2032.4
2015.0
1997.1
1978.8
1960.0
1940.7
1921.0
1900.7
1879.9
1858.5
1836.5
1813.8
1790.5
1766.5
1741.7
1716.2
1689.8
1662.5
1634.4
1605.2
1574.9
1543.6
1511.0
1477.1
1441.8
1404.9
1366.4
1326.0
1283.5
1238.6
1140.6
1027.9
893.4
720.5
441.6

2501.4
2510.6
2519.8
2528.9
2538.1
2547.2
2556.3
2565.3
2574.3
2583.2
2592.1
2600.9
2609.6
2618.3
2626.8
2635.3
2643.7
2651.9
2660.1
2668.1
2676.1
2683.8
2691.5
2699.0
2706.3
2713.5
2720.5
2727.3
2733.9
2740.3
2746.5
2752.4
2758.1
2763.5
2768.7
2773.6
2778.2
2782.4
2786.4
2790.0
2793.2
2796.0
2798.5
2800.5
2802.1
2803.3
2804.0
2804.2
2803.8
2803.0
2801.5
2799.5
2796.9
2793.6
2789.7
2785.0
2779.6
2773.3
2766.2
2758.1
2749.0
2738.7
2727.3
2714.5
2700.1
2665.9
2622.0
2563.9
2481.0
2332.1

.0000
.0761
.1510
.2245
.2966
.3674
.4369
.5053
.5725
.6387
.7038
.7679
.8312
.8935
.9549
1.0155
1.0753
1.1343
1.1925
1.2500
1.3069
1.3630
1.4185
1.4734
1.5276
1.5813
1.6344
1.6870
1.7391
1.7907
1.8418
1.8925
1.9427
1.9925
2.0419
2.0909
2.1396
2.1879
2.2359
2.2835
2.3309
2.3780
2.4248
2.4714
2.5178
2.5639
2.6099
2.6558
2.7015
2.7472
2.7927
2.8383
2.8838
2.9294
2.9751
3.0208
3.0668
3.1130
3.1594
3.2062
3.2534
3.3010
3.3493
3.3982
3.4480
3.5507
3.6594
3.7777
3.9147
4.1106

9.1562
8.9496
8.7498
8.5569
8.3706
8.1905
8.0164
7.8478
7.6845
7.5261
7.3725
7.2234
7.0784
6.9375
6.8004
6.6669
6.5369
6.4102
6.2866
6.1659
6.0480
5.9328
5.8202
5.7100
5.6020
5.4962
5.3925
5.2907
5.1908
5.0926
4.9960
4.9010
4.8075
4.7153
4.6244
4.5347
4.4461
4.3586
4.2720
4.1863
4.1014
4.0172
3.9337
3.8507
3.7683
3.6863
3.6047
3.5233
3.4422
3.3612
3.2802
3.1992
3.1181
3.0368
2.9551
2.8730
2.7903
2.7070
2.6227
2.5375
2.4511
2.3633
2.2737
2.1821
2.0882
1.8909
1.6763
1.4335
1.1379
.6865

9.1562
9.0257
8.9008
8.7814
8.6672
8.5580
8.4533
8.3531
8.2570
8.1648
8.0763
7.9913
7.9096
7.8310
7.7553
7.6824
7.6122
7.5445
7.4791
7.4159
7.3549
7.2958
7.2387
7.1833
7.1296
7.0775
7.0269
6.9777
6.9299
6.8833
6.8379
6.7935
6.7502
6.7078
6.6663
6.6256
6.5857
6.5465
6.5079
6.4698
6.4323
6.3952
6.3585
6.3221
6.2861
6.2503
6.2146
6.1791
6.1437
6.1083
6.0730
6.0375
6.0019
5.9662
5.9301
5.8938
5.8571
5.8199
5.7821
5.7437
5.7045
5.6643
5.6230
5.5804
5.5362
5.4417
5.3357
5.2112
5.0526
4.7971

2099.3

4.4298

4.4298

FIG. 24-29 (Contd)


Saturated Steam: Pressure Table
Symbols Used in Steam Tables: Ppressure, kPa (abs); Tthermodynamic temperature, C; vspecific volume, m3/kg; uspecific internal energy, kJ/kg; hspecific enthalpy, kJ/kg
sspecific entropy, kJ/(kg K) Adapted from Joseph H. Keenan, Frederick G. Keyes, Philip G. Hill, and Joan G. Moore, Steam Tables, (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1969).
Press.
KPa
P
0.6113
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
4.0
5.0
7.5
10
15
20
25
30
40
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1750
2000
2250
2500
3000
3500
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
11000
12000
13000
14000
15000
16000
17000
18000
19000
20000
21000
22000
22090

Temp.
C
T
0.01
6.98
13.03
17.50
21.08
24.08
28.96
32.88
40.29
45.81
53.97
60.05
64.97
69.10
75.87
81.33
91.78
99.63
105.99
111.37
116.06
120.23
124.00
127.44
130.60
133.55
136.30
138.88
141.32
143.63
147.93
151.86
155.48
158.85
162.01
164.97
167.78
170.43
172.96
175.38
177.69
179.91
184.09
187.99
191.64
195.07
198.32
205.76
212.42
218.45
223.99
233.90
242.60
250.40
263.99
275.64
285.88
295.06
303.40
311.06
318.15
324.75
330.93
336.75
342.24
347.44
352.37
357.06
361.54
365.81
369.89
373.80
374.14

Specific Volume
Sat.
Liquid
vf
0.001 000
0.001 000
0.001 001
0.001 001
0.001 002
0.001 003
0.001 004
0.001 005
0.001 008
0.001 010
0.001 014
0.001 017
0.001 020
0.001 022
0.001 027
0.001 030
0.001 037
0.001 043
0.001 048
0.001 053
0.001 057
0.001 061
0.001 064
0.001 067
0.001 070
0.001 073
0.001 076
0.001 079
0.001 081
0.001 084
0.001 088
0.001 093
0.001 097
0.001 101
0.001 104
0.001 108
0.001 112
0.001 115
0.001 118
0.001 121
0.001 124
0.001 127
0.001 133
0.001 139
0.001 144
0.001 149
0.001 154
0.001 166
0.001 177
0.001 187
0.001 197
0.001 217
0.001 235
0.001 252
0.001 286
0.001 319
0.001 351
0.001 384
0.001 418
0.001 452
0.001 489
0.001 527
0.001 567
0.001 611
0.001 658
0.001 711
0.001 770
0.001 840
0.001 924
0.002 036
0.002 207
0.002 742
0.003 155

Sat.
Vapor
vg
206.14
129.21
87.98
67.00
54.25
45.67
34.80
28.19
19.24
14.67
10.02
7.649
6.204
5.229
3.993
3.240
2.217
1.6940
1.3749
1.1593
1.0036
0.8857
0.7933
0.7187
0.6573
0.6058
0.5620
0.5243
0.4914
0.4625
0.4140
0.3749
0.3427
0.3157
0.2927
0.2729
0.2556
0.2404
0.2270
0.2150
0.2042
0.194 44
0.177 53
0.163 33
0.151 25
0.140 84
0.131 77
0.113 49
0.099 63
0.088 75
0.079 98
0.066 68
0.057 07
0.049 78
0.039 44
0.032 44
0.027 37
0.023 52
0.020 48
0.018 026
0.015 987
0.014 263
0.012 780
0.011 485
0.010 337
0.009 306
0.008 364
0.007 489
0.006 657
0.005 834
0.004 952
0.003 568
0.003 155

Internal Energy
Sat.
Liquid
uf
00
29.30
54.71
73.48
88.48
101.04
121.45
137.81
168.78
191.82
225.92
251.38
271.90
289.20
317.53
340.44
384.31
417.36
444.19
466.94
486.80
504.49
520.47
535.10
548.59
561.15
572.90
583.95
594.40
604.31
622.77
639.68
655.32
669.90
683.56
696.44
708.64
720.22
731.27
741.83
751.95
761.68
780.09
797.29
813.44
828.70
843.16
876.46
906.44
933.83
959.11
1004.78
1045.43
1082.31
1147.81
1205.44
1257.55
1305.57
1350.51
1393.04
1433.7
1473.0
1511.1
1548.6
1585.0
1622.7
1660.2
1698.9
1739.9
1785.6
1842.1
1961.9
2029.6

Evap.
ufg
2375.3
2355.7
2338.6
2326.0
2315.9
2307.5
2293.7
2282.7
2261.7
2246.1
2222.8
2205.4
2191.2
2179.2
2159.5
2143.4
2112.4
2088.7
2069.3
2052.7
2038.1
2025.0
2013.1
2002.1
1991.9
1982.4
1973.5
1965.0
1956.9
1949.3
1934.9
1921.6
1909.2
1897.5
1886.5
1876.1
1866.1
1856.6
1847.4
1838.6
1830.2
1822.0
1806.3
1791.5
1777.5
1764.1
1751.3
1721.4
1693.8
1668.2
1644.0
1599.3
1558.3
1520.0
1449.3
1384.3
1323.0
1264.2
1207.3
1151.4
1096.0
1040.7
985.0
928.2
869.8
809.0
744.8
675.4
598.1
507.5
388.5
125.2
0

Enthalpy
Sat.
Vapor
ufg
2375.3
2385.0
2393.3
2399.5
2404.4
2408.5
2415.2
2420.5
2430.5
2437.9
2448.7
2456.7
2463.1
2468.4
2477.0
2483.9
2496.7
2506.1
2513.5
2519.7
2524.9
2529.5
2533.6
2537.2
2540.5
2543.6
2546.4
2548.9
2551.3
2553.6
2557.6
2561.2
2564.5
2567.4
2570.1
2572.5
2574.7
2576.8
2578.7
2580.5
2582.1
2583.6
2586.4
2588.8
2591.0
2592.8
2594.5
2597.8
2600.3
2602.0
2603.1
2604.1
2603.7
2602.3
2597.1
2589.7
2580.5
2569.8
2557.8
2544.4
2529.8
2513.7
2496.1
2476.8
2455.5
2431.7
2405.0
2374.3
2338.1
2293.0
2230.6
2087.1
2029.6

24-35

Sat.
Liquid
hfg
01.
29.30
54.71
73.48
88.49
101.05
121.46
137.82
168.79
191.83
225.94
251.40
271.93
289.23
317.58
340.49
384.39
417.46
444.32
467.11
486.99
504.70
520.72
535.37
548.89
561.47
573.25
584.33
594.81
604.74
623.25
640.23
655.93
670.56
684.28
697.22
709.47
721.11
732.22
742.83
753.02
762.81
781.34
798.65
814.93
830.30
844.89
878.50
908.79
936.49
962.11
1008.42
1049.75
1087.31
1154.23
1213.35
1267.00
1316.64
1363.26
1407.56
1450.1
1491.3
1531.5
1571.1
1610.5
1650.1
1690.3
1732.0
1776.5
1826.3
1888.4
2022.2
2099.3

Evap.
hfg
2501.3
2484.9
2470.6
2460.0
2451.6
2444.5
2432.9
2423.7
2406.0
2392.8
2373.1
2358.3
2346.3
2336.1
2319.2
2305.4
2278.6
2258.0
2241.0
2226.5
2213.6
2201.9
2191.3
2181.5
2172.4
2163.8
2155.8
2148.1
2140.8
2133.8
2120.7
2108.5
2097.0
2086.3
2076.0
2066.3
2057.0
2048.0
2039.4
2031.1
2023.1
2015.3
2000.4
1986.2
1972.7
1959.7
1947.3
1917.9
1890.7
1865.2
1841.0
1795.7
1753.7
1714.1
1640.1
1571.0
1505.1
1441.3
1378.9
1317.1
1255.5
1193.6
1130.7
1066.5
1000.0
930.6
856.9
777.1
688.0
583.4
446.2
143.4
0

Entropy
Sat.
Vapor
hg
2501.4
2514.2
2525.3
2533.5
2540.0
2545.5
2554.4
2561.5
2574.8
2584.7
2599.1
2609.7
2618.2
2625.3
2636.8
2645.9
2663.0
2675.5
2685.4
2693.6
2700.6
2706.7
2712.1
2716.9
2721.3
2725.3
2729.0
2732.4
2735.6
2738.6
2743.9
2748.7
2753.0
2756.8
2760.3
2763.5
2766.4
2769.1
2771.6
2773.9
2776.1
2778.1
2781.7
2784.8
2787.6
2790.0
2792.2
2796.4
2799.5
2801.7
2803.1
2804.2
2804.2
2801.4
2794.3
2784.3
2772.1
2758.0
2742.1
2724.7
2705.6
2684.9
2662.2
2637.6
2610.5
2580.6
2547.2
2509.1
2464.5
2409.7
2334.6
2165.6
2099.3

Sat.
Liquid
sf
.0000
.1059
.1957
.2607
.3120
.3545
.4226
.4764
.5764
.6493
.7549
.8320
.8931
.9439
1.0259
1.0910
1.2130
1.3026
1.3740
1.4336
1.4849
1.5301
1.5706
1.6072
1.6408
1.6718
1.7006
1.7275
1.7528
1.7766
1.8207
1.8607
1.8973
1.9312
1.9627
1.9922
2.0200
2.0462
2.0710
2.0946
2.1172
2.1387
2.1792
2.2166
2.2515
2.2842
2.3150
2.3851
2.4474
2.5035
2.5547
2.6457
2.7253
2.7964
3.9202
3.0267
3.1211
3.2068
3.2858
3.3596
3.4295
3.4962
3.5606
3.6232
3.6848
3.7461
3.8079
3.8715
3.9388
4.0139
4.1075
4.3110
4.4298

Evap.
sfg
9.1562
8.8697
8.6322
8.4629
8.3311
8.2231
8.0520
7.9187
7.6750
7.5009
7.2536
7.0766
6.9383
6.8247
6.6441
6.5029
6.2434
6.0368
5.9104
5.7897
5.6868
5.5970
5.5173
5.4455
5.3801
5.3201
5.2646
5.2130
5.1647
5.1193
5.0359
4.9606
4.8920
4.8288
4.7703
4.7158
4.6647
4.6166
4.5711
4.5280
4.4869
4.4478
4.3744
4.3067
4.2438
4.1850
4.1298
4.0044
3.8935
3.7937
3.7028
3.5412
3.4000
3.2737
3.0532
2.8625
2.6922
2.5364
2.3915
2.2544
2.1233
1.9962
1.8718
1.7485
1.6249
1.4994
1.3698
1.2329
1.0839
.9130
.6938
.2216
0

Sat.
Vapor
sg
9.1562
8.9756
8.8279
8.7237
8.6432
8.5776
8.4746
8.3951
8.2515
8.1502
8.0085
7.9085
7.8314
7.7686
7.6700
7.5939
7.4564
7.3594
7.2844
7.2233
7.1717
7.1271
7.0878
7.0527
7.0209
6.9919
6.9652
6.9405
6.9175
6.8959
6.8565
6.8213
6.7893
6.7600
6.7331
6.7080
6.6847
6.6628
6.6421
6.6226
6.6041
6.5865
6.5536
6.5233
6.4953
6.4693
6.4448
6.3896
6.3409
6.2972
6.2575
6.1869
6.1253
6.0701
5.9734
5.8892
5.8133
5.7432
5.6772
5.6141
5.5527
5.4924
5.4323
5.3717
5.3098
5.2455
5.1777
5.1044
5.0228
4.9269
4.8013
5.5327
4.4298

FIG. 24-30
Superheated Vapor
P = 10 kPa (45.81C)
T
Sat.
50
100
150
200
250
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

v
14.674
14.869
17.196
19.512
21.825
24.136
26.445
31.063
35.679
40.295
44.911
49.526
54.141
58.757
63.372
67.987
72.602

Sat.
150
200
250
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

.8857
.9596
1.0803
1.1988
1.3162
1.5493
1.7814
2.013
2.244
2.475
2.706
2.937
3.168
3.399
3.630

Sat
200
250
300
350
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

.3749
.4249
.4744
.5226
.5701
.6173
.7109
.8041
.8969
.9896
1.0822
1.1747
1.2672
1.3596
1.4521

Sat
200
250
300
350
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

.194 44
.2060
.2327
.2579
.2825
.3066
.3541
.4011
.4478
.4943
.5407
.5871
.6335
.6798
.7261

u
2437.9
2443.9
2515.5
2587.9
2661.3
2736.0
2812.1
2968.9
3132.3
3302.5
3479.6
3663.8
3855.0
4053.0
4257.5
4467.9
4683.7

h
2584.7
2592.6
2687.5
2783.0
2879.5
2977.3
3076.5
3279.6
3489.1
3705.4
3928.7
4159.0
4396.4
4640.6
4891.2
5147.8
5409.7

P = 50 kPa (81.33C)
v
3.240

u
2483.9

h
2645.9

s
7.5939

v
1.6940

u
2506.1

h
2675.5

s
7.3594

3.418
3.889
4.356
4.820
5.284
6.209
7.134
8.057
8.981
9.904
10.828
11.751
12.674
13.597
14.521

2511.6
2585.6
2659.9
2735.0
2811.3
2968.5
3132.0
3302.2
3479.4
3663.6
3854.9
4052.9
4257.4
4467.8
4683.6

2682.5
2780.1
2877.7
2976.0
3075.5
3278.9
3488.7
3705.1
3928.5
4158.9
4396.3
4640.5
4891.1
5147.7
5409.6

7.6958
7.9401
8.1580
8.3556
8.5373
8.8642
9.1546
9.4178
9.6599
9.8852
10.0967
10.2964
10.4859
10.6662
10.8382

1.6958
1.9364
2.172
2.406
2.639
3.103
3.565
4.028
4.490
4.952
5.414
5.875
6.337
6.799
7.260

2506.7
2582.8
2658.1
2733.7
2810.4
2967.9
3131.6
3301.9
3479.2
3663.5
3854.8
4052.8
4257.3
4467.7
4683.5

2676.2
2776.4
2875.3
2974.3
3074.3
3278.2
3488.1
3704.7
3928.2
4158.6
4396.1
4640.3
4891.0
5147.6
5409.5

7.3614
7.6134
7.8343
8.0333
8.2158
8.5435
8.8342
9.0976
9.3398
9.5652
9.7767
9.9764
10.1659
10.3463
10.5183

7.1272
7.2795
7.5066
7.7086
7.8926
8.2218
8.5133
8.7770
9.0194
9.2449
9.4566
9.6563
9.8458
10.0262
10.1982

.6058
.6339
.7163
.7964
.8753
1.0315
1.1867
1.3414
1.4957
1.6499
1.8041
1.9581
2.1121
2.2661
2.4201

6.9919
7.0778
7.3115
7.5166
7.7022
8.0330
8.3251
8.5892
8.8319
9.0576
9.2692
9.4690
9.6585
9.8389
10.0110

.4625
.4708
.5342
.5951
.6548
.7726
.8893
1.0055
1.1215
1.2372
1.3529
1.4685
1.5840
1.6996
1.8151

6.8213
7.0592
7.2709
7.4599
7.6329
7.7938
8.0873
7.3522
8.5952
8.8211
9.0329
9.2328
9.4224
9.6029
9.7749

.3157
.3520
.3938
.4344
.4742
.5137
.5920
.6697
.7472
.8245
.9017
.9788
1.0559
1.1330
1.2101

6.7600
6.9665
7.1816
7.3724
7.5464
7.7079
8.0021
8.2674
8.5107
8.7367
8.9486
9.1485
9.3381
9.5185
9.6906

.2404
.2608
.2931
.3241
.3544
.3843
.4433
.5018
.5601
.6181
.6761
.7340
.7919
.8497
.9076

6.5865
6.6940
6.9247
7.1229
7.3011
7.4651
7.7622
8.0290
8.2731
8.4996
8.7118
8.9119
9.1017
9.2822
9.4543

.163 33
.169 30
.192 34
.2138
.2345
.2548
.2946
.3339
.3729
.4118
.4505
.4892
.5278
.5665
.6051

6.5233
6.5898
6.8294
7.0317
7.2121
7.3774
7.6959
7.9435
8.1881
8.4148
8.6272
8.8274
9.0172
9.1977
9.3698

.140 84
.143 02
.163 50
.182 28
.2003
.2178
.2521
.2860
.3195
.3528
.3861
.4192
.4524
.4855
.5186

P = 200 kPa (120.23C)


2529.5
2576.9
2654.4
2731.2
2808.6
2966.7
3130.8
3301.4
3478.8
3663.1
3854.5
4052.5
4257.0
4467.5
4683.2

2706.7
2768.8
2870.5
2971.0
3071.8
3276.6
3487.1
3704.0
3927.6
4158.2
4395.8
4640.0
4890.7
5147.3
5409.3

P = 300 kPa (133.55C)

P = 500 kPa (151.86C)


2561.2
2642.9
2723.5
2802.9
2882.6
2963.2
3128.4
3299.6
3477.5
3662.1
3853.6
4051.8
4256.3
4466.8
4682.5

2748.7
2855.4
2960.7
3064.2
3167.7
3271.9
3483.9
3701.7
3925.9
4156.9
4394.7
4639.1
4889.9
5146.6
5408.6
2778.1
2827.9
2942.6
3051.2
3157.7
3263.9
3478.5
3697.9
3923.1
4154.7
4392.9
4637.6
4888.6
5145.4
5407.4

2543.6
2570.8
2650.7
2728.7
2806.7
2965.6
3130.0
3300.8
3478.4
3662.9
3854.2
4052.3
4256.8
4467.2
4683.0

2725.3
2761.0
2865.6
2967.6
3069.3
3275.0
3486.0
3703.2
3927.1
4157.8
4395.4
4639.7
4890.4
5147.1
5409.0

P = 400 kPa (143.63C)

P = 600 kPa (158.85C)

P = 1000 kPa (179.91C)


2583.6
2621.9
2709.9
2793.2
2875.2
2957.3
3124.4
3296.8
3475.3
3660.4
3852.2
4050.5
4255.1
4465.6
4681.3

P = 100 kPa (99.63C)

s
8.1502
8.1749
8.4479
8.6882
8.9038
9.1002
9.2813
9.6077
9.8978
10.1608
10.4028
10.6281
10.8396
11.0393
11.2287
11.4091
11.5811

2567.4
2638.9
2720.9
2801.0
2881.2
2962.1
3127.6
3299.1
3477.0
3661.8
3853.4
4051.5
4256.1
4466.5
4682.3

2756.8
2850.1
2957.2
3061.6
3165.7
3270.3
3482.8
3700.9
3925.3
4156.5
4394.4
4638.8
4889.6
5146.3
5408.3
2784.8
2815.9
2935.0
3045.8
3153.6
3260.7
3476.3
3696.3
3922.0
4153.8
4392.2
4637.0
4888.0
5144.9
5407.0

2738.6
2752.8
2860.5
2964.2
3066.8
3273.4
3484.9
3702.4
3926.5
4157.3
4395.1
4639.4
4890.2
5146.8
5408.8

6.8959
6.9299
7.1706
7.3789
7.5662
7.8985
8.1913
8.4558
8.6987
8.9244
9.1362
9.3360
9.5256
9.7060
9.8780

P = 800 kPa (170.43C)

P = 1200 kPa (187.99C)


2588.8
2612.8
2704.2
2789.2
2872.2
2954.9
3122.8
3295.6
3474.4
3659.7
3851.6
4050.0
4254.6
4465.1
4680.9

2553.6
2564.5
2646.8
2726.1
2804.8
2964.4
3129.2
3300.2
3477.9
3662.4
3853.9
4052.0
4256.5
4467.0
4682.8
2576.8
2630.6
2715.5
2797.2
2878.2
2959.7
3126.0
3297.9
3476.2
3661.1
3852.8
4051.0
4255.6
4466.1
4681.8

2769.1
2839.3
2950.0
3056.5
3161.7
3267.1
3480.6
3699.4
3924.2
4155.6
4393.7
4638.2
4889.1
5145.9
5407.9

6.6628
6.8158
7.0384
7.2328
7.4089
7.5716
7.8673
8.1333
8.3770
8.6033
8.8153
9.0153
9.2050
9.3855
9.5575

P = 1400 kPa (195.07C)


2592.8
2603.1
2698.3
2785.2
2869.2
2952.5
3121.1
3294.4
3473.6
3659.0
3851.1
4049.5
4254.1
4464.7
4680.4

2790.0
2803.3
2927.2
3040.4
3149.5
3257.5
3474.1
3694.8
3920.8
4153.0
4391.5
4636.4
4887.5
5144.4
5606.5

6.4693
6.4975
6.7467
6.9534
7.1360
7.3026
7.6027
7.8710
8.1160
8.3431
8.5556
8.7559
8.9457
9.1262
9.2984

Symbols Used in Steam Tables: Ppressure, kPa (abs); Tthermodynamic temperature, C; vspecific volume, m3/kg; uspecific internal energy, kJ/kg; hspecific enthalpy, kJ/kg
sspecific entropy, kJ/(kgK) Adapted from Joseph H. Keenan, Frederick G. Keyes, Philip G. Hill, and Joan G. Moore, Steam Tables, (New York: John Wiley & sons, Inc., 1969).

24-36

FIG. 24-30 (Contd)


Superheated Vapor
P = 1600 kPa (201.41C)
Sat.
225
250
300
350
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

.123 80
.132 87
.141 84
.158 62
.174 56
.190 05
.2203
.2500
.2794
.3086
.3377
.3668
.3958
.4248
.4538

Sat.
225
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

.079 98
.080 27
.087 00
.098 90
.109 76
.120 10
.130 14
.139 98
.159 30
.178 32
.197 16
.215 90
.2346
.2532
.2718
.2905

Sat.
275
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

.049 78
.054 57
.058 84
.066 45
.073 41
.080 02
.086 43
.098 85
.110 95
.122 87
.134 69
.146 45
.158 17
.169 87
.181 56

Sat.
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

.032 44
.036 16
.042 23
.047 39
.052 14
.056 65
.061 01
.065 25
.073 52
.081 60
.089 58
.097 49
.105 36
.113 21
.121 06

2596.0
2644.7
2692.3
2781.1
2866.1
2950.1
3119.5
3293.3
3472.7
3658.3
3850.5
4049.0
4253.7
4464.2
4679.9

2794.0
2857.3
2919.2
3034.8
3145.4
3254.2
3472.0
3693.2
3919.7
4152.1
4390.8
4635.8
4887.0
5143.9
5406.0

P = 1800 kPa (207.15C)


6.4218
6.5518
6.6732
6.8844
7.0694
7.2374
7.5390
7.8080
8.0535
8.2808
8.4935
8.6938
8.8837
9.0643
9.2364

.110 42
.116 73
.124 97
.140 21
.154 57
.168 47
.195 50
.2220
.2482
.2742
.3001
.3260
.3518
.3776
.4034

6.2575
6.2639
6.4085
6.6438
6.8403
7.0148
7.1746
7.3234
7.5960
7.8435
8.0720
8.2853
8.4861
8.6762
8.8569
9.0291

.066 68

2604.1

.070 58
.081 14
.090 53
.099 36
.107 87
.116 19
.132 43
.148 38
.164 14
.179 80
.195 41
.210 98
.226 52
.242 06

2644.0
2750.1
2843.7
2932.8
3020.4
3108.0
3285.0
3466.5
3653.5
3846.5
4045.4
4250.3
4460.9
4676.6

6.0701
6.2285
6.3615
6.5821
6.7690
6.9363
7.0901
7.3688
7.6198
7.8502
8.0647
8.2662
8.4567
8.6376
8.8100

.044 06
.047 30
.051 35
.058 40
.064 75
.070 74
.076 51
.087 65
.098 47
.109 11
.119 65
.130 13
.140 56
.150 98
.161 39

5.8892
6.0674
6.3335
6.5408
6.7193
6.8803
7.0288
7.1677
7.4234
7.6566
7.8727
8.0751
8.2661
8.4474
8.6199

.027 37
.029 47
.035 24
.039 93
.044 16
.048 14
.051 95
.055 65
.062 83
.069 81
.076.69
.083 50
.090 27
.097 03
.103 77

P = 2500 kPa (223.99C)


2603.1
2605.6
2662.6
2761.6
2851.9
2939.1
3025.5
3112.1
3288.0
3468.7
3655.3
3847.9
4046.7
4251.5
4462.1
4677.8

2803.1
2806.3
2880.1
3008.8
3126.3
3239.3
3350.8
3462.1
3686.3
3914.5
4148.2
4387.6
4633.1
4884.6
5141.7
5404.0
2801.4
2886.2
2960.7
3092.5
3213.6
3330.3
3445.3
3674.4
3905.9
4141.5
4382.3
4628.7
4880.6
5138.1
5400.5
2784.3
2884.2
3043.0
3177.2
3301.8
3422.2
3540.6
3658.4
3894.2
4132.7
4375.3
4622.7
4875.4
5133.3
5396.0

P = 2000 kPa (212.42C)


6.3794
6.4808
6.6066
6.8226
7.0100
7.1794
7.4825
7.7523
7.9983
8.2258
8.4386
8.6391
8.8290
9.0096
9.1818

.099 63
.103 77
.111 44
.125 47
.138 57
.151 20
.175 68
.199 60
.2232
.2467
.2700
.2933
.3166
.3398
.3631

2804.2

6.1869

.057 07

2600.1
2650.3
2712.0
2817.8
2913.3
3005.0
3095.3
3276.0
3459.9
3648.3
3842.2
4041.6
4246.8
4457.5
4673.1

2603.7

2803.4

6.1253

2855.8
2993.5
3115.3
3230.9
3344.0
3456.5
3682.3
3911.7
4145.9
4385.9
4631.6
4883.3
5140.5
5402.8

6.2872
6.5390
6.7428
6.9212
7.0834
7.2338
7.5085
7.7511
7.9862
8.1999
8.4009
8.5912
8.7720
8.9442

.058 72
.068 42
.076 78
.084 53
.091 96
.099 18
.113 24
.126 99
.140 56
.154.02
.167 43
.180 80
.194 15
.207.49

2623.7
2738.0
2835.3
2926.4
3015.3
3103.0
3282.1
3464.3
3651.8
3845.0
4044.1
4249.2
4459.8
4675.5

2829.2
2977.5
3104.0
3222.3
3337.2
3450.9
3678.4
3908.8
4143.7
4384.1
4630.1
4881.9
5139.3
5401.7

6.1749
6.4461
6.6579
6.8405
7.0052
7.1572
7.4339
7.6837
7.9134
8.1276
8.3288
8.5192
8.7000
8.8723

6.0198
6.1401
6.2828
6.5131
6.7047
6.8746
7.0301
7.3110
7.5631
7.7942
8.0091
8.2108
8.4015
8.5825
8.7549

.039 44
.041 41
.045 32
.051 94
.057 81
.063 30
.068 57
.078 69
.088 49
.098 11
.107 62
.117 07
.126 48
.135 87
.145 26

5.8133
5.9305
6.2283
6.4478
6.6327
6.7975
6.9486
7.0894
7.3476
7.5822
7.7991
8.0020
8.1933
8.3747
8.5473

.023 52
.024 26
.029 95
.034 32
.038 17
.041 75
.045 16
.048 45
.054 81
.060 97
.067 02
.073 01
.078 96
.084 89
.090 80

2793.3
2863.2
2943.1
3080.6
3204.7
3323.3
3439.6
3670.5
3903.0
4139.3
4380.6
4627.2
4879.3
5136.9
5399.4
2772.1
2838.4
3016.0
3158.1
3287.1
3410.3
3530.9
3650.3
3888.3
4128.2
4371.8
4619.8
4872.8
5130.9
5393.7

2799.5
2835.8
2902.5
3023.5
3137.0
3247.6
3467.6
3690.1
3917.4
4150.3
4389.4
4634.6
4885.9
5142.9
5405.1

6.3409
6.4147
6.5453
6.7664
6.9563
7.1271
7.4317
7.7024
7.9487
8.1765
8.3895
8.5901
8.7800
8.9607
9.1329

P = 5000 kPa (263.99C)

P = 7000 kPa (285.88C)


2580.5
2632.2
2769.4
2878.6
2978.0
3073.4
3167.2
3260.7
3448.5
3639.5
3835.0
4035.3
4240.9
4451.7
4667.3

2600.3
2628.3
2679.6
2772.6
2859.8
2945.2
3116.2
3290.9
3470.9
3657.0
3849.3
4048.0
4252.7
4463.3
4679.0

P = 3500 kPa (242.60C)

P = 4500 kPa (257.49C)

P = 6000 kPa (275.64C)


2589.7
2667.2
2789.6
2892.9
2988.9
3082.2
3174.6
3266.9
3453.1
3643.1
3837.8
4037.8
4243.3
4454.0
4669.6

2797.1
2846.7
2911.0
3029.2
3141.2
3250.9
3469.8
3691.7
3918.5
4151.2
4390.1
4635.2
4886.4
5143.4
5405.6

P = 3000 kPa (233.90C)

P = 4000 kPa (250.40C)


2602.3
2667.9
2725.3
2826.7
2919.9
3010.2
3099.5
3279.1
3462.1
3650.0
3843.6
4042.9
4248.0
4458.6
4674.3

2598.4
2636.6
2686.0
2776.9
2863.0
2947.7
3117.9
3292.1
3471.8
3657.6
3849.9
4048.5
4253.2
4463.7
4679.5

2597.1
2631.3
2698.0
2808.7
2906.6
2999.7
3091.0
3273.0
3457.6
3646.6
3840.7
4040.4
4245.6
4456.3
4672.0

2794.3
2838.3
2924.5
3068.4
3195.7
3316.2
3433.8
3665.5
3900.1
4137.1
4378.8
4625.7
4878.0
5135.7
5398.2

5.9734
6.0544
6.2084
6.4493
6.6459
6.8186
6.9759
7.2589
7.5122
7.7440
7.9593
8.1612
8.3520
8.5331
8.7055

P = 8000 kPa (295.06C)


2569.8
2590.9
2747.7
2863.8
2966.7
3064.3
3159.8
3254.4
3443.9
3636.0
3832.1
4032.8
4238.6
4449.5
4665.0

2758.0
2785.0
2987.3
3138.3
3272.0
3398.3
3521.0
3642.0
3882.4
4123.8
4368.3
4616.9
4870.3
5128.5
5391.5

5.7432
5.7906
6.1301
6.3634
6.5551
6.7240
6.8778
7.0206
7.2812
7.5173
7.7351
7.9384
8.1300
8.3115
8.4842

Symbols Used in Steam Tables: Ppressure, kPa (abs); Tthermodynamic temperature, C; vspecific volume, m3/kg; uspecific internal energy, kJ/kg; hspecific enthalpy, kJ/kg
sspecific entropy, kJ/(kgK) Adapted from Joseph H. Keenan, Frederick G. Keyes, Philip G. Hill, and Joan G. Moore, Steam Tables, (New York: John Wiley & sons, Inc., 1969).

24-37

FIG. 24-30 (Contd)


Superheated Vapor
P = 9000 kPa (303.40C)
Sat.
325
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

.020 48
.023 27
.025 80
.029 93
.033 50
.036 77
.039 87
.042 85
.045 74
.048 57
.054 09
.059 50
.064 85
.070 16
.075 44
.080 72

2557.8
2646.6
2724.4
2848.4
2955.2
3055.2
3152.2
3248.1
3343.6
3439.3
3632.5
3829.2
4030.3
4236.3
4447.2
4662.7

Sat.
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

.010 337
.011 470
.015 649
.018 445
.020 80
.022 93
.024 91
.026 80
.028 61
.032 10
.035 46
.038 75
.042 00
.045 23
.048 45

2455.5
2520.4
2740.7
2879.5
2996.6
3104.7
3208.6
3310.3
3410.9
3610.9
3811.9
4015.4
4222.6
4433.8
4649.1

375
400
425
450
500
550
600
650
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

.001 973 1
.006 004
.007 881
.009 162
.011 123
.012 724
.014 137
.015 433
.016 646
.018 912
.021 045
.023 10
.025 12
.027 11
.029 10

1798.1
2430.1
2609.2
2720.7
2884.3
3017.5
3137.9
3251.6
3361.3
3574.3
3783.0
3990.9
4200.4
4412.0
4626.9

375
400
425
450
500
550
600
650
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

.001 640 7
.001 907 7
.002 532
.003 693
.005 622
.006 984
.008 094
.009 063
.009 941
.011 523
.012 962
.014 324
.015 642
.016 940
.018 229

1677.1
1854.6
2096.9
2365.1
2678.4
2869.7
3022.6
3158.0
3283.6
3517.8
3739.4
3954.6
4167.4
4380.1
4594.3

2742.1
2856.0
2956.6
3117.8
3256.6
3386.1
3511.0
3633.7
3755.3
3876.5
4119.3
4364.8
4614.0
4867.7
5126.2
5389.2

P = 10 000 kPa (311.06C)


5.6772
5.8712
6.0361
6.2854
6.4844
6.6576
6.8142
6.9589
7.0943
7.2221
7.4596
7.6783
7.8821
8.0740
8.2556
8.4284

.018 026
.019 861
.022 42
.026 41
.029 75
.032 79
.035 64
.038 37
.041 01
.043 58
.048 59
.053 49
.058 32
.063 12
.067 89
.072 65

5.3098
5.4421
5.8811
6.1404
6.3443
6.5199
6.6776
6.8224
6.9572
7.2040
7.4279
7.6348
7.8283
8.0108
8.1840

.007 920

2390.2

.012 447
.015 174
.017 358
.019 288
.021 06
.022 74
.024 34
.027 38
.030 31
.033 16
.035 97
.038 76
.041 54

2685.0
2844.2
2970.3
3083.9
3191.5
3296.0
3398.7
3601.8
3804.7
4009.3
4216.9
4428.3
4643.5

4.0320
5.1418
5.4723
5.6744
5.9592
6.1765
6.3602
6.5229
6.6707
6.9345
7.1680
7.3802
7.5765
7.7605
7.9342

.001 789
.002 790
.005 303
.006 735
.008 678
.010 168
.011 446
.012 596
.013 661
.015 623
.017 448
.019 196
.020 903
.022 589
.024 266

1737.8
2067.4
2455.1
2619.3
2820.7
2970.3
3100.5
3221.0
3335.8
3555.5
3768.5
3978.8
4189.2
4401.3
4616.0

3.8290
4.1135
4.5029
4.9459
5.4700
5.7785
6.0114
6.2054
6.3750
6.6662
6.9150
7.1356
7.3364
7.5224
7.6969

.001 559 4
.001 730 9
.002 007
.002 486
.003 892
.005 118
.006 112
.006 966
.007 727
.009 076
.010 283
.011 411
.012 496
.013 561
.014 616

1638.6
1788.1
1959.7
2159.6
2525.5
2763.6
2942.0
3093.5
3230.5
3479.8
3710.3
3930.5
4145.7
4359.1
4572.8

P = 15 000 kPa (342.24C)


2610.5
2692.4
2975.5
3156.2
3308.6
3448.6
3582.3
3712.3
3840.1
4092.4
4343.8
4596.6
4852.6
5112.3
5376.0

P = 12 500 kPa (327.89C)


5.6141

.013 495

2505.1

2673.8

5.4624

5.9443
6.2120
6.4190
6.5966
6.7561
6.9029
7.0398
7.1687
7.4077
7.6272
7.8315
8.0237
8.2055
8.3783

.016 126
.020 00
.022 99
.025 60
.028 01
.030 29
.032 48
.034 60
.038 69
.042 67
.046 58
.050 45
.054 30
.058 13

2624.2
2789.3
2912.5
3021.7
3125.0
3225.4
3324.4
3422.9
3620.0
3819.1
4021.6
4228.2
4439.3
4654.8

5711.8
3039.3
3199.8
3341.8
3475.2
3604.0
3730.4
3855.3
4103.6
4352.5
4603.8
4858.8
5118.0
5381.4

6.0417
6.2719
6.4618
6.6290
6.7810
6.9218
7.0536
7.2965
7.5182
7.7237
7.9165
8.0987
8.2717

2528.8

5.1419

.005 834

2293.0

2409.7

4.9269

2902.9
3109.7
3274.1
3421.4
3560.1
3693.9
3824.6
4081.1
4335.1
4589.5
4846.4
5106.6
5370.5

5.7213
6.0184
6.2383
6.4230
6.5866
6.7357
6.8736
7.1244
7.3507
7.5589
7.7531
7.9360
8.1093

.009 942
.012 695
.014 768
.016 555
.018 178
.019 693
.021 13
.023 85
.026 45
.028 97
.031 45
.033 91
.036 36

2619.3
2806.2
2942.9
3062.4
3174.0
3281.4
3386.4
3592.7
3797.5
4003.1
4211.3
4422.8
4638.0

2818.1
3060.1
3238.2
3393.5
3537.6
3675.3
3809.0
4069.7
4326.4
4582.5
4840.2
5101.0
5365.1

5.5540
5.9017
6.1401
6.3348
6.5048
6.6582
6.7993
7.0544
7.2830
7.4925
7.6874
7.8707
8.0442

3.9305
4.4728
5.1504
5.4424
5.7905
6.0342
6.2331
6.4058
6.5605
6.8332
7.0718
7.2867
7.4845
7.6692
7.8432

.001 700 3
.002 100
.003 428
.004 961
.006 927
.008 345
.009 527
.010 575
.011 533
.013 278
.014 883
.016 410
.017 895
.019 360
.020 815

1702.9
1914.1
2253.4
2498.7
2751.9
2921.0
3062.0
3189.8
3309.8
3536.7
3754.0
3966.7
4178.3
4390.7
4605.1

3.7639
4.0031
4.2734
4.5884
5.1726
5.5485
5.8178
6.0342
6.2189
6.5290
6.7882
7.0146
7.2184
7.4058
7.5808

.001 502 8
.001 633 5
.001 816 5
.002 085
.002 956
.003 956
.004 834
.005 595
.006 272
.007 459
.008 508
.009 480
.010 409
.011 317
.012 215

1609.4
1745.4
1892.7
2053.9
2390.6
2658.8
2861.1
3028.8
3177.2
3441.5
3681.0
3906.4
4124.1
4338.2
4551.4

P = 20 000 kPa (365.81C)

P = 30 000 kPa

P = 40 000 kPa
1742.8
1930.9
2198.1
2512.8
2903.3
3149.1
3346.4
3520.6
3681.2
3978.7
4257.9
4527.6
4793.1
5057.7
5323.5

2724.7
5756.8
2923.4
3096.5
3240.9
3373.7
3500.9
3625.3
3748.2
3870.5
4114.8
4361.2
4611.0
4865.1
5123.8
5387.0

P = 17 500 kPa (354.75C)

P = 25 000 kPa
1848.0
2580.2
2806.3
2949.7
3162.4
3335.6
3491.4
3637.4
3777.5
4047.1
4309.1
4568.5
4828.2
5089.9
5354.4

2544.4
2610.4
2699.2
2832.4
2943.4
3045.8
3144.6
3241.7
3338.2
3434.7
3628.9
3826.3
4027.8
4234.0
4444.9
4460.5

1791.5
2151.1
2614.2
2821.4
3081.1
3275.4
3443.9
3598.9
3745.6
4024.2
4291.9
4554.7
4816.3
5079.0
5344.0

P = 35 000 kPa

P = 50 000 kPa
1716.6
1874.6
2060.0
2284.0
2720.1
3019.5
3247.6
3441.8
3616.8
3933.6
4224.4
4501.1
4770.5
5037.2
5303.6

1762.4
1987.6
2373.4
2672.4
2994.4
3213.0
3395.5
3559.9
3713.5
4001.5
4274.9
4541.1
4804.6
5068.3
5333.6

3.8722
4.2126
4.7747
5.1962
5.6282
5.9026
6.1179
6.3010
6.4631
6.7450
6.9886
7.2064
7.4057
7.5910
7.7653

P = 60 000kPa
1699.5
1843.4
2001.7
2179.0
2567.9
2896.2
3151.2
3364.5
3553.5
3889.1
4191.5
4475.2
4748.6
5017.2
5284.3

3.7141
3.9318
4.1626
4.4121
4.9321
5.3441
5.6452
5.8829
6.0824
6.4109
6.6805
6.9127
7.1195
7.3083
7.4837

Symbols Used in Steam Tables: Ppressure, kPa (abs); Tthermodynamic temperature, C; vspecific volume, m3/kg; uspecific internal energy, kJ/kg; hspecific enthalpy, kJ/kg
sspecific entropy, kJ/(kgK) Adapted from Joseph H. Keenan, Frederick G. Keyes, Philip G. Hill, and Joan G. Moore, Steam Tables, (New York: John Wiley & sons, Inc., 1969).

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