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4.

5 Calculating ANOVA by hand


Example: A researcher was interested in studying the effects of three different
text book on mathematics achievement. To investigate the effects, the three
different books were used in three different school which had equal
demographical characteristics. The three school employed the same teaching
methods. At the end of the program, a mathematics test was administered to the
students. Five scores from each school were randomly selected and the scores
are as follows.

Saya berminat untuk mengkaji kesan tiga buah buku teks yang berbeza terhadap
pencapaian matematik. Untuk menyiasat kesan-kesan, ketiga-tiga buku yang
berbeza telah digunakan dalam tiga sekolah yang berbeza yang mempunyai
ciri-ciri demografi yang sama. Tiga sekolah yang bekerja kaedah pengajaran
sama. Pada akhir program ini, satu ujian matematik telah diberikan kepada
pelajar. Lima markah dari setiap sekolah telah dipilih secara rawak dan skor
adalah seperti berikut.
Text Book A Text Book B Text Book C
54 53 49
49 56 53
52 57 47
55 51 50
48 59 54

With = .05, test if the means of the three populations are equal.
1. State the independent variable and the dependent variable in this study
2. State the assumptions for using a one-way ANOVA
3. State the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis
4. Compute SS
B
, SS
w
and SS
T

5. Compute the between and within samples variances
6. Indicate the value of F
critical
.
7. Compute the F value
8. Create and ANOVA table and fill in the above information
9. Describe the conclusion
Solution:
Text Book A Text Book B Text Book C
54 53 49
49 56 53
52 57 47
55 51 50
48 59 54
T
1
= 258 T
2
= 276 T
3
= 253
X
2
1
= 13350 X
2
2
= 15276 X
2
3
= 12835
n
1
= 5 n
2
= 5 n
3
= 5

1
= 51.6
2
= 55.2
3
= 50.6

1) Independent variable : Text book with three different text books
Dependent variable : scores of mathematics achievement
2) The assumption using one-way ANOVA:
1. The distribution of the populations are normal,
2. The variances of the populations are equal
3. Scores are independent
4. Samples are independent
5. Samples are random
3) Null Hypothesis, H
0
=

(the three group mean are equal)


Alternative Hyphotesis, H
a
:

( at least one of the means are


unequal)
4) a) Sum of Squares Between Group (SS
B
)
SS
B
=

()


()


SS
B
=
()


()


()


()

= 58.5333
b) Sum of Square Within Groups (SS
w
)
SS
w
= -


= 41,461 -
()


()


()


= 111.2


c) Sum of Squares Total (SS
T
)
SS
T
= SS
B
+ SS
w
= 58.5333 + 111.2 = 169.7333
5) Between Group Variance
MS
B
=


Within Group Variance
MS
w
=

= 9.2667

6) The value of F
critical

F
critical
= F
(0.05,2,12)
= 3.89
Decision Rules: Reject H
o
if F> 3.89
7) The value of F
F =



8) One-Way ANOVA Table
Sources of Variation Sum of
Squares(SS)
Degrees
of
Freedom
(df)
Mean
Square(MS)
Test
Statistic
Value (F)
F
critical
Between 2 58.5333 29.2667
3.16 3.89
Within 12 112.2000 9.2667
Total 14 169.7333


9) Conclusions
F = 3.16, F
critical
= 3.89. Therefore we fail to reject the H
o
. The data indicate
that the means
of populations are equal ( F
(2,12)
= 3.16, = 0.05). The differences
of the three sample means are simply due to sampling errors.