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(Dandong Bettersize Instrument Ltd. Wangyongquan)

Introduction

At present laser diffraction particle size tester has !een applied "idely especially in a!road

it has !een recognized conforma!ly. The remar#a!le features are$ high measurement precision

fast response speed good repetiti%eness "ide measura!le particle diameter range and touchless

measurement etc.

The research and production of the #ind of instruments in &hina is comparati%ely short. The

need of the instruments is at least '(( e%ery year in home mar#et !ut the lo"est price in foreign

countries is )(((( * e%ery machine so our country pays foreign e+change )(((((( * in

purchasing the #ind of instruments at least e%ery year. In latest se%eral years "e ha%e de%eloped

multifold model laser particle size tester successfully the main performance is ali#e "ith foreign

same products.

The measurement principle of laser diffraction particle size tester

The operational principle of laser diffraction particle size tester "e studied !ases on

,raunhofer diffraction and -ie scattering theory. We #no" from physics optics deduction that the

scattering of incidence light %s particles accord "ith classical -ie theory. -ie scattering theory is

rigorous mathematic root of -a+"ell electromagnetic "a%e equation group "hile ,raunhofer

diffraction is only a #ind of appro+imation of -ie scattering theory. ,raunhofer diffraction is

applica!le to the situation that particle diameter is far more than the incidence "a%e length and is

assumed that the light source and recei%ing screen are all !oundlessly far a"ay the diffracting

screen. &onsidering from the theory ,raunhofer diffraction is relati%ely simpler in application.

The !asic de%ice of laser diffraction particle size tester sees attached dra"ing '. Lo" energy

laser sends monochromic light of "a%elength (../) um and the light passes through space

filtering and diffusing !eam lens to filter miscellaneous light and form -a+ diameter '(mm

parallel monochromic light !eam. The light !eam irradiates the particles in measurement area and

occurs light diffracti%e phenomenon. The intensity distri!ution of diffracted light follo"s to

,raunhofer diffraction theory. ,ourier con%ersion lens at the !ac# of measurement area is

recei%ing lens (#no"ing lens range) scattered light forms far magnetic field diffracti%e graph on

!ac# focus surface. -ulti0ring photoelectric detector on !ac# focus surface of recei%ing lens can

recei%e the energy of diffracted light and translate it into electric signal and output. The center

hole of the detector measures the consistency of allo"a!le sample %olume. The diffracti%e graph

of the particles is still and centralizes on light shaft range of the lens. 1o it does not matter that the

particles are dynamic to pass through analyzing light !eam the diffracti%e graph is a constant to

any lens distance. The lens con%ersion is optics so it is %ery fast.

According to ,raunhofer diffraction theory "hen a spherical particle of diameter d is "ithin

measurement area its light intensity distri!ution of any angle is$

In the equation$

f the focal length of recei%ing lens

2the "a%elength of incidence light

3' first order Bessel function

Dandong Bettersize Instruments Ltd.

( )

( )

( ) ' 4

'.

4

'

4 4

5 4

(

1

]

1

X

X J

f

d

I I

6scattering angle

When the diffracted light intensity distri!ution of the laser lays upon the 7o n ring of

photoelectric detector (ring radius is from 1n to 1n8' corresponding scattering angle is from6n

to6n8') the light energy is$

The equation (') is su!stitute into I6 then "e get$

3( zero order Bessel function

If there are 7 quantity particles of diameter d the recei%ed light energy on 7o n light ring is

7 times79enmore than that of one particle. :n the analogy of this if there are 7i quantity

particles of diameter di in the particles total diffracted light energy in the particles is the sum of

all particles diffracted light energy that is

If "e use W to represent dimension distri!ution the relation !et"een W and 7 is$

In the equation; is particle densitya!o%e equation is su!stitute into equation5"e get

The equation (.) set up the corresponding relation !et"een e%ery ring diffracted light signal on

photoelectric detector and particle diameter and distri!ution of measured particles.

In particle calculating there are <. effecti%e rings on photoelectric detector "e use so "e

di%ide the diameter into <. sections the geometric shape of photoelectric detector see attached

dra"ing 4 radius data of e%ery ring is as follo"s (unit$ mm)$

A!o%e formula sho"s inner radius is 1n and outer radius is 1n8' of 7o n ring.

&hoose particle diameter section according to the follo"ing formula calculating$

in the formula

Dandong Bettersize Instruments Ltd.

sin d X

( ) ( ) ( ) 4 / 4 ' 4

'

+

n dS S I e

n

n

S

S

n

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) /

5

'

4

' '

4

(

4

'

4

( (

4

+ +

+

n n n n n

X J X J X J X J I

d

e

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) 5

5

'

4

' '

4

(

4

'

4

(

4 (

+ +

+

n i n i n i n i i i n

X J X J X J X J d N

I

e

( ) )

.

/

i

i

i

d

W

N

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) .

4

/

'

4

' '

4

(

4

'

4

(

(

+ +

+

n i n i n i n i

i

i

n

X J X J X J X J

d

W I

e

'

to i S S

i i

(=<)/. . (

'

S

<= ' /= . ' to i

f

S D

i i

f recei%ing lens of focal length '>(mm

2semiconductor laser of "a%elength (../)

A!o%e formula sho"s the section upper limit is Dn and section lo"er limit is Dn8' of 7o n

particle grade in <. particles grade.

The geometric mean %alue can !e chosen as the representati%e %alue of particle diameter in e%ery

particle grade$

We can "or# out coefficient matri+ !y formula (.) once "e mensurate light energy

distri!ution ? on <. effecti%e light rings "or# out system of linear equations (.) "e can get

"eight distri!ution W of particle dimension. To !e con%enient "e use least square method to

process data. We assume that "eight distri!ution W accords "ith some distri!ution rule (called

distri!ution function restricti%e method) or ar!itrary initial %alue (called free distri!ution method)

and calculate diffracted light energy of <. rings on photoelectric detector compare "ith real %alue

one !y one until the error !et"een t"o %alues is the least.

The follo"ing is the discussion on the solutions of free distri!ution method and se%eral

distri!ution function restricti%e method and assuming section "eights of <. particles grade are

W'W4W/W<)W<. light intensity %alues of all rings are ?'?4?/?<)?<..

,ree distri!ution method$

,irst step$ assuming initial %alue of e%ery particle grade section "ight Wi is ' institute

into formula (.) "or#ing out light intensity %alues of all rings e'e4e/e<)e<. then "e

calculate light intensity %ariance !y formula (=)$

The %ariance is in %aria!le @ calculating proportionality coefficient !et"een measured

%alue and calculated %alue of e%ery ring light intensity according to formula (>)$

Apdate "eight %alues Wi of all particle grade sections according to formula (<)$

1econd step$ updated "eight %alues Wi of all particle grade sections are institute into

formula (.) "or#ing out diffracted light intensity of all rings e'e4e/e<)e<. and calculating

Dandong Bettersize Instruments Ltd.

<. '

'

to i D D d

i i i

+

( ) ( ) =

4

<.

'

4

i

i i

E e

( ) >

i

i

i

e

E

( ) <

i i i

W W

The measurement principle of laser particle size

light intensity %ariance !y formula (=) comparing this %ariance "ith last %ariance if B4 is greater

than@ turn to third stepC or$

Apdate @ %alue calculate proportionality coefficient !et"een measured %alue and

calculated %alue of e%ery ring light intensity according to formula (>) update "eight %alues Wi of

all particle grade sections according to formula (<).

Depeat second step.

Third step$ the %alue Wi is our "ant final all particle grade sections "eight. The section

percentage can !e calculated !y formula ('()$

The percentage greater than some a particle diameter (screen) is calculated !y formula

('')$

The normal distri!ution of distri!ution function restricti%e method$ the formula is

in the formula

assume

then

the formula ('4) turn into

Dandong Bettersize Instruments Ltd.

( ) '(

i

i

i

W

W

f

' '

f R ( ) '' <. 4

'

to i f R R

i i i

+

( )

( )

( ) '4

4

e+p

4

'

4

4

1

]

1

u x

dx

d

x f

( ) '

dx x f

,

_

u x

t

dx dt

,

_

4

e+p

4

'

4

t

dt

d

so

The formula ('/) is a standard normal distri!ution functionC there are integral ta!les in %arious

statistics !oo#s.

The corresponding points of particle diameters and accumulati%e percentages on normal

pro!a!ility coordinate paper should appear li#e !eeline. We can use least square method to fit

percentage "or# out Di and corresponding tI in turn !y interpolation in integral ta!le then sol%e

coefficients Band u !y the follo"ing formula.

&on%ert coefficients Band u into t %alue then "or# out D !y interpolation in integral ta!le.

Dosin0Dammler distri!ution of distri!ution function restricti%e method$

Assume the rest percentage on screen of hole diameter + is D Dosin0Dammle educed from

pro!a!ility theory$

After simplification

The a!o%e formula is a linear equationC "e can count t"o coefficients referring to formula ('5)

and return to get accumulati%e percentage.

Know about particles

Dandong Bettersize Instruments Ltd.

( ) '/

4

e+p

4

'

4

(

dt

t

d

u x

,

_

( ) '5

<.

<.

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i i i

t t

t x t t x

u

t t

t x t x

( )

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bx R e+p '((

( ) ') ln ln

'((

ln ln x n b

R

+

,

_

Earticle size distri!ution

To understand the meanings on output result of laser diffraction particle size tester "e need

to e+plain some !asic concepts.

,irst$ The result is !asis on %olume. ,or e+ample result sho"s the distri!ution is ''F "ithin

the range ..<=0=.=)Gm. That means total %olume of all particles in this range is ''F of total

%olume of all particles in "hole distri!ution. 1imply "e assume the sample has t"o #inds of

particles their diameters are 'Gm and '(Gm e%ery #ind is )(F that is to say the %olume of a

large particle is more '((( times than that of small so the %olume of large particles is <<.<F of

total %olume. &ertainly for a #ind of particle size distri!ution the diameters of all particles are

same "hether quantity or %olume the distri!ution is '((F.

1econd$ The result is indicated !y equi%alent sphere. Assuming the diameter of a columnar

particle is4(Gm height is .(Gm the %olume is$

&on%ert it into a spherical %olume the diameter is !et"een 4(Gm and .(Gm$

Third$ The deri%ation of distri!ution function. The distri!ution "e analyze is particle size

group indication of a set optical system "ith !est resolution. All distri!ution parameters are

educed from the !asic distri!ution. In calculating representati%e diameter of e%ery particle size

section means geometric mean of t"o0end %alues of this particle size section there is a little

different "ith arithmetic a%erage.

Data sample and !ac#ground

The measuring output is the array of numerical %alue including the test results of !ac#ground and

samples. If "e "ant to get the practical scattering of sample particle its self "e must ta#e out the

!ac#ground measurement from sample measurement at the same time must correct. After

correction !ac#ground is$

In the formula

D is the passage 7o of data H

1 is the sample measurement

B is the !ac#ground measurement

:! is opacity I definition is

Ls is measured light intensity !y center detector "hen a sample is put in the sample pool.

Dandong Bettersize Instruments Ltd.

( ) .( '(

4

V

//

.

/

V

( )

j j j

B Ob S D '

b

s

L

L

Ob '

The measurement principle of laser particle size

L! is measured light intensity "ith only pure dispersing medium !ut "ithout sample.

Analyzing de%iation and data fit

Analyzing is that the measured data and other e+periment parameter are processed "ith restricti%e

square method of iteration course and educed output.

?stimate an initial particle size distri!ution and input a scattering matri+ to optical model selected

to predict forthcoming light scattering. It is sho"ed in mathematics$

If %ector LH indicates measured data %ector Di indicates result and then they can connect !y the

follo"ing equation$

LHJAiHDi

AiH is scattering matri+ included in optics correction can !e calculated according to scattering

theory accurately.

&ompare the calculated %alue "ith real %alue and use a set of designed correct proHect to modify

and adHust repeat this process until the calculated %alue and measured %alue tally "ith accepta!le

e+tent at the time output the particle size distri!ution as result.

&omparing the least square error of the calculated %alue "ith that of measured %alue It is sho"ed

in mathematics$

DK is the result of present analyzing stage "ith analyse going on the present residual error is

decreasing "ith the reducing of fit the calculated %alue AiHDiK is more closer to measured %alue LH.

:ptical -odel

Laser diffraction particle size tester measures that the range of scattering angle is (.('0

')Lgenerally and the range of particle diameter is o%er 'Gm.

It is #no"n that for such particle diameter and scattering angle scattering character has no relation

"ith the internal optical property of sample. 1uch instruments use usually ,raunhofer scattering

theory !ecause it doesnMt need any assumption to particle optical property.

Actually "hen the particle diameter !egins to reduce to !elo" '(Gm and particles dip in liquid or

are transparency in optics ,raunhofer scattering model occurs errors generally.

In order to measure the particle diameter of least (.()Gm the measure range of the instrument is

!roadened up to '/)L. The scattering of small particles has close relation "ith the optical property

of scattering material under so !ig angle and cannot !e omitted. -ie Theory on scattering meets

the case "hich descri!es the scattering of optical uniform sphere and ma#es some assumptions to

optical property of the particle. -ie Theory includes ,raunhofer scattering and anomalous

scattering model entirely and they are conforma!le in proper range.

&hoose the appropriate optical model for e+periment from the instrument and set it as Nstandard

%alueO. Because of adopting the optical model you neednMt thin# of optical property of the sample

"hen you use the instrument. Po"e%er to ensure high precise sample the optical model is

considered pro!a!ly.

Deri%ati%e diameter and distri!ution statistics

Dandong Bettersize Instruments Ltd.

( )

j

j

j

i ij j

L

R A L

RESID

4

K

'((

The measurement principle of laser particle size

The analysis outcome is the relati%e %olume distri!ution of the particle among a series of particle

size groups and the distri!ution D[m,n] statistics is calculated on !asis of the outcome "hich is

the recognized method !y international. The particle outcome "ithin t"o !oundaries of particle

size groups can !e "or#ed out !y means of inner interpolation.

The definition of deri%ati%e diameter$

In the formula$

Qi are the relati%e %olume among the groups a%erage diameter of the group is di. m and n is

integer indicating the type of deri%ati%e diameter. DR5 /S%olume "eighted a%erage

diameterDR/4Ssurface "eighted a%erage diameterDR'(Sarithmetic a%erage diameter.

Distri!ution statistics

A%erage diameter

1tandard de%iation

1#e"

Turt

1pecific surface area 1pecific surface area11Ais the ratio of total area and gross "eight

of the particle.

Dandong Bettersize Instruments Ltd.

[ ]

n m

n

i i

m

i i

d V

d V

n m D

1

1

]

1

'

/

/

i

i i

V

V d

d

( )

i

i i

V

d d V

4

( )

i

i i

V

d d V

Se!

/

/

( )

/

5

5

i

i i

V

d d V

"u#t

i

i

i

V

d

V

SSA

.

The measurement principle of laser particle size

1pan and Aniformity

The definition of distri!ution span

1pan is the distri!ution "idth and has no relation "ith middle particle diameterC uniformity is

distri!ution pattern also relation "ith middle particle diameter sho"s the e+tent of distri!ution

de%iating from the middle. The definition is$

Dandong Bettersize Instruments Ltd.

( ) ( )

( ) ) . (

' . ( < . (

$ d

$ d $ d

S%&n

( )

( )

i

i i

V $ d

d $ d V

'nifo#mit(

) . (

) . (

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