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UPANISHADS MAYORES

EN INGLS
Aiterya Upanishad
Translated by Swami Gambhirananda
Published by Advaita Ashram, Kolkatta
Om ! May my speech be based on (i.e. accord with) the mind;
May my mind be based on speech.
O Self-effulgent One, reeal !hyself to me.
May you both (speech and mind) be the carriers of the "eda to me.
May not all that # hae heard depart from me.
# shall $oin together (i.e. obliterate the difference of) day
%nd night through this study.
# shall utter what is erbally true;
# shall utter what is mentally true.
May that (&rahman) protect me;
May !hat protect the spea'er (i.e. the teacher), may !hat protect me;
May that protect the spea'er ( may !hat protect the spea'er.
Om ! )eace ! )eace ! )eace !
#-i-*+ #n the beginning this was but the absolute Self alone. !here was nothing else whatsoeer that win'ed. ,e thought,
-.et Me create the worlds./
#-i-0+ ,e created these world, i1. ambhas, marici, mara, apah. !hat which is beyond heaen is ambhas. ,eaen is its
support. !he s'y is marici. !he earth is mara. !he worlds that are below are the apah.
#-i-2+ ,e thought, -!hese then are the worlds. .et Me create the protectors of the worlds./ ,aing gathered up a (lump of
the) human form from the water itself, ,e gae shape to it.
#-i-3+ ,e deliberated with regard to ,im (i.e. "irat of the human form). %s ,e (i.e. "irat) was being deliberated on, ,is (i.e.
"irat45) mouth parted, $ust as an egg does. 6rom the mouth emerged speech; from speech came 6ire. !he nostrils parted;
from the nostrils came out the sense of smell; from the sense of smell came "ayu (%ir). !he two eyes parted; from the
eyes emerged the sense of sight; from the sense of sight came the Sun. !he two ears parted; from the ears came the
sense of hearing; from the sense of hearing came the 7irections. !he s'in emerged; from the s'in came out hair (i.e. the
sense of touch associated with hair); from the sense of touch came the ,erbs and !rees. !he heart too' shape; from the
heart issued the internal organ (mind); from the internal organ came the Moon. !he nael parted; from the nael came
out the organ of e$ection; from the organ of e$ection issued 7eath. !he seat of the procreatie organ parted; from that
came the procreatie organ; from the procreatie organ came out 8ater.
#-ii-*+ !hese deities, that had been created, fell into this ast ocean. ,e sub$ected ,im (i.e. "irat) to hunger and thirst.
!hey said to ,im (i.e. to the 9reator), -)roide an abode for us, staying where we can eat food./
#-ii-0+ 6or them ,e (i.e. :od) brought a cow. !hey said, -!his one is not certainly ade;uate for us./ 6or them ,e brought a
horse. !hey said, -!his one is not certainly ade;uate for us./
#-ii-2+ 6or them ,e brought a man. !hey said -!his one is well formed; man indeed is a creation of :od ,imself/. !o them
,e said, -<nter into your respectie abodes/.
#-ii-3+ 6ire entered into the mouth ta'ing the form of the organ of speech; %ir entered into the nostrils assuming the form
of the sense of smell; the Sun entered into the eyes as the sense of sight; the 7irections entered into the ears by
becoming the sense of hearing; the ,erbs and !rees entered into the s'in in the form of hair (i.e. the sense of touch); the
Moon entered into the heart in the shape of the mind; 7eath entered into the nael in the form of %pana (i.e. the ital
energy that presses down); 8ater entered into the limb of generation in the form of semen (i.e. the organ of procreation).
#-ii-=+ !o ,im ,unger and !hirst said, -)roide for us (some abode)./ !o them ,e said, -# proide your lielihood among
these ery gods; # ma'e you share in their portions./ !herefore when oblation is ta'en up for any deity whichsoeer,
,unger and !hirst become erily sharers with that deity.
#-iii-*+ ,e thought, -!his, then, are the senses and the deities of the senses. .et Me create food for them.
#-iii-0+ ,e deliberated with regard to the water. 6rom the water, thus brooded oer, eoled a form. !he form that emerged
was erily food.
#-iii-2+ !his food, that was created, turned bac' and attempted to run away. ,e tried to ta'e it up with speech. ,e did not
succeed in ta'ing it up through speech. #f ,e had succeeded in ta'ing it up with the speech, then one would hae
become contented merely by tal'ing of food.
#-iii-3+ ,e tied to grasp that food with the sense of smell. ,e did not succeed in grasping it by smelling. #f ,e had
succeeded in grasping it by smelling, then eeryone should hae become contented merely by smelling food.
#-iii-=+ ,e wanted to ta'e up the food with the eye. ,e did not succeed in ta'ing it up with the eye. #f ,e had ta'en it up
with the eye, then one would hae become satisfied by merely seeing food.
#-iii->+ ,e wanted to ta'e up the food with the ear. ,e did not succeed in ta'ing it up with the ear. #f ,e had ta'en it up
with the ear, then one would hae become satisfied by merely by hearing of food.
#-iii-?+ ,e wanted to ta'e it up with the sense of touch. ,e did not succeed in ta'ing it up with the sense of touch. #f ,e
had ta'en it up with touch, then one would hae become been satisfied merely by touching food.
#-iii-@+ ,e wanted to ta'e it up with the mind. ,e did not succeed in ta'ing it up with the mind. #f ,e had ta'en it up with
the mind, then one would hae become satisfied by merely thin'ing of food.
#-iii-A+ ,e wanted to ta'e it up with the procreatie organ. ,e did not succeed in ta'ing it up with the procreatie organ. #f
,e had ta'en it up with the procreatie organ, then one would hae become satisfied by merely e$ecting food.
#-iii-*B+ ,e wanted to ta'e it up with %pana. ,e caught it. !his is the deourer of food. !hat ital energy which is well
'nown as dependent of food for its subsistence is this ital energy (called %pana).
#-iii-**+ ,e thought, -,ow indeed can it be there without Me C/ ,e thought, -!hrough which of the two ways should # enter
C/ ,e thought, -#f utterance is done by the organ of speech, smelling by the sense of smell, seeing by the eye, hearing by
the ear, feeling by the sense of touch, thin'ing by the mind, the act of drawing in (or pressing down) by %pana, e$ecting
by the procreatie organ, then who (or what) am # C/
#-iii-*0+ ,aing split up this ery end, ,e entered through this door. !his entrance is 'nown as idriti (the chief entrance).
,ence it is delightful. Of ,im there are three abodes ( three (states of) dream. !his one is an abode, this one is an
abode. !his one is an abode.
#-iii-*2+ &eing born, ,e manifested all the beings; for did ,e spea' of (or 'now) anything else C ,e realised this ery
)urusha as &rahman, the most perasie, thus+ -# hae realised this/.
#-iii-*3+ !herefore ,is name is #dandra. ,e is erily 'nown as #dandra. %lthough ,e is #dandra, they call ,im indirectly
#ndra; for the gods are erily fond of indirect names, the gods are erily fond of indirect names.
##-i-*+ #n man indeed is the soul first conceied. !hat which is the semen is eDtracted from all the limbs as their igour. ,e
holds that self of his in his own self. 8hen he sheds it into his wife, then he procreates it. !hat is its first birth.
##-i-0+ !hat becomes non-different from the wife, $ust as much as her own limb is. !herefore (the foetus) does not hurt her.
She nourishes this self of his that has entered here (in her womb).
##-i-2+ She, the nourisher, becomes fit to be nourished. !he wife bears that embryo (before the birth). ,e (the father)
protects the son at the ery start, soon after his birth. !hat he protects the son at the ery beginning, $ust after birth,
thereby he protects his own self for the sa'e of the continuance of these worlds. 6or thus is the continuance of these
worlds ensured. !hat is his second birth.
##-i-3+ !his self of his (i1. the son) is substituted (by the father) for the performance of irtuous deeds. !hen this other self
of his (that is the father of the son), haing got his duties ended and haing adanced in age, departs. %s soon as he
departs, he ta'es birth again. !hat is his (i.e. the son5s) third birth.
##-i-=+ !his fact was stated by the seer (i.e. mantra)+ -<en while lying in the womb, # came to 'now of the birth of all the
gods. % hundred iron citadels held me down. !hen, li'e a haw', # forced my way through by dint of 'nowledge of the
Self/. "amadea said this while still lying in the mother5s womb.
##-i->+ ,e who had 'nown thus (had) become identified with the Supreme, and attained all desirable things (een here);
and haing (then) ascended higher up after the destruction of the body, he became immortal, in the world of the Self. ,e
became immortal.
###-i-*+ 8hat is #t that we worship as this Self C 8hich of the two is the Self C #s #t that by which one sees, or that by which
one hears, or that by which one smells odour, or that by which one utters speech, or that by which one tastes the sweet
or the sour C
###-i-0+ #t is this heart (intellect) and this mind that were stated earlier. #t is sentience, rulership, secular 'nowledge,
presence of mind, retentieness, sense-perception, fortitude, thin'ing, genius, mental suffering, memory, ascertainment
resolution, life-actiities, han'ering, passion and such others. %ll these erily are the names of 9onsciousness.
###-i-2+ !his One is (the inferior) &rahman; this is #ndra, this is )ra$apati; this is all these gods; and this is these fie
elements, i1. earth, air, space, water, fire; and this is all these (big creatures), together with the small ones, that are the
procreators of others and referable in pairs ( to wit, those that are born of eggs, of wombs, of moisture of the earth, i1.
horses, cattle, men, elephants, and all the creatures that there are which moe or fly and those which do not moe. %ll
these hae 9onsciousness as the gier of their reality; all these are impelled by 9onsciousness; the unierse has
9onsciousness as its eye and 9onsciousness is its end. 9onsciousness is &rahman.
###-i-3+ !hrough this Self that is 9onsciousness, he ascended higher up from this world, and getting all desires fulfilled in
that heaenly world, he became immortal, he became immortal.
Om ! May my speech be based on (i.e. accord with) the mind;
May my mind be based on speech.
O Self-effulgent One, reeal !hyself to me.
May you both (speech and mind) be the carriers of the "eda to me.
May not all that # hae heard depart from me.
# shall $oin together (i.e. obliterate the difference of) day
%nd night through this study.
# shall utter what is erbally true;
# shall utter what is mentally true.
May that (&rahman) protect me;
May !hat protect the spea'er (i.e. the teacher), may !hat protect me;
May that protect the spea'er ( may !hat protect the spea'er.
Om ! )eace ! )eace ! )eace !
,ere ends the %itareyopanishad, as contained in the Eig-"eda.
Brahadaranyaka Upanishad - Part 1
Invocation
Om. That is full; this is full. This fullness has been projected from that fullness. When this
fullness merges in that fullness, all that remains is fullness.
Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!
Part One
Chapter IMeditation on the Horsesacrifce
1. Om, verily, the head of the sacrificial horse is the dan, its eye the sun, its vital breath
the ind, its open mouth the !aisvanara fire and the trun" of the sacrificial horse is the year.
The bac" is heaven, the belly the intermediate region, the hoof the earth, the sides the four
#uarters, the ribs the intermediate #uarters, the limbs the seasons, the joints the months and
half$months, the feet the days and nights, the bones the stars, the flesh the clouds. %ts half
$digested food is the sand, the blood$vessels the rivers, the liver and lungs the mountains,
the hair the herbs and trees. The fore part of the horse is the rising sun and the hinder part
the setting sun. %ts yan is lightning, its sha"ing of the body is thunder, its ater is rain and
its neighing is indeed voice.
&. The day, verily, is the golden cup called mahiman, in front of the horse, hich arose
pointing it out. %ts source is the eastern sea. The night, verily, is the silver cup called
mahiman, behind the horse, hich arose pointing it out. %ts source is the estern sea. These
to vessels appeared at either end of the horse. 's a racer the horse carried the gods; as a
stallion, the gandharvas; as a runner, the demons; as a horse, men. The sea is its stable and
the sea, its source.
Chapter IIThe Process of Creation
1. %n the beginning there as nothing hatsoever in the universe. (y )eath, indeed, all this
as covered$by hunger, for hunger is, verily, death. *+et ,e have a mind,* as -is desire
and -e created the mind. Then -e moved about, orshipping -imself. .rom -im, thus
orshipping, ater as produced. *!erily,* )eath though, *hile % as orshipping, ater as
produced*; that is hy the 'r"a /fire used in the -orse$sacrifice0 is so called. 1urely,
happiness comes to him ho "nos ho the fire came to be called ar"a.
&. Water, verily, is ar"a. What as then li"e froth on the ater became solidified; that as
earth. 'fter the earth as created, -iranyagarbha as tired. .rom -im, thus fatigued and
heated, came forth -is essence as brightness. That as .ire.
2. -e divided -imself into three3 the sun one$third and the air one$third. Thus Prana is
divided into three. -is head is the east and -is arms are that /the north$east0 and that /the
south$east0. -is hinder
Part is the est and -is to hip$ bones are that /the north$est0 and that /the south$
est0. -is sides are the south and the north, -is bac" is heaven, -is belly is the intermediate
region and -is chest is the earth. Thus -e stands firm on ater. -e ho "nos this stands
firm herever he goes.
4. -e desired3 *+et a second self be born of ,e,* and -e /)eath or -unger0 brought about
the union of speech ith the mind. What as the seed there became the year. Prior to that
there had been no year. -e /)eath0 bore him /the year0 for as long as a year and after that
time projected him. Then, hen he as born, )eath opened -is mouth to devour him. -e /the
child0 cried3 *(han!* and that, indeed, became speech.
5. -e thought3 *%f % "ill him, % shall have but very little food,66 and through the union of that
speech and that mind -e brought forth all this, hatever there is3 the 7ig$!eda, the 8ajur$
!eda, the 1ama$!eda, the metres, the sacrifices, men and animals. Whatever -e brought
forth -e resolved to eat. !erily, because -e eats everything, therefore is 'diti /)eath0 called
'diti. -e ho "nos hy 'diti came to have this name of 'diti becomes the eater of
everything and everything becomes his food.
9. -e desired3 *+et me sacrifice again ith the great sacrifice.* -e as tired and he
practiced austerities. .rom -im thus fatigued and heated, -is fame and vigour departed. The
pranas /organs0 are verily fame and vigour. When the pranas ent out -is body began to
sell, but the mind as set on the body.
:. -e desired3 *+et this body of ,ine be fit for a sacrifice and let ,e be embodied through
this.* Thin"ing thus, -e entered the body. (ecause the body selled /asvat0, therefore it came
to be called horse /asva0. 'nd because it became fit for sacrifice /medhya0, therefore the
-orse$sacrifice came to be "non as 'svamedha. -e ho "nos this verily "nos the -orse
$ sacrifice. Prajapati, desiring again to sacrifice ith the great sacrifice, imagined -imself as
the horse and letting the horse remain free, -e reflected on it. 't the end of a year he
sacrificed it to -imself and dispatched the other animals to the gods. Therefore priests even
no sacrifice to Prajapati the sanctified horse dedicated to all the gods. !erily, the sun ho
shines yonder is the -orse$sacrifice. -is body is the year. This earthly fire is the ar"a
/sacrificial fire0, hose limbs are these orlds. 1o these to, fire and the sun, are the ar"a
and the 'svamedha /-orse$sacrifice0. These to, again, become the same god, )eath. -e
ho "nos this con#uers further death; death cannot overcome him; death becomes his self;
and he becomes one ith these deities.
Chapter IIIThe Prana: Its Glories and Redeeming Power
1. There ere to classes of Prajapati;s sons3 the gods /devas0 and the demons /asuras0.
<aturally, the gods ere fe and the demons many. They struggled ith one another for
mastery of these orlds. (eing overhelmed by the demons, the gods said3 *Well, let =s
overcome the demons at the sacrifice /jyotishtoma0 by means of the =dgitha.*
&. They said to the organ of speech3 *>hant the =dgitha for us.* *1o be it,* said speech and
chanted for them. Whatever enjoyment common to all comes from the organ of speech, it
secured for the gods by chanting, hile the enjoyment derived from the fine utterance of the
ords it utili?ed for itself. <o, the demons "ne that through this chanter the gods ould
overcome them. They charged at it /speech0 and pierced it ith evil. That evil is hat is found
today hen one spea"s improperly; that is that evil.
2. Then they said to the organ of smell3 *>hant the =dgitha for us.* *1o be it,* said the
organ and chanted for them. Whatever enjoyment common to all comes from the nose, it
secured for the gods by chanting, hile the enjoyment derived from fine smelling it utili?ed
for itself. <o, the demons "ne that through this chanter the gods ould overcome them.
They charged at it and pierced it ith evil. That evil is hat is found today hen one smells
improper things; that is that evil.
4. Then they said to the organ of 1eeing3 *>hant the =dgitha for us.* *1o be it,* said the
organ and chanted for them. Whatever enjoyment common to all comes from the eye, it
secured for the gods by chanting, hile the enjoyment derived from fine seeing it utili?ed for
itself. <o, the demons "ne that through this chanter the gods ould overcome them. They
charged at it and pierced it ith evil. That evil is hat is found today hen one sees improper
things; that is that evil.
5. Then they said to the organ of hearing3 *>hant the =dgitha for us.* *1o be it,* said the
organ and chanted for them. Whatever enjoyment common to all comes from the ear, it
secured for the gods by chanting, hile the enjoyment derived from fine hearing it utili?ed for
itself. <o, the demons "ne that through this chanter the gods ould overcome them. They
charged at it and pierced it ith evil. That evil is hat is found today hen one hears
improper things; that is that evil.
9. Then they said to the mind3 *>hant the =dgitha for us.* *1o be it,* said the mind and
chanted for them. Whatever enjoyment common to all comes from the mind, it secured for
the gods by chanting, hile the enjoyment derived from fine thin"ing it utili?ed for itself.
<o, the demons "ne that through this chanter the gods ould overcome them. They
charged at it and pierced it ith evil. That evil is hat is found today hen one thin"s
improperly; that is that evil. +i"eise they also touched these other deities ith evil$smote
them ith evil.
:. Then they said to the vital breath in the mouth3 *>hant the =dgitha for us.* *1o be it,*
said the vital breath and chanted for them. The demons "ne that through this chanter the
gods ould overcome them. They charged at it, intending to pierce it ith evil. (ut as a clod
of earth, hitting a stone, is scattered, even so they ere scattered in all directions, crushed
and completely destroyed. Thereupon the gods became established in their true selves and
the demons perished. -e ho "nos this becomes his true self and his spiteful "insman
perishes.
@. Then the organs said3 *Where is that hich joined us to our true selvesA* 'fter
deliberation they discovered that it as here, ithin the mouth /asye0. -ence the vital breath
/prana0 is called ayasya and also, because it is the essence /rasa0 of the limbs /anga0 of the
body, angirasa.
B. That deity is called *dur,* because death is far /dur0 from it. .rom him ho "nos this,
death is far aay.
1C. That deity too" aay death, the evil of these gods and carried it to here the end of the
#uarters is. There it deposited their evil. Therefore let no one go to a person of that region, or
to the country beyond the border, lest he should meet there ith evil, ith death.
11. That deity, after ta"ing aay the death$the evil$of the gods, carried them beyond
death.
1&. .irst of all, it carried the organ of speech, hich is the foremost organ. When the organ
of speech as freed from death it became fire. That fire, having transcended death, shines
beyond its reach.
12$15. Then it carried the organ of smell. When it as freed from death it became air
/!ayu0. That air, having transcended death, blos beyond its reach. Then it carried the organ
of sight. When it as freed from death it became the sun /1urya0. That sun, having
transcended death, shines beyond its reach. Then it carried the organ of hearing. When it as
freed from death, it became the #uarters /)isah0. Those #uarters, having transcended death,
remain beyond its reach.
19. Then it carried the mind. When the mind as freed from death it became the moon
/>handra0. That moon, having transcended death, shines beyond its reach. Thus, verily, that
deity carries beyond death him ho "nos this.
1:. <eDt it /the vital breath0 obtained eatable food for itself by chanting. .or hatever food
is eaten, is eaten by the vital breath alone and it /the vital breath0 rests on that /the food0.
1@. The gods said to the vital breath3 *!erily, just this much is all the food there is and you
have secured it for yourself by chanting. <o give us, please, a share of this food.* *Then sit
around facing me.* *1o be it.* They sat don around the vital breath. That is hy hatever
food one eats through the vital breath satisfies the organs. 1o do his relatives sit around
facing him ho "nos this; he becomes the supporter of his "insmen, the greatest among
them and their leader, a good eater of food and their lord. Whoever, among his "insmen, the
greatest among them and their leader, a good eater of food and their lord. Whoever, among
his "insmen, desires to be a rival of the man ho has this "noledge is not able to support his
dependents. (ut, on the other hand, he ho follos him /the "noer of the vital breath0 and
ho, folloing him, desires to support his dependents is certainly able to do so.
1B. %t is called ayasa angirasa, for it is the essence /rasa0 of the limbs /anga0. 8es, the
prana is the essence of the limbs. .rom hichever limb the vital breath departs, that limb
ithers right there; therefore it is verily the essence of the limbs.
&C. %t is also (rihaspati /lord of the 7ig$!eda0. 1peech is (rihati /7ig0 and the vital breath
is its lord /pati0. Therefore it is called (rihaspati.
&1. %t is also the (rahmanaspati /lord of the 8ajur$!eda0. 1peech is (rahman /8ajur0 and
the vital breath is its lord /pati0. Therefore it is called (rahmanaspati.
&&. Prana is 1aman, too. 1peech is, verily, sa and this /prana0 is ama. 1aman /the chant of
the 1ama$!eda0 is "non by that name because it is sa /speech0 and ama /prana0. Or
because it /prana0 is e#ual /sama0 to a hite ant, e#ual to a mos#uito, e#ual to an elephant,
e#ual to these three orlds, nay, e#ual to this universe; therefore it /prana0 is indeed the
1ama$!eda. -e ho "nos this vital breath to be such attains union ith it or lives in the
same orld ith it.
&2. 'nd it is also the =dgitha. The vital breath is verily ut, for by the vital breath all this
universe is upheld /uttabdha0; and speech is githa /song0. 'nd because it is ut and githa,
therefore it is =dgitha.
&4. 7egarding this there is also the folloing anecdote3 (rahmadatta, the great$grandson
of >hi"itana, hile drin"ing "ing EsomaF, said3 *+et this soma stri"e off my head if % say that
the ayasya angirasa chanted the =dgitha through any other means than this vital breath and
speech.* 1urely he chanted through speech and the vital breath.
&5. -e ho "nos the ealth of this saman /!ital breath0 obtains ealth. Tone, indeed, is
its ealth. Therefore let one ho is going to perform the sacrificial or" as a priest desire that
his voice may have a good tone and let him perform the sacrifice through that voice ith a
good tone. Therefore people desire to see at a sacrifice a priest ith a good voice, li"e one
ho has ealth. -e ho thus "nos hat is the ealth of the saman obtains ealth.
&9. -e ho "nos the suvarna /gold0 of the saman /vital breath0 obtains gold. Tone is verily
its gold. -e ho thus "nos hat is the gold of the saman obtains gold.
&:. -e ho "nos the support of the saman /vital breath0 gets a support. 1peech !erily is
its support. .or, supported in speech, the vital breath is transformed into a chant. 1ome say
the support is in food /the body0.
&@. <eDt follos the edifying repetition /abhyaroha0 only of the hymns called pavamanas.
The priest called prastotri indeed chants the saman. While he chants it, let the sacrificer
recite these E8ajur versesF3 *+ead me from the unreal to the real. .rom dar"ness lead me to
light. .rom death lead me to immortality.* When the mantra /verse0 says3 *+ead me from the
unreal to the real,* *the unreal* means death and the *real,* immortality; so it says, *.rom
death lead me to immortality,* that is to say, *,a"e me immortal.* When it says3 *.rom
dar"ness lead me to light,* *dar"ness* means death and *light,* immortality; so it says3 *.rom
death lead me to immortality,* that is to say, *,a"e me immortal.* %n the verse3 *.rom death
lead me to immortality,* there is nothing that is hidden. Then come the remaining hymns,
ith hich, by singing them, Ethe chanterF should obtain food for himself. Therefore hile
they are being chanted let the sacrificer as" for a boon$ anything that he desires. Whatever
objects this chanter, endoed ith such "noledge, desires for himself or for the sacrificer,
he obtains by his chanting. This EmeditationF by itself ins the orld /-iranyagarbha0. -e ho
thus "nos the saman /the prana, or vital breath0$for him there is no fear of not being
admitted into that orld.
Chapter IVThe Creation and Its Case
1. %n the beginning, this universe as the self /!iraj0 alone, in the shape of a person. -e
reflected and sa nothing else but -is self. -e first said3 *% am -e.* Therefore -e came to be
"non by the name % /'ham0. -ence, even no, hen a person is addressed, he first says3
*%t is %,* and then says hatever other name he may have. 'nd because -e, before /purva0
the hole group of aspirants, burnt /aushat0 all evils, therefore -e is called Purusha. -e ho
"nos this verily burns up him ho ishes to be !iraj in advance of him.
&. -e as afraid. Therefore people still are afraid hen alone. -e thought3 *1ince there is
nothing else but ,yself, hat am % afraid ofA* Thereupon -is fears ere gone; for hat as
there to fearA 'ssuredly, it is from a second entity that fear arises.
2. -e as not at all happy. Therefore a person even today is not happy hen alone. -e
desired a mate. -e became the si?e of a man and ife in close embrace. -e divided this body
into to. .rom that division arose husband /pati0 and ife /patni0. Therefore, as 8ajnaval"ya
said, the body before one accepts a ife is one half of oneself, li"e the half of a split pea.
Therefore this space is indeed filled by the ife. -e as united ith her. .rom that union
human beings ere born.
4. 1he reflected3 *-o can he unite ith me after having produced me from himselfA Well,
let me hide myself.* 1he became a co, the other /,anu0 became a bull and as united ith
her; from that union cos ere born. The one became a mare, the other became a stallion;
the one became a she$ass, the other became a he$ass and as united ith her; from that
union one$hoofed animals ere born. The one became a she$goat, the other became a he$
goat; the one became a he, the other became a ram and as united ith her; from that
union goats and sheep ere born. Thus, indeed, he produced everything that eDists in pairs,
don to the ants.
5. -e /!iraj0 reali?ed3 *%ndeed, % am the creation, for % produced all this.* Therefore -e
became the creation. -e ho "nos this becomes a creator in this creation of !iraj.
9. Then -e /!iraj0 rubbed bac" and forth thus and produced fire from its source3 the mouth
and the hands. Therefore both the hands and mouth are hairless inside. When they /the
priests0 spea" of particular gods, saying3 *1acrifice to him,* *1acrifice to that one,* they are
mista"en; for these are all -is manifestations3 -e -imself is all the gods. <o, hatever is
li#uid, -e produced from semen; and that is soma. This universe is indeed this much3 food
and the eater of food. 1oma is food; and fire, the eater of food. This is the highest creation of
!iraj, that -e projected the gods, ho are even superior to -im. This is the highest creation
because -e, although mortal -imself, manifested the immortal. 'nd he ho "nos this verily
becomes a creator in this highest creation of !iraj.
:. <o, all this universe as then undifferentiated. %t became differentiated by name and
form3 it as "non by such and such a name and such and such a form. Thus to this day this
universe is differentiated by name and form; so it is said. *-e has such a name and such a
form.* This 1elf has entered into these bodies up to the very tips of the nails, as a ra?or lies
hidden in its case, or as fire, hich sustains the orld, lies hidden in its source. People do not
see the 1elf, for hen vieed in parts %t is incomplete3 hen breathing, %t is called the vital
breath /prana0; hen spea"ing, the organ of speech; hen seeing, the eye; hen hearing,
the ear; hen thin"ing, the mind. These are merely %ts names according to %ts functions. -e
ho meditates on one or another of %ts aspects does not "no, for %t is then incomplete3 the
1elf is separated from %ts totality by being associated ith a single characteristic. The 1elf
alone is to be meditated upon, for in %t all these become unified. Of all these, this 1elf alone
should be "non, for one "nos all these through %t, just as one may find an animal hich is
lost through its footprints. -e ho thus "nos the 1elf obtains fame and association ith dear
ones.
@. This 1elf is dearer than a son, dearer than ealth, dearer than everything else, because
%t is innermost. %f one holding the 1elf dear ere to say to a person ho spea"s of anything
other than the 1elf as dear, that he, the latter, ill lose hat he holds dear$and the former is
certainly competent to do so$it ill indeed come true. One should meditate upon the 1elf
alone as dear. -e ho meditates upon the 1elf alone as dear$hat he holds dear ill not
perish.
B. They say3 *1ince men thin" that by the Gnoledge of (rahman they become all, hat,
pray, as it that (rahman "ne by hich %t became allA*
1C. This self as indeed (rahman in the beginning. %t "ne itself only as *% am (rahman.*
Therefore it became all. 'nd hoever among the gods had this enlightenment, also became
That (rahman. %t is the same ith the seers /rishis0, the same ith men. The seer
!amadeva, having reali?ed this self as That, came to "no3 *% as ,anu and the sun.* 'nd to
this day, hoever in a li"e manner "nos the self as *% am (rahman,* becomes all this
universe. Hven the gods cannot prevent his becoming this, for he has become their 1elf. <o,
if a man orships another deity, thin"ing3 *-e is one and % am another,* he does not "no. -e
is li"e an animal to the gods. 's many animals serve a man, so does each man serve the
gods. Hven if one animal is ta"en aay, it causes anguish to the oner; ho much more so
hen many are ta"en aay! Therefore it is not pleasing to the gods that men should "no
this.
11. %n the beginning this /the "shatriya and other castes0 as indeed (rahman, one only
ithout a second. -e, being one, did not flourish. -e projected, further, an eDcellent form,
"shatriyahood$those "shatriyas /rulers0 among the gods3 %ndra, !aruna, 1oma /,oon0,
7udra, Parjanya, 8ama, ,rityu /)eath0 and %sana. Therefore there is none higher than the
"shatriyas. Thus at the 7ajasuya sacrifice, the brahmin sits belo and orships the "shatriya.
-e confers that glory on "shatriyahood alone. (ut brahminhood is nevertheless the source of
"shatriyahood. Therefore even though the "ing is eDalted in the sacrifice, at the end of it he
resorts to brahminhood as his source. -e ho slights a brahmin stri"es at his on source. -e
becomes more evil, as one ho slights his superior.
1&. 8et -e /!iraj0 did not flourish. -e projected the !aisya caste$those classes of gods ho
are designated in groups3 the !asus, 7udras, 'dityas, !isve$devas and ,aruts.
12. 1till -e did not flourish. -e projected the sudra caste$Pushan. This earth is !erily
Pushan /the nourisher0; for it nourishes all that eDists.
14. 8et -e did not flourish. -e projected, further, that eDcellent form, justice /dharrna0. This
justice is the controller of the "shatriya. Therefore there is nothing higher than justice. 1o
even a ea" man hopes to defeat a stronger man through justice, as one does ith the help
of a "ing. !erily, that hich is justice is truth. Therefore if a man spea"s the truth, they say
he spea"s hat is just and if he spea"s hat is just, they say he spea"s the truth; for justice
alone is both these.
15. 1o these four castes ere projected3 the brahmin3 the "shatriya, the vaisya and the
sudra. 'mong the gods Prajapati became a brahmin as fire and among men -e became the
brahmin. -e became a "shatriya among men through the divine "shatriyas, a vaisya through
the divine vaisyas and a sudra through the divine sudras. Therefore people desire to attain the
results of their rites among the gods through fire and among men as a brahmin. .or Prajapati
directly projected -imself as these to forms. <o, if a man departs from this orld ithout
reali?ing his on World /the 1elf0, %t, being un"non, does not protect him$as the !edas,
unrecited, or as a deed unaccomplished, do not protect him. <ay, even if one ho does not
"no %t /the 1elf0 should perform here on earth a great many meritorious acts, those acts
ill in the end surely perish for him. One should meditate only upon the World called the 1elf.
-e ho meditates upon the World called the 1elf$his or" does not perish; for from this
very 1elf he projects hatever he desires.
19. <o, this self /the ignorant person0 is an object of enjoyment /lo"ah0 to all beings. %n so
far as he offers oblations in the fire and performs sacrifices, he becomes an object of
enjoyment to the gods. %n so far as he studies the !edas, he becomes an object of enjoyment
to the rishis. %n so far as he ma"es offerings to the ,anes and desires children, he becomes
an object of enjoyment to the ,anes. %n so far as he gives shelter and food to men, he
becomes an object of enjoyment to men. %n so far as he gives fodder and ater to the
animals, he becomes an object of enjoyment to the animals. %n so far as beasts and birds
and even ants find a living in his home, he becomes an object of enjoyment to these. Iust as
one ishes no injury to one6s body, so do all beings ish no injury to him ho has this
"noledge. 'll this, indeed, has been "non and ell investigated.
1:. %n the beginning this aggregate of desirable objects as but the self, one only. -e
cherished the desire3 *+et me have a ife, so that % may be born as the child; and let me have
ealth, so that % may perform rites.* This much, indeed, is the range of desire; even if one
ishes, one cannot get more than this. Therefore, to this day, a man ho is single desires3
*+et me have a ife, so that % may be born as the child; and let me have ealth, so that %
may perform rites.* 1o long as he does not obtain each one of these, he thin"s he is
incomplete. <o, his completeness can also come in this ay3 The mind is his self, speech his
ife, the vital breath his child, the eye his human ealth, for he finds it ith the eye; the ear
his divine ealth, for he hears it ith the ear; the body his instrument of rites, for he
performs rites through the body. 1o this sacrifice has five factors$the animals have five
factors, men have five factors and all this that eDists has five factors. -e ho "nos this
obtains all this.
Chapter VManifestations of Pra!apati
1. The folloing are the mantras3 *% shall no disclose that the father produced seven "inds
of food through meditation and rites. One is common to all eaters. To he assigned to the
gods. Three he designed for himself. 'nd one he gave to the animals. On it /food0 rests
everything$ hatsoever breathes and hatsoever breathes not. Why are not these foods
eDhausted although they are alays being eatenA -e ho "nos the cause of this
ineDhaustibility of the food eats food ith pre$eminence /prati"a0. -e obtains identity ith
the gods and lives on nectar.*
&. When it is said3 *That the father produced seven "inds of food through meditation and
rites,* the statement means that the father indeed produced them through meditation and
rites. When it is said3 *One is common to all eaters,* it means that the food hich is eaten is
that hich is common to all. -e ho appropriates this food is never free from evil, for this is,
verily, the general food. When it is said3 *To he assigned to the gods,* the statement means
oblations made in the fire and presents offered otherise to the gods. Therefore people ma"e
oblations in the fire and offer presents otherise to the gods. 1ome, hoever, say that the
to foods refer to the ne$moon and full$moon sacrifices. Therefore one should not engage
in sacrifices for material ends. When it is said3 *One he gave to the animals,* the statement
refers to mil"; for at first men and animals live on mil" alone. That is hy they first ma"e a
ne$born babe lic" melted butter or they put it to the breast. 'nd they spea" of the ne$
born calf as not yet eating grass. When it is said3 *On it rests everything$hatsoever
breathes and hatsoever breathes not,* it means that everything rests on mil", all that
breathes and breathes not. %t is further said in another (rahmana that by ma"ing offerings of
mil" in the fire for a year one overcomes further death; but one should not thin" thus. .or he
ho "nos this overcomes further death the very day he ma"es the offering, because he
offers all eatable food to the gods. When it is as"ed3 *Why are not these foods eDhausted
although they are alays being eatenA* the anser is that the eater is indeed the cause of this
ineDhaustibility, for he produces this food again and again. When it is said3 *-e ho "nos
the cause of this ineDhaustibility,* the statement means that the eater is indeed the cause of
this ineDhaustibility, for he produces this food through meditation and rites. %f he did not do
this the food ould be eDhausted. When it is said3 *-e eats food ith prati"a,* the ord
prati"a means pre$eminence; hence the meaning is that he eats food pre$eminently. The
statement3 *-e obtains identity ith the gods and lives on nectar,* is a eulogy.
2. *Three he designed for himself*$that is to say, the mind, the organ of speech and the
vital breath; these he designed for himself. They say3 *,y mind as elsehere, % did not see
it; my mind as elsehere, % did not hear it.* %t is clear that a man sees ith his mind and
hears ith his mind. )esire, determination, doubt, faith, lac" of faith, steadfastness, lac" of
steadfastness, shame, intelligence and fear$all this is truly the mind. Hven if one is touched
from behind, one "nos it through the mind; therefore the mind eDists. Whatever sound
there is, it is just the organ of speech; for it serves to determine a thing, but it cannot itself
be revealed. The prana, apana, vyana, udana, samana and ana$all these are but the vital
breath /prana0. This body /atma0 consists of these$the organ of speech, the mind and the
vital breath.
4. These verily are the three orlds3 the organ of speech is this orld /the earth0, the mind
is the intermediary orld /the s"y0 and the vital breath is that orld /heaven0.
5. These verily are the three !edas3 the organ of speech is the 7ig$!eda, the mind is the
8ajur$!eda and the vital breath is the 1ama$!eda.
9. These verily are the gods, the ,anes and men3 the organ of speech is the gods, the mind
is the ,anes and the vital breath is men.
:. These verily are father, mother and child3 the mind is the father, the organ of speech is
the mother and the vital force is the child.
@$1C. These verily are hat is "non, hat is to be "non and hat is un"non. Whatever
is "non is a form of the organ of speech, for it is the "noer. The organ of speech protects
him ho "nos its different manifestations by becoming that hich is "non0. Whatever is
to be "non is a form of the mind, for the mind is hat is to be "non. The mind protects him
ho "nos this by becoming that hich is to be "non. Whatever is un"non is a form of the
vital breath, for the vital breath is hat is un"non. The vital breath protects him ho "nos
this by becoming that hich is un"non.
11. The earth is the body of that organ of speech and this fire is its luminous organ. 'nd as
far as the organ of speech eDtends, so far eDtends the earth and so far eDtends fire.
1&. <o, heaven is the body of this mind and that sun yonder is its luminous organ. 'nd as
far as the mind eDtends, so far eDtends the earth and so far eDtends fire. The to /fire and
the sun0 ere united and from that as born the vital breath. %t /the vital breath0 is the
supreme +ord /%ndra0. %t is ithout a rival. ' second being is, indeed, a rival. -e ho "nos
this has no rival.
12. <eDt, ater is the body of this vital breath and that moon yonder is its luminous organ.
'nd as far as the vital breath eDtends, so far eDtends ater and so far eDtends the moon.
These are all e#ual, all infinite. -e ho meditates upon them as finite ins a finite orld, but
he ho meditates upon them as infinite ins an infinite orld.
14. That Prajapan, represented by the year, consists of siDteen parts. The nights and days
are fifteen of his parts and the constant point is the siDteenth. -e as the moon is increased
and decreased by the nights and days. Through the siDteenth
part he permeates all living beings as the ne$moon night and rises the folloing morning.
Therefore, in honour of this deity, on this night let no one cut off the breath of any breathing
being, not even of a li?ard.
15. !erily, the person ho "nos this is himself that Prajapati ho is endoed ith siDteen
parts and ho is represented by the year. Wealth constitutes fifteen of his parts and the body
is his siDteenth part. -e is increased and decreased by that ealth. This body is the nave and
ealth is the felloe. Therefore even if a man loses everything, but lives in his body, people say
that he has lost only his felloe hich can be restored again.
19. <o, these are, verily, the three orlds3 the orld of men, the orld of the ,anes and
the orld of the gods. The orld of men can be gained through a son only and by no other
rite; the orld of the ,anes through rites; and the orld of the gods through meditation. The
orld of the gods is the best of the orlds. Therefore they praise meditation.
1:. <o therefore follos the entrusting3 When a man thin"s he is about to die, he says to
his son3 *8ou are (rahman, you are the sacrifice and you are the orld.* The son replies3 *%
am (rahman, % am the sacrifice, % am the orld.* The 1ruti eDplains the thoughts of the
father3 *Whatever has been studied by me /the father0 is all unified in the ord (rahman.
Whatever sacrifices have been made by me /the father0 are all unified in the ord sacrifice.
'nd hatever orlds ere to be; on by me /the father0 are all unified in the ord orld. 'll
this it indeed this much. -e /the son0, being all this, ill protect me from the ties of this
orld.* Therefore they spea" of a son ho is ell instructed as being conducive to the
inning of the orld; and therefore a father instructs him. When a father ho "nos this
departs from this orld, he$ along ith his on organ of speech, mind and vital breath$
penetrates his son. %f, through a lapse, any duty has been left undone by him, the son
eDonerates him from all that; therefore he is called a son. The father remains in this orld
through the son. The divine and immortal organ of speech, mind and vital breath enter into
him /the father0.
1@. The divine organ of speech from the earth and fire enters into him. That is the divine
organ of speech through hich hatever he says is fulfilled.
1B. The divine mind from heaven and the sun permeates him. That is the divine mind
through hich he becomes joyful only and grieves no more.
&C. The divine vital breath from ater and the moon permeates him. 'nd, verily, that is the
divine vital breath hich, hether moving or not moving, neither feels pain nor is injured. -e
ho "nos this becomes the self of all beings. 's is this deity /-iranyagarbha0, so is he. 'nd
as all beings honour this deity, so do they honour him. -osoever creatures may grieve, that
grief of theirs remains ith them but only merit goes to him. <o demerit ever goes to the
gods.
&1. <eDt follos the consideration of the vo /meditative orship03 Prajapati projected the
organs. They, hen they ere projected, #uarrelled ith one another. The organ of speech
resolved3 *% ill go on spea"ing*; the eye3 *% ill go on seeing*; the ear3 *% ill go on
hearing.* 1o did the other organs, according to their functions. )eath, having ta"en the form
of eariness, laid hold of them$it overtoo" them and having overta"en them, restrained
them. Therefore does the organ of speech become tired and so do the eye and the ear. (ut
death did not overta"e the vital breath /prana0 in the body. The other organs resolved to
"no it and said3 *This is verily the greatest among us; hether moving or not moving, it
neither feels pain nor is injured. Well then, let us assume its form.* They all assumed its
form. Therefore they are called pranas after it. %n hatever family there is a man ho "nos
this$that family they call by his name. 'nd hoever competes ith one ho "nos this,
shrivels and after shrivelling, in the end dies. This is ith regard to the body.
&&. <o ith regard to the gods. .ire resolved3 *% ill go on burning*; the sun3 *% ill go on
giving heat*; the moon3 *% ill go on shining.* 'nd so did the other gods, according to their
functions. 's is the vital breath in the body among the organs, so is air /vayu0 among the
gods. The other gods fade, but not air. 'ir is the deity that never sets.
&2. <o there is this verse /slo"a03 The gods observed the vo of that from hich the sun
rises and in hich it sets. This vo is folloed today and this ill be folloed tomorro. The
sun rises verily from the prana /the vital breath in its cosmic form0 and also sets in it. The
gods even today observe the same vo hich they observed then. Therefore a man should
observe a single vo$he should perform the functions of the prana and apana /respiration
and eDcretion0, lest the evil of death should overta"e him. 'nd if he performs them, let him
try to complete them. Through this he obtains identity ith that deity, or lives in the same
orld ith it.
Chapter VIThe Three "spects of the #ni$erse
1. !erily, this universe is a triad of name, form and or". Of those names hich are in daily
use, speech /sound in general0 is the source /u"tha0, for from it all names arise. %t is their
common feature /saman0, for it is common to all names. %t is their (rahman /self0, for it
supports all names.
&. <eDt, of forms, the eye is the source /u"tha0, for from it all forms arise. %t is their
>ommon feature /saman0, for it is common to all forms. %t is their (rahman /self0, for it
supports all forms.
2. <eDt, of or", the body is the source /u"tha0, for from it all or"s arise. %t is their
common feature /saman0, for it is common to all or"s. %t is their (rahman /self0, for it
supports all or"s. These three together are one$this body; and the body, although one, is
these three. This immortal entity is covered by truth3 the vital breath is the immortal entity
and name and form are truth and by them the immortal entity is covered.

Part Two
Chapter IRelati$e "spects of %rahman
1. Om. There lived of yore a man of the Jarga family called proud (ala"i, ho as an
elo#uent spea"er. -e said to 'jatasatru, the "ing of Gasi3 *% ill tell you about (rahman.*
'jatasatru said3 *.or this proposal % give you a thousand cos. People indeed rush, saying3
6Iana"a, Iana"a.6 % too have some of his virtues.*
&. Jargya said3 *That being /purusha0 ho is in the sun, % meditate upon as (rahman.*
'jatasatru said3 *<o, no! Please do not tal" to me about him. % meditate upon him as all$
surpassing, as the head of all beings and as resplendent.* Whosoever thus meditates upon
him becomes all$surpassing, the head of all beings and resplendent.
2. Jargya said3 *That being /purusha0 ho is in the moon, % meditate upon as (rahman.*
'jatasatru said3 *<o, no! Please do not tal" to me about him. % meditate upon him as the
great, hite$robed, radiant 1oma.* Whosoever thus meditates upon him has, every day,
abundant soma pressed for him in his principal and auDiliary sacrifices and his food never runs
short.
4. Jargya said3 *That being /purusha0 ho is in the lightning, % meditate upon as (rahman.*
'jatasatru said3 *<o, no! Please do not tal" to me about him. % meditate upon him as
luminous.* Whosoever thus meditates upon him becomes luminous and his progeny too
become luminous.
5. Jargya said3 *This being /purusha0 ho is in the a"asa, % meditate upon as (rahman.*
'jatasatru said3 *<o, no! Please do not tal" about him. % meditate upon him as full and
unmoving.* Whosoever thus meditates upon him is filled ith progeny and cattle and his
progeny is never eDtinct from this orld.
9. Jargya said3 *This being /purusha0 ho is in the air, % meditate upon as (rahman.*
'jatasatru said3 *<o, no! Please do not tal" about him. % meditate upon him as the +ord
/%ndra0, as irresistible and as the unvan#uished army.* Whosoever thus meditates upon him
becomes ever victorious, invincible and a con#ueror of enemies.
:. Jargya said3 *This being /purusha0 ho is in fire, % meditate upon as (rahman.*
'jatasatru said3 *<o, no! Please do not tal" about him. % meditate upon him as forbearing.*
Whosoever thus meditates upon him becomes forbearing and his progeny becomes
forbearing.
@. Jargya said3 *This being /purusha0 ho is in ater, % meditate upon as (rahman.*
'jatasatru said3 *<o, no! Please do not tal" about him. % meditate upon him as agreeable.*
Whosoever thus meditates upon him$to him comes hat is agreeable, not hat is
disagreeable and to him are born children ho are agreeable.
B. Jargya said3 *This being /purusha0 ho is in the mirror, % meditate upon as (rahman.*
'jatasatru said3 *<o, no! Please do not tal" about him. % meditate upon him as shining.*
Whosoever thus meditates upon him becomes shining and his progeny too becomes shining
and he outshines all those ith hom he comes in contact.
1C. Jargya said3 *The sound that arises behind a man hile he al"s, % meditate upon as
(rahman.* 'jatasatru said3 *<o, no! Please do not tal" about him. % meditate upon him as
life.* Whosoever thus meditates upon him reaches his full age on this earth and life does not
depart from him before the completion of that time.
11. Jargya said3 *This being /purusha0 ho is in the #uarters, % meditate upon as
(rahman.* 'jatasatru said3 *<o, no! Please do not tal" about him. % meditate upon him as
second and as inseparable.* Whosoever thus mediates upon him gets companions and his
folloers never part ith him.
1&. Jargya said3 *This being /purusha0 ho consists of shado, % meditate upon as
(rahman.* 'jatasatru said3 *<o, no! Please do not tal" about him. % meditate upon him as
death.* Whosoever thus meditates upon him reaches his full age on this earth and death does
not overta"e him before the completion of that time.
12. Jargya said3 *This being /purusha0 ho is in the self, % meditate upon as (rahman.*
'jatasatru said3 *<o, no! Please do not tal" about him. % meditate upon him as self$
possessed.* Whosoever thus meditates upon him becomes self$possessed and his progeny
too becomes self$possessed. Jargya remained silent.
14. 'jatasatru said3 *%s this allA* *That is all.* *(y "noing that much one cannot "no
(rahman.* *+et me approach you as a student,* said Jargya.
15. 'jatasatru said3 *%t is contrary to usual practice that a brahmin should approach a
"shatriya, thin"ing3 6-e ill teach me about (rahman.6 <evertheless, % ill instruct you.* 1o
saying, he too" Jargya by the hand and rose. They came to a sleeping man. 'jatasatru
addressed him by these names3 Jreat, White$ robed, 7adiant, 1oma. The man did not get
up. The "ing pushed him again and again ith his hand till he ao"e. Then he got up.
19. 'jatasatru said3 *When this being full of consciousness /identified ith the intellect0 as
thus asleep, here as it then and hence did it thus come bac"A* Jargya did not "no the
anser.
1:. 'jatasatru said3 *When this being full of consciousness /vijnana maya0 is thus asleep, it
absorbs, at that time, the functions of the organs through its on consciousness and rests in
the 1upreme 1elf /a"asa0 that is in the heart. When this being absorbs them, it is called
svapiti. Then the organ of smell is absorbed, the organ of speech is absorbed, the eye is
absorbed, the ear is absorbed and the mind is absorbed.*
1@. When the self remains in the dream state, these are its achievements /results of past
action03 %t then becomes a great "ing, as it ere; or a noble brahmin, as it ere; or attains,
as it ere, high or lo states. Hven as a great "ing, ta"ing ith him his retinue of citi?ens,
moves about, according to his pleasure, ithin his on domain, so does the self, ta"ing ith it
the organs, move about according to its pleasure, in the body.
1B. <eDt, hen the self goes into deep sleep$hen it does not "no anything$it returns
along the seventy$to thousand nerves called hita, hich eDtend from the heart throughout
the hole body and remains in the body. 's a baby or an emperor or a noble brahmin lives,
having reached the summit of happiness, so does the self rest.
&C. 's the spider moves along the thread it produces, or as from a fire tiny spar"s fly in all
directions, even so from this 'tman come forth all organs, all orlds, all gods, all beings. %ts
secret name /=panishad0 is *the Truth of truth.* The vital breaths are the truth and their
truth is 'tman.
Chapter II&escription of the Prana
1. -e ho "nos the calf together ith its abode, its special resort, its post and its rope,
"ills his seven hostile "insmen. The vital breath in the body is indeed the calf; this body is its
abode, the head its special resort, strength its post and food its rope.
&. These seven gods that prevent decay orship it /the calf03 through these pin" lines in the
eye, 7udra attends on it; through the ater in the eye, Parjanya attends on it; through the
pupil of the eye, the sun attends on it; through the blac" of the eye, fire attends on it;
through the hite portion, %ndra; through the loer eyelid, the earth; and through the upper
eyelid, heaven attends on it. -e ho "nos this$his food does not diminish.
2. 7egarding this there is the folloing mantra3 *There is a bol hich has its mouth belo
and hich bulges at the top. ,anifold "noledge has been put into it; seven sages sit on its
rim and the organ of speech, hich has communication ith the !edas, is the eighth.* What is
called the *bol hich has its mouth belo and hich bulges at the top* is this head of ours,
for it is a bol hich has its mouth belo and hich bulges at the top. When it is said3
*,anifold "noledge has been put into it,* this refers to the organs; these indeed represent
manifold "noledge. When it is said3 *1even sages sit on its rim,* this refers to the organs;
they indeed are the sages. *The organ of speech, hich has communication ith the !edas, is
the eighth* because the organ of speech is the eighth and communicates ith the !edas.
4. These to ears are Jotama and (haradvaja3 this one /the right0 is Jotama and this one
/the left0, (haradvaja. These to eyes are !isvamitra and Iamadagni3 this one /the right0 is
!isvamitra and this one /the left0, Iamadagni. These to nostrils are !asishtha and Gasyapa3
this one /the right0 is !asishtha and this one /the left0, Gasyapa. The tongue is 'tri, for
through the tongue food is eaten. 'tri is the same as atti /eating0. -e ho "nos this
becomes the eater of everything and everything becomes his food.
Chapter IIIThe Two 'orms of %rahman
1. !erily, there are to forms of (rahman3 gross and subtle, mortal and immortal, limited
and unlimited, definite and indefinite.
&. The gross form is that hich is other than air and a"asa. %t is mortal, limited and definite.
The essence of that hich is gross, hich is mortal, hich is limited and hich is definite is
the sun that shines, for it /the sun0 is the essence of the three elements.
2. <o the subtle3 %t is air and a"asa. %t is immortal, it is unlimited and it is indefinite. The
essence of that hich is subtle, hich is immortal, hich is unlimited and hich is indefinite is
the Person /Purusha0 in the solar orb, for that Person is the essence of the to elements. This
is ith reference to the gods.
4. <o ith reference to the body3 The gross form is that hich is other than the air and
the a"asa that is in the body. %t is mortal, it is limited and it is definite. The essence of that
hich is gross, hich is mortal, hich is limited and hich is definite is the eye; for it /the
eye0 is the essence of the three elements.
5. <o the subtle3 %t is the air and the a"asa that is in the body. %t is immortal, it is
unlimited and it is indefinite. The essence of that hich is subtle, hich is immortal, hich is
unlimited and hich is indefinite is the person /purusha0 that is in the right eye, for that
person is the essence of the to elements.
9. The form of that person is li"e a cloth dyed ith turmeric, or li"e grey sheep6s ool, or
li"e the scarlet insect called %ndragopa, or li"e a tongue of fire, or li"e a hite lotus, or li"e a
flash of lightning. -e ho "nos this$his splendour is li"e a flash of lightning. <o, therefore,
the description of (rahman3 *<ot this, not this* /<eti, <eti0; for there is no other and more
appropriate description than this *<ot this.* <o the designation of (rahman3 *The Truth of
truth.* The vital breath is truth and %t /(rahman0 is the Truth of that.
Chapter IV(a!na$al)*a and Maitre*i +I,
1. *,aitreyi, my dear,* said 8ajnaval"ya, *% am going to renounce this life. +et me ma"e a
final settlement beteen you and Gatyayani /his other ife0.*
&. Thereupon ,aitreyi said3 *!enerable 1ir, if indeed the hole earth, full of ealth,
belonged to me, ould % be immortal through thatA* *<o,* replied 8ajnaval"ya, *your life
ould be just li"e that of people ho have plenty. Of %mmortality, hoever, there is no hope
through ealth.*
2. Then ,aitreyi said3 *What should % do ith that hich ould not ma"e me immortalA Tell
me, venerable 1ir, of that alone hich you "no to be the only means of attaining
%mmortality.*
4. 8ajnaval"ya replied3 *,y dear, you have been my beloved even before and no you say
hat is after my heart. >ome, sit don; % ill eDplain it to you. 's % eDplain it, meditate on
hat % say.*
5. Then 8ajnaval"ya said3 *!erily, not for the sa"e of the husband, my dear, is the husband
loved, but he is loved for the sa"e of the self hich, in its true nature, is one ith the
1upreme 1elf. *!erily, not for the sa"e of the ife, my dear, is the ife loved, but she is loved
for the sa"e of the self. *!erily, not for the sa"e of the sons, my dear, are the sons loved, hut
they are loved for the sa"e of the self. *!erily, not for the sa"e of ealth, my dear, is ealth
loved, but it is loved for the sa"e of the self. *!erily, not for the sa"e of the brahmin, my dear,
is the brahmin loved, but he is loved for the sa"e of the self. *!erily, not for the sa"e of the
"shatriya, my dear, is the "shatriya loved, but he is loved for the sa"e of the self. *!erily, not
for the sa"e of the orlds, my dear, are the orlds loved, but they are loved for the sa"e of
the self. *!erily, not for the sa"e of the gods, my dear, are the gods loved, but they are loved
for the sa"e of the self. *!erily, not for the sa"e of the beings, my dear, are the beings loved,
but they are loved for the sa"e of the self. *!erily, not for the sa"e of the 'll, my dear, is the
'll loved, but it is loved for the sa"e of the self. *!erily, my dear ,aitreyi, it is the 1elf that
should be reali?ed$should be heard of, reflected on and meditated upon. (y the reali?ation of
the 1elf, my dear$through hearing, reflection and meditation$all this is "non.
9. *The brahmin rejects one ho "nos him as different from the 1elf. The "shatriya rejects
one ho "nos him as different from the 1elf. The orlds reject one ho "nos them as
different from the 1elf. The gods reject one ho "nos them as different from the 1elf. The
beings reject one ho "nos them as different from the 1elf. The 'll rejects one ho "nos it
as different from the 1elf. This brahmin, this "shatriya, these orlds, these gods, these
beings and this 'll$are that 1elf.
:$B. *'s the various particular "inds of notes of a drum, hen it is beaten, cannot be
grasped by themselves, but are grasped only hen the general note of the drum or the
general sound produced by different "inds of stro"es is grasped; *'nd as the various
particular notes of a conch, hen it is blon, cannot be grasped by themselves, but are
grasped only hen the general note of the conch or the general sound produced by different
"inds of bloing is grasped; *'nd as the various particular notes of a vina, hen it is played,
cannot be grasped by themselves, but are grasped Only hen the general note of the vina or
the general sound produced by different "inds of playing is grasped; 1imilarly, no particular
objects are perceived in the a"ing and dream states apart from Pure %ntelligence.
1C. *'s from a fire "indled ith et fuel various "inds of smo"e issue forth, even so, my
dear, the 7ig$!eda, the 8ajur$!eda, the 1ama$!eda, the 'tharvangirasa, history /itihasa0,
mythology /purana0, the arts /vidya0, the =panishads, verses /slo"as0, aphorisms /sutras0,
elucidations /anuvya"hyanas0 and eDplanations /vya"hyanas0 are li"e the breath of this
infinite 7eality. .rom this 1upreme 1elf are all these, indeed, breathed forth.
11. *'s the ocean is the one goal of all aters /i.e. the place here they merge0, so the s"in
is the one goal of all "inds of touch, the nostrils are the one goal of all smells, the tongue is
the one goal of all savours, the ear is the one goal of all sounds, the mind is the one goal of
all deliberations, the intellect is the one goal of all forms of "noledge, the hands are the one
goal of all actions, the organ of generation is the one goal of all "inds of enjoyment, the
eDcretory organ is the one goal of all eDcretions, the feet are the one goal of all "inds of
al"ing, the organ of speech is the one goal of all the !edas.
1&. *'s a lump of salt dropped into ater becomes dissolved in ater and cannot be
ta"en out again, but herever e taste the ater it tastes salt, even so, my dear, this great,
endless, infinite 7eality is Pure %ntelligence alone. This self comes out as a separate entity
from these elements and ith their destruction this separate eDistence also is destroyed. 'fter
attaining oneness it has no more consciousness. This is hat % say, my dear.* 1o said
8ajnaval"ya.
12. Then ,aitreyi said3 *Iust here you have beildered me, venerable 1ir, by saying that
after attaining oneness the self has no more consciousness.* 8ajnaval"ya replied3 *>ertainly %
am not saying anything beildering, my dear. This 7eality is enough for "noledge, O
,aitreyi.*
14. *.or hen there is duality, as it ere, then one smells another, one sees another, one
hears another, one spea"s to another, one thin"s of another, one "nos another. (ut hen
everything has become the 1elf, then hat should one smell and through hat, hat should
one see and through hat, hat should one hear and through hat, hat should one spea"
and through hat, hat should one thin" and through hat, hat should one "no and
through hatA Through hat should One "no That oing to hich all this is "non$through
hat, my dear, should one "no the GnoerA*
Chapter VThe Interdependence of Created O-!ects
1. This Harth is the honey /effect0 of all beings and all beings are the honey /effect0 of this
earth. +i"eise, the bright, immortal being ho is in this earth and the bright, immortal,
corporeal being ho is in the body are both honey. These four are but this 1elf. The
Gnoledge of this 1elf is the means to %mmortality; this underlying unity is (rahman; this
Gnoledge of (rahman is the means of becoming all.
&. This ater is the honey /effect0 of all beings and all beings are the honey /effect0 of this
ater. +i"eise, the bright, immortal being ho is in this ater and the bright, immortal being
eDisting as the semen in the body are both honey. These four are but this 1elf. The Gnoledge
of this 1elf is the means to %mmortality; this underlying unity is (rahman; this Gnoledge of
(rahman is the means of becoming all.
2. This fire is the honey /effect0 of all beings and all beings are the honey /effect0 of this
fire. +i"eise, the bright, immortal being ho is in this fire and the bright, immortal being
identified ith the organ of speech in the body are both honey. These four are but this 1elf.
The Gnoledge of this 1elf is the means to %mmortality; this underlying unity is (rahman;
this Gnoledge of (rahman is the means of becoming all.
4. This air is the honey /effect0 of all beings and all beings are the honey /effect0 of this air.
+i"eise, the bright, immortal being ho is in this air and the bright, immortal being identified
ith the vital breath in the body are both honey. These four are but this 1elf. The Gnoledge
of this 1elf is the means to %mmortality; this underlying unity is (rahman; this Gnoledge of
(rahman is the means of becoming all.
5. This sun is the honey /effect0 of all beings and all beings are the honey /effect0 of this
sun. +i"eise, the bright, immortal being ho is in this sun and the bright, immortal being
identified ith the eye in the body are both honey. These four are but this 1elf. The
Gnoledge of this 1elf is the means to %mmortality; this underlying unity is (rahman; this
Gnoledge of (rahman is the means of becoming all.
9. These #uarters are the honey /effect0 of all beings and all beings are the honey /effect0
of these #uarters. +i"eise, the bright, immortal being ho is in these #uarters and the
bright, immortal being identified ith the ear in the body and ith the time of hearing are
both honey. These four are but this 1elf. The Gnoledge of this 1elf is the means to
%mmortality; this underlying unity is (rahman; this Gnoledge of (rahman is the means of
becoming all.
:. This moon is the honey /effect0 of all beings and all beings are the honey /effect0 of this
moon. +i"eise, the bright, immortal being ho is in this moon and the bright, immortal
being identified ith the mind in the body are both honey. These four are but this 1elf. The
Gnoledge of this 1elf is the means to %mmortality; this underlying unity is (rahman; this
Gnoledge of (rahman is the means of becoming all.
@. This lightning is the honey /effect0 of all beings and all beings are the honey /effect0 of
this lightning. +i"eise, the bright, immortal being ho is in this lightning and the bright,
immortal being identified ith the light in the body are both honey. These four are but this
1elf. The Gnoledge of this 1elf is the means to %mmortality; this underlying =nity is
(rahman; this Gnoledge of (rahman is the means of becoming all.
B. This thunder$cloud is the honey /effect0 of all beings and all beings are the honey
/effect0 of this thunder$cloud. +i"eise, the bright, immortal being ho is in this thunder$
cloud and the bright, immortal being identified ith sound and ith the voice in the body are
both honey. These four are but this 1elf. The Gnoledge of this 1elf is the means to
%mmortality; this underlying unity is (rahman; this Gnoledge of (rahman is the means of
becoming all.
1C. This a"asa is the honey /effect0 of all beings and all beings are the honey /effect0 of this
a"asa. +i"eise, the bright, immortal being ho is in this a"asa and the bright, immortal
being identified ith the a"asa in the heart in the body are both honey. These four are but
this 1elf. The Gnoledge of this 1elf is the means to %mmortality; this underlying unity is
(rahman; this Gnoledge of (rahman is the means of becoming all.
11. This dharma /righteousness0 is the honey /effect0 of all beings and all beings are the
honey /effect0 of this dharma. +i"eise, the bright, immortal being ho is in this dharma and
the bright, immortal being identified ith the dharma in the body are both honey. These four
are but this self. This "noledge of this self is the means to %mmortality; this underlying unity
is (rahman; this "noledge of (rahman is the means of becoming all.
1&. This truth is the honey /effect0 of all beings and all beings are the honey /effect0 of this
truth. +i"eise, the bright, immortal being ho is in this truth and the bright, immortal being
identified ith truth in the body are both honey. These four are but this 1elf. The Gnoledge
of this 1elf is the means to %mmortality; this underlying unity is (rahman; this Gnoledge of
(rahman is the means of becoming all.
12. This man"ind is the honey /effect0 of all beings and all beings are the honey /effect0 of
this man"ind. +i"eise, the bright, immortal being ho is in man"ind and the bright,
immortal being identified ith man"ind in the body are both honey. These four are but this
1elf. The Gnoledge of this 1elf is the means to %mmortality; this underlying unity is
(rahman; this Gnoledge of (rahman is the means of becoming all.
14. This cosmic body /atman0 is the honey /effect0 of all beings and all beings are the honey
/effect0 of this cosmic body. +i"eise, the bright, immortal being ho is in the cosmic body
and the bright, immortal being identified ith the individual self are both honey. These four
are but this 1elf. The Gnoledge of this 1elf is the means to %mmortality; this underlying
unity is (rahman; this Gnoledge of (rahman is the means of becoming all.
15. 'nd verily this 1elf is the 7uler of all beings, the Ging of all beings. Iust as all the spo"es
are fiDed in the nave and the felloe of a chariot heel, so are all beings, all gods, all orlds,
all organs and all these individual creatures fiDed in this 1elf.
19. This, verily, is the honey /madhu$doctrine0 hich )adhyach, versed in the 'tharva$
!eda, taught the 'svins. The ,antra /the rishi0 perceived this and said3 *O 'svins in human
form, % ill disclose that terrible deed of yours, called damsa, hich you performed out of
greed, as the thunder$cloud discloses the approaching rain. % ill disclose the honey /madhu
$doctrine0, hich )adhyach, versed in the 'tharva$!eda, taught you through the head of a
horse.*
1:. This, verily, is the honey /madhu$doctrine0 hich )adhyach, versed in the 'tharva$
!eda, taught the 'svins. The ,antra /the rishi0 perceived this and said3 *O 'svins, you fiDed
a horse6s head on )adhyach, versed in the 'tharva$!eda, ho, O terrible ones, ishing to be
true to his promise, taught you the ritualistic meditation on the honey /madhu$doctrine0
connected ith the sun and also the secret /spiritual0 meditation on it.*
1@. This, verily, is the honey /madhu$doctrine0 hich )adhyach, versed in the 'tharva$
!eda, taught the 'svins. The ,antra /rishi0 perceived this and said3 *-e /the +ord0 made
bodies ith to feet; -e made bodies ith four feet. -aving first become a bird /the subtle
body0, -e, the 1upreme Person, entered the bodies. On account of -is delling in all bodies
/pur0, -e is called the Person /Purusha0. There is nothing that is not covered by -im, nothing
that is not pervaded by -im.*
1B. This, verily, is the honey /madhu$doctrine0 hich )adhyach, versed in the 'tharva$
!eda, taught the 'svins. The ,antra /the rishi0 perceived this and said3 *-e /the +ord0
transformed -imself in accordance ith each form and each form of -is as for the sa"e of
ma"ing -im "non. The +ord /%ndra0, through -is mayas, appears manifold; for to -im are
yo"ed ten horses, nay, hundreds. *This 'tman is the organs; %t is ten and thousands$many
and infinite. This (rahman is ithout antecedent or conse#uent, ithout interior or eDterior.
This self, the all$perceiving, is (rahman. This is the teaching of the =panishads.*
Chapter VIThe .ine of Teachers
1. <o the line of teachers through hom the honey, or the madhu$doctrine, has been
transmitted3 Pautimashya received it from Jaupavana. Jaupavana from another
Pautimashya. This Pautimashya from another Jaupavana. This Jaupavana from Gausi"a.
Gausi"a from Gaundinya. Gaundinya from 1andilya. 1andilya from Gausi"a and Jautama.
Jautama
&. .rom 'gnivesya. 'gnivesya from 1andilya and 'nabhimlata. 'nabhimlata from another
'nabhimlata. This 'nabhimlata from still another 'nabhimlata. This 'nabhimlata from
Jautama. Jautama from 1aitava and Prachinayogya. 1aitava and Prachinayogya from
Parasarya. Parasarya from (haradvaja. (haradvaja from another (haradvaja and Jautama.
Jautama from still another (haradvaja. This (haradvaja from Parasarya. Parasarya from
(aijavapayana. (aijavapayana from Gausi"ayani. Gausi"ayani
2. .rom Jhrita"ausi"a. Jhrita"ausi"a from Parasaryayana. Parasaryayana from Parasarya.
Parasarya from Iatu"arnya. Iatu"arnya from 'surayana and 8as"a. 'surayana from Traivani.
Traivani from 'upajandhani. 'upajandhani from 'suri. 'suri from (haradvaja. (haradvaja
from 'treya. 'treya from ,anti. ,inti from Jautama. Jautama from another Jautama. This
Jautama from !atsya. !atsya from 'ndilya. 'ndilya from Gaisorya Gapya. Gaisorya Gapya
from Gumaraharita. Gumaraharita from Jalava. Jalava from !idarbhi"aundinya.
!idarbhi"aundinya from !atsanapat (abhrava. !atsanapat (abhrava from Pathin 1aubhara.
Pathin 1aubhara from 'yasya 'ngirasa. 'yasya 'ngirasa from 'bhuti Tvashtra. 'bhuti
Tvashtra from !isvarupa Tvashtra. !isvarupa Tvashtra from the 'syins. The 'svins from
)adhyach 'tharvana. )adhyach 'tharvana from 'tharvana )aiva. 'tharvana )aiva from
,rityu Pradhvamsana. ,rityu Pradhvamsana from Pradhvamsana. Pradhvamsana from
H"arshi. H"arshi from !iprachitti. !iprachitti from !yashti. !yashti from 1anaru. 1anaru from
1anatana. 1anatana from 1anaga. 1anaga from Parameshthin /!iraj0. Parameshthin from
(rahma /-iranyagarbha0. (rahman is self$born. 1alutation to (rahman.

Part Three
Chapter I(a!na$al)*a and "s$ala
1. Om. Iana"a, Hmperor of !ideha, performed a sacrifice in hich gifts ere freely
distributed among the priests. (rahmin scholars from the countries of Guru and Panchala
ere assembled there. Hmperor Tana"a of !ideha ished to "no hich of these brahmins
as the most erudite !edic scholar. 1o he confined a thousand cos in a pen and fastened on
the horns of each ten padas of gold.
&. -e said to them3 *!enerable brahmins, let him among you ho is the best !edic scholar
drive these cos home.* <one of the brahmins dared. Then 8ajnaval"ya said to one of his
pupils3 *)ear 1amsrava, drive these cos home.* -e drove them aay. The brahmins ere
furious and said3 *-o does he dare to call himself the best !edic scholar among usA* <o
among them there as 'svala, the hotri priest of Hmperor Iana"a of !ideha. -e as"ed
8ajnaval"ya3 *'re you indeed the best !edic scholar among us, O 8ajnaval"yaA* -e replied3 *%
bo to the best !edic scholar, but % just ish to have these cos.* Thereupon the hotri 'svala
determined to #uestion him.
2. *8ajnaval"ya,* said he, *since everything here /i.e. connected ith the sacrifice0 is
overta"en by death, since everything is overcome by death, by hat means does the sacrificer
free himself from the reach of deathA* *Through the hotri priest and the organ of speech
loo"ed upon as fire. The sacrificer6s organ of speech is the hotri. This organ of speech is fire;
this fire is the hotri; this fire is the means to liberation; this is complete liberation.*
4. *8ajnaval"ya,* said he, *since everything here is overta"en by day and night, since
everything is overcome by day and night, by hat means does the sacrificer free himself from
the reach of day and nightA* *Through the adhvaryu priest and the eye loo"ed upon as the
sun. The sacrificer6s eye is the adhvaryu. This eye is the sun. This sun is the adhvaryu; this
sun is the means to liberation; this is complete liberation.*
5. *8ajnaval"ya,* said he, *since everything here is overta"en by the bright and dar"
fortnights, since everything is overcome by the bright and dar" fortnights, by hat means
does the sacrificer free himself from the reach of the bright and dar" fortnightsA* *Through
the udgatri priest and the vital breath loo"ed upon as the air. This vital breath is the udgatri.
This vital breath is the air; this air is the udgatri; this air is the means to liberation; this is
complete liberation.*
9. *8ajnaval"ya,* said he, *since the s"y is, as it ere, ithout a support, by means of hat
support does the sacrificer go to heavenA* *Through the (rahma priest and the mind loo"ed
upon as the moon. The sacrificer6s mind is the (rahma. The mind is the moon; this moon is
the (rahma; this moon is the means to liberation; this is complete liberation. 1o far about
the ays of liberation; no about the meditation based upon resemblance.
:. *8ajnaval"ya,* said he, *ho many "inds of 7ig verses ill the hotri priest use today in
this sacrificeA* *Three "inds.* *'nd hich are these threeA* *The introductory, the sacrificial
and the eulogistic as the third.* *What does he /the sacrificer0 in through themA* *'ll this
that has life.*
@. *8ajnaval"ya,* said he, *ho many "inds of oblations ill the adhvaryu priest offer today
in this sacrificeA* *Three.* *'nd hich are these threeA* *Those hich, hen offered, bla?e
upard; those hich, hen offered, ma"e a great noise; and those hich, hen offered, sin"
don.* *What does he /the sacrificer0 in through themA* *(y those hich, hen offered,
bla?e upard, he ins the orld of the gods; for the orld of the gods shines bright, as it
ere. (y those hich, hen offered, ma"e a great noise, he ins the orld of the ,anes; for
this orld of the ,anes is eDcessively noisy. (y those hich, hen offered, sin" don, he
ins the orld of men; for the orld of men is don belo.*
B. *8ajnaval"ya,* said he, *ith ho many gods does the (rahma priest seated on the right
protect the sacrifice todayA* *With one.* *Which is that oneA* *The mind. The mind is indeed
infinite and infinite are the !isve$devas. 'n infinite orld he /the sacrificer0 ins thereby.*
1C. *8ajnaval"ya,* said he, *ho many "inds of hymns of praise ill the udgatri priest chant
today in this sacrificeA* *Three.* *'nd hich are these threeA* *The introductory, the
sacrificial and the eulogistic *Which are those that have reference to the bodyA* *The prana is
the introductory hymn, the apana is hymn and the vyana is the eulogistic hymn.* *What
does he /the sacrificer0 in through themA* *Through the introductory hymn he ins the
earth, through the sacrificial hymn he ins the s"y and through the eulogistic hymn he ins
heaven. Thereupon the priest 'svala held his peace.
Chapter II(a!na$al)*a and "rta-haga
1. Then 'rtabhaga, of the line of Iarat"aru, #uestioned him. *8ajnaval"ya,* said he, *ho
many grahas /organs0 are there and ho many atigrahas /objects0A* *Hight grahas,* he
replied, *and eight atigrahas.* *'nd hich are these eight grahas and eight atigrahasA*
&. *The Prana /the nose0, indeed, is the graha; it is controlled by the apana /odour0, the
atigraha; for one smells odours through apana /the air breathed in0.
2. *The va" /the organ of speech0, indeed, is the graha; it is controlled by the atigraha,
name; for one utters names through the organ of speech.
4. *The tongue, indeed, is the graha; it is controlled by the atigraha, taste; for one "nos
tastes by the tongue.
5. *The eye, indeed, is the graha; it is controlled by the atigraha colour; for one sees
colours through the eye.
9. *The ear, indeed, is the graha; it is controlled by the atigraha sound; for one hears
sounds ith the ear.
:. *The mind, indeed, is the graha; it is controlled by the atigraha desire; for through the
mind one cherishes desires.
@. *The hands, indeed, are the graha; they are controlled by the atigraha, or"; for one
performs or" by means of the hands.
B. *The s"in, indeed, is the graha; it is controlled by the atigraha, touch; for one feels touch
through the s"in. These are the eight grahas and eight atigrahas.*
1C. *8ajnaval"ya,* said he, *since all this is the food of death, ho, pray, is that god to
hom death is the foodA* *.ire, indeed, is death; it is the food of ater. One ho "nos this
con#uers further death.*
11. *8ajnaval"ya,* said he, *hen this liberated person dies, do his organs de
Part from him or notA* *<o,* replied 8ajnaval"ya, *they merge in him only. The body sells, is
inflated and in that state the dead body lies at rest.*
1&. *8ajnaval"ya,* said he, *hen such a man dies, hat is it that does not leave himA*
*The name. .or the name is infinite and infinite are the !isve$ devas. -e ho "nos this ins
thereby an infinite orld.*
12. *8ajnaval"ya,* said he, *hen the vocal organ of this dead person merges in fire, the
nose in air, the eye in the sun, the mind in the moon, the ear in the #uarters, the body in the
earth, the a"asa /space0 in the heart in the eDternal a"asa, the hair on the body in the herbs,
the hair on the head in the trees and the blood and semen are deposited in ater, here is
that person thenA* 8ajnaval"ya said3 *Jive me your hand, dear 'rtabhaga. We shall decide
this beteen ourselves; e cannot do it in a crod.* Then they ent out and deliberated and
hat they tal"ed about as "arma /or"0 and hat they praised as "arma3 one becomes
good through good "arma and evil through evil "arma. Thereupon 'rtabhaga, of the line of
Iarat"aru, held his peace.
Chapter III(a!na$al)*a and %h!*
1. <eDt (hujyu, the grandson of +ahya, #uestioned him. *8ajnaval"ya,* said he, *e ere
travelling in the country of ,adra as religious students, hen e came to the house of
Patanchala, of the line of Gapi. -is daughter as possessed by a gandharva. We as"ed him3
6Who are youA6 -e said3 6% am 1udhanvan, of the line of 'ngiras.6 While as"ing him about the
limits of the orld, e said3 6Where ere the descendants of Pari"shitA6 'nd li"eise % as"
you, 8ajnaval"ya, here ere the descendants of Pari"shitA Tell me, here ere the
descendants of Pari"shitA*
&. 8ajnaval"ya said3 *The gandharva, % suppose, told you that they ent here those ho
perform the -orse$sacrifice go.* *'nd here do they go ho have performed the -orse$
sacrificeA* *Thirty$to times the space traversed by the sun6s chariot in a day ma"es this
plane /lo"a0; around it, covering tice the area, is the orld /prithivi0; around the orld,
covering tice the area, is the ocean. <o, as is the edge of a ra?or or the ing of a fly, so is
there just that much space beteen the to halves of the cosmic shell. Through that opening
they go out. *.ire, in the form of a falcon, delivered them to !ayu. !ayu, placing them in
itself, too" them here previous performers of the -orse$sacrifice ere.* Thus did the
gandharva praise !ayu. Therefore !ayu alone is the aggregate of all individuals. -e ho
"nos this, as stated above, con#uers further death. Thereupon (hujyu, the grandson of
+ahya, held his peace.
Chapter IV(a!na$al)*a and #shasta
1. Then =shasta, the son of >ha"ra, #uestioned him. *8ajnaval"ya,* said he, *eDplain to me
the (rahman that is immediately and directly perceived$the self that is ithin all.* *This is
your self that is ithin all.* *Which self is ithin all, 8ajnaval"yaA* *That hich breathes
through the prana is your self that is ithin all. That hich moves donard through the
apana is your self that is ithin all. That hich pervades through the vyana is your self that is
ithin all. That hich goes out ith the udana is your self that is ithin all. This is your self
that is ithin all.*
&. =shasta, the son of >ha"ra, said3 *8ou have eDplained it as one might say3 61uch is a
co,6 61uch is a horse.6 Tell me precisely the (rahman that is immediate and direct$the self
that is ithin all.* *This is your self that is ithin all.* *Which is ithin all, 8ajnaval"yaA*
*8ou cannot see the seer of seeing; you cannot hear the hearer of hearing; you cannot thin"
of the thin"er of thin"ing; you cannot "no the "noer of "noing. This is your self that is
ithin all; everything else but this is perishable.* Thereupon =shasta, the son of >ha"ra, held
his peace.
Chapter V(a!na$al)*a and /ahola
1. <eDt Gahola, the son of Gushita"a, #uestioned him. *8ajnaval"ya,* said he, *eDplain to me
the (rahman that is directly and immediately perceived$the self that is ithin all.* *This is
your self that is ithin all.* *Which self is ithin all, 8ajnaval"yaA* *%t is that hich transcends
hunger and thirst, grief, delusion, old age and death. -aving reali?ed this 1elf, brahmins give
up the desire for sons, the desire for ealth and the desire for the orlds and lead the life of
religious mendicants. That hich is the desire for sons is the desire for ealth and that hich
is the desire for ealth is the desire for the orlds; for both these are but desires. Therefore
a brahmin, after he is done ith scholarship, should try to live on that strength hich comes
of scholarship. 'fter he is done ith that strength and scholarship, he becomes meditative
and after he is done ith both meditativeness and non$meditativeness, he becomes a "noer
of (rahman. *-o does the "noer of (rahman behaveA -osoever he may behave, he is
such indeed. Hverything else but this is perishable.* Thereupon Gahola, the son of Gushita"a,
held his peace.
Chapter VI(a!na$al)*a and Gargi +I,
1. Then Jargi, the daughter of !acha"nu, #uestioned him. *8ajnaval"ya ,* said she, *if all
this is pervaded by ater, by hat, pray, is ater pervadedA* *(y air, O Jargi.* *(y hat,
pray, is air pervadedA* *(y the s"y, O Jargi.* *(y hat is the s"y pervadedA* *(y the orld
of the gandharvas, O Jargi.* *(y hat is the orld of the gandharvas pervadedA* *(y the
orld of the sun, O Jargi. *(y hat is the orld of the sun pervadedA* *(y the orld of the
moon, O Jargi.* *(y hat is the orld of the moon pervadedA* *(y the orld of the stars, O
Jargi.* *(y hat is the orld of the stars pervadedA* *(y the orld of the gods, O Jargi.*
*(y hat is the orld of the gods pervadedA* *(y the orld of %ndra, O Jargi. *(y hat is the
orld of %ndra pervadedA* *(y the World of !irij, O Jargi. *(y hat is the World of !irij
pervadedA* *(y the World of -iranyagarbha, O Jargi.* *(y hat, pray, is the World of
-iranyagarbha pervadedA* *)o not, O Jargi,* said he, *#uestion too much, lest your head
should fall off. 8ou are #uestioning too much about a deity about hom e should not as" too
much. )o not as" too much, O Jargi.* Thereupon Jargi, the daughter of !acha"nu, held her
peace.
Chapter VII(a!na$al)*a and #ddala)a
1. Then =ddala"a, the son of 'runa, #uestioned him. *8ajnaval"ya,* said he, *in the country
of ,adra e lived in the house of Patanchala, of the line of Gapi, studying the scriptures on
the sacrifices. -is ife as possessed by a gandharva. We as"ed him3 6Who are youA6 -e said3
6% am Gabandha, the son of 'tharvan.6 -e said to Patanchala Gapya and those studying the
scriptures on the sacrifices3 6O descendant of Gapi, do you "no that 1utra by hich this
orld, the other orld and all beings are held togetherA6 Patanchala Gapya said3 6% do not
"no it, venerable 1ir.6 Then he said to Patanchala Gapya and those studying the scriptures
on the sacrifices3 6O descendant of Gapi, do you "no that %nner >ontroller ho controls this
orld, the neDt orld and all beingsA6 Patanchala Gapya said3 6% do not "no him, venerable
1ir.6 Then he said to Patanchala Gapya and those studying the scriptures on the sacrifices3 6O
descendant of Gapi, he ho "nos that 1utra and that %nner >ontroller indeed "nos
(rahman; he "nos the orlds, he "nos the gods, he "nos the !edas, he "nos the
beings, he "nos the self, he "nos everything.6 -e eDplained it all to them and % "no it. %f
you, 8ajnaval"ya, do not "no that 1utra and that %nner >ontroller and still ta"e aay the
cos that belong only to the "noers of (rahman, your head ill fall off.* *% "no, O
Jautama, that 1utra and that %nner >ontroller.* *'nyone might say3 6% "no, % "no.6 Tell us
hat you "no.*
&. 8ajnaval"ya said3 *!ayu, O Jautama, is that 1utra. (y !ayu, as by a thread, O Jautama,
are this orld, the other orld and all beings held together. Therefore, O Jautama, they say
of a person ho dies that his limbs have been loosened; for they are held together by !ayu
as by a thread.* *Kuite so, 8ajnaval"ya. <o describe the %nner >ontroller.*
2. 8ajnaval"ya said3 *-e ho inhabits the earth, yet is ithin the earth, hom the earth
does not "no, hose body the earth is and ho controls the earth from ithin$-e is your
1elf, the %nner >ontroller, the %mmortal.
4$14. *-e ho inhabits ater, yet is ithin ater, hom ater does not "no, hose body
ater is and ho controls ater from ithin$-e is your 1elf, the %nner >ontroller, the
%mmortal. *-e ho inhabits fire, yet is ithin fire, hom fire does not "no, hose body fire
is and ho controls fire from ithin $-e is your 1elf, the %nner >ontroller, the %mmortal. *-e
ho inhabits the s"y, yet is ithin the s"y, hom the s"y does not "no, hose body the s"y
is and ho controls the s"y from ithin $-e is your 1elf, the %nner >ontroller, the %mmortal.
*-e ho inhabits the air, yet is ithin the air, hom the air does not "no, hose body the
air is and ho controls the air from ithin $-e is your 1elf, the %nner >ontroller, the
%mmortal. *-e ho inhabits heaven, yet is ithin heaven, hom heaven does not "no,
hose body heaven is and ho controls heaven from ithin $-e is your 1elf, the %nner
>ontroller, the %mmortal. *-e ho inhabits the sun, yet is ithin the sun, hom the sun does
not "no, hose body the sun is and ho controls the sun from ithin $-e is your 1elf, the
%nner >ontroller, the %mmortal. *-e ho inhabits the #uarters of space, yet is ithin them,
hom the #uarters do not "no, hose body the #uarters are and ho controls the #uarters
from ithin $-e is your 1elf, the %nner >ontroller, the %mmortal. *-e ho inhabits the moon
and stars, yet is ithin the moon and stars, hom the moon and stars do not "no, hose
body the moon and stars are and ho controls the moon and stars from ithin $-e is your
1elf, the %nner >ontroller, the %mmortal. *-e ho inhabits the a"asa, yet is ithin the a"asa,
hom the a"asa does not "no, hose body the a"asa is and ho controls the a"asa from
ithin $-e is your 1elf, the %nner >ontroller, the %mmortal. *-e ho inhabits dar"ness, yet is
ithin dar"ness, hom dar"ness does not "no, hose body dar"ness is and ho controls
dar"ness from ithin $-e is your 1elf, the %nner >ontroller, the %mmortal. *-e ho inhabits
light, yet is ithin light, hom light does not "no, hose body light is and ho controls light
from ithin $-e is your 1elf, the %nner >ontroller, the %mmortal.* This much ith reference
to the gods /adhidaivatam0. <o ith reference to beings /adhibhutam0.
15. 8ajnaval"ya said3 *-e ho inhabits all beings, yet is ithin all beings, hom no beings
"no, hose body all beings are and ho controls all beings from ithin$-e is your 1elf, the
%nner >ontroller, the %mmortal.* This much ith reference to the beings. <o ith reference
to the body.
19. 8ajnaval"ya said3 *-e ho inhabits the nose /prana0, yet is ithin the nose, hom the
nose does not "no, hose body the nose is and ho controls the nose from ithin $-e is
your 1elf, the %nner >ontroller, the %mmortal. *-e ho inhabits the organ of speech, yet is
ithin speech, hom speech does not "no, hose body speech is and ho controls speech
from ithin $-e is your 1elf, the %nner >ontroller, the %mmortal. *-e ho inhabits the eye,
yet is ithin the eye, hom the eye does not "no, hose body the eye is and ho controls
the eye from ithin $-e is your 1elf, the %nner >ontroller, the %mmortal. *-e ho inhabits
the ear, yet is ithin the ear, hom the ear does not "no, hose body the ear is and ho
controls the ear from ithin $-e is your 1elf, the %nner >ontroller, the %mmortal. *-e ho
inhabits the mind, yet is ithin the mind, hom the mind does not "no, hose body the
mind is and ho controls the mind from ithin $-e is your 1elf, the %nner >ontroller, the
%mmortal. *-e ho inhabits the s"in, yet is ithin the s"in, hom the s"in does not "no,
hose body the s"in is and ho controls the s"in from ithin $-e is your 1elf, the %nner
>ontroller, the %mmortal. *-e ho inhabits the intellect /vijnana0, yet is ithin the intellect,
hom the intellect does not "no, hose body the intellect is and ho controls the intellect
from ithin $-e is your 1elf, the %nner >ontroller, the %mmortal. *-e ho inhabits the organ
of generation, yet is ithin the organ, hom the organ does not "no, hose body the organ
is and ho controls the organ from ithin $-e is your 1elf, the %nner >ontroller, the
%mmortal. *-e is never seen, but is the 1eer; -e is never heard, but is the -earer; -e is
never thought of, but is the Thin"er; -e is never "non, but is the Gnoer. There is no other
seer than -e, there is no other hearer than -e, there is no other thin"er than -e, there is no
other "noer than -e. -e is your 1elf, the %nner >ontroller, the %mmortal. Hverything else but
-im is perishable.* Thereupon =ddila"a, the son of 'runa, held his peace.
Chapter VIII(a!na$al)*a and Gargi +II,
1. Then the daughter of !acha"nu said3 6!enerable brahmins, % shall as" him to #uestions.
%f he ansers me these, then none of you can defeat him in discussing (rahman.* The
brahmins said3 *'s", O Jargi.*
&. Jargi said3 *O 8ajnaval"ya, % shall as" you to #uestions3 's a man of Gasi or the Ging of
!ideha, scion of a heroic line, might string his unstrung bo, ta"e in his hand to bamboo$
tipped arros highly painful to enemies and approach his enemies closely, even so, O
8ajnaval"ya, do % confront you ith to #uestions. 'nser me these.* *'s", O Jargi.*
2. 1he said3 *O 8ajnaval"ya, hat pervades that 1utra hich is above heaven and belo the
earth, hich is heaven and earth as ell as hat is beteen them and hich$they say$as,
is and ill beA*
4. -e said3 *That, O Jargi, hich is above heaven and belo the earth, hich is heaven and
earth as ell as hat is beteen them and hich$they say$as, is and ill be, is pervaded
by the unmanifested a"asa.
5. 1he said3 *% bo to you, O 8ajnaval"ya. 8ou have fully ansered this #uestion of mine.
<o brace yourself for the other.* *'s", O Jargi.*
9$:. 1he said3 *8ajnaval"ya, hat pervades that 1utra hich is above heaven and belo
the earth, hich is heaven and earth as ell as hat is beteen them and hich$they say$
as, is and ill beA* -e said3 *That, O Jargi, hich is above heaven and belo the earth,
hich is heaven and earth as ell as hat is beteen them and hich$they say$as, is and
ill be, is pervaded by the unmanifested a"asa.* *What pervades the a"asaA*
@. -e said3 *That, O Jargi, the "noers of (rahman call the %mperishable. %t is neither gross
nor subtle, neither short nor long, neither red nor moist; %t is neither shado nor dar"ness,
neither air nor a"asa; %t is unattached; %t is ithout taste or smell, ithout eyes or ears,
ithout tongue or mind; %t is non$effulgent, ithout vital breath or mouth, ithout measure
and ithout eDterior or interior. %t does not eat anything, nor is %t eaten by anyone.
B. *!erily, under the mighty rule of this %mperishable, O Jargi, the sun and moon are held in
their respective positions. =nder the mighty rule of this %mperishable, O Jargi, heaven and
earth are held in their respective positions. =nder the mighty rule of this %mperishable, O
Jargi, moments, muhurtas /about forty$ eight minutes0, days and nights, fortnights, months,
seasons and years are held in their respective positions. =nder the mighty rule of this
%mperishable, O Jargi, some rivers flo eastard from the hite mountains, others floing
estard continue in that direction and still others "eep to their respective courses. =nder
the mighty rule of this %mperishable, O Jargi, men praise those ho give, the gods depend
upon the sacrificer and the ,anes upon the )arvi offering.
1C. *Whosoever in this orld, O Jargi, ithout "noing this %mperishable, offers oblations,
performs sacrifices and practises austerities, even for many thousands of years, finds all such
acts but perishable. Whosoever, O Jargi, departs from this orld ithout "noing this
%mperishable is miserable. (ut he, O Jargi, ho departs from this orld after "noing the
%mperishable is a "noer of (rahman.
11. *!erily, that %mperishable, O Jargi, is never seen but is the 1eer; %t is never heard, but
is the -earer; %t is never thought of, but is the Thin"er; %t is never "non, but is the Gnoer.
There is no other seer but This, there is no other hearer but This, there is no other thin"er
but This, there is no other "noer but This. (y this imperishable, O Jargi, is the unmanifested
a"asa pervaded.*
1&. Then said Jargi3 *!enerable brahmins, you may consider yourselves fortunate if you can
get off from him through boing to him. <one of you, % believe, ill defeat him in arguments
about (rahman. Thereupon the daughter of !acha"nu held her peace.
Chapter I0(a!na$al)*a and Vidaghdha
1. Then !idaghdha, the son of 1a"ala, as"ed him3 *-o many gods are there,
8ajnaval"yaA* 8ajnaval"ya ascertained the number through the group of mantras "non as
the <ivid and said3 *'s many as are mentioned in the <ivid of the !isve$devas$ three
hundred and three and three thousand and three.* *!ery good,* said 1a"alya /the son of
1a"ala0 and as"ed again3 *-o many gods are there, 8ajnaval"yaA* *Thirty$three.* *!ery
good,* said 1a"alya and as"ed again3 *-o many gods are there, 8ajnaval"yaA* *1iD.* *!ery
good,* said 1a"alya and as"ed again3 *-o many gods are there, 8ajnaval"yaA* *Three.*
*!ery good,* said 1a"alya and as"ed again3 *-o many gods are there, 8ajnaval"yaA* *To.*
*!ery good,* said 1a"alya and as"ed again3 *-o many gods are there, 8ajnaval"yaA* *One
and a half.* *!ery good,* said 1a"alya and as"ed again3 *-o many gods are there,
8ajnaval"yaA* *One.* *!ery good,* said 1a"alya and as"ed3 *Which are those three hundred
and three and those three thousand and threeA*
&. 8ajnaval"ya said3 *There are only thirty$three gods. These others are but manifestations
of them.* *Which are these thirty$threeA* *The eight !asus, the eleven 7udras and the
telve 'dityas$ these are thirty$one. 'nd %ndra and Prajapati ma"e up the thirty$three.*
2. *Which are the !asusA* as"ed 1a"alya. *.ire, the earth, the air, the s"y, the sun, heaven,
the moon and the stars$these are the !asus; for in them all this universe is placed
/vasavah0. Therefore they are called !asus. 15C
4. *Which are the 7udrasA* as"ed 1a"alya. *The ten organs in the human body, ith the
mind as the eleventh. When they depart from this mortal body, they ma"e one6s relatives
eep. (ecause they ma"e them eep /rud0, therefore they are called 7udras.
5. *Which are the 'dityasA* as"ed 1a"alya. *There are telve months in the year. These are
the 'dityas, because they move along carrying /adadanah0 all this ith them; therefore they
are called 'dityas.*
9. *Which is %ndra and hich is PrajapatiA* as"ed 1a"alya. *The thunderclap is %ndra and the
sacrifice is Prajapati.* *Which is the thunderclapA* *The thunderbolt.* *Which is the
sacrificeA* *The animals.*
:. *Which are the siD godsA* as"ed 1a"alya. *.ire, the earth, the air, the s"y, the sun and
heaven; for these siD comprise all those.*
@. *Which are the three godsA* as"ed 1a"alya. *These three orlds, because all those gods
are comprised in these three.* *Which are the to godsA* *,atter and the vital breath
/prana0.* *Which are the one and a halfA* *This air that blos.*
B. 8ajnaval"ya said3 *>oncerning this some say3 61ince the air blos as one substance, ho
can it be one and a half /adhyardha0A6 The anser is3 %t is one and a half because by its
presence everything attains surpassing glory /adhyardhnot0.* *Which is the one JodA* *The
vital breath /-iranyagarbha0; it is (rahman hich is called That /Tyat0.*
1C. 1a"alya said3 *!erily, hosoever "nos that (eing hose body is the earth, hose
organ of vision is fire, hose light is the mind and ho is the ultimate support of the body
and organs in their entirety, he indeed "nos, O 8ajnaval"ya.* *% "no that (eing of hom
you spea"$ho is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. %t is the
(eing ho is in this body. Jo on, 1a"alya.* *Who is -is deity /cause0A* *<ectar /chyle0,* said
8ajnaval"ya.
11. 1a"alya said3 *!erily, hosoever "nos that (eing hose body is lust /"ama0, hose
organ of vision is the intellect, hose light is the mind and ho is the ultimate support of the
body and organs in their entirety, he indeed "nos, O 8ajnaval"ya.* *% "no that (eing of
hom you spea"$ho is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. %t is
the (eing ho is identified ith lust. Jo on, 1a"alya.* *Who is -is deityA* *Women,* said
8ajnaval"ya.
1&. 1a"alya said3 *!erily, hosoever "nos that (eing hose body is colours, hose organ
of vision is the eye, hose light is the mind and ho is the ultimate support of the body and
organs in their entirety, he indeed "nos, O 8ajnaval"ya.* *% "no that (eing of hom you
spea"$ho is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. %t is the (eing
ho is in the sun. Jo on, 1a"alya.* *Who is -is deityA* *Truth /the eye0,* said 8ajnaval"ya.
12. 1a"alya said3 *!erily, hosoever "nos that (eing hose body is the a"asa, hose
organ of vision is the ear, hose light is the mind and ho is the ultimate support of the body
and organs in their entirety, he indeed "nos, O 8ajnaval"ya.* *% "no that (eing of hom
you spea"$ho is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. %t is the
(eing ho is identified ith the ear and ith the time of hearing. Jo on, 1a"alya.* *Who is
-is deityA* *The #uarters,* said 8ajnaval"ya.
14. 1a"alya said3 *!erily, hosoever "nos that (eing hose body is dar"ness, hose
organ of vision is the intellect, hose light is the mind and ho is the ultimate support of the
body and organs in their entirety, he indeed "nos, O 8ajnaval"ya.* *% "no that (eing of
hom you spea"$ho is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. %t is
the (eing ho is identified ith shado /ignorance0. Jo on, 1a"alya.* *Who is -is deityA*
*)eath,* said 8ajnaval"ya.
15. 1a"alya said3 *!erily, hosoever "nos that (eing hose body is particular colours,
hose organ of vision is the eye, hose light is the mind and ho is the ultimate support of
the body and organs in their entirety, he indeed "nos, O 8ajnaval"ya.* *% "no that (eing of
hom you spea"$ho is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. %t is
the being ho is in the mirror. Jo on, 1a"alya.* *Who is -is deityA* *The vital breath,* said
8ajnaval"ya.
19. 1a"alya said3 *!erily, hosoever "nos that (eing hose body is ater, hose organ of
vision is the intellect, hose light is the mind and ho is the ultimate support of the body and
organs in their entirety, he indeed "nos, O 8ajnaval"ya.* *% "no that (eing of hom you
spea"$ho is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. %t is the (eing
ho is in ater. Jo on, 1a"alya.* *Who is -is deityA* *!aruna /rain0,* said 8ajnaval"ya.
1:. 1a"alya said3 *!erily, hosoever "nos that (eing hose body is semen, hose organ
of vision is the intellect, hose light is the mind and ho is the ultimate support of the body
and organs in their entirety, he indeed "nos, O 8ajnaval"ya.* *% "no that (eing of hom
you spea"$ho is the ultimate support of the body and organs in their entirety. %t is the
(eing ho is identified ith the son. Jo on, 1a"alya.* *Who is -is deityA* *Prajapati /the
father0,* said 8ajnaval"ya.
1@. When 1a"alya "ept silent 8ajnaval"ya addressed him thus3 *1a"alya, have these
brahmins made you their instrument such as tongs for burning charcoalA*
1B$&C. *8ajnaval"ya,* said 1a"alya, *hat (rahman do you "no, that you have thus
flouted these !edic scholars of Guru and PanchalaA* 8ajnaval"ya replied3 *% "no the
#uarters, ith their deities and supports.* 1a"alya said3 *%f you "no the #uarters, ith their
deities and supports, hat deity are you identified ith in the eastA* *With the deity sun.*
*%n hat does the sun find its supportA* *The eye. *%n hat does the eye find its supportA*
*>olours, for one sees colours ith the eye.* *%n hat do colours find their supportA* *The
heart /mind0,* said 8ajnaval"ya, *for one "nos colours through the heart. Therefore it is in
the heart that colours find their support.* *Iust so, 8ajnaval"ya.*
&1. *8ajnaval"ya,* said 1a"alya, *hat deity are you identified ith in the southA* *With the
deity 8ama /the god of justice0.* *%n hat does 8ama find his supportA* *The sacrifice.* *%n
hat does the sacrifice find its supportA* *The remuneration of the priests.* *%n hat does
the remuneration find its supportA* *.aith, for hen a man has faith he remunerates the
priest. Therefore it is in faith that the remuneration finds its support.* *%n hat does faith
find its supportA* *The heart /mind0,* said 8ajnaval"ya, *for one "nos faith through the
heart. Therefore it is in the heart that faith finds its support.* *Iust so, 8ajnaval"ya.*
&&. *8ajnaval"ya,* said 1a"alya, *hat deity are you identified ith in the estA* *With the
deity !aruna /the god of rain0.* *%n hat does !aruna find his supportA* *Water.* *%n hat
does ater find its supportA* *1emen.* *%n hat does semen find its supportA* *The heart,*
said 8ajnaval"ya. *Therefore they say of a ne$ born child ho resembles his father that it
seems as if he has sprung from his father6s heart$that he has been created of his father6s
heart, as it ere. Therefore it is in the heart that semen finds its support.* *Iust so,
8ajnaval"ya.*
&2. *8ajnaval"ya,* said 1a"alya, *hat deity are you identified ith in the northA* *With the
deity 1oma /the moon and the creeper of that name0.* *%n hat does 1oma find its supportA*
*The initiatory rite.* *%n hat does initiation find its supportA* *Truth. Therefore they say to
the one ho is initiated3 61pea" the truth6; for it is in the truth that initiation finds its
support.* *%n hat does the truth find its supportA* *The heart,* said 8ajnaval"ya, *for
through the heart one "nos the truth; therefore it is in the heart that the truth finds its
support.* *Iust so, 8ajnaval"ya.*
&4. *What deity,* said 1a"alya, *are you identified ith in the fiDed direction /i.e.
overhead0A* *With the deity fire.* *%n hat does fire find its supportA* *1peech.* *%n hat
does speech find its supportA* *The heart.* *%n hat does the heart find its supportA*
&5. *8ou ghost,* said 8ajnaval"ya, *that you thin" that the heart should be elsehere than
in ourselves! %f it ere elsehere than in ourselves, dogs ould eat this body or birds tear it
to pieces.*
&9. *%n hat do the body and the heart find their supportA* as"ed 1a"alya. *%n the prana.*
*%n hat does the prana find its supportA* *%n the apana.* *%n hat does the apana find its
supportA* *%n the vyana.* *%n hat does the vyana find its supportA* *%n the udana.* *%n
hat does the udana find its supportA* *%n the samana.* -ere the =panishad itself states3
This self is That hich has been described as *<ot this, not this.* %t is imperceptible, for %t is
never perceived; undecaying, for %t never decays; unattached, for %t is never attached;
unfettered, for %t never feels pain and never suffers injury. 8ajnaval"ya said3 *These are the
eight abodes, the eight organs of vision, the eight deities and the eight beings. *<o % as"
you about that Person ho is to be "non only from the =panishads, ho definitely projects
those beings and again ithdras them into -imself and ho is at the same time
transcendental. *%f you cannot clearly eDplain -im to me, your head shall fall offA6 1a"alya did
not "no -im; his head fell off; and robbers snatched aay his bones, mista"ing them for
something else.
&:. Then 8ajnaval"ya said3 *!enerable brahmins, hosoever among you ishes to #uestion
me may no do so, or all of you may. Or hosoever among you desires it, % shall #uestion
him, or % shall #uestion all of you. (ut the brahmins did not dare.
&@. 8ajnaval"ya interrogated them ith the folloing verses3 1. 's is a mighty tree, so
indeed is a man3 this is true. -is hairs are the leaves and his s"in is the outer bar". &. .rom
his s"in blood flos and from the bar", sap. Therefore hen a man is Wounded blood flos, as
sap from a tree that is injured. 2. -is flesh is its inner bar" and his nerves are its innermost
layer of bar", hich is tough. -is bones lie ithin, as does the ood of the tree. -is marro
resembles the pith. 4. ' tree, hen it is felled, springs again from its root in a ne form;
from hat root, tell me, does a man spring forth after he is cut off by deathA 5. )o not say3
.rom the semen, for that is produced from the living man. ' tree springs from the seed as
ell; after it is dead it certainly springs again. 9. %f a tree is pulled up ith its root, it ill not
spring again. .rom hat root, tell me, does a mortal spring forth after he is cut off by deathA
:. %f you thin" he is indeed born, % say3 <o, he is born again. <o ho should again bring him
forthA The =panishad states3 %t is (rahman, hich is absolute Gnoledge and (liss, the
ultimate goal of him ho offers ealth and also of him ho has reali?ed (rahman and stands
firm in %t.
Part Four
Chapter IPartial &efnitions of %rahman
1. Om. Iana"a, Hmperor of !ideha, as seated to give audience hen 8ajnaval"ya arrived.
The Hmperor said to him3 *8ajnaval"ya, for hat purpose have you come hereA With a desire
for cattle, or to hear some subtle #uestions as"edA* *.or both, 8our ,ajesty,* said he.
&. 8ajnaval"ya said3 *+et me hear hat anyone among your teachers may have told you.*
*Iitvan, the son of 1ilina, told me that the organ of speech /fire0 is (rahman.* *'s anyone
ho had the benefit of being taught by a good mother, father and teacher should say, so did
the son of 1ilina say that the organ of speech is (rahman; for hat can be attained by a
person ho cannot spea"A (ut did he tell you about its abode /body0 and supportA* *<o, he
did not.* *This (rahman is only one$footed, 8our ,ajesty.* *Then you tell us, O
8ajnaval"ya.* LThe physical organ of speech is its abode and the a"asa is its support. %t
should be mediated upon as intelligence.M LWhat is intelligence, O 8ajnaval"yaAM L%t is the
organ of speech, 8our ,ajesty,M said 8ajnaval"ya. LThrough the organ of speech alone, O
Hmperor, are "non the 7ig$!eda, the 8agur$!eda, the 1ama$!eda, the 'tharvangirasa,
history, ancient lore, the arts, the =panishads, verses, aphorisms, eDplanations,
commentaries, the results of sacrifices, the result of offering oblations in the fire, the results
of giving food and drin", this orld, the neDt orld and all beings. LThe organ of speech, 8our
,ajesty, is the 1upreme (rahman. The organ of speech never deserts him ho, "noing this,
meditates upon it; all beings eagerly approach him; and being a god, he attains the gods.M L%
give you a thousand cos ith a bull as large as an elephant,M said Hmperor Iana"a.
8ajnaval"ya replied3 L,y father as of the opinion that one should not accept gifts from a
disciple ithout fully instructing him.M
2. 8ajnaval"ya said3 *+et me hear hat anyone among your teachers may have told you.*
*=dan"a, the son of 1ulba, told me that the vital breath /prana0 is (rahman.* *'s anyone
ho had the benefit of being taught by a good mother, father and teacher should say, so did
the son of 1ulba say that the vital breath is (rahman; for hat can be attained by a person
ho does not liveA (ut did he tell you about its abode and supportA* *<o, he did not.* *This
(rahman is only one$footed, 8our ,ajesty.* *Then you tell us, O 8ajnaval"ya.* *The vital
breath is its abode and the a"asa is its support. %t should be meditated upon as dear.* *What
is that dearness, O 8ajnaval"yaA* *%t is the vital breath, 8our ,ajesty,* said 8ajnaval"ya. *.or
the sa"e of that vital breath /life0, O Hmperor, one performs sacrifices for him for hom they
should not be performed and accepts gifts from him from hom they should not be accepted;
nay, for the sa"e of the vital breath, O Hmperor, one may go to a #uarter here one runs the
ris" of losing one;s life. *The vital breath, O Hmperor, is the 1upreme (rahman. The vital
breath never deserts him ho, "noing hat has just been said, meditates upon it; all beings
eagerly approach him; and being a god, he attains the gods.* *% give you a thousand cos
ith a bull as large as an elephant,* said Hmperor Iana"a. 8ajnaval"ya replied3 *,y father
as of the opinion that one should not accept gifts from a disciple ithout fully instructing
him.*
4. 8ajnaval"ya said3 *+et me hear hat anyone among your teachers may have told you.
*(ar"u, the son of !rishna, told me that the eye is (rahman.* *'s anyone ho had the benefit
of being taught by a good mother, father and teacher should say, so did the son of !rishna
say that the eye is (rahman; for hat can be attained by a person ho cannot seeA (ut did
he tell you about its abode and supportA* *<o, he did not.* *This (rahman is only one$
footed, 8our ,ajesty.* *Then you tell us, O 8ajnaval"ya.* *The eye is its abode and the a"asa
is its support. %t should be meditated upon as truth.* *What is truth, O 8ajnaval"yaA* *%t is
the eye, 8our ,ajesty,* said 8ajnaval"ya. *!erily, 8our ,ajesty, if one as"s a person ho has
seen ith his eyes3 N-ave you seenA; and he ansers3 N8es, % have,; then it is true. *The eye,
8our ,ajesty, is the 1upreme (rahman. The eye never deserts him ho, "noing hat has
just been said, meditates upon it; all beings eagerly approach him; and being a god, he
attains the gods.* *% give you a thousand cos ith a bull as large as an elephant,* said
Hmperor Iana"a. 8ajnaval"ya replied3 *,y father as of the opinion that one should not
accept gifts from a disciple ithout fully instructing him.*
5. 8ajnaval"ya said3 *+et me hear hat anyone among your teachers may have told you.*
*Jardabhivipita, a descendant of (haradvaja, told me that the ear is (rahman.* *'s anyone
ho had the benefit of being taught by a good mother, father and teacher should say, so did
the descendant of (haradvaja say that the ear is (rahman; for hat can be attained by a
person ho cannot hearA (ut did he tell you about its abode and supportA* *<o, he did not.*
*This (rahman is only one$footed, 8our ,ajesty.* *Then you tell us, O 8ajnaval"ya.* *The ear
is its abode and the a"asa is its support. %t should be meditated upon as infinite.* *What is
infinity, O 8ajnaval"yaA* *%t is the #uarters, 8our ,ajesty,* said 8ajnaval"ya. *!erily, 8our
,ajesty, to hatever #uarter /direction0 one may go, one never reaches its end. -ence the
#uarters are infinite. The #uarters, O Hmperor, are the ear and the ear, O Hmperor, is the
1upreme (rahman. *The ear never deserts him ho, "noing this, meditates upon it; all
beings eagerly approach him; and being a god, he attains the gods.* *% give you a thousand
cos ith a bull as large as an elephant,* said Hmperor Iana"a. 8ajnaval"ya replied3 *,y
father as of the opinion that one should not accept gifts from a disciple ithout fully
instructing him.*
9. 8ajnaval"ya said3 *+et me hear hat anyone among your teachers may have told you.*
*1atya"ama, the son of Iabala, told me that the mind is (rahman.* *'s anyone ho had the
benefit of being taught by a good mother, father and teacher should say, so did the son of Iaa
say that the mind is (rahman; for hat can be attained by a person ho has no mindA (ut
did he tell you about its abode and supportA* *<o, he did not.* *This (rahman is only one$
footed, 8our ,ajesty.* *Then you tell us, O 8ajnaval"ya.* *The mind is its abode and the
a"asa is its support. %t should be meditated upon as bliss.* *What is bliss, O 8ajnaval"yaA*
*%t is the mind, 8our ,ajesty,* said 8ajnavd"ya. *!erily, 8our ,ajesty, ith the mind a man
desires and oos a oman; then 19C a son resembling him is born of her and he is the cause
of bliss. The mind, O Hmperor, is the 1upreme (rahman. *The mind never deserts him ho,
"noing this, meditates upon it; all beings eagerly approach him; and being a god, he attains
the gods.* *% give you a thousand cos ith a bull as large as an elephant,* said Hmperor
Iana"a. 8ajnaval"ya replied3 *,y father as of the opinion that one should not accept gifts
from a disciple ithout fully instructing him.*
:. 8ajnaval"ya said3 *+et me hear hat anyone among your teachers may have told you.*
*!idaghdha, the son of 1a"ala, told me that the heart is (rahman.* *'s anyone ho had the
benefit of being taught by a good mother, father and teacher should say, so did the son of
1a"ala say that the heart is (rahman; for hat can be attained by a person ho is ithout a
heartA (ut did he tell you about its abode and supportA* *<o, he did not.* *This (rahman is
only one$footed, 8our ,ajesty.* *Then you tell us, O 8ajnaval"ya.* *The heart is its abode
and the a"asa is its support. %t should be meditated upon as stability.* *What is stability, O
8ajnaval"yaA* *%t is the heart,* said 8ajnaval"ya. *!erily, 8our ,ajesty, the heart is the abode
of all beings and the heart, 8our ,ajesty, is the support of all beings. The heart, O Hmperor, is
the 1upreme (rahman. *The heart never deserts him ho, "noing this, meditates upon it;
all beings eagerly approach him; and being a god, he attains the gods.* *% give you a
thousand cos ith a bull as large as an elephant,* said Hmperor Iana"a. 8ajnaval"ya
replied3 *,y father as of the opinion that one should not accept gifts from a disciple ithout
fully instructing him.*
Chapter IIConcerning The 1elf
1. Iana"a, Hmperor of !ideha, rose from his lounge, humbly approached 8ajnaval"ya and
said3 *1alutation to you, O 8ajnaval"ya. Please instruct me.* 8ajnaval"ya said3 *8our ,ajesty,
as one ho ishes to go a long distance ould procure a chariot or a ship, even so you have
fully e#uipped your mind ith so many secret names of (rahman. 8ou are also honoured and
ealthy; you have studied the !edas and heard the =panishads. (ut do you "no here you
ill go hen you are released from this bodyA* *!enerable 1ir, % do not "no here % shall
go.* *Then % ill tell you here you ill go.* *Tell me, venerable 1ir.*
&. *The person ho is in the right eye is named %ndha. Though he is %ndha, people call him
by the indirect name %ndra; for the gods are fond of indirect names and hate to be addressed
directly.
2. *The person ho is in the left eye is his ife, !iraj /matter0. The a"asa that lies ithin
the heart is their place of union. Their food is the lump /pinda0 of blood in the heart. Their
rap is the net$li"e structure in the heart. The path on hich they move from sleep to
a"ing is the nerve that goes upard from the heart; it is li"e a hair split into a thousand
Parts. %n the body there are nerves called hita, hich are placed in the heart. Through these
the essence of our food passes as it moves on. Therefore the subtle body /Taijasa0 receives
finer food than the gross body /!aisvanara0.
4. *Of the illumined sage ho is identified ith Prajna in deep sleep the east is the eastern
vital breath /prana0, the south is the southern vital breath, the est is the estern vital
breath, the north is the northern vital breath, the upper direction is the upper vital breath,
the direction belo is the nether vital breath and all the directions are all the vital breaths.
*This self is That hich has been described as N<ot this, not this.; %t is imperceptible, for %t is
never perceived; undecaying, for %t never decays; unattached, for %t is never attached;
unfettered, for %t never feels pain and never suffers injury. *!erily, O Iana"a, you have
attained That hich is free from fear,* said 8ajnaval"ya. *!enerable 8ajnaval"ya,* said
Hmperor Iana"a, *may that fearless (rahman be yours too, for you have made "non to us
the fearless (rahman. 1alutations to you! -ere is the Hmpire of !ideha and also myself at
your service.*
Chapter IIIIn$estigation of the Three 1tates
1. 8ajnaval"ya called on Iana"a, Hmperor of !ideha. -e said to himself3 *% ill not say
anything.* (ut once upon a time Iana"a, Hmperor of !ideha and 8ajnaval"ya had had a tal"
about the 'gnihotra sacrifice and 8ajnaval"ya had offered him a boon. Iana"a had chosen the
right to as" him any #uestions he ished and 8ajnaval"ya had granted him the boon. 1o it
as the Hmperor ho first #uestioned him.
&. *8ajnaval"ya, hat serves as light for a manA* *The light of the sun, O Hmperor,* said
8ajnaval"ya, *for ith the sun as light he sits, goes out, or"s and returns.* *Iust so,
8ajnaval"ya.*
2. *When the sun has set, 8ajnaval"ya, hat serves as light for a manA* *The moon serves
as his light, for ith the moon as light he sits, goes out, or"s and returns.* *Iust so,
8ajnaval"ya.*
4. *When the sun has set and the moon has set, 8ajnaval"ya, hat serves as light for a
manA* *.ire serves as his light, for ith fire as light he sits, goes out, or"s and returns.*
*Iust so, 8ajnaval"ya.*
5. *When the sun has set, 8ajnaval"ya and the moon has set and the fire has gone out,
hat serves as light for a manA* *1peech /sound0 serves as his light, for ith speech as light
he sits, goes out, or"s and returns. Therefore, 8our ,ajesty, hen one cannot see even
one;s on hand, yet hen a sound is uttered, one can go there.* *Iust so, 8ajnaval"ya.*
9. *When the sun has set, 8ajnaval"ya and the moon has set and the fire has gone out and
speech has stopped, hat serves as light for a manA* *The self, indeed, is his light, for ith
the self as light he sits, goes out, or"s and returns.*
:. *Which is the selfA* *This purusha hich is identified ith the intellect /vijnanamaya0 and
is in the midst of the orgams, the self$ indulgent light ithin the heart /intellect0. 'ssuming
the li"eness of the intellect, it ansers beteen the to orlds; it thin"s, as it ere and
moves, as it ere being indetified ith dreasm, it trasncends this a"ing orld, hich
represents the forms of death /ignorance and its effects0.
@. *That person /the individual self0, hen he is born, that is to say, hen he assumes a
body, is joined ith evils and hen he dies, that is to say, leaves the body, he discards those
evils.
B. *'nd there are only to states for that person3 the one here in this orld and the other in
the neDt orld. The third, the intermediate, is the dream state. When he is in that
intermediate state, he surveys both states3 the one here in this orld and the other in the
neDt orld. <o, hatever support he may have for the neDt orld, he provides himself ith
that and sees both evils /sufferings0 and joys. *'nd hen he dreams, he ta"es aay a little of
the impressions of this all$embracing orld /the a"ing state0, himself ma"es the body
unconscious and creates a dream body in its place, revealing his on brightness by his on
light$and he dreams. %n this state the person becomes self$illumined.
1C. *There are no real chariots in that state, nor animals to be yo"ed to them, nor roads
there, but he creates the chariots, animals and roads. There are no pleasures in that state, no
joys, no rejoicings, but he creates the pleasures, joys and rejoicings. There are no pools in
that state, no reservoirs, no rivers, but he creates the pools, reservoirs and rivers. -e indeed
is the agent.
11. *7egarding this there are the folloing verses3 NThe effulgent infinite being /purusha0,
ho travels alone, ma"es the body insensible in sleep but himself remains aa"e and ta"ing
ith him the luminous particles of the organs, atches those hich lie dormant. 'gain he
comes to the a"ing state.
1&. NThe effulgent infinite being /purusha0, ho is immortal and travels alone, guards the
unclean nest /body0 ith the help of the vital breath /prana0 and himself moves out of the
nest. That immortal entity anders herever he li"es.
12. N%n the dream orld, the luminous one attains higher and loer states and creates many
forms$no, as it ere, enjoying himself in the company of omen, no laughing, no even
beholding frightful sights.
14. NHveryone sees his sport but him no one sees.; They say3 N)o not a"e him suddenly.; %f
he does not find the right organ, the body becomes difficult to doctor.
15. 8ajnaval"ya said3 *Tha entity /purusha0, after enjoying himself and raoming in the
dream state and merely itnessing the results of good and evil, remians in a state of profound
sleep and then hastens bac" in the reverse ay to his former condition, the dream state. -e
remains unaffected by hatever he sees in that dream state, for this infinite being is
unattached.* Iana"a said3 *Iust so, 8ajnaval"ya. % give you, 1ir, a thousand cos. Please
instruct me further about +iberation itself.
19. *8ajnaval"ya said3 *That entity /purusha0, after enjoying himself and roaming in the
dream state and merely itnessing the results of good and evil, hastens bac" in the reverse
ay to his former condition, the a"ing state. -e remains unaffected by hatever he sees in
that state, for this infinite being is unattached.* Iana"a said3 *Iust so, 8ajnaval"ya. % give
you, 1ir, a thousand cos. Please instruct me further about +iberation itself.*
1:. 8ajnaval"ya said3 *That entity /purusha0, after enjoying himself and roaming in the
a"ing state and merely itnessing the results of good and evil, hastens bac" in the reverse
ay to its former condition, the dream state or that of dreamless sleep.
1@. *'s a large fish sims alternately to both ban"s of a river$the east and the est$so
does the infinite being move to both these states3 dreaming and a"ing.
1B. *'s a ha" or a falcon roaming in the s"y becomes tired, folds its ings and ma"es for
its nest, so does this infinite entity /purusha0 hasten for this state, here, falling asleep, he
cherishes no more desires and dreams no more dreams.
&C. *There are ni his body nerves /nadis0 called hita, hich are fine as a hair divided into a
thousand parts and are filled ith hite, blue, bron, green and red fluids. Theyt are the seat
of the suble body, hich is the storehouse of impressions. <o, hen he feels as if he ere
being "illed or overpoered, or being chased by an elephant, or falling into a pit, in short,
hen he fancies at that time, thorough ignorance, hatever frightful thing he has eDpericned
in the a"ing state, that is the dream state. 1o also, hen he thin"s he is a god, as it ere,
or a "ing, as it ere, or thin"s3 *This universe is myself and % am all,3 that is his highest
state.
&1. *That indeed is his form$free from desires, free from evils, free from fear. 's a man
fully embraced by his beloved ife "nos nothing that is ithout, nothing that is ithin, so
does this infinite being /the self0, hen fully embraced by the 1upreme 1elf, "no nothing
that is ithout, nothing that is ithin. *That indeed is his form, in hich all his desires are
fulfilled, in hich all desires become the self and hich is free from desires and devoid of
grief.
&&. *%n this state a father is no more a father, a mother is no more a mother, the orlds are
no more the orlds, the gods are no more the gods, the !edas are no more the !edas. %n this
state a thief is no more a thief, the "iller of a noble brahmin is no more a "iller, a chandala is
no more a chandala, a paul"asa is no more a paul"asa, a mon" is no more a mon", an ascetic
is no more an ascetic. *This form of his is untouched by good deeds and untouched by evil
deeds, for he is then beyond all the oes of his heart.
&2. *'nd hen it appears that in deep sleep it does not see, yet it is seeing though it does
not see; for there is no cessation of the vision of the seer, because the seer is imperishable.
There is then, hoever, no second thing separate from the seer that it could see.
&4. *'nd hen it appears that in deep sleep it does not smell, yet it is smelling though it
does not smell; for there is no cessation of the smelling of the smeller, because the smeller is
imperishable. There is then, hoever, no second thing separate from the smeller that it could
smell.
&5. *'nd hen it appears that in deep sleep it does not taste, yet it is tasting though it does
not taste; for there is no cessation of the tasting of the taster, because the taster is
imperishable. There is then, hoever, no second thing separate from the taster that it could
taste.
&9. *'nd hen it appears that in deep sleep it does not spea", yet it is spea"ing though it
does not spea"; for there is no cessation of the spea"ing of the spea"er, because the spea"er
is imperishable. There is then, hoever, no second thing separate from the spea"er that it
could spea" about.
&:. *'nd hen it appears that in deep sleep it does not hear, yet it is hearing though it does
not hear; for there is no cessation of the hearing of the hearer, because the hearer is
imperishable. There is then, hoever, no second thing separate from the hearer that it could
hear.
&@. *'nd hen it appears that in deep sleep it does not thin", yet it is thin"ing though it
does not thin"; for there is no cessation of the thin"ing of the thin"er, because the thin"er is
imperishable. There is then, hoever, no second thing separate from the thin"er that it could
thin" of.
&B. *'nd hen it appears that in deep sleep it does not touch, yet it is touching though it
does not touch; for there is no cessation of the touching of the toucher, because the toucher
is imperishable. There is then, hoever, no second thing separate from the toucher that it
could touch.
2C. *'nd hen it appears that in deep sleep it does not "no, yet it is "noing though it
does not "no; for there is no cessation of the "noing of the "noer, because the "noer is
imperishable. There is then, hoever, no second thing separate from the "noer that it could
"no.
21. *When in the a"ing and dream states there is, as it ere, another, then one can see
the other, then one can smell the other, then one can spea" to the other, then one can hear
the other, then one can thin" of the other, then one can touch the other, then one can "no
the other.
2&. *%n deep sleep it becomes transparent li"e ater, the itness, one and ithout a
second. This is the World of (rahman, 8our ,ajesty. This is its supreme attainment, this is its
supreme glory, this it its highest orld, this is its supreme bliss. On a particle of this bliss
other creatures live.* Thus did 8ajnaval"ya teach Iana"a.
22. *%f a person is perfect of body and is prosperous, lord of others and most lavishly
supplied ith all human enjoyments, he represents the highest blessing among men. This
human bliss multiplied a hundred times ma"es one measure of the bliss of the ,anes ho
have on their on orld. The bliss of these ,anes ho have on their orld, multiplied a
hundred times, ma"es one measure of bliss in the orld of the gandharvas. The bliss of the
gandharvas, multiplied a hundred times, ma"es one measure of the bliss of the gods by action
/those ho attain godhood through sacrificial rites0. The bliss of the gods by action,
multiplied a hundred times, ma"es one measure of the bliss of the gods by birth, as also of
one ho is versed in the !edas, sinless and free from desire. The bliss of the gods by birth,
multiplied a hundred times, ma"es one measure of bliss in the World of Prajapan /!iraj0, as
also of one ho is versed in the !edas, sinless and free from desire. The bliss in the World of
Prajapati, multiplied a hundred times, ma"es one measure of bliss in the World of (rahma
/-iranyagarbha0, as also OO one ho is versed in the !edas, sinless and free from desire.
This, indeed, is the supreme bliss. This is the state of (rahman, O Hmperor,* said
8ajnaval"ya. Iana"a said3 % give you a thousand cos, venerable 1ir. Please instruct me
further about +iberation itself.* 't this 8ajnaval"ya as afraid that the intelligent emperor as
driving him to give the solution of all his #uestions.
24. *That entity /the self0, after enjoying himself and roaming in the dream state and
merely itnessing the results of merits and demerits, hastens bac" in the reverse ay to its
former condition, the a"ing state.
25. *Iust as a heavily loaded cart moves along, crea"ing, even so the self identified ith the
body, being presided over by the 1elf hich is all consciousness /the 1upreme 1elf0, moves
along, groaning, hen breathing becomes difficult at the approach of death.
29. *When this body gros thin$becomes emaciated or disease$ then, as a mango or a fig
or a fruit of the peepul tree becomes detached from its stal", so does this infinite being
completdy detaching himself from the parts of the body, again move on, in the same ay
that he came, to another body for the remanisfestation of his vital breath /prana0.
2:. *Iust as, hen a "ing comes, the ugras appointed to deal ith crimes; the sutas and the
leaders of the village aait him ith food and drin" and lodgings ready, saying3 N-ere he
comes, here he comes,; even so, for the person ho "nos about the fruits of his on or",
there ait all the elements, saying3 N-ere comes (rahman, here he comes.;
2@ *Iust as, hen the "ing ishes to depart, the ugras appointed to deal ith crimes, the
sutas and the leaders of the village gather around him, even so do all the organs gather
around the self, at the time of death, hen it struggles for breath.*
Chapter IV&eath and the Hereafter
1. 8ajnaval"ya continued3 *<o, hen that self becomes ea" and unconscious, as it ere,
the organs gather around it. -aving holly sei?ed these particles of light, the self comes to
the heart. When the presiding deity of the eye turns bac" from all sides, the dying man fails to
notice colour.
&. *The eye becomes united ith the subtle body; then people say3 N-e does not see.; The
nose becomes united ith the subtle body; then they say3 N-e does not smell.; The tongue
becomes united ith the subtle body; then they say3 N-e does not taste.; The vocal organ
becomes united ith the subtle body; then they say3 N-e does not spea".; The ear becomes
united ith the subtle body; then they say3 N-e does not hear.; The mind becomes united ith
the subtle body; then they say3 N-e does not thin".; The s"in becomes united ith the subtle
body; then they say3 N-e does not touch.; The intellect becomes united ith the subtle body;
then they say3 N-e does not "no.; *The upper end of the heart lights up and by that light the
self departs, either through the eye or through the head or through any other part /aperture0
of the body. *'nd hen the self departs, the vital breath follos and hen the vital breath
departs, all the organs follo. *Then the self becomes endoed ith a particular
consciousness and passes on to the body to be attained by that consciousness. *Gnoledge,
or" and past eDperience follo the self.
2. *'nd just as a leech moving on a blade of grass reaches its end, ta"es hold of another
and dras itself together toards it, so does the self, after throing off this body, that is to
say, after ma"ing it unconscious, ta"e hold of another support and dra itself together
toards it.
4. *'nd just as a goldsmith ta"es a small #uantity of gold and fashions out of it another$a
neer and better$form, so does the self, after throing off this body, that is to say, after
ma"ing it unconscious, fashion another$a neer and better$form, suited to the ,anes, or
the gandharvas, or the gods, or !iraj, or -iranyagarbha, or other beings.
5. *That self is indeed (rahman; it is also identified ith the intellect, the mind and the vital
breath, ith the eyes and ears, ith earth, ater, air and a"asa, ith fire and ith hat is
other than fire, ith desire and ith absence of desire, ith anger and ith absence of anger,
ith righteousness and unrighteousness, ith all$it is identified, as is ell "non, ith this
/i.e. hat is perceived0 and ith that /i.e. hat is inferred0. 'ccording as it acts and
according as it behaves, so it becomes3 by doing good it becomes good and by doing evil it
becomes evil. %t becomes virtuous through virtuous action and evil through evil action.
*Others, hoever, say that the self is identified ith desire alone. 's is its desire, so is its
resolution; and as is its resolution, so is its deed; and hatever deed it does, that it reaps.
9. *7egarding this there is the folloing verse3 *(ecause of attachment, the transmigrating
self, together ith its or", attains that result to hich its subtle body or mind clings. -aving
eDhausted in the other orld the results of hatever or" it did in this life, it returns from
that orld to this orld for fresh or".; *Thus does the man ho desires transmigrate. (ut as
to the man ho does not desire$ho is ithout desire, ho is freed from desire, hose
desire is satisfied, hose only object of desire is the 1elf$his organs do not depart. (eing
(rahman, he merges in (rahman.
:. *7egarding this there are the folloing verses3 *When all the desires that dell in his
heart are got rid of, then does the mortal man become immortal and attain (rahman in this
very body.; *Iust as the slough of a sna"e lies, dead and cast aay, on an ant$hill, even so
lies this body. Then the self becomes disembodied and immortal 1pirit, the 1upreme 1elf
/Prana0, (rahman, the +ight.* Iana"a, Hmperor of !ideha, said3 *% give you, venerable 1ir, a
thousand cos.*
@. *7egarding this there are the folloing verses3 NThe subtle, ancient path stretching far
aay has been touched /reached0 by me; nay, % have reali?ed it myself. (y this path the
ise, the "noers of (rahman, move on to the celestial sphere /+iberation0 after the fall of
this body, having been freed even hile living.;
B. N1ome spea" of it as hite, others as blue, grey, green, or red. This path is reali?ed by a
"noer of (rahman and is trod by hoever "nos (rahman, has done good deeds and is
identified ith the 1upreme +ight.;
1C. N%nto blinding dar"ness enter those ho orship ignorance; into a greater dar"ness than
that, as it ere, enter those ho are devoted to "noledge.;
11. N>heerless indeed are those orlds covered ith blinding dar"ness. To them after death
go those people ho are ignorant and unise.;
1&. N%f a man "nos the 1elf as % am this, then desiring hat and for hose sa"e ill he
suffer in the a"e of the bodyA;
12. NWhoever has reali?ed and intimately "non the 1elf, Which has entered this perilous
and perpleDing place /the body0, is the ma"er of the universe; for he is the ma"er of all. 'll is
his 1elf and he, again, is indeed the 1elf of all.;
14. N)elling in this very body, e have someho reali?ed (rahman; otherise e should
have remained ignorant and great destruction ould have overta"en us. Those ho "no
(rahman become immortal, hile others only suffer misery.;
15. NWhen a person folloing the instructions of a teacher directly beholds the effulgent 1elf,
the +ord of all that has been and ill be, he no longer ishes to hide himself from %t.;
19. NThat under hich the year ith its days rolls on$upon that immortal +ight of l lights
the gods meditate as longevity.;
1:. NThat in hich the five groups of five and the a"asa rest, that very 'tman % regard as
the %mmortal (rahman. Gnoing that (rahman, % am immortal.;
1@. NThey ho "no the !ital (reath /Prana0 of the vital breath /prana0, the Hye of the eye,
the Har of the ear, the ,ind of the mind, have reali?ed the ancient, primordial (rahman.;
1B. NThrough the mind alone is (rahman to be reali?ed. There is in %t no diversity. -e goes
from death to death ho sees in %t, as it ere, diversity.;
&C. N=n"noable and constant, %t should be reali?ed in one form only. The 1elf is free from
taint, beyond the a"asa, birthless, infinite and unchanging.;
&1. NThe intelligent see"er of (rahman, learning about the 1elf alone, should practise
isdom /prajna0. +et him not thin" of too many ords, for that is eDhausting to the organ of
speech.;
&&. *That great, unborn 1elf, hich is identified ith the intellect /vijnanamaya0 and hich
dells in the midst of the organs, lies in the a"asa ithin the heart. %t is the controller of all,
the lord of all, the ruler of all. %t does not become greater through good deeds or smaller
through evil deeds. %t is the lord of all, the ruler of all beings, the protector of all beings. %t is
the dam that serves as the boundary to "eep the different orlds apart. The brahmins see" to
reali?e %t through the study of the !edas, through sacrifices, through gifts and through
austerity hich does not lead to annihilation. Gnoing %t alone one becomes a sage /muni0.
Wishing for this World /i.e. the 1elf0 alone, mon"s renounce their homes. *The "noers of
(rahman of olden times, it is said, did not ish for offspring because they thought3 NWhat
shall e do ith offspring$e ho have attained this 1elf, this WorldA; They gave up, it is
said, their desire for sons, for ealth and for the orlds and led the life of religious
mendicants. That hich is the desire for sons is the desire for ealth and that hich is the
desire for ealth is the desire for the orlds; for both these, indeed, are but desires. NThis
1elf is That hich has been described as <ot this, not this. %t is imperceptible, for %t is not
perceived; undecaying, for %t never decays; unattached, for %t is never attached; unfettered,
for %t never feels pain and never suffers injury. N-im ho "nos this these to thoughts do
not overcome3 .or this % did an evil deed and .or this % did a good deed. -e overcomes both.
Things done or not done do not afflict him.;
&2. *This has been eDpressed by the folloing 7ig verse3 NThis is the eternal glory of
(rahman3 %t neither increases nor decreases through or". Therefore one should "no the
nature of That alone. Gnoing %t one is not touched by evil action.; *Therefore he ho "nos
%t as such becomes self$controlled, calm, ithdran into himself, patient and collected; he
sees the 1elf in his on self /body0; he sees all as the 1elf. Hvil does not overcome him, but
he overcomes all evil. Hvil does not afflict him, but he consumes all evil. -e becomes sinless,
taintless, free from doubts and a true (rahmana /"noer of (rahman0. This is the World of
(rahman, O Hmperor and you have attained %t.* Thus said 8ajnaval"ya. Iana"a said3
N!enerable 1ir, % give you the empire of !ideha and myself, too, ith it, to ait upon you.
&4. That great, unborn 1elf is the eater of food and the giver of ealth. -e ho "nos this
obtains ealth.
&5. That great, unborn 1elf is undecaying, immortal, undying, fearless; %t is (rahman
/infinite0. (rahman is indeed fearless. -e ho "nos %t as such becomes the fearless
(rahman.
Chapter V(a!na$al)*a and Maitre*i +II,
1. 8ajnaval"ya had to ives3 ,aitreyi and Gatyayani. Of these, ,aitreyi as conversant
ith the Gnoledge of (rahman, hile Gatyayani had an essentially feminine outloo". One
day 8ajnaval"ya, hen he ished to embrace another mode of life,
&. 1aid3 *,aitreyi, my dear, % am going to renounce this life to become a mon". +et me
ma"e a final settlement beteen you and Gatyayani.*
2. ,aitreyi said3 *!enerable 1ir, if indeed the hole earth full of ealth belonged to me,
ould % be immortal through that or notA* *<o,* replied 8ajnaval"ya, *your life ould be just
li"e that of people ho have plenty. Of %mmortality, hoever, there is no hope through
ealth.*
4. Then ,aitreyi said3 *What should % do ith that hich ould not ma"e me immortalA Tell
me, venerable 1ir, of that alone hich you "no to be the only means of attaining
%mmortality.*
5. 8ajnaval"ya replied3 *,y dear, you have been my beloved even before and no you have
resolved to "no hat is after my heart. %f you ish, my dear, % shall eDplain it to you. 's %
eDplain it, meditate on hat % say.*
9. 'nd he said3 *!erily, not for the sa"e of the husband, my dear, is the husband loved, but
he is loved for the sa"e of the self hich, in its true nature, is one ith the 1upreme 1elf.
*!erily, not for the sa"e of the ife, my dear, is the ife loved, but she is loved for the sa"e of
the self. *!erily, not for the sa"e of the sons, my dear, are the sons loved, but they are loved
for the sa"e of the self. *!erily, not for the sa"e of ealth, my dear, is ealth loved, but it is
loved for the sa"e of the self. *!erily, not for the sa"e of the animals, my dear, are the
animals loved, but they are loved for the sa"e of the self. *!erily, not for the sa"e of the
brahmin, my dear, is the brahmin loved, but he is loved for the sa"e of the self. *!erily, not
for the sa"e of the "shatriya, my dear, is the "shatriya loved, but he is loved for the sa"e of
the self. *!erily, not for the sa"e of the orlds, my dear, are the orlds loved, but they are
loved for the sa"e of the self. *!erily, not for the sa"e of the gods, my dear, are the gods
loved, but they are loved for the sa"e of the self. *!erily, not for the sa"e of the !edas, my
dear, are the !edas loved, but they are loved for the sa"e of the self. *!erily, not for the sa"e
of the beings, my dear, are the beings loved, but they are loved for the sa"e of the self.
*!erily, not for the sa"e of the 'll, my dear, is the 'll loved, but it is loved for the sa"e of the
self. *!erily, my dear ,aitreyi, it is the 1elf that should be reali?ed$should be heard of,
reflected on and meditated upon. (y the realisation of the 1elf, my dear, through hearing,
reflection and meditation, all this is "non.
:. *The brahmin rejects one ho "nos him as different from the 1elf. The "shatriya rejects
one ho "nos him as different from the 1elf. The orlds reject one ho "nos them as
different from the 1elf. The gods reject one ho "nos them as different from the 1elf. The
!edas reject one ho "nos them as different from the 1elf. The beings reject one ho
"nos them as different from the 1elf. The 'll rejects one ho "nos it as different from the
1elf. This brahmin, this "shatriya, these orlds, these gods, these !edas, these beings and
this 'll$are that 1elf.
@$1C. *'s the various particular "inds of notes of a drum, hen it is beaten, cannot be
grasped by themselves, but are grasped only hen the general note of the drum or the
general sound produced by different "inds of stro"es is grasped; *'nd as the various
particular notes of a conch, hen it is blon, cannot be grasped by themselves, but are
grasped only hen the general note of the conch or the general sound produced by different
"inds of bloing is grasped; *'nd as the various particular notes of a vina, hen it is played,
cannot be grasped by themselves, but are grasped only hen the general note of the vina or
the general sound produced by the different "inds of playing is grasped;
11. *'s from a fire "indled ith et fuel various "inds of smo"e issue forth, even so, my
dear, the 7ig$!eda, the 8ajur$!eda, the 1ama$!eda, the 'tharvangirasa, history /itihasa0,
mythology /purana0, the arts /vidya0, =panishads, verses /slo"as0, aphorisms /sutras0,
elucidations /anuvya"hyanas0, eDplanations /vya"hyanas0, sacrifices, oblations in the fire,
food, drin", this orld, the neDt orld and all beings are all li"e the breath of this infinite
7eality. .rom this 1upreme 1elf are all these, indeed, breathed forth.
1&. *'s the ocean is the one goal of all aters /the place here they merge0, so the s"in is
the one goal of all "inds of touch, the nostrils are the one goal of all smells, the tongue is the
one goal of all savours, the ear is the one goal of all sounds, the mind is the one goal of all
deliberations, the intellect is the one goal of all forms of "noledge, the hands are the one
goal of all actions, the organ of generation is the one goal of all "inds of enjoyment, the
eDcretory organ is the one goal of all eDcretions, the feet are the one goal of all "inds of
al"ing, the organ of speech is the one goal of all the !edas.
12. *'s a lump of salt has neither inside nor outside and is altogether a homogeneous mass
of taste, even so this 1elf, my dear, has neither inside nor outside and is altogether a
homogeneous mass of %ntelligence. This 1elf comes out as a separate entity from the
elements and ith their destruction this separate eDistence is also destroyed. 'fter attaining
this oneness it has no more consciousness. This is hat % say, my dear.* 1o said
8ajnaval"ya.
14. Then ,aitreyi said3 *Iust here you have completely beildered me, venerable 1ir.
%ndeed, % do not at all understand this.* -e replied3 *>ertainly % am not saying anything
beildering, my dear. !erily, this 1elf is immutable and indestructible.
15. *.or hen there is duality, as it ere, then one sees another, one smells another, one
tastes another, one spea"s to another, one hears another, one thin"s of another, one touches
another, one "nos another. (ut hen to the "noer of (rahman everything has become the
1elf, then hat should he see and through hat, hat should he smell and through hat,
hat should he taste and through hat, hat should he spea" and through hat, hat
should he hear and through hat, hat should he thin" and through hat, hat should he
touch and through hat, hat should he "no and through hatA Through hat should one
"no That Oing to hich all this is "nonA *This 1elf is That hich has been described as
N<ot this, not this.; %t is imperceptible, for %t is never perceived; undecaying, for %t never
decays; unattached, for %t never attaches %tself; unfettered, for %t never feels pain and never
suffers injury. Through hat, O ,aitreyi, should one "no the GnoerA *Thus you have the
instruction given to you. This much, indeed, is the means to %mmortality.* -aving said this,
8ajnaval"ya renounced home.
Chapter VIThe .ine of Teachers
1. <o the line of teachers3 We received the "noledge from Pautimashya. Pautimashya
received it from Jaupavana. Jaupavana from another Pautimashya. This Pautimashya from
another Jaupavana. This Jaupavana from Gausi"a. Gausi"a from Gaundinya. Gaundinya from
1andilya. 1andilya from Gausi"a and Jautama. Jautama
&. .rom 'gnivesya. 'gnivesya from Jargya. Jargya from another Jargya. This Jargya from
Jautama. Jautama from 1aitava. 1aitava from Pirasaryayana. Parasarayayana from
Jargyayana. Jargyayana from =ddala"ayana. =ddala"ayana from Iabalayana. Iabalayana
from ,adhyandinayana. ,adhyandinayana from 1au"arayana. 1au"arayana from Gashayana.
Gashayana from 1aya"ayana. 1aya"ayana from Gausi"ayani. Gausi"ayani
2. .rom Jhrita"ausi"a. Jhrita"ausi"a from Parasaryayana. Parasaryayana from Parasarya.
Parasarya from Iatu"arnya. Iatu"arnya from 'surayana and 8is"a. 'surayana from Traivani.
Traivani from 'upajandhani. 'upajandhani from 'suri. 'suri from (haradvaja. (haradvaja
from 'treya. 'treya from ,anti. ,anti from Jautama. Jautama from another Jautama. This
Jautama from !atsya. !atsya from 1andi%ya. 1andilya from Gaisorya Gapya. Gaisorya Gapya
from Gumaraharita. Gumaraharita from Jalava. Jalava from !idarbhi"aundinya.
!idarbhi"aundinya from !atsanapat (abhrava. !atsanapat (abhrava from Pathin 1aubhara.
Pathin 1aubhara from 'yasya 'ngirasa. 'yasya 'ngirasa from 'bhuti Tvashtra. 'bhuti
Tvashtra from !isvarupa Tvashtra. !isvarupa Tvashtra from the to 'svins. The to 'svins
from )adhyach 'tharvana. )adhyach 'tharvana from 'tharvana )aiva. 'tharvana )aiva from
,rityu Pradhvamsana. ,rityu Pradhvamsana from Pradhvamsana. Pradhvamsana from
H"arshi. H"arshi from !iprachitti. !iprachitti from !yashti. !yashti from 1anaru. 1anaru from
1anitana. 1anitana from 1anaga. 1anaga from Parameshthin /!iraj0. Parameshthin from
(rahman /-iranyagarbha0. (rahman is self$born /eternal0. 1alutation to (rahman.
Part 'i$e
Chapter IThe Infnit* of %rahman
1. Om. %nfinite is That (rahman, infinite in this manifested universe. .rom the %nfinite
(rahman proceeds the infinite. 'fter the reali?ation of the Jreat %dentity or after the cosmic
dissolution, hen the infinity of the infinite universe merges in the %nfinite (rahman, there
remains the %nfinite (rahman alone. Om is the '"asa (rahman$the primeval a"asa. %t is the
a"asa containing air, says the son of Gauravayarn. %t /Om0 is the !eda$thus the "noers of
(rahman "no; for through it one "nos hat is to he "non.
Chapter IIThe Three Great &isciplines
1. Prajapati had three "inds of offspring3 gods, men and demons /asuras0. They lived ith
Prajapati, practising the vos of brahmacharins. 'fter finishing their term, the gods said to him3
*Please instruct us, 1ir.* To them he uttered the syllable da and as"ed3 *-ave you understoodA*
They replied3 *We have. 8ou said to us, N>ontrol yourselves /damyata0.; -e said3 *8es, you have
understood.*
&. Then the men said to him3 *Please instruct us, 1ir* To them he uttered the same syllable da
and as"ed3 *-ave you understoodA* They replied3 *We have. 8ou said to us, NJive /datta0.; -e
said3 N8es, you have understood.
2. Then the demons said to him3 *Please instruct us, 1ir.* To them he uttered the same
syllable da and as"ed3 *-ave you understoodA* They replied3 *We have. 8ou said to us3 N(e
compassionate /dayadhvam0.; -e said3 *8es, you have understood.* That very thing is repeated
even today by the heavenly voice, in the form of thunder, as *)a,* *)a,* *)a,* hich means3
*>ontrol yourselves,* *Jive,* and *-ave compassion.* Therefore one should learn these three3
self$control, giving and mercy.
Chapter III%rahman as the Heart
1. Prajapati is this$the heart /intellect0. %t /the heart0 is (rahman. %t is all. -ridayam /the
heart0 consists of three syllables. One syllable is hri; and to him ho "nos this, his on people
and others bring presents. One syllable is da; and to him ho "nos this, his on people and
others give their poers. One syllable is yam; and he ho "nos this goes to heaven.
Chapter IVMeditation on 1at*a %rahman
1. That intellect (rahman as verily this$satya alone. 'nd hosoever "nos this great,
glorious first$born one as the 1atya (rahman con#uers these orlds. 'nd his enemy is thus
con#uered and becomes non$eDistent$yes, hosoever "nos this great, glorious first$born
one as the 1atya (rahman; for 1atya indeed is that (rahman.
Chapter VIn Praise of 1at*a %rahman
1. %n the beginning this universe as ater alone. That ater produced 1atya. 1atya is
(rahman. (rahman produced Prajapati and Prajapati the gods. Those gods meditate on 1atya.
This name 1atya consists of three syllables. 1a is one syllable, ti is one syllable and ya is one
syllable. The first and last syllables are the truth. %n the middle is untruth. This untruth is
enclosed on both sides by truth; thus truth preponderates. =ntruth does not hurt him ho
"nos this. 1@C
&. <o, that hich is 1atya is the sun$the being ho dells in yonder orb and the being ho
is in the right eye. These to rest on each other. The former /the being in the sun0 rests on the
latter /the being in the right eye0 through his rays and the latter rests on the former through his
organs. When the individual self is about to leave the body, he sees the solar orb clearly /i.e.
ithout rays0. Those rays no longer come to him.
2. Of this being ho is in the solar orb, the syllable (huh is the head, for there is one head
and there is this one syllable; the ord (huvah is the arms, for there are to arms and there
are these to syllables; the ord 1vah is the legs, for there are to legs and there are these
to syllables. -is secret name is 'har. -e ho "nos this destroys evil and leaves it behind.
4. Of this being ho is in the right eye, the syllable (hur is the head, for there is one head and
there is this one syllable; the ord (huvar is the arms, for there are to arms and there are
these to syllables; the ord 1var is the legs, for there are to legs and there are these to
syllables. -is secret name is 'ham. -e ho "nos this destroys evil and leaves it behind.
Chapter VIMeditation on %rahman as the Mind
1. This being identified ith the mind and resplendent by nature is reali?ed by yogis ithin the
heart as of the si?e of a grain of rice or barley. -e is the lord of all, the ruler of all and governs
all this $hatever there is.
Chapter VIIMeditation on %rahman as .ightning
1. They say that lightning is (rahman. %t is called lightning /vidyut0 because it scatters
/vidanat0 dar"ness. Whosoever "nos this$that lightning is (rahman$scatters the evils that
are ranged against him; for lightning is indeed (rahman.
Chapter VIIIMeditation on the Vedas as a Cow
1. One should meditate upon speech /the !edas0 as a co. 1he /speech0 has four teats3 the
sounds 1vaha; !ashat, -anta and 1vadha. The gods live on to of her teats, 1vaha and !ashat;
men, on -anta; and the ,anes on 1vadha. -er bull is the vital breath /prana0 and her calf, the
mind.
Chapter I0Meditation on the Vais$anara 'ire
1. This fire hich is ithin a man and digests food that is eaten is !aisvanara. %ts sound is that
hich one hears by stopping the ears. When a man is about to leave the body, he hears this
sound no more.
Chapter 0The Path of the &eparting 1ol
1. When a man departs from this orld, he reaches the air. The air opens there for him as
ide as the hole of a chariot heel. Through this opening he ascends and reaches the sun. The
sun opens there for him as ide as the hole of a lambara. (y this opening he ascends and
reaches the moon. The moon opens there for him as ide as the hole of a drum. (y this opening
he ascends and reaches a World free from grief and cold. There he dells for endless years.
Chapter 0IThe 1preme "sterities
1. The supreme austerity is indeed that a man suffers hen he is ill. -e ho "nos this ins
the highest orld. The supreme austerity is indeed that a man, after death, is carried to the
forest. -e ho "nos this ins the highest orld. The supreme austerity is indeed that a man,
after death, is laid on the fire. -e ho "nos this ins the highest orld.
Chapter 0IIMeditation on 'ood and the Vital %reath as %rahman
1. 1ome say that food is (rahman; but this is not so, for food decays ithout the vital breath
/prana0. Others say that the vital breath is (rahman; but this is not so, for the vital breath dries
up ithout food. These to deities /food and the vital breath0, hen they become united, attain
the highest state /(rahmanhood0. Thus reflecting, Pratrida said to his father3 *What good,
indeed, can % do him ho "nos this and hat evil can % do him eitherA* -is father ansered,
stopping him ith a gesture of his hand3 *Oh, no, Pratrida; for ho ould attain the highest
merely by being identified ith these toA* .urther, he /the father0 said to him this3 *%t is vi;
food is verily vi, for all these creatures rest /visanti0 on food. %t is ram; the vital breath is ram,
for all these creatures delight /ramante0 in the vital breath.* 'll creatures rest on him, all
creatures delight in him, ho "nos this.
Chapter 0IIIMeditation on the Vital %reath
1. One should meditate on the vital breath as the ="tha. The vital breath is the ="tha, for it
raises up /utthapayati0 all this universe. .rom him ho "nos this there is raised a son ho is a
"noer of the vital breath and he ins union ith and abode in the same orld as the ="tha.
&. One should meditate upon the vital breath as the 8ajus. The vital breath is the 8ajus, for all
these beings are united /yujyante0 ith one another if the vital breath is present. 'll beings are
united to give eminence to him ho "nos this and he ins union ith and abode in the same
orld as the 8ajus /vital breath0.
2. One should meditate upon the vital breath as the 1aman. The vital breath is the 1aman, for
all these beings meet /samyanchi0 if the 1aman /vital breath0 is present. .or the sa"e of him
ho "nos this all beings are united and they succeed in giving him eminence; and he ins
union ith and abode in the same orld as the 1aman.
4. One should meditate upon the vital breath as the Gshatra. The vital breath is the Gshatra,
for the vital breath protects /trayate0 the body from ounds /"hanitoh0. -e ho "nos this
attains the Gshatra /vital breath0 hich needs no other protector and he ins union ith and
abode in the same orld as the Gshatra.
Chapter 0IVThe 1acred Ga*atri
1. The ords (humi /earth0, 'ntari"sha /s"y0 and )yaus /heaven0 form eight syllables and the
first foot of the Jayatri consists of eight syllables. 1o the three orlds constitute the first foot of
the Jayatri. Whosoever "nos this about the first foot of the Jayatri ins all that is in the three
orlds.
&. 7ichah, 8ajumshi and 1amani form eight syllables and the second foot of the Jayatri
consists of eight syllables. 1o these three !edas constitute the second foot of the Jayatri.
Whosoever thus "nos the second foot of the Jayatri ins as much as that treasury of
"noledge, the three !edas, has to confer.
2. Prana, apana and vyana form eight syllables and the third foot of the Jayatri. consists of
eight syllables. 1o these three forms of the vital breath constitute the third foot of the Jayatri.
Whosoever "nos this about the third foot of the Jayatri ins all the living beings that are in the
universe. <o, its turiya, apparently visible /darsata0 and supramundane /paroraja0 foot is this
$sun that glos yonder. That hich is fourth is called turiya. -e /the being in the solar orb0 is
apparently visible /darsata0, because he is seen, as it ere, by the yogis. -e is supramundane
/paroraja0, because he shines alone on the hole universe as its overlord. -e ho thus "nos
the fourth foot of the Jayatri shines ith splendour and glory.
4. That Jayatri rests on that fourth, apparently visible, supramundane foot. 'nd that, again,
rests on truth. The eye is truth, for the eye is indeed truth. Therefore, even today, if to
persons come disputing, one saying3 *% sa it,* and another3 *% heard of it,* e should trust the
one ho says3 *% sa it. That truth rests on strength. The vital breath /prana0 is strength.
-ence truth rests on the vital breath. Therefore they say that strength is more poerful than
truth. Thus the Jayatri is based on the vital breath ithin the body. That Jayatri protected the
gayas. The organs are the gayas; therefore the Jayatri protected /tatre0 the organs. (ecause it
protected the organs, it is called the Jayatri. The 1avitri verse, hich the teacher communicates
to the pupil, is no other than this. %t saves the organs of the pupil to hom it is imparted by the
teacher.
5. 1ome impart to the pupil the 1avitri hich is in the 'nushtubh metre, saying3 *The goddess
of speech is 'nushtubh; so e shall impart it to him.* (ut one should not do that. One should
impart only that 1avitri hich is Jayatri. !erily, if one ho "nos this accepts too much as a
gift, as it ere, it is not enough for even one foot of the Jayatri.
9. %f he /the "noer of the Jayatri0 accepts as a gift the three orlds full of ealth, he ill be
receiving the fruit of "noing only the first foot of the Jayatri. %f he accepts as a gift as much
as this treasury of "noledge, the !edas, has to confer, he ill be receiving the fruit of "noing
only the second foot of the Jayatri. 'nd if he accepts as a gift as much as is covered by all
living creatures in the orld, he ill be receiving the fruit of "noing only the third foot of the
Jayatri. While the fruit of "noing its fourth, apparently visible, supramundane foot$ yonder
sun that glos$is not to be counterbalanced by any gift received. %ndeed, ho could anyone
receive so much as a giftA
:. The salutation to the Jayatri3 *O Jayatri, thou art one$footed, to$footed, three$footed
and four$footed. 'nd thou art ithout any feet, for thou art unattainable. 1alutation to thee,
fourth foot, apparently visible and supramundane! ,ay the enemy never attain his object!*
1hould the "noer of the Jayatri bear hatred toards anyone, he should either use this mantra3
*,ay his desired object never flourish!*$in hich case that object of the person against hom
he thus salutes the Jayatri never flourishes$or he may say3 *,ay % attain that cherished object
of his!*
@. On this subject Iana"a, Hmperor of !ideha, said to (udila, the son of 'svatarasva3 *Well,
ho is it that you, ho called yourself a "noer of the Jayatri, have come to he an elephant
and are carrying meA* -e replied3 *(ecause, 8our ,ajesty, % did not "no its mouth.* Iana"a
said3 *.ire is its mouth. %f people put a large #uantity of fuel into the fire, it is all burnt up.
1imilarly, a man ho "nos this, even if he commits a great many sins, consumes them all and
becomes pure, clean and free from decay and death.*
Chapter 0VThe Pra*er of a &*ing Person
1. The door /real nature0 of the truth /1atya (rahman0 is covered by a golden disc. Open it, O
<ourisher! 7emove it so that % ho have been orshipping the truth may behold it. O
<ourisher! O lone Traveller of the s"y! O >ontroller! O 1un! O Offspring of Prajapati! Jather your
rays. Withdra your light. % ould see through your grace that form of yours hich is the most
benign. % am indeed -e, that purusha ho dells in the sun. % am immortal. <o hen my
body falls may my breath return to the all$ pervading Prana! ,ay this body, reduced to ashes,
return to the earth! Om. O .ire, ho art the symbol Om, O god of deliberations, remember,
remember all that % have done. O .ire, lead us by the good path toards the enjoyment of the
fruit of our action. 8ou "no, O god, all our deeds. )estroy our sin of deceit. We offer by ords
repeated salutations to you.

Part 1i2
Chapter IThe 1premac* of the Prana
1. Om. -e ho "nos hat is the oldest and greatest becomes the oldest and greatest
among his "insmen. The vital breath /prana0 is indeed the oldest and greatest. -e ho "nos
this becomes the oldest and greatest among his "insmen and also among those of hom he
ishes to be so.
&. -e ho "nos hat is the most eDcellent /vasishtha0 becomes the most eDcellent among
his "insmen. The organ of speech is indeed the vasishtha. -e ho "nos this becomes the
most eDcellent among his "insmen and also among those of hom he ishes to be so.
2. -e ho "nos hat has the attribute of steadiness /pratishtha0 lives steadily in rough as
ell as smooth places and times. The eye indeed is endoed ith steadiness, for ith the help
of the eye one remains steady in rough as ell as smooth places and times. -e ho "nos
this lives steadily in rough as ell as smooth places and times.
4. -e ho "nos prosperity /sampad0 attains hatever object he desires. The ear indeed is
prosperity, for hen the ear is intact all the !edas are ac#uired. -e ho "nos this attains
hatever object he desires.
5. -e ho "nos the abode /ayatana0 becomes the abode of his "insmen and also of other
people. The mind indeed is the abode. -e ho "nos this becomes the abode of his "insmen
as ell as of other people.
9. -e ho "nos hat has the attribute of procreation /prajati0 is enriched ith children
and animals. 1emen verily has this attribute. -e ho "nos this is enriched ith children and
animals.
:. These organs, disputing about ho as superior among them, ent to Prajapati and
as"ed3 *Which one among us is the most eDcellent /vasishtha0A* -e said3 *That one among
you is the most eDcellent by hose departure this body is considered to suffer most.*
@. The organ of speech departed. 'fter being absent for a hole year it came bac" and said3
*-o have you been able to live ithout meA* The other organs said3 *We lived just as dumb
people live, ithout spea"ing through the tongue, but living through the vital breath, seeing
through the eye, hearing through the ear, "noing through the mind and procreating through
the organ of generation.* Then the organ of speech entered the body.
B. The eye departed. 'fter being absent for a hole year it came bac" and said3 *-o have
you been able to live ithout meA* The other organs said3 *We lived just as blind people live,
ithout seeing through the eye, but living through the vital breath, spea"ing through the organ
of speech, hearing through the ear, "noing through the mind and procreating through the
organ of generation.* Then the eye entered the body.
1C. The ear ent out. 'fter being absent for a hole year it came bac" and said3 *-o have
you been able to live ithout meA* The other organs said3 *We lived just as deaf people live,
ithout hearing through the ear, but living through the vital breath, spea"ing through the
organ of speech, seeing through the eye, "noing through the mind and procreating through
the organ of generation.* Then the ear entered the body.
11. The mind ent out. 'fter being absent for a hole year it came bac" and said3 *-o
have you been able to live ithout meA* The other organs said3 *We lived just as idiots live,
ithout "noing through the mind, but living through the vital breath, spea"ing through the
organ of speech, seeing through the eye, hearing through the ear and procreating through the
organ of generation.* Then the mind entered the body.
1&. Then the organ of generation ent out. 'fter being absent for a hole year it came bac"
and said3 *-o have you been able to live ithout meA* The other organs said3 *We lived just
as impotent people live, ithout procreating children through the organ of generation, but
living through the vital breath, spea"ing through the organ of speech, seeing through the
eye, hearing through the ear and "noing through the mind.* Then the organ of generation
entered the body.
12. Then as the vital breath as about to depart, it uprooted the organs from their places
just as a great, noble horse of the 1indhu country tears up the pegs to hich his feet are
tied. They said3 *!enerable 1ir, please do not go out. We shall not be able to live ithout
you.* *%f % am such, then give me an offering.* *1o be it.*
14. The organ of speech said3 *That attribute of being most eDcellent hich % possess is
yours.* The eye said3 *That attribute of steadiness hich % possess is yours.* The ear said3
*That attribute of prosperity hich % possess is yours.* The mind said3 *That attribute of
being an abode hich % possess is yours. The organ of generation said3 *That attribute of
procreation hich % possess is yours.* Then the vital breath said3 *%f % am such, then hat ill
be my food and hat ill be my dressA* They replied3 *Whatever food there is$including that
of dogs, orms, insects and moths$ill be your food and ater ill be your dress.* -e ho
"nos the food of the vital breath to be such never happens to eat anything or accept
anything that is not food. Wise men ho are versed in the !edas therefore ta"e a sip of ater
Iust before and after eating; they thin" that thereby they remove the na"edness of the vital
breath.
Chapter IIThe Process of Re-irth
1. 1veta"etu, the grandson of 'runa, came to the assembly of the Panchalas. -e
approached Pravahana, the son of Iivala, ho as being aited upon by his courtiers. 's soon
as the "ing sa him, he said3 *%s it you, boyA* -e replied3 *8es, 1ir.* Then the "ing as"ed3
*-ave you been taught by your fatherA* *8es,* he replied.
&. The "ing said3 *)o you "no ho people, after departing from this life, proceed on
different pathsA* *<o,* he replied. *)o you "no ho they return to this orldA* *<o,* he
replied. *)o you "no hy the other orld is never filled up even though so many people go
there again and againA* *<o,* he replied. *)o you "no after ho many offerings of oblations
the ater /the li#uid oblation0 becomes endoed ith a human voice, rises up and spea"sA*
*<o,* he replied. *)o you "no the means of access to the path leading to the gods or to that
leading to the ,anes, that is to say, through hat deeds men attain the path leading to the
gods or that leading to the ,anesA We have heard the folloing ords of the ,antra3 N% have
heard of the to paths for men, one leading to the ,anes and the other to the gods. Joing
along them they /departed souls0 are united ith their destination. They /the paths0 lie
beteen the father /heaven0 and the mother /earth0.; 1veta"etu said3 *% do not "no even
one of these.*
2. Then the "ing invited him to stay. (ut the boy, disregarding the invitation, hurried aay.
-e ent to his father and said3 *)id you not tell me before that you had fully instructed meA*
*What then, my intelligent childA* *That fello of a "shatriya as"ed me five #uestions and %
did not "no one of them.* *What ere theyA* *These,* said 1veta"etu and he recited
them.
4. The father said3 *,y child, believe me, hatever % myself "ne, % told you. (ut come, let
us go there and live as religious students /brahmachirins0.* *8ou may go, 1ir,* the son
replied. Then Jautama ent to here Ging Pravahana, the son of Iivala, as giving audience.
The "ing offered him a seat, ordered ater for him and made him the reverential offering.
Then he said3 *7evered Jautama, e ill give you a boon.*
5. Jautama said3 *8ou have promised me this boon. <o please tell me hat you spo"e
about to my boy.*
9. The "ing said3 *'h, those are divine boons, Jautama. Please as" a human boon.*
:. Jautama said3 *8ou "no ell that % have gold, cos, horses, maidservants, retinue and
apparel. Please do not be ungenerous toards me in regard to that gift hich is plentiful,
infinite and in$eDhaustible.* The "ing said3 *Then, verily, O Jautama, you should as" it in
the prescribed ay.* Jautama replied3 *% approach you as a disciple.* The ancients used to
approach a teacher through mere declaration. 1o Jautama lived ith the "ing by merely
announcing that he as a student.
@. The "ing said3 *Please do not be offended ith us even as your paternal grandfather as
not offended ith ours. (efore no this "noledge never rested ith a brahmin. (ut % shall
teach it to you, for ho can refuse you hen you spea" li"e thisA 1BC
B. *8onder orld is the sacrificial fire, the sun is its fuel, the rays its smo"e, the day its
flame, the four #uarters its cinders and the intermediate #uarters its spar"s. %n this fire the
gods offer faith as libation. Out of that offering Ging ,oon is born.
1C. *Parjanya /the god of rain0, O Jautama, is the fire, the year is its fuel, the clouds its
smo"e, lightning its flame, the thunderbolt its cinders, the rumbling its spar"s. %n this fire the
gods offer Ging ,oon as libation. Out of that offering rain is produced.
11. *This orld, O Jautama, is the fire, the earth is its fuel, fire its smo"e, the night its
flame, the moon its cinders, the stars its spar"s. %n this fire the gods offer rain as libation. Out
of that offering food is produced.
1&. *,an, O Jautama, is the fire, the open mouth is its fuel, the vital breath its smo"e,
speech its flame, the eye its cinders and the ear its spar"s. %n this fire the gods offer food as
libation. Out of that offering semen is produced.
12. *Woman, O Jautama, is the fire, her seDual organ is the fuel, the hairs the smo"e, the
vulva the flame, seDual intercourse the cinders, enjoyment the spar"s. %n this fire the gods
offer semen as libation. Out of this offering a man is born. -e lives as long as he is to live.
Then, hen he dies,
14. *They carry him to be offered in the fire. The fire becomes his fire, the fuel his fuel, the
smo"e his smo"e, the flame his flame, the cinders his cinders and the spar"s his spar"s. %n
this fire the gods offer the man as libation. Out of this offering the man emerges in radiant
splendour.
15. *Those even among householders ho "no this, as described and those too ho, living
in the forest, meditate ith faith upon the 1atya (rahman /-iranyagarbha0, reach the deity
identified ith flame, from him the deity of the day, from him the deity of0 the fortnight in
hich the moon aDes, from him the deities of the siD months during hich the sun travels
northard, from them the deity identified ith the orld of the gods /devalo"a0, from him
the sun, from the sun the deity of lightning. Then a being created from the mind of
-iranyagarbha comes and leads them to the orlds of (rahmin. %n those orlds of (rahma
they become eDalted and live for many years. They no more return to this orld.
19. *(ut those ho con#uer the orlds through sacrifices, charity and austerity reach the
deity of smo"e, from smo"e, the deity of the night, from night the deity of the fortnight in
hich the moon anes, from the decreasing half of the moon the deities of the siD months
during hich the sun travels southard, from these months the deity of the orld of the
,anes and from the orld of the ,anes, the moon. 7eaching the moon they become food.
There the gods enjoy them, just as here the priests drin" the shining soma juice$saying as it
ere3 *.lourish, dindle.* 'nd hen their past or" is eDhausted they reach this very a"asa,
from the a"asa they reach the air, from the air rain, from rain the earth. 7eaching the earth
they become food. Then they are again offered in the fire of man and thence in the fire of
oman. Out of the fire of oman they are born and perform rites ith a vie to going to
other orlds. Thus do they rotate. *Those, hoever, ho do not "no these to ays
become insects and moths and those creatures hich often bite /i.e. mos#uitoes and
gnats0.*
Chapter IIIRites for the "ttainment of 3ealth
1. Whoever ishes to attain greatness /i.e. ealth for performing sacrificial rites0 should act
as follos3 On an auspicious day of the fortnight in hich the moon aDes, under a
constellation bearing a masculine name, during the northard journey of the sun, he should
underta"e for telve days a vo connected ith the =pasads, gather in a cup or a bol made
of fig ood all the herbs and their grains, seep and plaster the ground, lay the fire, spread
the "usa grass, purify the offering /clarified butter0 according to the rules, place beteen
himself and the fire the mantha /the paste made of those herbs etc.0 and offer oblations ith
the folloing mantras3 *O .ire, to all those gods under you ho spitefully slay men;s desires,
% offer their share. ,ay they be satisfied and satisfy me ith all the objects of my desire!
1vaha! *To that deity ho turns out to be spiteful under your protection, thin"ing that she is
the support of all, % offer this stream of clarified butter. 1vaha!*
&. *1vaha to the oldest, svaha to the greatest!*$uttering these ords, he offers an oblation
in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste /mantha0. *1vaha
to the vital breath /prana0, svaha to the vasishtha /the most eDcellent0!*$uttering these
ords, he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into
the paste /mantha0. *1vaha to the organ of speech, svaha to that hich has steadiness!* $
uttering these ords, he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the
ladle drip into the paste /mantha0. *1vaha to the eye, svaha to prosperity!*$uttering these
ords, he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into
the paste /mantha0. *1vaha to the ear, svaha to the abode!*$uttering these ords, he offers
an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste
/mantha0. *1vaha to the mind, svaha to procreation /prajati0!*$uttering these ords, he
offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste
/mantha0. *1vaha to the organ of generation!*$uttering these ords, he offers an oblation in
the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste /mantha0.
2. *1vaha to fire*$uttering these ords, he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the
remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste. *1vaha to the moon*$uttering these
ords, he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into
the paste. *1vaha to the earth*$uttering these ords, he offers an oblation in the fire and
lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste. *1vaha to the s"y*$uttering
these ords, he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip
into the paste. *1vaha to heaven*$uttering these ords, he offers an oblation in the fire and
lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste. *1vaha to earth, s"y and
heaven*$uttering these ords, he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder
adhering to the ladle drip into the paste. *1vaha to the brahmin*$uttering these ords, he
offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste.
*1vaha to the "shatriya*$uttering these ords, he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the
remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste. *1vaha to the past*$uttering these
ords, he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into
the paste. *1vaha to the future*$uttering these ords, he offers an oblation in the fire and
lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste. *1vaha to the universe*$uttering
these ords, he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip
into the paste. *1vaha to all*$uttering these ords, he offers an oblation in the fire and lets
the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste. *1vaha to Prajapati*$uttering these
ords, he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into
the paste.
4. Then he touches the paste, uttering the mantra3 *8ou move as the vital breath; you bum
as fire; you are infinite as (rahman; you are unsha"en as the s"y. 8ou are the meeting$place
of all. 8ou are the sound hing and are uttered as hing in the sacrifice by the prastotri. 8ou are
the =dgitha and are chanted by the udgatri. 8ou are recited by the adhvaryu and recited bac"
by the agnidhra. 8ou are fully abla?e in the moist cloud. 8ou are omnipresent and the ruler.
8ou are food as the moon and light as fire. 8ou are death and you are that in hich all things
merge.*
5. Then he raises the paste, saying3 *'s the vital breath you "no all; e too are aare of
your greatness as the vital breath. The vital breath is the "ing, the ruler, the sovereign. ,ay it
ma"e me "ing, ruler and sovereign.*
9. Then he eats the paste, saying3 NTat saviturvarenyam; /NThat adorable light;0$;The inds
blo seetly /madhu0, the rivers pour forth seetness /madhu0; may the herbs be seet
/madhu0 unto us!; N1vaha to the earth /(huh0. N(hargo devasya dhimahi;$/NOf the radiant
sun, We meditate upon; 0$;,ay the nights and days be seet /madhu0, may the dust of the
earth be seet /madhu0, may heaven, our father, be seet /madhu0!; N1vaha to the s"y
/(huvah0.; N)hiyo yo nah prachodayit; /N,ay -e stimulate our intellect;0$ N,ay the soma
creeper be seet /madhu0 unto us, may the sun be seet /madhu0, may the #uarters be filled
ith seetness /madhu0 for us!; N1vaha to heaven /1vah0.; Then he repeats the hole Jayatri
and all the verses about seetness /madhumati0 and says at the end3 *,ay % be all this!
1vaha to earth, s"y and heaven. Then he eats all that is left of the paste, ashes his hands
and lies don behind the fire ith his head to the east. %n the morning he salutes the sun
saying3 *8ou are the one non$dual and best lotus of the #uarters; may % be the one lotus
among men. Then he returns the ay he ent, sits behind the fire and repeats the line of
teachers.
:. =ddala"a, the son of 'runa, taught this to his pupil !ijasaneya 8ajnaval"ya and said3
*1hould One pour it /the paste0 even On a dry stump, branches ould gro and leaves spring
forth.*
@. Then !ajasaneya 8ajnaval"ya taught this to his pupil ,adhu"a, the son of Paingi and
said3 *1hould one pour it even on a dry stump, branches ould gro and leaves spring
forth.*
B. Then ,adhu"a, the son of Paingi, taught this to his pupil >hula, the son of (hagavitta and
said3 *1hould one pour it even on a dry stump, branches ould gro and leaves spring
forth.*
1C. Then >hula, the son of (hagavitta, taught this to his disciple Iana"i, the son of
'yasthuna and said3 *1hould One pour it even on a dry stump, branches ould gro and
leaves spring forth.*
11. Then Iana"i, the son of 'yasthuna, taught this to his pupil 1atya"ama, the son of Iabala
and said3 *1hould one pour it even on a dry stump, branches ould gro and leaves spring
forth.*
1&. 'nd 1atya"ama, the son of Iabala, taught this to his pupils and said3 *1hould one pour
it even on a dry stump, branches ould gro and leaves spring forth.* One must not teach
this to anyone but a son or a pupil.
12. .our articles are made of fig ood3 the sacrificial ladle, the bol, the fuel and the to
miDing$rods. The cultivated grains are ten in number3 7ice, barley, sesamum, beans, millet
/anu0, panic seeds /priyangu0, heat, lentils, pulse and vetch. They should be crushed and
soa"ed in curds, honey and clarified butter and offered as an oblation.
Chapter IVConception and %irth as Religios Rites
1. The earth is verily the essence of all these beings, ater is the essence of the earth,
herbs of ater, floers of herbs, fruits of floers, man of fruits and semen is the essence of
man.
&. Prajapati said to -imself3 *Well, let ,e ma"e a firm basis for it /semen0.* 1o -e created
oman. -aving created her, -e placed her belo and orshipped her. Therefore one should
orship a oman, placing her belo. -e /Prajapati0 eDtended -is organ that projects and ith
it impregnated her.
2. -er lap is the sacrificial altar, her hair the sacrificial grass, her s"in ithin the organ the
lighted fire; the to labia of the vulva are the to stones of the soma$press. -e ho,
"noing this, practises seDual intercourse ins as great a orld as is on through the
!ijapeya sacrifice; he ac#uires for himself the fruit of the good deeds of the oman. (ut he
ho, ithout "noing this, practises seDual intercourse turns over to the oman his on good
deeds.
4. -aving "non this, =ddala"a the son of 'runa, <a"a the son of ,udgala and Gumara$
harita said3 *,any mortals, brahmins only in name, perform the seDual act ithout "noledge
of hat has been said and depart from this orld impotent and ithout merit.* Hven if this
much semen$of one asleep or of one aa"e$is spilled,
5. -e should touch it and repeat the folloing mantra3 *Whatever semen of mine has spilt
on earth, hatever has floed to plants, hatever to ater, % reclaim it.* With these ords he
should ta"e the semen ith his ring finger and thumb and rub it beteen his breasts or
eyebros, repeating the folloing mantra3 *+et the semen return to me, let !igour come to
me again, let glo and good fortune come to me again. ,ay the deities ho dell in the
sacrificial fire put the semen bac" in its proper place.*
9. <o, if a man sees himself /his reflection0 in ater, he should recite the folloing
mantra3 *,ay the gods besto on me vigour, manhood, fame, ealth and merit.* %n praise
of the ife ho ill bear him a son3 1he /his ife0 has put on the soiled clothes of impurity;
she is, verily, loveliness among omen. Therefore hen she has removed the clothes of
impurity and appears beautiful, he should approach her and spea" to her.
:. %f she does not illingly yield her body to him, he should buy her ith presents. %f she is
still unyielding, he should stri"e her ith a stic" or ith his hand and overcome her, repeating
the folloing mantra3 *With poer and glory % ta"e aay your glory.* Thus she becomes
discredited.
@. %f she grants his desire, he should repeat the folloing mantra3 *With poer and glory %
give you glory.* Thus they both become glorious.
B. %f a man desires his ife ith the thought3 *,ay she enjoy love ith me,* then, after
inserting the member in her, joining mouth to mouth and stro"ing her organ, he should utter
the folloing mantra3 *O semen, you have been produced from my every limb, especially
from my heart through the essence of food you are the essence of the limbs. (ring this
oman under my control, li"e a deer pierced by a poisoned arro.*
1C. <o, the ife hom he desires ith the thought3 *,ay she not conceive*$after
inserting the member in her and joining mouth to mouth, he should inhale and then eDhale,
repeating the folloing mantra3 *With poer, ith semen, % reclaim the semen from you.*
Thus she comes to be ithout semen.
11. <o, the ife hom he desires ith the thought3 *,ay she conceive*$after inserting
the member in her and joining mouth to mouth, he should inhale and then eDhale, repeating
the folloing mantra3 *With poer, ith semen, % deposit semen in you.* Thus she verily
becomes pregnant.
1&. <o, if a man;s ife has a paramour hom he detests, he should perform the folloing
rite in order to cast an evil spell upon him3 +et him put fire in an unba"ed earthen vessel,
spread stal"s of reed and "usa grass inversely and offer in the sacrificial fire the reed tips,
soa"ed in clarified butter, inversely, repeating the folloing mantra3 *8ou have made a
libation in my "indled fire! % ta"e aay your prana and apana, you, PPPPPPP! -ere the name
of the evil$doer should be uttered. 8ou have made a libation in my "indled fire! % ta"e aay
your sons and cattle, you, PPPPPPP! 8ou have made a libation in my "indled fire! % ta"e aay
your !edic rites and those done according to the 1mritis, you, PPPPPPP! 8ou have made a
libation in my "indled fire! % ta"e aay your hopes and eDpectations, you, PPPPPPP -e hom
a brahmin ho "nos this rite curses, departs from this orld impotent and shorn of merit.
Therefore let no one even jo"e ith the ife of a !edic scholar ho "nos this rite; for he
ho has this "noledge is a dangerous enemy.
12. %f a man;s ife has the monthly sic"ness, she should for three days drin" ater from a
cup made of bell metal. +et no sudra man or oman touch her. 'fter three nights she should
bathe, put on a ne cloth and her husband should ma"e her thresh rice.
14. %f a man ishes that a son ith a fair compleDion should be born to him, that he should
study one !eda and that he should attain a full term of life, then they /husband and ife0
should have rice coo"ed in mil" and eat it ith clarified butter. Thus they should be able to
beget such a son.
15. %f a man ishes that a son ith a tany or bron compleDion should be born to him,
that he should study to !edas and that he should attain a full term of life, then they should
have rice coo"ed in curds and eat it ith clarified butter. Thus they should be able to beget
such a son.
19. %f a man ishes that a son ith a dar" compleDion and red eyes should be born to him,
that he should study three !edas and that he should attain a full term of life, then they should
have rice coo"ed in ater and eat it ith clarified butter. Thus they should be able to beget
such a son.
1:. %f a man ishes that a daughter should be born to him ho ill be a scholar and attain
a full term of life, then they should have rice coo"ed ith sesamum and eat it ith clarified
butter. Thus they should be able to beget such a daughter.
1@. %f a man ishes that a son should be born to him ho ill be a famous scholar,
fre#uenting assemblies and spea"ing delightful ords, a student of all the !edas and an
enjoyer of the full term of life, he should have rice coo"ed ith the meat of a young bull or of
one more advanced in years and he and his ife should eat it ith clarified butter. Then they
should be able to beget such a son.
1B. <o, toards morning he purifies the clarified butter according to the rules of
1thalipa"a and offers 1thalipa"a oblations repeatedly, saying3 *1vaha to fire! 1vaha to
'numati! 1vaha to the radiant sun, ho produces infallible results!* -aving made the
offering, he ta"es up the remnant of the coo"ed food, eats part of it and gives the rest to his
ife. Then he ashes his hands, fills the ater$vessel and sprin"les her thrice ith ater,
uttering once this mantra3 *Jet up from here, O !isvavasu! 1ee" another young oman, a
ife ith her husband.*
&C. Then he embraces her, repeating the folloing mantra3 % am the vital breath and you
are speech. 8ou are speech and % am the vital breath. % am 1aman and you are 7ig; % am
heaven and you are earth. >ome, let us strive together so that e may have a male child.*
&1. Then he spreads apart her thighs, repeating the folloing mantra3 *1pread yourselves
apart, -eaven and Harth.* %nserting the member in her and joining mouth to mouth, he
stro"es her three times from head to foot, repeating the folloing mantra3 *+et !ishnu ma"e
the omb capable of bearing a son! +et Tvashtra shape the various limbs of the child! +et
Prajapati pour in the semen! +et )hatra support the embryo! O 1inivali, ma"e her conceive;
O goddess hose glory is idespread, ma"e her conceive! ,ay the to 'tvins, garlanded
ith lotuses, support the embryo!
&&. *+et the to 'tvins chum the omb ith the to golden arani stic"s! % am placing a
seed in your omb to be delivered in the tenth month. 's the earth has fire in its omb, as
heaven is pregnant ith the sun, as the #uarters are impregnated by air, so % am
impregnating you by placing this seed in your omb.* 'fter the reciting of the mantra, he
utters his on name and that of his ife and places the seed.
&2. When she is about to deliver the child, he sprin"les her ith ater, repeating the
folloing mantra3 *'s the ind agitates a pond on every side, even so let your foetus stir and
come out along ith the chorion. %ndra /prana0 made a path hen the seed entered the
omb. O %ndra, follo &CC that path and come out ith the foetus and the covering and
cause also the after birth to come forth ith the babe.*
&4. When the son is born, he should light a fire, ta"e the child on his lap, put a miDture of
curds and clarified butter in a bell$ metal cup and offer oblations in the fire repeatedly,
uttering the mantra3 *,ay % increase as the son in my on home and support a thousand
people! ,ay the Joddess of .ortune never depart, ith children and cattle, from his line!
1vaha! The vital breath that is in me, % mentally offer to you. 1vaha! %f % have done anything
too much or too little in this ceremony, may the all$ "noing and highly beneficent fire ma"e
it just right and proper for me. 1vaha!*
&5. The, putting his month to the child;s right ear, he should say thrice3 *1peech! 1peech!*
<eDt he ould miD together curds, honey and clarified butter and feed the child ith a golden
stic" hich is not placed inside the month, saying these mantras3 *% put the earth /(huh0 into
you; % put the s"y /(huvah0 into you; % put heaven /1vah0 into you. The hole of earth, s"y
and heaven % put into you.*
&9. Then he /the father0 gives him /the son0 a name3 N8ou are the !eda /"noledge0.* That
is his secret name.
&:. Then he presents him to the mother to give him her breast, uttering the mantra3 *O
1arasvati, that breast of thine hich is fruitful, the sustainer of all, full of mil", the bestoer of
ealth and generous and by hich thou nourishest all ho are orthy$transfer that breast
here to my ife, for my child to suc".
&@. Then he addresses the mother of the child thus3 N8ou are the adorable 'rundhati, the
ife of !asishtha and ith me, ho am a man, as your partner you have brought forth a
male child. (e the mother of many male children, for you have given us a son.
Chapter VThe .ine of Teachers
1. <o the line of teachers3 The son of Pautimashi received this "noledge from the son of
Gatyayani. The son of Gatyayani from the son of Jautami. The son of Jautami from the son of
(haradvaji. The son of (haradvaji from the son of Parasari. The son of Parasari from the son
of 'upasvasti. The son of 'upasvasti from the son of another Parasari. The son of this Parasari
from the son of Gatyayani. The son of Gatyayani from the son of Gausi"i. The son of Gausi"i
from the son of 'lambi and the son of !aiyaghrapadi. The son of !aiyaghrapadi from the son
of Ganvi and the son of Gapi. The son of Gapi
&. .rom the son of 'treyi. The son of 'treyi from the son of Jautami. The son of Jautami
from the son of (haradvaji. The son of (haradvaji from the son of Parasari. The son of
Parasari from the son of !atsi. The son of !atsi from the son of another Parasan.. The son of
this Parasan from the son of !ar"aruni. The son of !ar"aruni from the son of another
!ar"aruni. The son of this !ar"aruni from the son of 'rtabbagi. The son of 'rtabbagi from the
son of 1aungi. The son of 1aungi from the son of 1an"riti. The son of 1an"riti from the son of
'lambayani. The son of 'lambayani from the son of 'lambi. The son of 'lambi from the son of
Iayanti. The son of Iayanti from the son of ,andu"ayani. The son of ,andu"ayani from the
son of ,andu"i. The son of ,andu"i from the son of 1andili. The son of 1andili from the son of
7athitari. The son of 7athitari from the son of (halu"i. The son of (halu"i from the to sons
of Graunchi"i. The to sons of Graunchi"i from the son of !aidabhriti. The son of !aidabhriti
from the son of Garsa"eyi. The son of Garsa"eyi from the son of Prachinayogi. The son of
Prachinayogi from the son of 1anjivi. The son of 1anjivi from 'surivasin, ho as the son of
Prasni. The son of Prasni from 'surayana. 'surayana from 'suri. 'suri
2. .rom 8ajnaval"ya. 8ajnaval"ya from =ddala"a. =ddala"a from 'runa. 'runa from
=pavesi. =pavesi from Gusri. Gusri from !ajasravas. !ajasravas from Iihvavat, the son of
(adhyoga. Iihvavat, the son of (adhyoga, from 'sita, the son of !arshagana. 'sita, the son of
!arshagana, from -arita Gasyapa. -arita Gasyapa from 1ilpa Gasyapa. 1ilpa Gasyapa from
Gasyapa, the son of <idhruva. Gasyapa, the son of <idhruva, from !ach. !ach from 'mbhini.
'mbhini from the sun. These hite 8ajuses /sacrificial formulas not vitiated by human
blemishes0 are eDplained by 8ajnaval"ya, belonging to the !ajasaneyi school.
4. The line of teachers is the same up to the son of 1anjivi. The son of 1anjivi received this
"noledge from ,andu"ayani. ,andu"ayani from ,andavya. ,andavya from Gautsa. Gautsa
from ,ahitthi. ,ahitthi from !ama"a"shiyana. !ama"a"shiyana from 1andilya. 1andilya from
!atsya. !atsya from Gusri. Gusri from 8ajnavachas, the son of 7ajastamba. 8ajnavachas, the
son of 7ajastamba, from Tura, the son of Gavashi. Tura, the son of Gavashi, from Prajapati
/-iranyagarbha0. Prajapati received this "noledge from his relationship to (rahman /the
!edas0. (rahman is self$ eDistent. 1alutation to (rahman.
End of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
The Peace Chant
Om. That is full; this is full. This fullness has been projected from that fullness. When this
fullness merges in that fullness, all that remains is fullness.
Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!

Chandogya Upanishad
Translated by Swami Swahananda
Published by Sri Ramakrishna Math, Chennai
Om ! .et my limbs and speech, )rana, eyes, ears, itality
%nd all the senses grow in strength.
%ll eDistence is the &rahman of the Fpanishads.
May # neer deny &rahman, nor &rahman deny me.
.et there be no denial at all+
.et there be no denial at least from me.
May the irtues that are proclaimed in the Fpanishads be in me,
8ho am deoted to the %tman; may they reside in me.
Om ! )eace ! )eace ! )eace !
#-i-*+ One should meditate on the syllable Om; the Fdgitha, for one sings the Fdgitha, beginning with Om. Of this, the
eDplanation follows.
#-i-0+ !he essence of all these beings is the earth. !he essence of the earth is water. !he essence of water is egetation.
!he essence of egetation is man. !he essence of man is speech. !he essence of speech is Ei'. !he essence of Ei' is
Saman. !he essence of Saman is Fdgitha.
#-i-2+ !he syllable Om which is called Fdgitha, is the ;uintessence of the essences, the supreme, desering of the
highest place and the eighth.
#-i-3+ 8hich one is Ei' C 8hich one is Saman C 8hich one is Fdgitha C !his is being considered now.
#-i-=+ Speech alone is Ei'. )rana is Saman. !he syllable Om is Fdgitha. Speech and )rana, (the sources of) Ei' and
Saman, ta'en together form a couple.
#-i->+ !his couple is $oined together in the syllable Om. 8heneer a couple come together, they, indeed, fulfil each other5s
desire.
#-i-?+ ,e who meditates upon this syllable as Fdgitha 'nowing it thus (as the fulfiller), erily becomes a fulfiller of all the
desirable ends.
#-i-@+ !hat erily is the syllable of assent, for wheneer one assents to a thing, one says only GOm5. %ssent alone is
prosperity. ,e who meditates upon this syllable as Fdgitha, 'nowing it thus (as endowed with the ;uality of prosperity),
erily becomes one who increases all the desirable ends.
#-i-A+ 8ith this does the threefold 'nowledge proceed; (because) with Om does one cause to listen; with Om does one
recite; with Om does one sing aloud. 6or the worship of this syllable, with its own greatness and essence (the "edic rites
are performed).
#-i-*B+ ,e who 'nows it thus and he who does not 'now ( both perform actions with it. 6or 'nowledge and ignorance are
different (in their results). 8hateer is performed with 'nowledge, faith and meditation becomes more effectie. Fp to this
truly is the eDplanation of (the greatness of) this syllable Om.
#-ii-*+ Once upon a time the gods and the demons, both descendants of )ra$apati, were engaged in a fight. #n that fight,
the gods performed the rites of the Fdgatir priests resoling, G8ith this we shall defeat them5.
#-ii-0+ !hen they meditated on (the deity of) )rana connected with the nose, as Fdgitha; the demons pierced it with eil.
!herefore with it, the nose, one smells both the fragrant and the foul, for it has been pierced with eil.
#-ii-2+ !hen they meditated on (the deity of) speech as Fdgitha; the demons pierced it with eil. !herefore with it one
spea's both truth and untruth, for it has been pierced with eil.
#-ii-3+ !hen they meditated on (the deity of) eye as Fdgitha; the demons pierced it with eil. !herefore with the eye one
sees both the sightly and the unsightly, for it has been pierced with eil.
#-ii-=+ !hen they meditated on (the deity of) ear as Fdgitha; the demons pierced it with eil. !herefore with the ear one
hears both the pleasant and the unpleasant, for it has been pierced with eil.
#-ii->+ !hen they meditated on (the deity of) mind as Fdgitha; the demons pierced it with eil. !herefore with the mind one
thin's both good and eil thoughts, for it has been pierced with eil.
#-ii-?+ !hen they meditated on the )rana in the mouth as Fdgitha. !he demons came in clash with it and were destroyed,
$ust as a lump of clay is destroyed, stri'ing against a hard roc'.
#-ii-@+ !hus it is that the )rana in the mouth has not been destroyed and is pure. <en as a lump of clay stri'ing against a
hard roc' is destroyed, so will he be destroyed who wishes to do eil to one who 'nows this (the purity of )rana) or who
(actually) in$ures that 'nower, for he is li'e a hard roc'.
#-ii-A+ 8ith this )rana in the mouth one discerns neither sweet smell nor foul, for it is free from sin. 8hat one eats or
drin's through this, een with that he maintains the other )ranas. %nd not finding this at the time of death, the )rana in
the mouth and its dependants depart; and thus indeed one opens the mouth at the time of death.
#-ii-*B+ %ngiras meditated on that )rana as Fdgitha. !he sages consider this alone as %ngirasa which is the essence of
the limbs.
#-ii-**+ So &rihaspati meditated on )rana as Fdgitha. !he sages consider this alone as &rihaspati, for speech is great
and this )rana is its lord.
#-ii-*0+ So %yasya meditated on )rana as Fdgitha (identifying it with himself). !he sages consider this alone as %yasya
for it goes out of the mouth.
#-ii-*2+ &a'a, the son of 7albha, 'new it thus. So he became the Fdgatir-singer of the sacrificers dwelling in Haimisa. 6or
their sa'e he sang to fulfil their desires.
#-ii-*3+ ,e who 'nows it thus and meditates on the Fdgitha as the syllable Om, loo'ing upon it as )rana, certainly
becomes the singer (and procurer) of the desired ob$ects. !his is the meditation with reference to the body.
#-iii-*+ How the meditation (on the Fdgitha) with reference to the gods is described. One should meditate on him who
gies heat (i.e. the sun) as Fdgitha. "erily, when he rises, he sings aloud for the sa'e of all creatures. 8hen he rises, he
dispels dar'ness and fear. "erily, he who 'nows the sun as being endowed with these ;ualities, becomes the dispeller of
dar'ness and (the conse;uent) fear.
#-iii-0+ !his )rana in the mouth and that sun are the same. !his is warm and that is warm. )eople call this as Sara (that
is going) and that as Sara and )ratyasara (that is going and coming). !herefore one should meditate on this )rana and
that sun as Fdgitha.
#-iii-2+ How, erily one should meditate on "yana as Fdgitha. !hat which one breathes out is )rana and that which one
breathes in is %pana. !he $unction of )rana and %pana is "yana. !hat which is "yana, een that is speech. !herefore,
one utters speech while one neither breathes out nor breathes in.
#-iii-3+ !hat which is speech, een that is Ei'. !herefore while one neither breathes out nor breathes in, one pronounces
the Ei'. !hat which is Ei', een that is Saman. !herefore, while one neither breathes out nor breathes in, one sings the
Saman. !hat which is Saman, een that is Fdgitha. !herefore, while one neither breathes out nor breathes in, one sings
the Fdgitha.
#-iii-=+ !herefore whateer other actions re;uire strength, such as the 'indling of fire by friction, running a race towards a
goal, the bending of a strong bow, are all performed, while one neither breathes out nor breathes in. 6or this reason one
should meditate on "yana as Fdgitha.
#-iii->+ How, one should meditate on the syllables of GFdgitha5 ( namely, the syllables Gut5, Ggi5 and Gtha5. )rana is Gut5,
because through )rana one arises (ut-tisthati). Speech is Ggi5, because speech is called word (girah). 6ood is Gtha5,
because upon food all this is established (sthitam).
#-iii-?+ ,eaen is ut, the s'y is gi, the earth is tha. !he sun is ut, the air gi, the fire, tha. !he Sama-"eda is ut, the Ia$ur-
"eda gi, the Eig-"eda tha. 6or him, speech yields the mil' which is the benefit of speech. %nd he becomes rich in food;
and an eater of food, who 'nows thus and meditates on the syllables of GFdgitha5, namely, ut, gi and tha.
#-iii-@+ How follows the fulfilment of wishes+ One should meditate on the ob$ects contemplated. One should reflect upon
Saman by means of which one proceeds to sing the Stotra.
#-iii-A+ One should reflect upon the Ei' in which that Saman occurs, upon the sage by whom it is intuited and upon the
deity to whom he proceeds to pray.
#-iii-*B+ One should reflect upon the metre in which he proceeds to sing a Stotra; and he should reflect upon the hymn
with which he proceeds to sing it.
#-iii-**+ ,e should reflect upon the ;uarter (of heaen) towards which he proceeds to sing a Stotra.
#-iii-*0+ .astly, haing thought about himself, he should sing a Stotra reflecting upon his desired ob$ect aoiding all faults.
"ery ;uic'ly will be fulfilled for him the desire, desiring which he may sing the Stotra yea, desiring which he may sing the
Stotra.
#-i-*+ One should meditate on the syllable Om, the Fdgitha, for one sings the Fdgitha beginning with Om. Of this the
eDplanation follows.
#-i-0+ "erily, the gods, being afraid of death, too' refuge in the three "edas. !hey coered themseles with the metrical
hymns. &ecause they coered themseles with these, the metrical hymns are called 9handas.
#-i-2+ Just as a fisherman would see a fish in water, so did 7eath obsere the gods in the (rites connected with) Ei',
Saman and Ia$us. !hey, too, 'nowing this, arose from the Ei', Saman and Ia$us, and entered the Sara (the syllable
Om).
#-i-3+ "erily, when one learns the Ei', he loudly pronounces GOm5. #t is the same with Saman and with Ia$us. !his
syllable Om is indeed Sara; it again is immortality and fearlessness. ,aing entered into Sara (i.e. haing meditated)
the gods became immortal and fearless.
#-i-=+ ,e who worships this syllable 'nowing it thus, enters this syllable, the Sara, which is immortality and
fearlessness. %nd haing entered it, he becomes immortal by that nectar, by which the gods became immortal.
#--*+ How, that which is Fdgitha is erily )ranaa and that which is )ranaa is Fdgitha. !he yonder sun is Fdgitha and
also )ranaa, for he moes along pronouncing GOm5.
#--0+ G!o him (the sun itself) # sung; therefore you are my only son5 thus said Kausita'i to his son. GEeflect upon the
Fdgitha as the rays of the sun, then surely, you will hae many sons. !his is the meditation with reference to the gods.
#--2+ How (is the meditation) with reference to the body+ One should meditate on him who is this )rana in the mouth, as
Fdgitha, for he moes along pronouncing GOm5.
#--3+ G!o him (the )rana itself) did # sing; therefore you are my only son5, thus said Kausita'i to his son. L# shall get many
sonsL, thin'ing thus, sing praise to the Fdgitha as the manifold )ranas.5
#--=+ GHow, that which is Fdgitha, is erily )ranaa; and that which is )ranaa, is Fdgitha5, so one should thin'. %s a
result of it, een if he chants wrongly, he rectifies it by the act done from the seat of the ,otr priest.
#-i-*+ !he earth is Ei', the fire is Saman. !his Saman rests upon that Ei'. !herefore the Saman is sung as resting upon
the Ei'. !he earth is Gsa5, the fire is Gama5, and that ma'es GSama5.
#-i-0+ !he s'y is Ei', the air is Sama. !his Saman rests upon that Ei'. !herefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the
Ei'. !he s'y is Gsa5, the air is Gama5, and that ma'es GSama5.
#-i-2+ ,eaen is Ei', the sun is Saman. !his Saman rests upon that Ei'. !herefore the Saman is sung as resting upon
the Ei'. ,eaen is Gsa5, the sun is Gama5, and that ma'es GSama5.
#-i-3+ !he stars are Ei', the moon is Saman. !his Saman rests upon that Ei'. !herefore the Saman is sung as resting
upon the Ei'. !he stars are Gsa5, the moon is Gama5, and that ma'es GSama5.
#-i-=+ How, the while light of the sun is Ei', the blue (light) that is eDtremely dar' is Saman. !his Saman rests upon that
Ei'. !herefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Ei'.
#-i->+ %gain, the white light of the sun is Gsa5, the blue (light) that is eDtremely dar' is Gama5, and that ma'es GSama5. How,
that )erson, effulgent as gold, who is seen within the sun, who is with golden beard and golden hair, is eDceedingly
effulgent een to the ery tips of his nails.
#-i-?+ ,is eyes are bright li'e a red lotus. ,is name is Gut5. ,e has risen aboe all eils. "erily, he who 'nows thus rises
aboe all eils.
#-i-@+ Ei' and Saman are his two $oints. !herefore he is Fdgitha. &ecause the priest is the singer of this Gut5, he is the
Fdgitha. Moreoer, he (this )erson called Gut5) controls the worlds which are aboe that sun, as also the desires of the
gods. !his is with reference to the gods.
#-ii-*+ How (is the meditation) with reference to the body+ Speech is Ei', )rana is Sama. !his Saman rests upon that
Ei'. !herefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Ei'. Speech is Gsa5, )rana is Gama5 and that ma'es GSama5.
#-ii-0+ !he eye is Ei', the self (reflected in the eye) is Saman. !his Saman rests upon that Ei'. !herefore the Saman is
sung as resting upon the Ei'. !he eye is Gsa5, the self is Gama5, and that ma'es GSama5.
#-ii-2+ !he ear is Ei', the mind is Saman. !his Saman rests upon that Ei'. !herefore the Saman is sung as resting upon
the Ei'. !he ear is Gsa5, the mind is Gama5, and that ma'es LSama5.
#-ii-3+ How, the white light of the eye is Ei', the blue (light) that is eDtremely dar' is Saman. !his Saman rests upon that
Ei'. !herefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Ei'. !he white light of the eye is Gsa5, the blue (light) that is
eDtremely dar' is Gama5 and that ma'es GSama5.
#-ii-=+ How, this person who is seen within the eye ( he indeed is Ei', he is Saman, he is F'tha, he is Ia$us, he is the
"edas. !he form of this (person seen in the eye) is the same as the form of that (person seen in the sun). ,is $oints are
the same as those of the other; his name is the same as that of the other.
#-ii->+ !hat (person in the eye) is the lord of all the worlds that are eDtended below, as also of the desired ob$ects of men.
So those who sing on the lute, sing of him alone and thereby become endowed with wealth.
#-ii-?+ How he who sings the Saman after 'nowing the deity Fdgitha thus, sings to both. !hrough that (person in the
sun), he (that singer) gets the worlds beyond that sun and also the desired ob$ects of gods.
#-ii-@-A+ Similarly, through this person in the eye, one gets the worlds that are eDtended below this person, and also the
desired ob$ects of men. 6or this reason, the Fdgatir priest who 'nows thus should as' (the sacrificer)+ G8hat desire shall #
obtain for you by singing the Saman C5 6or he alone becomes capable of obtaining desires by singing , who 'nowing thus
sings the Saman ( yea, sings the Saman.
#-iii-*+ #n ancient times there were three proficient in Fdgitha+ Sila'a the son of Salaat, 9ai'itayana of the 7albhya
family and )raahana the son of Jiala. !hey said, G8e are proficient in Fdgitha. #f you agree, let us enter on a
discussion of Fdgitha5.
#-iii-0+ G.et it be so5, saying this they sat down. !hen )raahana Jaiali said, GIou two, reered sirs, spea' first; and #
shall listen to the words of two &rahmanas conersing5.
#-iii-2+ !hen Sila'a Salaatya said to 9ai'itayana 7albhya, G#f you permit, # shall ;uestion you5. GMuestion5, said he.
#-iii-3+ (Sila'a as'ed), G8hat is the essence of Saman C5 G!he tune5, said (7albhya). G8hat is the essence of the tune C5
G)rana5, said (7albhya). G8hat is the essence of )rana C5 G6ood5, said (7albhya). G8hat is the essence of food C5 G8ater5,
said (7albhya).
#-iii-=+ G8hat is the essence of water C5 G!hat (heaenly world)5, said (7albhya). G8hat is the essence of the world C5 GOne
cannot carry (the Saman) beyond the heaenly world5, said 7albhya; Gwe locate the Saman in the world of heaen, for
Saman is praised as heaen5.
#-iii->+ !hen Sila'a Salaatya said to 9ai'itayana 7albhya+ GO 7albhya, your Saman is not indeed established. #f
someone one were to say, LIour head shall fall downL, surely your head would fall down5.
#-iii-?+ (7albhya) G8ill you permit me, sir, to learn this of you C5 G.earn5, said (Sila'a). G8hat is the essence of that
(heaenly) world C5 G!his earth5, said (Sila'a), G8hat is the essence of this earth C5 GOne cannot carry the Saman beyond
this world as its support5, said Sila'a; Gwe locate the Saman in this world as its support, for Saman is eDtolled as the
earth5.
#-iii-@+ )raahana Jaiali said to him, GO Salaatya, your Sama, really, has a further end. #f someone now were to say,
LIour head shall fall downL, surely your head would fall down. (Salaatya) G8ill you permit me, sir, to learn (this of you C)
G.earn5, said (Jaiali).
#-iD-*+ (Salaatya) G8hat is the essence of this world C5 G%'asa5 said ()raahana); G%ll these beings arise from %'asa
alone and are finally dissoled into %'asa; because %'asa alone is greater than all these and %'asa is the support at all
times.5
#-iD-0+ #t is this Fdgitha which is progressiely higher and better. !his again is endless. ,e who, 'nowing thus, meditates
upon the progressiely higher and better Fdgitha, obtains progressiely higher and better lies and wins progressiely
higher and better worlds.
#-iD-2+ %tidhanan, the son of Suna'a, haing taught this to Fdarasandilya, said, G%s long as among your descendants,
this 'nowledge of the Fdgitha continues, so long their life in this world will be progressiely higher and better than
ordinary lies.5
#-iD-3+ G%nd in that other world also their state will be similar5. ,e who 'nows and meditates thus ( his life in this world
surely becomes progressiely higher and better, and so also his state in that other world ( yea, in that other world.
#-D-*+ 8hen the crops in the Kuru country had been destroyed by hailstorms, there lied Fsasti, the son of 9a'ra with his
young wife in a deplorable condition in the illage of elephant-driers.
#-D-0+ ,e begged food of an elephant-drier, while he was eating beans of an inferior ;uality. !he drier said to him,
G!here is no other food than what is set before me5.
#-D-2+ G:ie me some of them5, said Fsasti. !he drier gae them to him and said, G,ere is drin' at hand, if you please *5
G!hen # shall be drin'ing what is defiled5, said Fsasti.
#-D-3+ G%re not these beans also defiled C5 GFnless # ate them, # would surely not hae suried5, said Fsasti, Gbut drin'ing
is at my option5.
#-D-=+ Fsasti, after he had eaten, brought the remainder to his wife. She had already obtained her food by alms; so after
receiing it she 'ept it by.
#-D->+ HeDt morning while leaing the bed he said, G%las, if # could get a little of food, # could earn a little wealth. !here a
'ing is going to institute a sacrifice; he would appoint me to all the priestly offices5.
#-D-?+ ,is wife said to him, G8ell, lord, here are the beans (gien by you).5 ,aing eaten them he went off to that sacrifice
which was being performed.
#-D-@+ Seeing the singing priests seated there, he sat down near the singers in the place for singing the Stotras. %nd then
he addressed the )rastotir priest.
#-D-A+ GO )rastotir, if you sing the )rastaa without 'nowing the deity that belongs to the )rastaa, your head will fall
down5.
#-D-*B+ #n the same manner he addressed the Fdgatir priest, O Fdgatir, if you sing the Fdgitha without 'nowing the deity
that belongs to the Fdgitha, your head will fall down5.
#-D-**+ #n the same manner he addressed the )ratihartir priest, GO )ratihartir, if you sing the )ratihara without 'nowing the
deity that belongs to the )ratihara, your head will fall down5. !hen they all sat down silently suspending their duties.
#-Di-*+ !hen the principal of the sacrifice said to him, # should li'e to 'now you, reered sir, G# am 9ha'rayana Fsasti5, said
he.
#-Di-0+ ,e said, G# searched for you, reered sir, for all these priestly offices, but not finding you, sir, # hae chosen others.5
#-Di-2+ GEeered sir, you yourself ta'e up all the priestly offices for me5. G&e it so; then, let these same priests sing the
hymns, being permitted by me. &ut you should gie me as much wealth as you gie them.5 G"ery well5, said the sacrificer.
#-Di-3+ !hen the )rastotir priest approached him and said, GEeered sir, you said to me+ GO )rastotir, if you sing the
)rastaa without 'nowing the deity that belongs to the )rastaa, your head will fall downL. 8hich is that deity C5
#-Di-=+ G)rana5, said Fsasti, Gall these moable and immoable beings merge in )rana (during dissolution) and rise out of
)rana (during creation). !his is the deity that belongs to the )rastaa. #f you sang the )rastaa without 'nowing him,
after your haing been warned thus by me, your head would hae fallen down.5
#-Di->+ !hen the Fdgatir priest approached him and said, GEeered sir, you said to me+ GO Fdgatir, if you sing the Fdgitha
without 'nowing the deity that belongs to the Fdgitha, your head will fall downL. 8hich is that deity C5
#-Di-?+ G!he sun5, said Fsasti, Gall these moable and immoable sing the praise of the sun when he has come up. !his is
the deity that belongs to the Fdgitha. #f you sang the Fdgitha without 'nowing him, after your haing been warned thus
by me, your head would hae fallen down.5
#-Di-@+ !hen the )ratihartir priest approached him and said, GEeered sir, you said to me+ GO )ratihartir, if you sing the
)ratihara without 'nowing the deity that belongs to the )ratihara, your head will fall downL. 8hich is that deity C5
#-Di-A+ G6ood5, said Fsasti, Gall these moable and immoable beings lie by parta'ing of food only. !his is the deity that
belongs to the )ratihara. #f you sang the )ratihara without 'nowing him, after your haing been warned thus by me, your
head would hae fallen down.5
#-Dii-*+ !herefore neDt begins the Fdgitha seen by the dogs. Once 7albhya &a'a, called also Maitreya :laa, went out (of
the illage) for the study of the "edas.
#-Dii-0+ &efore him a white dog appeared and other dogs gathered around it and said, GEeered sir, please obtain food for
us by singing; we are hungry.5
#-Dii-2+ !he white dog said to them, G9ome to me oer here tomorrow morning.5 (!he sage named) 7albhya &a'a and
Maitreya :laa 'ept watch there for them.
#-Dii-3+ Just as those who recite the Stotras singing the &ahispaamana hymn moe along clasping one another5s hand,
een so did the dogs moe along. !hen they sat down and began to pronounce Ghim5.
#-Dii-=+ GOm, let us eat ! Om, let us drin' ! Om, may the (sun who is) god, "aruna, )ra$apati and Saitir bring us food here.
O .ord of food, bring food here, yea bring it, Om !5
#-Diii-*+ "erily, this world is the syllable Ghau5 (which is a Stobha), the air is the syllable Ghai5, the moon is the syllable Gatha5,
the self is the syllable Giha5 and the fire is the syllable G#5.
#-Diii-0+ !he sun is the syllable Gu5 (which is a Stobha), inocation is the syllable Ge5 the "isadeas are the syllable
Gauhoyi5, )ra$apati is the syllable Ghim5, )rana is the Stobha Gsara5, food is the Stobha Gya5 and "irat is the Stobha Ga'5.
#-Diii-2+ !he undefinable and ariable thirteenth Stobha is the syllable Ghum5.
#-Diii-3+ 6or him, speech yields the mil', which is the benefit of speech; and he becomes richin food and an eater of food,
who thus 'nows this sacred doctrine of the Samans ( yea, 'nows the sacred doctrine of the Samans
-i-*+ Om. Surely, the meditation on the whole Saman is good. %nything that is good, people call as Saman, anything that
is not good, as %saman.
##-i-0+ !hus, when people say, G,e approached him with Saman5, then they say only this+ G,e approached him with a good
motie5. %nd when they say, G,e approached him with %saman5, then they say only thisL G,e approached him with an eil
motie.5
##-i-2+ %gain, people say+ GOh, this is Saman for us5, when it is something good; then they say only this+ GOh, this is good
for us5. %gain, they say, GOh, this is %saman for us5, when it is not good; then they say only this+ GOh, this is eil.5
##-i-3+ 8hen one who 'nows it thus meditates on the Saman as good, all good ;ualities hasten towards him and sere
him.
##-ii-*+ %mong the worlds one should meditate upon the Saman as fiefold. !he earth is the syllable him, the fire is
)rasraa, the s'y is Fdgitha, the sun is )ratihara, and heaen is Hidhana. !hus this meditation pertains to the higher
worlds.
##-ii-0+ How, among the lower worlds. ,eaen is the syllable him, the sun is )rastaa, the s'y is Fdgitha the fire is
)ratihara, and the earth is Hidhana.
##-ii-2+ !he worlds in the ascending and descending lines belong to him. 8ho, 'nowing it thus (endowed with the ;uality
of Ggood5) meditates on the fiefold Saman in the worlds.
##-iii-*-0+ One should meditate on the fiefold Saman as rain. !he wind that precedes is the syllable him, the cloud that is
formed is )rastaa, the shower is Fdgitha, lightning and thunder are )ratihara, and the ceasing is Hidhana. #t rains for
him ( indeed, he causes rain ( who, 'nowing it thus, meditates on the fiefold Saman as rain.
##-i-*+ One should meditate on the fiefold Saman in all the waters. 8hen a cloud gathers, it is the syllable him. 8hen it
rains, it is )rastaa. !hose (waters) that flow to the east, are Fdgitha. !hose that flow to the west are )ratihara. !he
ocean is Hidhana.
##-i-0+ ,e who, 'nowing it thus, meditates on the fiefold Saman in all the waters, does not drown in water and he
becomes rich in water.
##--*+ One should meditate on the fiefold Saman as the seasons+ !he spring is the syllable him, the summer is
)rastaa, the rainy season is Fdgitha, the autumn is )ratihara, and the winter is Hidhana.
##--0+ ,e, who 'nowing it thus, meditates on the fiefold Saman in the seasons, him the seasons sere and he becomes
rich in seasons.
##-i-*+ One should meditate on the fiefold Saman as the animals. !he goats are the syllable him, the sheep are
)rastaa, the cows are Fdgitha, the horses are )ratihara, and man is Hidhana.
##-i-0+ ,e, who 'nowing it this, meditates on the fiefold Saman in animals, to him animals belong and he becomes rich
in animals.
##-ii-*+ One should meditate on the progressiely higher and better fiefold Saman as the senses; !he organ of smell is
the syllable him, the organ of speech is )rastaa, the eye is Fdgitha, the ear is )ratihara, and the mind is Hidhana.
"erily, these are progressiely higher and better.
##-ii-0+ ,e who 'nowing it thus, meditates on the fiefold Saman, progressiely higher and better, in the senses, to him
belong progressiely higher and better lies and he wins eer higher and better worlds. So much for (the meditation on)
the fiefold Saman.
##-iii-*-0+ HeDt is the meditation on the seenfold Saman. One should meditate on the seenfold Saman as speech.
8hatsoeer in speech is Ghum5, that is the syllable him; whateer is Gpra5, that is )rastaa; whateer is Ga5, that is %di (the
first); whateer is Gut5, that is Fdgitha; whateer is Gprati5, that is )ratihara; wheteer is Gupa5, that is Fpadraa; and
whateer is Gni5, that is Hidhana.
##-iii-2+ ,e who 'nowing it thus, meditates on the seenfold (whole) Saman as speech, for him speech yields mil' i.e. its
appropriate benefit, and he becomes rich in food and an eater of food.
##-iD-*+ HeDt, one should meditate upon the seenfold Saman as the yonder sun. ,e is the Saman because he is always
the same. ,e is the Saman because he is the same to all, for each one thin's, G,e faces me, he faces me.5
##-iD-0+ One should 'now that all these beings are dependent on him. 8hat he is before rising, that is ,im'ara. On this,
the animals are dependent. %s they participate in the ,im'ara part of this Saman, do they utter him (before sunrise).
##-iD-2+ !hen, the form of the sun when it has $ust risen, that is )rastaa. On this, men are dependent. %s they participate
in the )rastaa part of this Saman, so are they desirous of praise, direct and indirect.
##-iD-3+ %nd the form of the sun as it appears at the time of the assembling of its rays, that is %di. On this, the birds are
dependent. %s they participate in the %di part of this Saman, so do they hold themseles unsupported in the s'y and fly
about.
##-iD-=+ HeDt, the form of the sun that appears $ust at midday, that is Fdgitha. On this, the gods are dependent. %s they
participate in the Fdgitha part of this Saman, so are they the best among the offsprings of )ra$apati.
##-iD->+ HeDt, the form of the sun that appears $ust after midday and before (the latter part of) afternoon, that is )ratihara.
On this, the foetuses are dependent. %s they participate in the )ratihara part of this Saman, (so are they held up in the
womb) and they do not fall down.
##-iD-?+ HeDt, the form of the sun that appears when it is past afternoon and before sunset, that is Fpadraa. On this, the
wild animals are dependent. %s they participate in the Fpadraa part of this Saman, so do they, when they see a man,
run away to the forest, as to a place of safety.
##-iD-@+ How, the form of the sun that appears $ust after sunset, that is Hidhana. On this, the fathers are dependent. %s
they participate in the Hidhana part of this Saman, so do people lay them aside.
##-D-*+ How, erily, one should meditate on the seenfold Saman, which has all its parts similar, and which leads beyond
death. G,im'ara, has three syllables; G)rastaa5 has three syllables. So they are e;ual to each other.
##-D-0+ G%di5 has two syllables; G)ratihara5 has four syllables. 8e ta'e one syllable from )ratihara to %di. So they are e;ual
to each other.
##-D-2+ GFdgitha5 has three syllables; GFpadraa5 has four syllables. !hree and three become e;ual. One syllable is left
oer; that really is tri-syllabic; so it also becomes e;ual.
##-D-3+ GHidhana5 has three syllables, and this to is e;ual (to the others). !hese, indeed, are the twenty two syllables (of
the seenfold Saman).
##-D-=->+ ,e who, 'nowing this Saman thus (as good), meditates on the seenfold Saman, which has all its parts similar
and which leads beyond death, reaches the sun (7eath) by the number twenty-one; for, counting from this world the
yonder sun is erily the twenty-first. 8ith the remaining twenty-second syllable he con;uers the world beyond the sun.
!hat world is of the nature of bliss, and is free from misery. (!hat is), he obtains ictory oer the sun, and then a ictory
still higher becomes his, who meditates on the seenfold Saman.
##-Di-*+ !he mind is ,im'ara, speech is )rastaa, the eye is Fdgitha, the ear is )ratihara, and the )rana is Hidhana. !his
is the :ayatra Saman woen in (the )rana and) the senses.
##-Di-0+ ,e who thus 'nows this :ayatra Saman as woen in (the )rana and) the senses, becomes the possessor of
perfect senses, reaches the full length of life, lies gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle, and great also with
fame. ,is holy ow is that he should be high-minded.
##-Dii-*+ One rubs, that is ,im'ara. !he smo'e is produced, that is )rastaa. #t bla1es, that is Fdgitha. !he embers are
formed, that is )ratihara. #t goes down, that is Hidhana. #t is completely eDtinguished, that is Hidhana. !his is the
Eathantara Saman woen in fire.
##-Dii-0+ ,e who thus 'nows this Eathantara Saman as woen in fire becomes radiant with the holy effulgence born of
sacred wisdom, is endowed with good appetite and reaches the full length of life, lies gloriously, becomes great with
offspring and cattle, and great also with fame. ,is holy ow is that he should neither sip nor spit facing the fire.
##-Diii-*-0+ !he "amadeya Saman is woen in a couple. ,e who thus 'nows this "amadeya Saman as woen in a
couple becomes one of the couple and procreates. ,e reaches the full length of life, lies gloriously, becomes great with
offspring and cattle, and great also with fame. ,is holy ow is that he should not despise any woman.
##-Di-*+ !he rising sun is ,im'ara; the risen sun is )rastaa; the midday sun is Fdgitha; the sun in the afternoon is
)ratihara, and the setting sun is Hidhana. !his is the &rihat Saman woen in the sun.
##-Di-0+ ,e who thus 'nows this &rihat Saman as woen in the sun becomes refulgent and endowed with good appetite,
reaches the full length of life, lies gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle, and great also with fame. ,is holy
ow is that he should not find fault with the burning sun.
##-D-*+ !he white clouds gather, that is ,im'ara. !he (rain-bearing) cloud is formed, that is )rastaa. #t rains, that is
Fdgitha. #t flashes and thunders, that is )ratihara. #t ceases, that is Hidhana. !his is the "airupa Saman woen in the
rain-cloud.
##-D-0+ ,e who thus 'nows this "irupa Saman as woen in the rain-cloud ac;uires cattle of handsome and manifold
forms, reaches the full length of life, lies gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle, and great also with fame.
,is holy ow is that he should not find fault with the rain-cloud when it rains.
##-Di-*+ !he spring is ,im'ara, the summer is )rastaa, the rainy season is Fdgitha, the autumn is )ratihara, and the
winter is Hidhana. !his is the "aira$a Saman woen in the seasons.
##-Di-0+ ,e who thus 'nows this "aira$a Saman as woen in the seasons shines with offspring, cattle and the holy
effulgence born of sacred wisdom, reaches the full length of life, lies gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle
and great also with fame. ,is holy ow is that he should not find fault with the seasons.
##-Dii-*+ !he earth is ,im'ara, the s'y is )rastaa, heaen is Fdgitha, the ;uarters are )ratihara, and the ocean is
Hidhana. !his is the Sa'ari Saman woen in the worlds.
##-Dii-0+ ,e who thus 'nows this Sa'ari Saman woen in the worlds, becomes the possessor of the worlds, reaches the
full length of life, lies gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle and great also with fame. ,is holy ow is that
he should not find fault with the worlds.
##-Diii-*+ !he goats are ,im'ara, the sheep are )rastaa, the cows are Fdgitha, the horses are )ratihara, and man is
Hidhana. !his is the Eeati Saman woen in the animals.
##-Diii-0+ ,e who thus 'nows this Eeati Saman woen in the animals, becomes the possessor of animals, reaches the
full length of life, lies gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle, great also with fame. ,is holy ow is that he
should not find fault with animals.
##-DiD-*+ !he hair is ,im'ara, the s'in is )rastaa, the flesh is Fdgitha, the bone is )ratihara, and the marrow is Hidhana.
!his is the Ia$naya$niya Saman woen in the limbs of the body.
##-DiD-0+ ,e who thus 'nows this Ia$naya$niya Saman, woen in the limbs of the body, is endowed with all the limbs, and
is not crippled in any limb; he reaches the full length of life, lies gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle and
great also with fame. ,is holy ow is that he should not eat fish and meat for a year, or rather, he should not eat fish and
meat at all.
##-DD-*+ 6ire is ,im'ara, %ir is )rastaa, the Sun is Fdgitha, the Stars are )ratihara, and the Moon is Hidhana. !his is the
Ea$ana Saman woen in the deities.
##-DD-0+ ,e who 'nows thus 'nows this Ea$ana Saman woen in the deities, abides in the same world or gets the same
prosperity as these ery deities or attains union with them; he reaches the full length of life, lies gloriously, becomes
great with offspring and cattle and great also with fame. ,is holy ow is that he should not find fault with the &rahmanas.
##-DDi-*+ !he three "edas are ,im'ara; the three worlds are )rastaa; 6ire, %ir and the Sun are Fdgitha; the Stars, the
birds and the rays are )ratihara; the serpents, the celestial singers and the fathers are Hidhana. !his is the collection of
Samans woen in all things.
##-DDi-0+ "erily, he who thus 'nows this collection of Samans as woen in all things becomes the lord of all things.
##-DDi-2+ !here is this erse about it+ !hat which is fiefold in groups of three ( there is nothing else greater or other than
these (fifteen).
##-DDi-3+ ,e who 'nows that 'nows all. %ll the ;uarters bring offerings to him. ,is holy ow is that he should meditate G# am
all5 ( yea, that is his ow.
##-DDii-*+ GOf the Samans, # choose the one that bellows, as it were, and is good for cattle,5 thus (some thin'). !his is the
loud singing sacred to %gni, the undefined one to )ra$apati, the defined one to Soma, the soft and smooth to "ayu, the
smooth and strong to #ndra, the heron-li'e to &rihaspati, and the ill-sounding to "aruna. "erily, one may practise all
these, but should aoid the one sacred to "aruna.
##-DDii-0+ GMay # obtain immortality for the gods by singing5, (thin'ing) thus one should sing. GMay # obtain my singing,
oblation for the fathers, hope for men, grass and water for animals, the heaenly world for the sacrificer, and food for
myself5, -- thus reflecting in his mind on all these, he should sing the Stotra attentiely.
##-DDii-2+ %ll owels are the embodiments of #ndra; all sibilants are the embodiments of )ra$apati; all Sparsa consonants
are the embodiments of 7eath. #f anyone should reproe him for the pronunciation of his owels, he should tell him, G#
hae ta'en my refuge in #ndra; he will answer you.5
##-DDii-3+ %nd if some one should reproe him for sibilants he should tell him, G# hae ta'en my refuge in )ra$apati; he will
crush you5. %nd if some one should reproe him for his Sparsa consonants, he should tell him, G# hae ta'en my refuge in
7eath; he will burn you up.5
##-DDii-=+ %ll owels should be pronounced sonant and strong, (with the thought), GMay # impart strength to #ndra ()rana)5.
%ll sibilants should be pronounced, neither inarticulately, nor leaing out the elements of sound, but distinctly (with the
thought), GMay # gie myself to )ra$apati ("irat).5 %ll Sparsa consonants should be pronounced slowly, without miDing
them with any other letter, (with the thought), GMay # withdraw myself from 7eath.5
##-DDiii-*+ !hree are the branches of religious duty. Sacrifice, study and gifts ( these are the first. %usterity alone is the
second, and the celibate student of sacred 'nowledge, who lies in the house of the teacher throughout his life mortifying
his body in the teacher5s house, is the third. %ll these become possessors of meritorious worlds; but he who is
established firmly in &rahman, attains immortality.
##-DDiii-0+ )ra$apati brooded on the worlds. 6rom them, thus brooded upon, issued forth the threefold "eda (as their
essence). ,e brooded on this. 6rom this, thus brooded upon, issued forth the syllables &huh, &huah and Sah.
##-DDiii-2+ ,e brooded on them. 6rom them, thus brooded upon, issued forth (as their essence) the syllable Om
(&rahman). Just as all the parts of the leaf, are permeated by the ribs of the leaf, so are all the words permeated by the
syllable Om. "erily, the syllable Om is all this ( yea, the syllable Om is erily all this.
##-DDi-*-0+ !he eDpounders of &rahman say, G!he morning libation is of the "asus, the midday libation is of the Eudras
and the third libation is of the %dityas and of the "isadeas. 8here, the, is the world of the sacrificer C5 ,ow can he who
does not 'now this, perform (sacrifices) C #t is only after 'nowing this that he should perform (sacrifices).
##-DDi-2-3+ &efore the commencement of the morning chant, the sacrificer sits down behind the :arhapatya fire, facing
the north and sings the Saman sacred to the "asus+ G(O 6ire), open the door of this world that we may see you for
obtaining the 'ingdom.5
##-DDi-=->+ !hen he offers the oblation (with the Mantra) ( GSalutation to 6ire, who dwells in the region of the earth.
Obtain the region, for me the sacrificer. !his region, indeed, is to be obtained by the sacrificer. %t the end of the duration
of this life, #, the sacrificer, am willing to come here ( Saha.5 GFnbar the door of the region5, saying this he gets up. (%s a
result) the "asus grant him (the region connected with) the morning libation.
##-DDi-?-@+ &efore the starting of the midday libation, the sacrificer sits down behind the %gnidhriya fire, facing the north,
and sings the Saman sacred to the Eudras+ G(O 6ire), open the door of the region of the s'y that we may see you for
obtaining the soereignty of the s'y.5
##-DDi-A-*B+ !hen he offers the oblation (with the Mantra)+ GSalutation to "ayu, who dwells in the region of the s'y. Obtain
this region for me, the sacrificer. !his region, indeed, is to be obtained by the sacrificer. %t the end of the duration of this
life, #, the sacrificer, am willing to go there ( Saha5. GFnbar the door of the region5, saying this he gets up. (%s a result)
the Eudras grant him (the region of the s'y connected with) the midday libation.
##-DDi-**-*2+ &efore beginning the third libation, the sacrificer sits down behind the %haaniya fire, facing the north, and
sings the Saman sacred to the %dityas and the one sacred to the "isadeas+ G(O 6ire), open the door of the region of
heaen that we may see you for obtaining the soereignty of heaen5. !his is the Saman sacred to the %dityas. HeDt is
the one sacred to the "isadeas; G(O 6ire), open the door of the region of heaen that we may see you for obtaining the
supreme soereignty.5
##-DDi-*3-*=+ !hen the sacrificer offers the oblation (with the Mantra)+ GSalutation to the %dityas and to the "isadeas,
the inhabitants of the region of heaen. Obtain the region of heaen for me, the sacrificer. !his region, indeed, is to be
obtained by the sacrificer. %t the end of the duration of this life, #, the sacrificer, am willing to go there ( Saha5. GFnbar
the door of the region5, saying this, he gets up.
##-DDi-*>+ !he %dityas and the "isadeas grant him (the region appropriate to) the third libation. ,e alone 'nows the
real character of the sacrifice, who 'nows thus
-i-*+ Om. !he yonder sun indeed is the honey of the gods. Of this honey, heaen is the cross-beam, the s'y is the honey
comb, and (the water particles in) the rays are the eggs.
###-i-0-2+ !he eastern rays of that sun are its eastern honey-cells; the Ei's are the bees, (the ritual of) the Eig-"eda is the
flower and those waters are the nectar. !hose ery Ei's (the bees) pressed this Eig-"eda. 6rom it, thus pressed, issued
forth as $uice, fame, splendour (of limbs), (alertness of) the senses, irility, and food for eating.
###-i-3+ !hat $uice flowed forth; it settled by the side of the sun. "erily, this it is that appears as the red hue of the sun.
###-ii-*+ %nd its southern rays are its southern honey cells. !he Ia$us erses are the bees. !he Ia$ur-"eda is the flower;
and those waters are the nectar.
###-ii-0+ !hose ery Ia$us erses pressed this Ia$ur-"eda. %nd from it, thus pressed, issued forth as $uice, fame, splendour
of limbs, alertness of the senses, irility, and food for eating.
###-ii-2+ #t, flowed forth; it settled by the side of the sun. "erily, this it is that appears as the white hue of the sun.
###-iii-*+ %nd its western rays are its western honey cells. !he Samans are the bees. !he Sama-"eda is the flower; and
those waters are the nectar.
###-iii-0+ !hose ery Samans pressed this Sama-"eda. 6rom it, thus pressed, issued forth as $uice, fame, splendour of
limbs, alertness of the senses, irility, and food for eating.
###-iii-2+ #t flowed forth; it settled by the side of the sun. "erily, this it is that appears as the blac' hue of the sun.
###-i-*+ %nd its northern rays are its northern honey cells. !he Mantras of the %thara-"eda are the bees. !he #tihasa and
the )urana are the flower; and those waters are the nectar.
###-i-0+ !hose Mantras of the %thara-"eda pressed this #tihasa-)urana. 6rom it, thus pressed, issued forth as $uice,
fame, splendour of limbs, alertness of the senses, irility, and food for eating.
###-i-2+ #t flowed forth; it settled by the side of the sun. "erily, this it is that appears as the deep blac' hue of the sun.
###--*+ %nd its upper rays are its upper honey cells. !he secret teachings are the bees. &rahman ()ranaa) is the flower.
!hose waters (the results of the meditations on the )ranaa) are the nectar.
###--0+ !hose secret teachings pressed this )ranaa. 6rom it, thus pressed, issued forth as $uice, fame, splendour of
limbs, alertness of the senses, irility, and food for eating.
###--2+ #t flowed forth; it settled by the side of the sun. "erily, this it is that appears as the ;uiering in the middle of the
sun.
###--3+ "erily, these hues are the $uice of the $uices, for the "edas are the essences and these are their essence. !hese
hues indeed are the nectar of the nectars, for the "edas are the nectar and these are their nectar.
###-i-*+ !hat which is the first nectar (i.e. the red form), that erily "asus en$oy with %gni as their leader. !he gods,
indeed, neither eat nor drin', only with seeing this nectar are they satisfied.
###-i-0+ !hey enter into this ery form (colour) and out of this form they emerge.
###-i-2+ ,e who 'nows thus this nectar becomes one of the "asus, and with %gni as the leader, is satisfied only with
seeing this nectar. ,e enters into this ery form and out of this form he emerges.
###-i-3+ %s long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, so long does he retain the soereignty and the heaenly
'ingdom of (or similar to that of) the "asus.
###-ii-*+ %nd that which is the second nectar (i.e. the white form), that erily the Eudras en$oy with #ndra as their leader.
!he gods, indeed, neither eat nor drin'; only with seeing this nectar are they satisfied.
###-ii-0+ !hey enter into this ery form and out of this form they emerge.
###-ii-2+ ,e who 'nows thus this nectar becomes one of the Eudras, and with #ndra as the leader, is satisfied only with
seeing this nectar. ,e enters into this ery form and out of this form he emerges.
###-ii-3+ %s long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, een twice so long does he (the Sun) rise in the south
and set in the north and een so long does he retain the soereignty and the heaenly 'ingdom of the Eudras.
###-iii-*+ %nd that which is the third nectar (i.e. the blac' form), that erily the %dityas en$oy with "aruna as their leader.
!he gods, indeed, neither eat nor drin'; only with seeing this nectar are they satisfied.
###-iii-0+ !hey enter into this ery form and out of this form they emerge.
###-iii-2+ ,e who 'nows thus this nectar becomes one of the %dityas, and with "aruna as the leader, is satisfied only with
seeing this nectar. ,e enters into this ery form and out of this form he emerges.
###-iii-3+ %s long as the sun rises in the south and sets in the north, een twice so long does he (the Sun) rise in the west
and set in the east and een so long does he retain the soereignty and the heaenly 'ingdom of the %dityas.
###-iD-*+ %nd that which is the fourth nectar (i.e. the deep blac' colour), that erily the Maruts en$oy with Soma as their
leader. !he gods, indeed, neither eat nor drin'; only with seeing this nectar are they satisfied.
###-iD-0+ !hey enter into this ery form and out of this form they emerge.
###-iD-2+ ,e who 'nows thus this nectar becomes one of the Maruts, and with Soma as the leader is satisfied only with
seeing this nectar.
###-iD-3+ %s long as the sun rises in the west and sets in the east, een twice so long does he (the Sun) rise in the north
and set in the south and een so long does he retain the soereignty and the heaenly 'ingdom of the Maruts.
###-D-*+ %nd that which is the fifth nectar (i.e. the ;uiering form within the sun), that erily the Sadhyas en$oy with
)ranaa as their leader. !he gods, indeed, neither eat nor drin'; only with seeing this nectar are they satisfied.
###-D-0+ !hey enter into this ery form and out of this form they emerge.
###-D-2+ ,e who 'nows thus this nectar becomes one of the Sadhyas, and with )ranaa as the leader is satisfied only with
seeing this nectar.
###-D-3+ %s long as the sun rises in the north and sets in the south, een twice so long does he (the Sun) rise in oerhead
and set below and een so long does he retain the soereignty and the heaenly 'ingdom of the Sadhyas.
###-Di-*+ !hen, rising from there upward, he will neither rise nor set. ,e will remain alone in the middle. !here is this erse
about it+
###-Di-0+ GHeer does this happen there. Heer did the sun set there nor did it rise. O gods, by this, my assertion of the
truth, may # not fall from &rahman5.
###-Di-2+ "erily, for him the sun neither rises nor sets. ,e who thus 'nows this secret of the "edas, for him, there is
perpetual day.
###-Di-3+ ,iranyagarbha imparted this 7octrine of ,oney to )ra$apati, )ra$apati to Manu, and Manu to his progeny. %nd the
father told his eldest son Fddala'a %runi this ery 'nowledge of &rahman.
###-Di-=+ % father may declare to his eldest son or to any other worthy disciple this ery 'nowledge of ,oney.
###-Di->+ %nd not to any one else, een if one should offer him this sea-girt earth filled with wealth. !his (doctrine) is
certainly greater than that. !his certainly is greater than that.
###-Dii-*+ :ayatri indeed is all this, whateer being eDists. Speech indeed is :ayatri; for speech indeed sings and remoes
fear of all this that eDists.
###-Dii-0+ !hat which is this :ayatri, een that is this earth; for on this earth are all the beings established and they do not
transcend it.
###-Dii-2+ !hat which is this earth (as :ayatri), een that is this, i.e. this body in respect of this person; for these senses are
indeed established in this body and they do not transcend it.
###-Dii-3+ !hat which is the body in respect of a person, een that is identical with) the heart within this body; for these
senses are indeed established in it and they do not transcend it.
###-Dii-=+ !his well-'nown :ayatri is four footed and siDfold. !he :ayatri &rahman is thus eDpressed in the following Ei'+
###-Dii->+ Such is the greatness of this (&rahman called :ayatri). !he )erson is een greater than this. %ll this world is a
;uarter of ,im, the other three ;uarters of ,is constitute immortality in heaen.
###-Dii-?-A+ !hat which is (designated as) &rahman, een that is this %'asa outside the body. !hat which is the %'asa
outside the body, een that is the %'asa inside the body. !hat which is the %'asa inside the body, een that is this %'asa
within the (lotus of the) heart. !his &rahman is all-filling and unchanging. ,e who 'nows (&rahman) thus, gets all-filling
and unchanging prosperity.
###-Diii-*+ Of the said heart, there are, indeed, fie doors guarded by the gods. (,e who is in) that which is the eastern
door of this, is )rana. ,e is the eye, he is the sun. !his (&rahman called )rana) should be meditated upon as brightness
and as the source of food. ,e who meditates thus, becomes resplendent and an eater of food.
###-Diii-0+ %nd (he who is in) that which is the southern door of this (heart), is "yana. ,e is the ear, he is the moon. !his
(&rahman called "yana) should be meditated upon as prosperity and fame. ,e who meditates thus becomes prosperous
and famous.
###-Diii-2+ %nd (he who is in) that which is the western door of this (heart), is %pana. ,e is speech, he is fire. !his
(&rahman called %pana) should be meditated upon as the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom and as the source of
food. ,e who meditates thus becomes radiant with the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom and also an eater of food.
###-Diii-3+ %nd (he who is in) that which is the northern door of this (heart), is Samana. ,e is the mind, he is )ar$anya (the
rain-god). !his (&rahman called Samana) should be meditated upon as fame and grace. ,e who meditates thus
becomes famous and graceful.
###-Diii-=+ %nd (he who is in) that which is the upper door of this (heart), is Fdana. ,e is the air, he is the %'asa. !his
(&rahman called Fdana) should be meditated upon as strength and nobility. ,e who meditates thus becomes strong and
noble.
###-Diii->+ !hese, erily, are the fie persons under &rahman, the sentinels of the heaenly world. ,e who adores thus
these fie persons under &rahman, the sentinels of the heaenly world, in his family is a hero born. ,e who adores thus
these fie persons under &rahman, the sentinels of the heaenly world, reaches the heaenly world.
###-Diii-?+ %gain, the light of &rahman that shines aboe this heaen, aboe eerything, aboe all, in the incomparably
good and the highest worlds, een this is the light within the body of man. !his light can be seen inasmuch as one has a
perception of warmth when one touches the body. #t can be heard inasmuch as, on closing the ears, one hears
something li'e the sound of a chariot or the bellowing of a bull, or the sound of a bla1ing fire. One should meditate on the
light as seen and heard. One who meditates on this thus, becomes beautiful and illustrious ( yea, one who meditates
thus.
###-Di-*+ "erily, all this unierse is &rahman. 6rom ,im do all things originate, into ,im do they dissole and by ,im are
they sustained. On ,im should one meditate in tran;uillity. 6or as is one5s faith, such indeed one is; and as is one5s faith
in this world, such one becomes on departing hence. .et one, therefore, cultiate faith.
###-Di-0-2+ ,e, who is permeating the mind, who has )rana for his body, whose nature is consciousness, whose resole
is infallible, whose own form is li'e %'asa, whose creation is all that eDists, whose are all the pure desires, who
possesses all the agreeable odours and all the pleasant tastes, who eDists perading all this, who is without speech (and
other senses), who is free from agitation and eagerness ( this my %tman, residing in (the lotus of) the heart ( is smaller
than a grain of paddy, than a barley corn, than a mustard seed, than a grain of millet or than the 'ernel of a grain of
millet. !his my %tman residing in (the lotus of) the heart is greater than the earth, greater than the s'y, greater than
heaen, greater than all these worlds.
###-Di-3+ ,e, whose creation is all that eDists, whose are all the pure desires, who possesses all the agreeable odours
and all the pleasant tastes, who eDists perading all this, who is without speech (and other senses), who is free from
agitation and eagerness, ,e is my %tman residing in (the lotus of) the heart; ,e is &rahman. On departing hence # shall
attain to ,is being. ,e alone who possesses this faith and has no doubt about it (will obtain the result). !hus declared
Sandilya ( yea, Sandilya.
###-D-*+ !he chest (i.e. the unierse), haing the s'y as its hollow and the earth for its (cured) bottom, does not decay.
!he ;uarters are indeed its corners and heaen its upper lid. !his well-'nown chest is the container of wealth. %ll things
rest in it.
###-D-0+ Of that chest, the eastern ;uarter is named Juhu, the southern is named Sahamana, the western is named Ea$ni
and the northern is named Subhuta. !he air is their calf. ,e who 'nows this air, the calf of the ;uarters, thus (as
immortal), neer weeps in mourning for his son. #, wishing my son5s, longeity, worship thus this air, the calf of the
;uarters. May # neer weep to mourn my son.
###-D-2+ # ta'e refuge in the imperishable chest for such and such and such. # ta'e refuge in )rana for such and such and
such. # ta'e refuge in &huh for such and such and such. # ta'e refuge in &huah for such and such and such. # ta'e
refuge in Sah for such and such and such.
###-D-3+ 8hen # said, G# ta'e refuge in )rana5, (it was because) all these beings, whatsoeer eDist, are indeed )rana. So it
was in this alone that # too' refuge.
###-D-=+ !hen when # said, G# ta'e refuge in &huh5, # said only this+ G# ta'e refuge in the earth, # ta'e refuge in the s'y, # ta'e
refuge in heaen5.
###-D->+ !hen when # said, G# ta'e refuge in &huah5, # said only this+ G# ta'e refuge in 6ire, # ta'e refuge in %ir, # ta'e refuge
in the Sun.5
###-D-?+ !hen, when # said, G# ta'e refuge in Sah5, # said only this+ G# ta'e refuge in the Eig-"eda, # ta'e refuge in the
Ia$ur-"eda, # ta'e refuge in the Sama-"eda5 ( yea, that was what # said.
###-Di-*+ Man, truly, is the sacrifice. ,is (first) twenty-four years are the morning libation, for the metre :ayatri is made up
of twenty-four syllables, and the morning libation is related to the :ayatri metre. 8ith this the "asus are connected. !he
)ranas indeed are the "asus, for they ma'e all this stable.
###-Di-0+ 7uring this period of life if anything (e.g. illness) causes him pain, he should repeat+ GO )ranas, "asus, unite this
morning libation of mind with the midday libation. May # who am a sacrifice not be lost in the midst of the "asus who are
the )ranas5. ,e surely recoers from that and becomes healthy.
###-Di-2+ How, (his neDt) forty-four years are the mid-day libation, (for) the metre !ristubh is made up of forty-four
syllables, and the mid-day libation is related to the !ristubh metre. 8ith this, the Eudras are connected. !he )ranas
indeed are the Eudras, for they cause all this (unierse) to weep.
###-Di-3+ 7uring this period of life if anything (e.g. illness) causes him pain, he should repeat+ GO )ranas, Eudras, unite
this mid-day libation of mine with the third libation. May #, who am a sacrifice, not be lost in the midst of the Eudras who
are the )ranas5. ,e surely recoers from that and becomes healthy.
###-Di-=+ !hen (his neDt) forty-eight years are the third libation. !he metre Jagati is made up of forty-eight syllables and
the third libation is related to the Jagati metre. 8ith this, the %dityas are connected. !he )ranas indeed are the %dityas,
for they accept all this.
###-Di->+ 7uring this period of life if anything (e.g. illness) causes him pain, he should repeat+ GO )ranas, %dityas, eDtend
this third libation of mine to a full length of life. May #, who am a sacrifice, not be lost in the midst of the %dityas who are
the )ranas.5 ,e surely recoers from that and becomes healthy.
###-Di-?+ Knowing this well-'nown (doctrine of sacrifice) %itareya Mahidasa said, G8hy do you afflict me thus, me who
cannot be so 'illed.5 ,e lied for one hundred and siDteen years. ,e, too, who 'nows thus, lies in igour for one hundred
and siDteen years.
###-Dii-*+ !hat he (who performs the )urusha sacrifice) feels hunger, that he feels thirst, that he does not re$oice (all
these are the initiatory rites of this sacrifice.
###-Dii-0+ %nd, that he eats that he drin's, that he re$oices ( all these approach Fpasadas.
###-Dii-2+ %nd, that he laughs, that he eats, that he behaes as one of a couple ( all these approach Stotra and Sastra.
###-Dii-3+ %nd his austerity, gifts, uprightness, non-iolence, and truthfulness ( all these are the largesses of this sacrifice.
###-Dii-=+ !herefore people say Gsosyati5 (will procreate), and Gasosta5 (has procreated). %gain, that is the procreation of
this, and death is the %abhrita bath.
###-Dii->+ :hora %ngirasa eDpounded this well-'nown doctrine to 7ea'i5s son Krishna and said, GSuch a 'nower should,
at the time of death, repeat this triad ( L!hou art the imperishable, !hou art unchangeable, !hou art the subtle essence
of )ranaL. (On hearing the aboe) he became thirstless. !here are these two Ei' stan1as in regard to this.
###-Dii-?+ (!hose 'nowers of &rahman who hae purified their mind through the withdrawal of the senses and other
means li'e &rahmacharya) see eerywhere (the day ( li'e the supreme light) of the ancient One who is the seed of the
unierse, (the light that shines in the <ffulgent &rahman). May we, too haing perceied the highest light which dispels
dar'ness, reach it. ,aing perceied the highest light in our own heart we hae reached that highest light, which is the
dispeller (of water, rays of light and the )ranas), shining in all gods ( yea, we hae reached that highest light.
###-Diii-*+ !he mind is &rahman, thus one should meditate ( this is (the meditation) with regard to the body (including the
mind). HeDt, the meditation with regard to the gods ( the %'asa is &rahman, thus (one should meditate). &oth the
meditations, with regard to the body and with regard to the gods are being en$oined.
###-Diii-0+ !his same &rahman has four feet. !he organ of speech is one foot. )rana (the organ of smell) is one foot, the
eye is one foot and the ear is one foot. !his is with reference to the body. HeDt, with reference to the gods. %gni is one
foot, "ayu is one foot, %ditya is one foot and the ;uarters are one foot. !hus both the meditations, with reference to the
body and with reference to the gods, are en$oined.
###-Diii-2+ !he organ of speech is one of the four feet of &rahman (called Mind). 8ith the light of fire it shines and warms.
,e who 'nows thus, shines and warms with fame and celebrity and with the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom.
###-Diii-3+ !he organ of smell is one of the four feet of &rahman. 8ith the light of air it shines and warms. ,e who 'nows
thus, shines and warms with fame and celebrity and with the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom.
###-Diii-=+ !he eye is one of the four feet of &rahman. 8ith the light of the sun it shines and warms. ,e who 'nows thus,
shines and warms with fame and celebrity and with the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom.
###-Diii->+ !he ear is one of the four feet of &rahman. 8ith the light of the ;uarters it shines and warms. ,e who 'nows
thus, shines and warms with fame and celebrity and with the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom ( yea, he who
'nows thus.
###-DiD-*+ !he Sun is &rahman ( this is the teaching. !he further eDplanation of this (is here gien). &efore creation, this
unierse was non-eDistent. !hen it became eDistent. #t grew; it turned into an egg; it lay for a period of one year; (and
then) it burst open. Of the two hales of that egg-shell, one was of siler and the other of gold.
###-DiD-0+ Of these, that which was of siler is this earth. !hat which was of gold is heaen. !hat which was the outer
membrane is the mountains. !hat which was the inner membrane is the mist together with the clouds. !hose which were
the eins are the riers. !hat which was the water in the lower belly is the ocean.
###-DiD-2+ %nd that which was born is the yonder sun. %fter he was born, sounds of the form of loud shouts arose, as also
all beings and all desired ob$ects. !herefore at his rise and his eery return (or his setting), sounds of the form of loud
shouts arise, as also all beings and all desired ob$ects.
###-DiD-3+ ,e who 'nows the Sun thus and meditates on it as &rahman, auspicious sounds will hasten to him and continue
to delight him ( yea, will continue to delight.
#"-i-*+ Om. !here lied Janasruti )autrayana who made gifts with respect, who gae liberally, and who had much food
coo'ed (for others). ,e built rest-houses all round, thin'ing, G<erywhere people will eat of my food5.
#"-i-0+ Once at night, the swans flew along. !hen one swan addressed another swan thus, G,o, ,o, O &halla'sa,
&halla'sa, the effulgence of Janasruti )autrayana has spread li'e the heaen. 7o not come in touch with it, lest it should
scorch you.5
#"-i-2+ &halla'sa replied to him, Glo, how could you so describe him as if he were Eai'a with the cart C5 GOf what sort is
this Eai'a with the cart C5
#"-i-3+ GJust as all the lower casts of the dice go oer to one who has won the Krita-cast, so does go oer to Eai'a
whatsoeer good the creatures do; so also to him who 'nows what Eai'a 'nows. Such is he who has thus been spo'en
of by me.5
#"-i-=->+ Janasruti )autrayana oerheard those words. %s soon as he arose, he said to the attendant, G.o, did you praise
me li'e Eai'a with the cart C5 G8hat sort of man is this Eai'a with the cart C5 (Janasruti repeated the words of the
swan)+ GJust as all the lower casts of the dice go oer to one who has won the Krita-cast, so does go oer to Eai'a
whatsoeer good the creatures do; and so also to him who 'nows what Eai'a 'nows. Such is he who has thus been
spo'en of by me5.
#"-i-?+ !he attendant, haing searched for him, came bac' thin'ing, G# could not find him5. Janasruti said to him, G8ell,
where the 'nower of &rahman should be searched for there search for him5.
#"-i-@+ (%fter searching) he came to a man sitting under a cart and scratching eruptions on his s'in and, sitting near him,
as'ed him, GEeered sir, are you Eai'a with the cart C5 G8ell fellow, yes, # am5, he admitted. !hin'ing G# hae found him5,
the attendant returned.
#"-ii-*-0+ On hearing this, Janasruti )autrayana too' with him siD hundred cows, a gold nec'lace, and a chariot drawn by
mules and went to Eai'a and addressed him thus+ GO Eai'a, (here are for you) these siD hundred cows, this gold
nec'lace, and this chariot drawn by mules. How, reered sir, instruct me about the deity whom you worship.5
#"-ii-2+ !he other man answered him thus+ G%h, O Sudra, let this gold nec'lace together with the chariot and the cows
remain with you.5 !hereupon Janasruti )autrayana again too' with him one thousand cows, a gold nec'lace, a chariot
drawn by mules and his daughter and went oer to Eai'a.
#"-ii-3+ Janasruti said to him+ GO Eai'a, (here are for you) these one thousand cows, this gold nec'lace, this chariot
drawn by mules, this wife, and this illage in which you reside. How, reered sir, please instruct me5.
#"-ii-=+ !a'ing that princess to be the portal for the coneying of 'nowledge, Eai'a said, GO Sudra, you hae brought all
these ! <en by this means (i.e. the princess) you will ma'e me tal'.5 !he 'ing gae away to him all those illages in the
Maharisa country 'nown as Eai'aparna where Eai'a lied. Eai'a said to him+
#"-iii-*+ %ir indeed is the absorber. 6or when a fire goes out, it is in air that it merges; when the sun sets, it is in air that it
merges; when the moon sets, it is in air that it merges.
#"-iii-0+ 8hen water dries up, it is in air that it merges; for air absorbs all these. !his is (the doctrine of Samarga) with
reference to the gods.
#"-iii-2+ HeDt is (the doctrine of Samarga) with reference to the body+ )rana indeed is the absorber. 8hen one sleeps,
speech merges in )rana, the eye merges in )rana, the ear merges in )rana, the mind merges in )rana+ for )rana,
indeed, absorbs all these.
#"-iii-3+ !hese, indeed, are the two absorbers+ %ir among the gods and )rana among the sense-organs.
#"-iii-=+ Once upon a time, while Kapeya Sauna'a and Ka'saseni %bhipratarin were being sered with food, a celibate
student of sacred 'nowledge begged of them. !hey did not gie him anything.
#"-iii->+ !he &rahmacharin said, G)ra$apati, the one god swallowed up the four great ones; he is the protector of the
worlds. O Kapeya, O %bhipratarin, mortals do not see him who dwells ariously. <en from him, for whom all this food is
meant, you hae withheld it.5
#"-iii-?+ Kapeya Sauna'a, reflecting on those words, approached him (and said)+ G,e who is the self of all gods and the
creator of all beings, who has undecaying teeth, who is the deourer, who is the wise one, who is himself neer eaten
(but) who deours een those who are not food; and hence (the 'nowers) describe his magnificence as immeasurable (
such, indeed, is the &rahman, O &rahmacharin, whom we worship5. (!hen he told the serants)+ G:ie him food5.
#"-iii-@+ !hey gae him food. How, these fie and the other fie, together becoming ten, constitute the Krita (dice-cast).
!herefore (i.e. because the number ten applies to both), these ten are the food or "irat dwelling in all the ten ;uarters,
and these are (the en$oyer) Krita. !his "irat, of the form of ten deities, again, is the eater of food (as Krita); by him all this
is perceied. ,e who sees thus, by him also all this is perceied, and he becomes as eater of food.
#"-i-*+ Once upon a time Satya'ama Jabala addressed his mother Jabala, GMother, # desire to lie the life of a celibate
student of sacred 'nowledge in the teacher5s house. Of what lineage am # C5
#"-i-0+ She said to him, GMy child, # do not 'now of what lineage you are. #, who was engaged in many wor's and in
attending on others, got you in my youth. ,aing been such # could not 'now of what lineage you are. ,oweer, # am
Jabala by name and you are named Satya'ama. So you spea' of yourself only as Satya'ama Jabala.5
#"-i-2+ ,e went to ,aridrumata :autama and said, G# desire to lie under you, reered sir, as a &rahmacharin; may #
approach your enerable self (for the same) C5
#"-i-3+ :autama as'ed him, G7ear boy, of what lineage are you C5 ,e replied, GSir, # do not 'now of what lineage # am. #
as'ed my mother; she replied, L#, who was engaged in many wor's and in attending on others, got you in my youth.
,aing been such, # could not 'now of what lineage you are. ,oweer, # am Jabala by name and you are named
Satya'amaL. So, sir, # am Satya'ama Jabala.5
#"-i-=+ !he teacher said to him, GHo one who is not a &rahmana can spea' thus. 7ear boy, bring the sacrificial fuel, #
shall initiate you as a &rahmacharin, for you hae not deiated from truth5. ,aing initiated him, he sorted out four
hundred lean and wea' cows and said, G7ear boy, follow them.5 8hile he was driing them towards the forest Satya'ama
said, G# shall not return till it is one thousand.5 ,e lied away for a long time, till they had increased to one thousand.
#"--*+ !hen the bull addressed him thus, GSatya'ama !5 GIes, reered sir5, thus he responded, G7ear boy, we hae
reached a thousand, ta'e us to the house of the teacher.5
#"--0+ G.et me instruct you about one foot of &rahman also5. G)lease instruct me, reered sir.5 (!he bull) said to him, G!he
eastern ;uarter is one part, the western ;uarter is one part, the southern ;uarter is one part, the northern ;uarter is one
part. !his indeed, dear boy, is one foot of &rahman, consisting of four, named the Eadiant.
#"--2+ G,e who 'nows this one foot of &rahman consisting of four parts thus, and meditates on it as the Eadiant,
becomes radiant in this world. ,e who 'nows this one foot of &rahman consisting of four parts thus, and meditates on it
as the Eadiant, wins the radiant regions (in the neDt world).5
#"-i-*+ G6ire will tell you of one foot of &rahman5. %t dawn of the neDt day he droe the cows towards the teacher5s
house. !owards eening, at the place where those cows came together, he 'indled the fire there, penned the cows, laid
on fuel and sat down near them behind the fire, facing the east.
#"-i-0+ !he fire addressed him, GSatya'ama !5 GIes, reered sir5, he responded.
#"-i-2+ G7ear boy, let me instruct you about one foot of &rahman5. G)lease instruct me, reered sir.5 (!he fire) said to him,
G!he earth is one part, the s'y is one part, heaen is one part, and the ocean is one part. !his indeed, dear boy, is one
foot of &rahman, consisting of four parts, named the <ndless.
#"-i-3+ G,e who 'nows this one foot of &rahman consisting of four parts thus, and meditates on it as the <ndless,
becomes endless in this world. ,e who 'nows this one foot of &rahman consisting of four parts thus, and meditates on it
as the <ndless, wins the endless (undecaying) regions.5
#"-ii-*+ G!he swan will tell you of one foot of &rahman5. %t dawn of the neDt day, he droe the cows towards the teacher5s
house. !owards eening, at the place where the cows came together, he 'indled the fire there, penned the cows, laid on
fuel and sat down near them behind the fire facing the east.
#"-ii-0+ !he swan flew to him and addressed him, GSatya'ama !5 GIes, reered sir5, he responded.
#"-ii-2+ G7ear boy, let me instruct you about one foot of &rahman5. G)lease instruct me reered sir.5 (!he swan) said to
him, G6ire is one part, the sun is one part, the moon is one part, and lightning is one part. !his indeed, dear boy, is one
foot of &rahman, consisting of four parts, named the <ffulgent.
#"-ii-3+ G,e who 'nows this one foot of &rahman consisting of four parts thus, and meditates on it as the <ffulgent,
becomes effulgent in this world. ,e who 'nows this one foot of &rahman consisting of four parts thus, and meditates on it
as the <ffulgent, wins the effulgent regions (of the sun, the moon, etc., in the neDt world).5
#"-iii-*+ GMadgu will tell you of one foot of &rahman5. %t dawn of the neDt day, he droe the cows towards the teacher5s
house. !owards eening at the place where the cows came together, he 'indled the fire there, penned the cows, laid on
fuel and sat down near them behind the fire facing the east.
#"-iii-0+ !he Madgu bird flew to him and addressed him, GSatya'ama !5 GIes, reered sir5, he responded.
#"-iii-2+ G7ear boy, let me instruct you about one foot of &rahman5. G)lease instruct me, reered sir5. (!he Madgu bird)
said to him, G)rana is one part, the eye is one part, the ear is one part, and the mind is one part. !his indeed, dear boy, is
one foot of &rahman, consisting of four parts, named the Eepository.
#"-iii-3+ G,e who 'nows this one foot of &rahman consisting of four parts thus, and meditates on it as the Eepository,
becomes repository (i.e. with proper abode) in this world. ,e who 'nows this one foot of &rahman consisting of four parts
thus, and meditates on it as the Eepository, wins the repository (i.e. eDtensie) regions (in the neDt world).5
#"-iD-*+ Satya'ama reached the house of the teacher. !he teacher addressed him, GSatya'ama !5 GIes, reered sir5, he
responded.
#"-iD-0+ G7ear boy, you shine li'e a 'nower of &rahman; who is it that has instructed you C5 Satya'ama assured him,
G)eople other than men. &ut # wish, reered sir, that you would eDpound it to me.
#"-iD-2+ G# hae definitely heard from persons li'e your enerable self that the 'nowledge directly learnt from one5s own
teacher becomes most beneficial5. !he teacher taught him the same thing, and nothing was omitted from this ( yea,
nothing was omitted.
#"-D-*+ Once upon a time Fpa'osala Kamalayana lied with Satya'ama Jabala the life of a &rahmacharin. ,e tended his
fires for twele years. Satya'ama performed for other disciples the ceremony of completing studies and returning home,
but did not perform the ceremony for Fpa'osala.
#"-D-0+ !he wife of the teacher said to him, G!his &rahmacharin has undergone seere austerities and has tended the
fires properly; you should teach him so that the fires may not blame you.5 &ut the teacher went away on a $ourney without
instructing him.
#"-D-2+ !hrough mental sufferings Fpa'osala began to fast. !he wife of the teacher said to him, GO &rahmacharin, do eat;
why are you not eating C5 ,e replied, G#n this (ery ordinary and disappointed) man (i.e. myself) there are many desires
running in arious directions; # am full of mental sufferings; so # shall not eat.5
#"-D-3+ !hereupon the fires said among themseles, G!his &rahmacharin has undergone seere austerities and has
tended us properly; come let us instruct him5. !hey then said to him, G)rana (life) is &rahman, Ka ($oy) is &rahman, Kha
(ether) is &rahman5.
#"-D-=+ ,e said, G# understand that )rana is &rahman; but # do not understand Ka and Kha.5 !hey said, G8hat is Ka, een
that is Kha; and what is Kha, een that is Ka5. !hen the fires instructed him about )rana (&rahman) and the %'asa within
the heart related to it.
#"-Di-*+ !hen the :arhapatya fire instructed him+ G<arth, fire, food and the sun (are my forms). !he person who is seen in
the sun, # am he, # am he, indeed.5
#"-Di-0+ G,e who 'nows it thus and meditates on it, destroys sinful acts, wins the region (of fire), reaches the full length of
life, lies gloriously, and his descendants neer perish. 8e protect him in this world and in the neDt, who 'nows it thus
and meditates on it.5
#"-Dii-*+ !hen the %naharyapacana fire instructed him+ G8ater, the ;uarters, the stars and the moon (are my forms). !he
person who is seen in the moon, # am he, # am he indeed.
#"-Dii-0+ G,e who 'nows it thus and meditates on it, destroys sinful acts, wins the region (of fire), reaches the full length of
life, lies gloriously, and his descendants neer perish. 8e protect him in this world and in the neDt, who 'nows it thus
and meditates on it.5
#"-Diii-*+ !hen the %haaniya fire instructed him, G)rana, %'asa, heaen and lightning (are my forms). !he person who is
seen in the lightning, # am he; # am he, indeed.
#"-Diii-0+ G,e who 'nows it thus and meditates on it, destroys sinful acts, wins the region (of fire), reaches the full length of
life, lies gloriously, and his descendants neer perish. 8e protect him in this world and in the neDt, who 'nows it thus
and meditates on it.5
#"-Di-*+ !he fires said, GO Fpa'osala, dear boy, to you (are reealed) this 'nowledge of the fires and the 'nowledge of
the %tman; but the teacher will tell you the way.5 ,is teacher came bac'. !he teacher addressed him GFpa'osala !5
#"-Di-0+ GIes, reered sir5, he responded. G7ear boy, your face shines li'e that of a 'nower of &rahman ! who is it that has
instructed you C5 G8ho should instruct me sir C5, said he. ,ere he concealed the truth, as it were. G6or this reason it is that
though they were (formerly) otherwise they are now this wise5. So saying, he hinted at the (part played by the) fires in this
matter. G8hat did they tell you, dear boy C5
#"-Di-2+ G!his5, thus he ac'nowledged. G7ear boy, they hae told you about the regions only; but # shall tell you the ob$ect
of your desire (i.e. &rahman). Just as water does not cling to the lotus-leaf, so also sin does not cling to him who 'nows
&rahman thus5. GEeered sir, please instruct me further5. (!he teacher) said to him+
#"-D-*+ G!his person who is seen in the eye, he is the %tman5, said the teacher; Gthis is the immortal, the fearless. !his is
&rahman. ,ence, een if one sprin'les clarified butter or water into the eye, it goes away to the edges.5
#"-D-0+ G!he 'nowers of &rahman call him as the centre of blessings; for all blessings come together in him. %ll blessings
come together in him who 'nows thus.5
#"-D-2+ G,e, again, is the ehicle of blessings; for he carries all blessings. ,e who 'nows it thus carries all blessings. ,e
who 'nows it thus carries all blessings.5
#"-D-3+ G,e again, is the ehicle of light; for he shines in all the regions. ,e who 'nows it thus shines in all the regions.5
#"-D-=+ GHow, as for such persons, whether the cremation rites are performed or not, they go to light; from light to the
day; from the day to the bright fortnight; from the bright fortnight to those siD months during which (the sun) rises towards
the north; from the months to the year; from the year to the sun; from the sun to the moon; from the moon to the
lightning. (6rom the region of &rahman) a person, who is other than human, (comes and) causes them eDisting there, to
reali1e &rahman. !his is the path of the gods and the path to &rahman. !hose who go by this path do not return to this
human whirlpool ( yes, they do not return.5
#"-Di-*+ ,e who blows (i.e. air) is indeed the sacrifice, he, moing along, purifies all this. %nd because moing along he
purifies all this, he is the sacrifice. Mind and speech are the two paths of this sacrifice.
#"-Di-0-2+ One of these two paths, the &rahman priest embellishes with the mind. !he ,otir, %dharyu and Fdgatir
priests embellish the other with speech. %fter the )rataranua'a (the morning recitation) is commenced, and before the
)aridhaniya Ei' is begun, if the &rahman priest spea's out (brea'ing silence), then he embellishes only one path (i1.
Speech) and the other is in$ured. Just as a man wal'ing with one leg, or a chariot moing with one wheel suffers in$ury,
so also that sacrifice of this one suffers in$ury, and when the sacrifice suffers in$ury, the sacrificer also suffers in$ury. 6or
haing completed the (defectie) sacrifice, he becomes a worse sinner.
#"-Di-3+ &ut, after the )rataranua'a is commenced and before the )aridhaniya Ei' is begun, if the &rahman priest does
not brea' his silence then both the paths are embellished; and neither one is in$ured.
#"-Di-=+ %nd $ust as a man wal'ing with both the legs, or a chariot moing with both the wheels, remains intact, so also
the sacrifice of this one remains intact. #f the sacrifice remains intact, the sacrificer also remains intact. ,e becomes
great by performing the sacrifice.
#"-Dii-*+ )ra$apati brooded on the worlds. 6rom them thus brooded upon, he eDtracted their essences; fire from the
earth, air from the s'y and the sun from heaen.
#"-Dii-0+ ,e brooded on these three deities. 6rom them thus brooded upon, he eDtracted their essences+ the Ei's from
fire, the Ia$us-mantras from air, and the Saman from the sun.
#"-Dii-2+ ,e brooded on the three "edas. 6rom them thus brooded upon, he eDtracted their eDistences; &huh from the
Ei's, &huah from the Ia$us-mantras and Sah from the Samans.
#"-Dii-3+ !herefore if the sacrifice is rendered defectie on account of the Ei's, then with the Mantra G&huh Saha5, (the
&rahman priest) should offer an oblation in the :arhapatya fire. !hus erily, through the essence of the Ei's, through the
irility of the Ei's, he ma'es good the in$ury of the sacrifice in respect of the Ei's.
#"-Dii-=+ %nd if the sacrifice is rendered defectie on account of the Ia$us, then with the Mantra G&huah Saha5, (the
&rahman priest) should offer an oblation in the 7a'sinagni. !hus erily, through the essence of the Ia$us-mantras,
through the irility of the Ia$us-mantras, he ma'es good the in$ury of the sacrifice in respect of the Ia$us-mantras.
#"-Dii->+ %nd if the sacrifice is rendered defectie on account of the Samans, then with the Mantra GSah Saha5 (the
&rahman priest) should offer an oblation to the %haaniya fire. !hus erily, through the essence of the Samans, through
the irility of the Saman, he ma'es good the in$ury of the sacrifice in respect of the Samans.
#"-Dii-?-@+ Just as one would $oin gold with salt, siler with gold, tin with siler, lead with tin, iron with lead, wood with
iron, and wood with leather, een so does (the &rahman priest) ma'e good the in$ury of the sacrifice through the irility of
these regions, of these deities, and of the three "edas. !hat sacrifice indeed is healed where there is a &rahman priest
'nowing thus.
#"-Dii-A+ !hat sacrifice indeed becomes inclined to the north, where there is a &rahman priest 'nowing thus. #t is in
reference to the &rahman priest 'nowing thus that there is this song+ G8hence-so-eer the sacrifice comes bac', thither
erily does the &rahman priest go (to remedy)5.
#"-Dii-*B+ Just as the mare protects (the soldier), een so the silent &rahman priest is the only priest who protects the
people engaged in rituals. !he &rahman priest who 'nows thus erily protects the sacrifice, the sacrificer, and all the
priests. ,ence one should appoint as a &rahman priest only him who 'nows thus, not one who does not 'now thus (
yea, not one who does not 'now thus
"-i-*+ Om, "erily, he who 'nows the eldest and the best, surely becomes the eldest and the best. )rana is indeed the
eldest and the best (of the organs).
"-i-0+ "erily, he who 'nows the richest, becomes the richest among his own people. Speech is indeed the richest.
"-i-2+ "erily, he who 'nows the stable basis, becomes stabili1ed in this world and in the neDt. !he eye is indeed the
stable basis.
"-i-3+ "erily, he who 'nows prosperity, attains all desires, both diine and human. !he ear is indeed prosperity.
"-i-=+ "erily, he who 'nows the abode, becomes the abode of his people. !he mind is indeed the abode.
"-i->+ How, once the fie senses disputed among themseles about their personal superiority, saying G# am superior5.
"-i-?+ !hose senses approached the father )ra$apati and said to him, GEeered sir, who is the best amongst us C5 ,e
replied, G,e amongst you is the best on whose departure the body would appear its worst, as it were.5
"-i-@+ Speech departed. Staying a year out, it came bac' and as'ed, G,ow hae you been able to lie without me C5 (!he
others replied,) GJust li'e the dumb, though not spea'ing, yet liing with the breath, seeing with the eyes, hearing with the
ear and thin'ing with the mind.5 (%t this) speech entered (the body).
"-i-A+ !he eye departed. Staying a year out, it came bac' and as'ed, G,ow hae you been able to lie without me C5 (!he
others replied,) GJust li'e the blind, though not seeing, yet liing with the breath, spea'ing with the organ of speech,
hearing with the ear and thin'ing with the mind.5 (%t this) the eye entered (the body).
"-i-*B+ !he ear departed. Staying a year out, it came bac' and as'ed, G,ow hae you been able to lie without me C5
(!he others replied,) GJust li'e the deaf, though not hearing, yet liing with the breath, spea'ing with the organ of speech,
seeing with the eye and thin'ing with the mind.5 (%t this) the ear entered (the body).
"-i-**+ !he mind departed. Staying a year out, it came bac' and as'ed, G,ow hae you been able to lie without me C5
(!he others replied,) GJust li'e infants without deeloped minds, yet liing with the breath, spea'ing with the organ of
speech, seeing with the eye and hearing with the ear.5 (%t this) the mind entered (the body).
"-i-*0+ !hen, as the )rana was about to depart, it uprooted the other senses $ust as a horse of mettle would uproot the
pegs to which it is tethered. !hey all then came to it and said, GO reered sir, be our lord, you are the best amongst us; do
not depart from the body.5
"-i-*2+ !hen speech said to that one, GJust as # am the richest, in the same manner are you also the richest5. !hen the
eye said to that one, GJust as # am the stable basis, in the same manner are you also the stable basis5.
"-i-*3+ !hen the ear said to that one, GJust as # am prosperity, in the same manner are you also prosperity.5 !hen the
mind said to that one, GJust as # am the abode, in the same manner are you also the abode.5
"-i-*=+ "erily, people do not call them as organs of speech, nor as eyes, nor as ears, nor as minds. &ut they call them
only as )ranas; for the )rana indeed is all these.
"-ii-*+ ,e (the )rana) as'ed, G8hat will be my foodC5 G8hateer there is here, een (the food) of dogs and birds5, replied
the senses. 8hateer is eaten, all that is the food of %na. !he name L%na5 indeed is self-eident. 6or him who 'nows
thus there is nothing that is not food.
"-ii-0+ ,e as'ed, G8hat will be my garments C5 G8ater5, replied the senses. !herefore, indeed, those who are about to eat,
coer it, both before and after, with water. (,e who 'nows thus) becomes the obtainer of clothes and of upper garments.
"-ii-2+ Satya'ama Jabala imparted this (doctrine of )rana) to :osruti, the son of "yaghrapada, and said, G#f anyone
should impart this een to a dry stump, then branches would certainly shoot and leaes would sprout from it5.
"-ii-3+ HeDt, if that 'nower of )rana desires to attain greatness, then haing consecrated himself on the new moon day,
he should, on the full moon night, stir up in a essel of curd and honey the mash of all herbs and then offer an oblation
into the fire on the spot prescribed for offerings, with the Mantra, GSaha to the eldest and the best5, and throw what
remains attached to the ladle into the mash-pot.
"-ii-=+ 8ith the Mantra LSaha to the richest5, he should offer an oblation into the fire on the spot prescribed for offerings,
and throw what remains attached to the ladle into the mash-pot. 8ith the Mantra GSaha to what is stable5, he should
offer an oblation into the fire on the spot prescribed for offerings, and throw what remains attached to the ladle into the
mash-pot. 8ith Mantra GSaha to prosperity5, he should offer an oblation into the fire on the spot prescribed for offerings,
and throw what remains attached to the ladle into the mash-pot. 8ith the Mantra GSaha to the abode5, he should offer an
oblation into the fire on the spot prescribed for offerings, and throw what remains attached to the ladle into the mash-pot.
"-ii->+ !hen, moing a little away and ta'ing the mash-pot in his hands, he should recite (the Mantra)+ GIou are %ma by
name, for all this (unierse) rests with you. ,e (i.e. you as )rana) is the eldest, the best, the effulgent, and soereign.
May he (i.e. you as )rana) lead me to the eldest age, to the best position, to effulgence, and to soereignty. "erily # wish
to become all this.5
"-ii-?+ !hen, reciting this Ei'-mantra, foot by foot, he should sip. G8e pray for that food pertaining to the )rogenitor5,
saying this (line) he should sip. G8e pray for the food of the effulgent one5, saying this he should sip. G(8hich is) the best
and all-sustaining5, saying this he should sip. 8e readily meditate upon (the form of the deity) &haga5, saying this and
washing the pot shaped li'e a Kamsa (goblet) or a 9amasa (cup), he should drin' all. !hen he should lie down behind
the fire on a s'in or on the ground, controlling speech and mind. #f he should see a woman (in a dream), he should 'now
that his rite has succeeded.
"-ii-@+ !here is this erse about it+ 7uring the performance of the rites for desired results if the performer sees a woman
in a dream, then he should recogni1e fulfilment in this ision in a dream ( yea, in this ision in a dream.
"-iii-*+ Once Seta'etu, the grandson of %runa, came to the assembly of the )anchalas. )raahana, the son of Jiala,
en;uired of him, GMy boy, has your father instructed you C5 G,e has indeed, reered sir5.
"-iii-0+ G7o you 'now where created beings go aboe from here C5 Ho, reered sir5. G7o you 'now the place of parting of
the two paths ( the path of the gods and the path of the fathers C5 GHo, reered sir5.
"-iii-2+ G7o you 'now why the other world is not filled up C5 GHo, reered sir5. G7o you 'now how, at the fifth oblation, the
li;uid oblations (or unseen results of action) come to be designated as man C5 GHo, indeed, reered sir5.
"-iii-3+ 5!hen why did you say, L# hae been instructedL C 6o1, how can he who does not 'now these things say, L# hae
been instructedL C5 ,e was distressed and came to his father5s place and said to him, GEeered Sir, wiuhout haing
instructed me properly you said, L# hae instructed youL.5
"-iii-=+ G!hat nominal Kshatriya as'ed me fie ;uestions, and # was not able to answer een one of them5. !he father said,
G<en as you hae spo'en to me about them, so do # not 'now een one of them. #f # had 'nown them, why should # not
hae toll you C5
"-iii->+ !hen :autama went to the 'ing5s place. 8hen he arried, the 'ing made reerential offerings to him. #n the
morning he presented himself to the 'ing when he was in the assembly. !he 'ing said to him, GO reered :autama,
please as' for a boon of human wealth5. ,e replied, GO 'ing, let the human wealth remain with you, tell me those words
which you spo'e to my boy5. !he 'ing was perturbed.
"-iii-?+ !he 'ing commanded him, GStay here for a long time.5 %t the end of the period he said to him, G<en as you told
me, O :autama, prior to you, this 'nowledge neer went to the &rahmanas. !his is why the eDpounding of this
'nowledge belonged to the Kshatriyas in earlier times in all the worlds5. !hen he instructed him.
"-i-*+ !he world yonder is indeed the fire, O :autama. Of that, the sun is the fuel, the rays are the smo'e, the day is the
flame, the moon is the embers, and the stars are the spar's.
"-i-0+ #nto this fire the deities offer the oblation of faith. Out of that oblation King Soma arises.
"--*+ )ar$anya is indeed the fire, O :autama. Of that, the air is the fuel, the cloud is the smo'e, the lightning is the
flame, the thunderbolt is the embers, and the rumblings of thunder are the spar's.
"--0+ #nto this fire the deities offer the oblation of King Soma. Out of that oblation rain arises.
"-i-*+ !he earth indeed is the fire, O :autama. Of that, the year, is the fuel, %'asa is the smg'e, night is the flame, the
directions are the embers, and the intermediate directions are the spar's.
"-i-0+ #nto this fire the deities offer the oblation of rain. Out of that oblation food (in the shape of corn) arises.
"-ii-*+ Man indeed is the fire, O :autama. Of that, speech is the fuel, )rana is the smo'e, the tongue is the flame, the
eye is the embers, and the ear is the spar's.
"-ii-0+ #nto this fire the deities offer the oblation of food. Out of that oblation the seed arises.
"-iii-*-0+ 8oman indeed is the fire, O :autama. #nto this fire the deities offer the oblation of the seed. Out of that
oblation the foetus arises.
"-iD-*+ !hus at the fifth oblation, (the oblation called) water comes to be designated as man. !hat foetus, coered with
membrane, lies for nine or ten months, and is then born.
"-iD-0+ &eing born, he lies whateer the length of his life may be. 8hen he is dead (to attain the world) as ordained,
they carry him from here (for cremation) to fire itself from which alone he came and from which he arose.
"-D-*-0+ %mong them, those who 'now thus (this 'nowledge of the fie fires) and those who are deoted to faith and
austerity in the forest ( they go to light; from light to the day, from the day to the bright fortnight, from the bright fortnight
to those siD months during which the sun traels northward; from the months to the year, from the year to the sun, from
the sun to the moon and from the moon to the lightning. (6rom the region of &rahman) a person, who is other than
human, (comes and) causes them, eDisting there, to attain &rahman. !his is the path of the gods.
"-D-2+ &ut those who liing in illages (as householders) practise sacrifices and wor's of public utility and gift, go to
smo'e, from smo'e to night, from night to the dar' fortnight, from the dar' fortnight to those months during which the sun
traels southward. 6rom there they do not reach the year (li'e those going the path of the gods).
"-D-3+ 6rom the months, (they go) to the region of the fathers, from the region of the fathers to %'asa, from %'asa to the
moon. !his (i.e. this moon) is King Soma (the 'ing of the &rahmanas). !his is the food of the deities. !his the deities eat.
"-D-=+ Eesiding in that (region of the moon) till they hae eDhausted (the results of action) they then return again the
same way as they came (by the path that is being mentioned). !hey come to %'asa, and from %'asa to air. ,aing
become air, they become smo'e. ,aing become smo'e they become the white cloud.
"-D->+ ,aing become the white cloud, they become the (rain-bearing) cloud. ,aing become the cloud they fall as rain.
!hen they are born in this world as rice and barley, herbs and trees, sesamum plants and beans. &ut the release from
these is more difficult, for whoeer eats the food and sows the seed, they become li'e him only.
"-D-?+ %mong them, those who hae good residual results of action here (earned in this world and left as residue after
the en$oyment in the region of the moon), ;uic'ly reach a good womb, the womb of a &rahmana, or of a Kshatriya or of a
"aisya. &ut those who hae bad residual results of action ;uic'ly reach an eil womb, the womb of a dog or of a hog or
of a 9handala.
"-D-@+ !hen, by neither of these two paths, do they go. !hey, as small creatures, 'eep repeatedly reoling, sub$ect to
the saying G&e born and die5. !his is the third state. !herefore that region (of the moon) is neer filled up. ,ence one
should be disgusted (with this state). !here is this erse about it.
"-D-A+ One who steals gold, one who drin's wine, one who dishonours the teacher5s bed, and one who in$ures a
&rahmana ( all these four fall, as also the fifth one who associates with them.
"-D-*B+ Moreoer, he who 'nows (worships) these fie fires thus, een though he associates with those sinners, is not
tainted by sin. ,e who 'nows these thus becomes cleansed and pure and obtains the meritorious world ( yea, he who
'nows thus.
"-Di-*+ )racinasala the son of Fpamanyu, Satyaya$na the son of )ulusa, #ndradyumna the son of &hallai, Jana the son
of Sar'ara'sa, and &udila the son of %satarasa ( these fie great householders and great "edic scholars, haing
come together, held a discussion on G8hat is our %tman C 8hat is &rahman C5
"-Di-0+ !hey reflected among themseles, GEeered sirs, Fddala'a, the son of %runa, 'nows well this "aisanara %tman.
8ell, let us go to him5. %nd they went to him.
"-Di-2+ Fddala'a reflected, G!hese great householders and great "edic scholars are going to uestion me; but possibly #
shall not be able to tell them eerything. ,oweer, # shall direct them to another teacher5.
"-Di-3+ Fddala'a said to the, GEeered sirs, at present, %sapati, the son of Ke'aya, is studying this "aisanara %tman.
8ell, let us go to him5. !hen they went to him.
"-Di-=+ 8hen they arried, the 'ing arranged for each of them separately a welcome with suitable rites. HeDt morning, on
rising, he said to them, G#n my 'ingdom there is no thief, no miser, no drun'ard, no man who has not installed the fire, no
ignorant person, no adulterer, so how can there be any adulteress C Eeered sirs, # am going to perform a sacrifice. #n
that as much wealth, sirs, as # gie to each single priest, shall # gie to you also. Eeered sirs, please remain5.
"-Di->+ !hey said, G!he purpose for which a man goes (to another), on that alone he should spea' to him. Iou are, at
present, studying the "aisanara %tman, please tell us of that.
"-Di-?+ !he 'ing said to them, G# shall answer you in the morning5. #n the morning, they approached him with sacrificial fuel
in their hands. !he 'ing, without receiing them as initiated pupils, spo'e thus+
"-Dii-*+ GO %upamanyaa, what is the %tman on which you meditate C5 ,e replied, G,eaen only, O enerable 'ing5. !he
'ing said, G!his that you meditate upon as %tman is the "aisanara %tman 'nown as Lthe highly luminousL. !herefore in
your family are seen the Suta, )rasuta and %suta libations of Soma-$uice.5
"-Dii-0+ GSo you eat food and see what is dear. One who meditates on this "aisanara %tman thus, eats food and sees
what is dear, and there is in his family the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom. &ut this is only the head of the %tman.
#f you had not come to me your head (a portion) would hae fallen down.5
"-Diii-*+ !hen the 'ing said to Satyaya$na )aulusi, GO )racinayogya, what is that %tman on which you meditate C5 ,e
replied, G!he sun only, O enerable 'ing5. !he 'ing said, G!his that you meditate upon as %tman is the "aisanara %tman
'nown as Lthe multiformL. !herefore in your family are seen all 'inds of en$oyable things.
"-Diii-0+ GSo, for you are proided a chariot drawn by mules, maid-serants and a gold nec'lace; so you eat food and see
what is dear. One who thus meditates upon this "aisanara %tman, eats food and sees what is dear, and there is in his
family the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom. &ut this is only the eye of the %tman. #f you had not come to me you
would hae become blind.5
"-Di-*+ !hen the 'ing said to #ndradyumna &hallaeya, GO descendant of "yaghrapada, what is that %tman on which you
meditate C5 ,e replied, G%ir only, O enerable 'ing.5 !he 'ing said, G!his that you meditate upon as %tman is the
"aisanara %tman 'nown as Lthe diersely coursedL. !herefore from dierse directions offerings come to you, and
arious rows of chariots follow you.
"-Di-0+ GSo you eat food and see what is dear. One who thus meditates upon this "aisanara %tman eats food and sees
what is dear, and there is in his family the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom. &ut this is only the )rana of the %tman.
#f you had not come to me your )rana would hae departed5.
"-D-*+ !hen the 'ing said to Jana, GO Sar'ara'sya, what is that %tman on which you meditate C5 ,e replied, G%'asa only,
O enerable 'ing5. !he 'ing said, G!his that you meditate upon as %tman is the "aisanara %tman 'nown as Lthe
manifoldL. !herefore are your offspring and wealth manifold.
"-D-0+ GSo you eat food and see what is dear. One who thus meditates upon this "aisanara %tman, eats food and sees
what is dear, and there is in his family the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom. &ut this is only the trun' of the %tman.
#f you had not come to me your trun' would hae been shattered5.
"-Di-*+ !hen the 'ing said to &udila %satarasi, GO "aiyaghrapadya, what is that %tman on which you meditate C5 ,e
replied, G8ater only, O enerable 'ing5. !he 'ing said, G!his that you meditate upon as %tman is the "aisanara %tman
'nown as Lthe wealthL. !herefore are you endowed with wealth and bodily strength.
"-Di-0+ GSo you eat food and see what is dear. One who thus meditates upon this "aisanara %tman, eats food and sees
what is dear, and there is in his family the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom. &ut this is only the lower belly of the
%tman. #f you had not come to me your lower belly would hae burst5.
"-Dii-*+ !hen the 'ing said to Fddala'a %runi, GO :autama, what is that %tman on which you meditate C5 ,e replied, G!he
earth only, O enerable 'ing5. !he 'ing said, G!his that you meditate upon as %tman is the "aisanara %tman 'nown as
Lthe foundationL. !herefore are you well-founded in offspring and cattle5.
"-Dii-0+ GSo you eat food and see what is dear. One who thus meditates upon this "aisanara %tman, eats food and sees
what is dear, and there is in his family the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom. &ut this is only the feet of the %tman. #f
you had not come to me your feet would hae withered away5.
"-Diii-*+ !he 'ing said to them, G%ll of you (with partial 'nowledge) eat food 'nowing the "aisanara %tman differently, as
it were. &ut one who thus meditates upon this "aisanara %tman as a whole, consisting of parts and self-conscious, eats
food in all the worlds, in all the beings, and in all the seles.
"-Diii-0+ Of the aforesaid "aisanara %tman, the head is Gthe highly luminous5, the eye is Gthe multiform5, the breath is Gthe
diersely coursed5, the trun' is Gthe ast5, the lower belly is the Gwealth5, the feet are the earth (Gthe foundation5). (Of the
en$oyer as "aisanara) the chest is the altar, the hairs on the chest are the Kusa grass, the heart is the :arhapatya fire,
the mind is the %naharyapacana fire, and the mouth is the %haaniya fire.
"-DiD-*+ !herefore, the food that comes first should be an ob$ect of oblation. !hat eater, when he offers the first oblation,
should offer it with the Mantra GSaha to )rana5; thereby )rana is satisfied.
"-DiD-0+ )rana being satisfied, the eye is satisfied; the eye being satisfied, the sun is satisfied; the sun being satisfied,
heaen is satisfied; heaen being satisfied, whateer is under heaen and the sun is satisfied. !hrough its satisfaction
the eater himself is satisfied. (,e is satisfied) also with offspring, cattle, food, lustre and the holy effulgence born of
sacred wisdom.
"-DD-*+ !hen, when he offers the second oblation, he should offer it with the Mantra GSaha to "yana5; thereby "yana is
satisfied.
"-DD-0+ "yana being satisfied, the ear is satisfied; the ear being satisfied, the moon is satisfied; the moon being satisfied,
the ;uarters are satisfied; the ;uarters being satisfied, whateer is under the moon and the ;uarters is satisfied. !hrough
its satisfaction the eater himself is satisfied. (,e is satisfied) also with offspring, cattle, food, lustre and the holy
effulgence born of sacred wisdom.
"-DDi-*+ !hen, when he offers the third oblation, he should offer it with the Mantra GSaha to %pana5; thereby %pana is
satisfied.
"-DDi-0+ %pana being satisfied, speech is satisfied; speech being satisfied, fire is satisfied; fire being satisfied, the earth is
satisfied; the earth being satisfied, whateer is under the earth and fire is satisfied. !hrough its satisfaction the eater
himself is satisfied. (,e is satisfied) also with offspring, cattle, food, lustre and the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom.
"-DDii-*+ !hen, when he offers the fourth oblation, he should offer it with the Mantra GSaha to Samana5; thereby Samana
is satisfied.
"-DDii-0+ Samana being satisfied, the mind is satisfied; the mind being satisfied, )ar$anya (rain god) is satisfied; )ar$anya
being satisfied, lightning is satisfied; lightning being satisfied, whateer is under lightning and )ar$anya is satisfied.
!hrough its satisfaction the eater himself is satisfied. (,e is satisfied) also with offspring, cattle, food, lustre and the holy
effulgence born of sacred wisdom.
"-DDiii-*+ !hen, when he offers the fifth oblation, he should offer it with the Mantra GSaha to Fdana5; thereby Fdana is
satisfied.
"-DDiii-0+ Fdana being satisfied, the s'in is satisfied; the s'in being satisfied, the air is satisfied; the air being satisfied,
%'asa is satisfied; %'asa being satisfied, whateer is under the air and %'asa is satisfied. !hrough its satisfaction the
eater himself is satisfied. (,e is satisfied) also with offspring, cattle, food, lustre and the holy effulgence born of sacred
wisdom.
"-DDi-*+ #f anyone, without 'nowing this, offers the %gnihotra, it would be $ust a man remoing the lie embers and
pouring the oblation on the ashes.
"-DDi-0+ &ut if one, 'nowing it thus, offers the %gnihotra to )rana his oblation is poured into all the worlds, all the beings,
and all the seles.
"-DDi-2+ So, een as reed-cotton when laid on the fire is burnt up, so are burnt up all the sins of this one who 'nowing it
thus offers the %gnihotra.
"-DDi-3+ !herefore, een if one, who 'nows thus, offers the remnant of his food to a 9handala, then also that food
becomes his offering to the "aisanara %tman only. !here is this erse about it.
"-DDi-=+ %s, in this world, hungry boys gather round their mother, een so all the creatures wait upon the %gnihotra.
"#-i-*+ Om. Once upon a time there was one Seta'etu, the grandson of %runa. ,is father said to him, GO Seta'etu, lie
the life of a &rahmacharin. 7ear boy, there neer is anyone in our family who does not study and is only nominally a
&rahmana.5
"#-i-0-2+ ,aing gone (to the teacher5s house) when twele years old, he came bac' when he was twenty-four old,
haing studied all the "edas, conceited, arrogant and regarding himself as ery learned. ,is father said to him,
GSeta'etu, dear boy, you, # see, are conceited, arrogant, regarding yourself as ery learned; did you as' for that teaching
(about the Supreme &rahman) through which what is unheard becomes heard, what is unthought becomes thought of,
what is un'nown becomes 'nown C5 GOf what nature, reered sir, is that teaching C5
"#-i-3+ G7ear boy, $ust as through a single clod of clay all that is made of clay would become 'nown, for all modifications is
but name based upon words and the clay alone is real;
"#-i-=+ 7ear boy, $ust as through a single ingot of gold, all that is made of gold would become 'nown, for all modification
is but name based upon words and the gold alone is real;
"#-i->+ 7ear boy, $ust as through a single nail-parer all that is made of iron would become 'nown, for all modification is but
name based upon words and the iron alone is real ( such, dear boy, is that teaching.5
"#-i-?+ GSurely, my reered teachers did not 'now it, for if they had 'nown, why should they not hae told it to me C
,oweer, reered father, teach it to me5. G&e it so, dear boy5, said (the father).
"#-ii-*+ G#n the beginning, dear boy, this was &eing alone, one only, without a second. Some say that, in the beginning,
this was Hon-being alone, one only, without a second. 6rom that Hon-being arose &eing.5
"#-ii-0+ %runi said, G&ut now, indeed, dear boy, could it be so C ,ow could &eing arise from Hon-being C #n truth, dear boy,
in the beginning (before creation), there was &eing alone, one only, without a second.
"#-ii-2+ G!hat &eing willed, LMay # become many, may # grow forth.L #t created fire. !hat fire willed, LMay # become many,
may # grow forthL. #t created water. !herefore wheneer a man griees or perspires, then it is from fire that water issues.
"#-ii-3+ G!hat water willed, LMay # become many, may # grow forth.L #t created food. !herefore whereer it rains, abundant
food grows there; it is from water that food for eating is produced.
"#-iii-*+ GOf the aforesaid beings there are only three origins+ those born from eggs, born from liing beings, and born
from sprouts.
"#-iii-0+ G!hat deity willed, G8ell, let me, entering into these three deities through this liing self (Jiatman), differentiate
name and form.
"#-iii-2+ LOf these, let me ma'e each one triplicatedL, willing thus, this deity entered into these three deities through this
liing self and differentiated names and forms.
"#-iii-3+ G#t made each one of them threefold. &ut, dear boy, how each of these three deities becomes threefold (outside
the body), 'now that from me.
"#-i-*+ G#n fire, the red colour is the colour of fire; that which is white belongs to water and that which is blac' belongs to
food (earth). !hus anishes (the idea of) the ;uality of fire from fire; for all modification is but name based upon words,
only the three forms are real.
"#-i-0+ G#n the sun, the red colour is the colour of fire, that which is white belongs to water and that which is blac'
belongs to earth. !hus anishes (the idea of) the ;uality of the sun from the sun; for all modification is but name based
upon words, only the three forms are real.
"#-i-2+ G#n the moon, the red colour is the colour of fire, that which is white belongs to water and that which is blac'
belongs to earth. !hus anishes (the idea of) the ;uality of the moon from the moon; for all modification is but name
based upon words, only the three forms are real.
"#-i-3+ G#n lightning, the red colour is the colour of fire, that which is white belongs to water and that which is blac'
belongs to earth. !hus anishes (the idea of) the ;uality of lightning from lightning; for all modification is but name based
upon words, only the three forms are real.
"#-i-=+ G#t was indeed on 'nowing this (triplication) that the ancient great householders and great "edic scholars said,
G!here is, at present, nothing that anyone would point out to us as unheard, unthought or un'nownL; for from these they
understood eerything.
"#-i->+ G8hateer else appeared red, that also they 'new to be the colour of (untriplicated) fire; whateer appeared
white, that also they 'new to be the colour of water; whateer appeared blac', that also they 'new to be the colour of
earth.
"#-i-?+ G8hateer appeared to be un'nown, that also they 'new to be a combination of these ery deities. &ut, dear boy,
'now from me how, on reaching man, each of these three deities becomes threefold.
"#--*+ G6ood, when eaten, becomes diided into three parts. 8hat is its grossest ingredient, that becomes faeces; what
is the middling ingredient, that becomes flesh; and what is the subtlest ingredient, that becomes mind.
"#--0+ G8ater, when drun', becomes diided into three parts. 8hat is its grossest ingredient, that becomes urine; what is
the middling ingredient, that becomes blood; and what is the subtlest ingredient, that becomes )rana.
"#--2+ G6ire, when eaten, becomes diided into three parts. 8hat is its grossest ingredient, that becomes bone; what is
the middling ingredient, that becomes marrow; and what is the subtlest ingredient, hat becomes speech.
"#--3+ G,ence, dear boy, mind is made up of food, )rana is made up of water, and speech is made of fire. G<Dplain it
further to me, reered sir5. G&e it so, dear boy5, said the father.
"#-i-*+ G7ear boy, of the curd that is being churned that which is the subtlest part rises upwards and that becomes butter.
"#-i-0+ GSo also, dear boy, of the food that is eaten that which is the subtlest part rises upwards and that becomes the
mind.
"#-i-2+ G7ear boy, of the water that is drun' that which is the subtlest part rises upwards and that becomes )rana.
"#-i-3+ G7ear boy, of the fire that is eaten that which is the subtlest part rises upwards and that becomes speech.
"#-i-=+ G,ence, dear boy, mind is made up of food, )rana is made up of water, and speech is made up of fire5. G<Dplain it
further to me, reered sir5. G&e it so, dear boy5, said the father.
"#-ii-*+ G7ear boy, man consists of siDteen parts. 7o not eat for fifteen days; drin' as much water as you li'e. )rana is
made up of water, and the )rana of one who drin's water is not cut off.
"#-ii-0+ Seta'etu did not eat for fifteen days. !hen he approached him saying, G8hat shall # say C5 !he father said, G!he
Ei's, the Ia$us, and the Samans, dear boy.5 G!hey do not at all arise in me, sir5.
"#-ii-2+ !he father said to him, G7ear boy, $ust as a single ember of the si1e of a firefly, left oer from a large burning fire,
cannot burn any more than that, een so, dear boy, of your siDteen parts only one part is left oer, now by means of that
you cannot perceie the "edas. <at, then you will understand me5.
"#-ii-3+ ,e ate and then approached his father. 8hateer he as'ed him, he answered them all.
"#-ii-=->+ !he father said to him, G7ear boy, $ust as when a single ember of the si1e of a firefly left oer from a large
burning fire, is made to bla1e up by adding straw and it burns much more than before, een so, dear boy, of your siDteen
parts, only one part remained, and that being nourished by food, has been made to bla1e up; and by that you perceie
the "edas now. ,ence, dear boy, the mind is made up of food, the )rana is made up of water, and speech is made up of
fire. 6rom his words, (Seta'etu) understood it ( yea, he understood it.
"#-iii-*+ Once Fddala'a %runi said to his son Seta'etu, G7ear boy, 'now from me the true nature of sleep. 8hen a man
is said to be sleeping, then, dear boy, he has become united with &eing and has attained his own nature. ,ence people
spea' of him as sleeping, for them he has attained his own nature.
"#-iii-0+ GJust as a bird tied to a string, after flying in arious directions and finding no resting place elsewhere, ta'es
refuge at the ery place where to it is tied, een so, dear boy, that mind, after flying in arious directions and finding no
resting place elsewhere, ta'es refuge in )rana alone; for the mind, dear boy, is tied to )rana.
"#-iii-2+ G7ear boy, 'now from me (the true nature of) hunger and thirst. 8hen a man is said to be hungry, then (it is to be
understood that), water is leading away what has been eaten; (therefore water may be designated as hunger). Just as
people spea' of the leader of cows, the leader of horses, and the leader of men, een so they spea' of water as the
leader of food. ,ence, dear boy, 'now this shoot (the body) to be put forth (by a root), for it cannot be without a root.
"#-iii-3+ G8here could its root be apart from food C <en so, dear boy, with food as the shoot, loo' for water as the root;
with water as the shoot, dear boy, loo' for fire as the root; with fire as the shoot, dear boy, loo' for &eing as the root. %ll
these creatures, dear boy, hae &eing as their root, hae &eing as their abode, and hae &eing as their support.
"#-iii-=+ G%gain, when a man is said to be thirsty, then (it is to be understood that), fire is leading away what has been
drun'+ (therefore fire may be designated as thirst). Just as people spea' of the leader of cows, the leader of horses, and
the leader of men, een so they spea' of that fire as the leader of water. ,ence, dear boy, 'now this shoot (water) to be
put forth (by a root), for it cannot be without a root.
"#-iii->+ G8here could its root be apart from water C 7ear boy, with water as the shoot, loo' for fire as the root; with fire
as the shoot, loo' for &eing as the root. %ll these creatures, dear boy, hae &eing as their root, hae &eing as their
abode, and hae &eing as their support. ,ow dear boy, each of these three deities, on reaching man, becomes threefold
has been eDplained to you earlier. 8hen this man is about to depart, dear boy, his speech merges in the mind, mind in
)rana, )rana in fire and fire in the supreme deity.
"#-iii-?+ G!hat &eing which is this subtle essence (cause), een !hat all this world has for its self. !hat is the true. !hat is
the %tman. !hat thou art, O Seta'etu.5 GEeered sir, please eDplain it further to me5. GSo be it, dear boy5, said (the father).
"#-iD-*-0+ G%s, dear boy, the bees ma'e honey by collecting $uices from different trees and reduce them into one essence,
and there, as these $uices hae no such discrimination as L# am the $uice of this tree, # am the $uice of that treeL; een so,
dear boy, all these creatures haing merged into &eing, do not 'now, L8e hae merged into &eing.L
"#-iD-2+ G8hateer these creatures are here, tiger or lion or wolf or boar or worm or flying insect or gad-fly or mos;uito,
that they become again.
"#-iD-3+ G!hat &eing which is this subtle essence (cause), een !hat all this world has for its self. !hat is the true. !hat is
the %tman. !hat thou art, O Seta'etu.5 GEeered sir, please eDplain it further to me5. GSo be it, dear boy5, said (the father).
"#-D-*-0+ G!hese eastern riers, dear boy, flow along to the east and the western ones to the west. !hey rise from the
ocean and merge in the ocean, and become that ocean itself. %nd there as these riers do not 'now themseles as L# am
this rier, # am that rierL, een so, dear boy, all these creatures, haing come from &eing, do not 'now, L8e hae come
from &eingL. %nd whateer these creatures were here, tiger or lion or wolf or boar or worm or flying insect or gad-fly or
mos;uito, that they become again.
"#-D-2+ G!hat &eing which is this subtle essence (cause), een !hat all this world has for its self. !hat is the true. !hat is
the %tman. !hat thou art, O Seta'etu.5 GEeered sir, please eDplain it further to me5. GSo be it, dear boy5, said (the father).
"#-Di-*+ GOf this large tree, dear boy, if anyone were to stri'e at the root, it would eDude sap, though still liing; if anyone
were to stri'e in the middle, it would eDude sap, though still liing; if anyone were to stri'e at the top, it would eDude sap,
though still liing. %s that tree is peraded by the liing self, it stands firm, drin'ing constantly and re$oicing.
"#-Di-0+ G#f the life leaes one branch of this tree, then that branch dries up; if it leaes the second one, then that dries up;
it leaes the whole tree, the whole tree dries up.5
"#-Di-2+ !he father said, G7ear boy, 'now that een so, being left by the liing self this body surely dies, but the liing self
does not die. !hat &eing which is this subtle essence (cause), een !hat all this world has for its self. !hat is the true.
!hat is the %tman. !hat thou art, O Seta'etu.5 GEeered sir, please eDplain it further to me5. GSo be it, dear boy5, said (the
father).
"#-Dii-*+ G&ring a fruit from this &anyan tree5. G,ere it is, reered sir5. G&rea' it.5 G#t is bro'en, reered sir5. G8hat do you see
in this C5 G!hese seeds, small li'e particles, reered sir5. G&rea' one of these, my child5. G#t is bro'en, reered sir5. G8hat do
you see in it C5 GHothing, reered sir5.
"#-Dii-0+ !he father said to him, G7ear boy, this subtle essence which you do not perceie, growing from this subtle
essence the large &anyan tree thus stands. ,ae faith, dear boy.5
"#-Dii-2+ G!hat &eing which is this subtle essence (cause), een !hat all this world has for its self. !hat is the true. !hat is
the %tman. !hat thou art, O Seta'etu.5 GEeered sir, please eDplain it further to me5. GSo be it, dear boy5, said (the father).
"#-Diii-*-0+ G)ut this salt into water and then come to me in the morning5. ,e did so. !he father said to him, G&ring the salt,
my child, which you put into water at night5. ,aing searched for it, he did not find it, as it has completely dissoled. GMy
child, ta'e a sip from the top of this water. ,ow is itC5 G#t is salt5. G!a'e a sip from the middle. ,ow is it C5 G#t is salt5. G!a'e a
sip from the bottom. ,ow is it C5 G#t is salt5. G!hrow this water away and then come to me5. ,e did so (and returned saying),
G#t is there always5. !he father said to him, G7ear boy, as you do not see what is present in this water though indeed it
eDists in it, similarly, (&eing eDists) indeed in this body.
"#-Diii-2+ G!hat &eing which is this subtle essence (cause), een !hat all this world has for its self. !hat is the true. !hat is
the %tman. !hat thou art, O Seta'etu.5 GEeered sir, please eDplain it further to me5. GSo be it, dear boy5, said (the father).
"#-Di-*+ GJust as, dear boy, (some robber) haing brought a man from the :andhara region with his eyes bound up,
might leae him in a ery desolate place, and $ust as that man would shout towards the east, or towards the north, or
towards the south, or towards the west, (saying) L# hae been brought here with my eyes bound up, # hae been left here
with my eyes bound up.L5
"#-Di-0+ G%nd as some one might remoe his bandage and tell him, L!he :andhara region is in this direction, proceed in
this directionL and as he, en;uiring his way from illage, to illage and being instructed and capable of $udging by himself
would reach the :andhara region itself, een so, in this world that person 'nows who has a preceptor. %nd for him, only
so long is the delay as he is not liberated (from the body) and then immediately he is merged in &eing.
"#-Di-2+ G!hat &eing which is this subtle essence (cause), een !hat all this world has for its self. !hat is the true. !hat is
the %tman. !hat thou art, O Seta'etu.5 GEeered sir, please eDplain it further to me5. GSo be it, dear boy5, said (the father).
"#-D-*+ G7ear boy, the relaties of a man who is ill assemble round him and as', L7o you recognise me C 7o you
recognise me CL %s long as his speech is not merged in the mind, the mind in )rana, )rana in fire, and fire in the
supreme deity, so long does he 'now them.
"#-D-0+ G!hen when his speech is merged in the mind, the mind in )rana, )rana in fire, and fire in the supreme deity,
then he does not 'now them.
"#-D-2+ G!hat &eing which is this subtle essence (cause), een !hat all this world has for its self. !hat is the true. !hat is
the %tman. !hat thou art, O Seta'etu.5 GEeered sir, please eDplain it further to me5. GSo be it, dear boy5, said (the father).
"#-Di-*+ G7ear boy, (!he officers of the 'ing) bring a man, holding him by the hand (while saying) L,e has ta'en
something, he has committed a theft, heat the aDe for himL. #f he is doer of that, then he ma'es himself false. %nd being
addicted to falsehood, he coers himself with falsehood and grasps the heated aDe; he is burnt, and then he is punished.
"#-Di-0+ G#f, howeer, he is not the doer of that, then he ma'es himself true. %nd being attached to truth, he coers
himself with truth and grasps the heated aDe; he is not burnt and then he is released.
"#-Di-2+ G%nd as in this case he (the man attached to truth) is not burnt, (similarly a man of 'nowledge is not born again).
!hus has all this world !hat for its self. !hat is the true. !hat is the %tman. !hat thou art, O Seta'etu.5 6rom his words
Seta'etu understood !hat ( yea, he understood
"##-i-*+ Om. GEeered sir, teach me,5 thus saying Harada approached Sanat'umara. Sanat'umara said to him, G8hat you
already 'now, declaring that to me, be my disciple. 8hat is beyond that # shall tell you.5 Harada said+
"##-i-0+ GEeered sir, # 'now the Eig-"eda, the Ia$ur-"eda, the Sama-"eda and the %tharanas the fourth, the #tihasa-
)urana as the fifth, grammar, the rules for the worship of the ancestors, mathematics, the science of portents, the
science of treasures, logic, the science of ethics, etymology, the ancillary 'nowledge of the "edas, the physical sciences,
the science of war, the science of the stars, the science related to serpents, and the fine arts ( all this # 'now, reered sir.5
"##-i-2+ GEeered sir, howeer, # am only a 'nower of erbal teDts, not a 'nower of %tman. #ndeed # hae heard from
persons li'e your reered self that a 'nower of %tman goes beyond grief. # am in such a state of grief. May your reered
self ta'e me across it.5 Sanat'umara replied to him,5 8hatsoeer you hae studied here, really it is only a name.5
"##-i-3+ GHame indeed is Eig-"eda, (so also) Ia$ur-"eda, Sama-"eda and the %tharana as the fourth, the #tihasa-)urana
as the fifth, grammar, the rules of the worship of the ancestors, mathematics, the science of portents, the science of
treasures, logic, the science of ethics, etymology, the ancillary 'nowledge of the "edas, the physical science, the science
of war, the science of the stars, the science related to serpents, and the fine arts ( name alone is all this. 8orship the
name.
"##-i-=+ G,e who worships name as &rahman becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of name,
he who worships name as &rahman5. (Harada) GEeered sir, is there anything greater than name C5 (Sanat'umara)
GSurely, there is something greater than name5. (Harada) GEeered sir, communicate it to me.5
"##-ii-*+ GSpeech surely is greater than name. Speech indeed ma'es us understand the Eig-"eda, Ia$ur-"eda, Sama-
"eda, %tharana as the fourth, #tihasa-)urana as the fifth, grammar, the rules of the worship of the ancestors,
mathematics, the science of portents, the science of treasures, logic, the science of ethics, etymology, the ancillary
'nowledge of the "edas, the physical science, the science of war, the science of the stars, the science related to
serpents, and the fine arts ( also heaen and earth, air and %'asa, water and fire, gods and men, cattle and birds,
grasses and trees, beasts down to worms, flying insects and ants, merit and demerit, true and false, good and bad,
pleasant and unpleasant. "erily, if speech did not eDist, neither merit nor demerit would be understood, neither true nor
false, neither good nor bad, neither pleasant nor unpleasant. Speech alone ma'es us understand all this. (,ence)
worship speech.
"##-ii-0+ G,e who worships speech as &rahman becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of
speech, he who worships speech as &rahman5. GEeered sir, is there anything greater than speech C5 GSurely, there is
something greater than speech5. GEeered sir, communicate it to me5.
"##-iii-*+ GMind surely is greater than speech. Just as the closed hand encompasses two %mala'a, or two Kola, or two
%'sa fruits, so does the mind encompasses speech and name. 8hen by mind one intends L.et me learn the MantrasL,
then he learns; .et me do sacrificial actsL, then he does; L.et me desire offspring and cattleL, then he desires; L.et me
desire this world and the neDtL, then he desires. Mind indeed is %tman. Mind indeed is the world. Mind indeed is
&rahman. 8orship the mind.
"##-iii-0+ G,e who worships the mind as &rahman becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of
mind, he who worships the mind as &rahman5. GEeered sir, is there anything greater than mindC5 GSurely, there is
something greater than mind5. GEeered sir, communicate it to me5.
"##-i-*+ G8ill surely is greater than mind. "erily, when one wills, then he intends in his mind, then he sends forth speech,
and he sends it forth in a name. #n the name sacred formulas and in sacred formulas the sacrifices become one.5
"##-i-0+ G%ll these, indeed, merge in the will, are made up of the will, and abide in the will. ,eaen and earth willed, air
and %'asa willed, water and fire willed. !hrough the willing of these, rain wills. !hrough the willing of rain, food wills.
!hrough the willing of food, )ranas will. !hrough the willing of )ranas, sacred formulas will. !hrough the willing of sacred
formulas (sacrificial) acts will. !hrough the willing of (sacrificial) acts, the world wills. !hrough the willing of the world, all
things will. !his is will. 8orship will.
"##-i-2+ G,e who worships will as &rahman, he indeed, attains the worlds willed by him ( himself being permanent, the
permanent worlds; himself being well-founded, the well-founded worlds; himself being undistressed, the undistressed
world. ,e becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of will, he who worships will as &rahman5.
GEeered sir, is there anything greater than will C5 GSurely, there is something greater than will5. GEeered sir, communicate
it to me5.
"##--*+ G#ntelligence surely is greater than will. "erily, when one understands, then he wills, then he intends in mind, then
he sends forth speech, and he sends it forth in a name. #n the name sacred formulas and in sacred formulas the
sacrificed become one.
"##--0+ G%ll these, indeed, merge in intelligence, are made up of intelligence and abide in intelligence. !herefore, een if
a man who 'nows much is without intelligence, people spea' of him thus, G,e does not eDist, nor what he has 'nown; if
he were really learned, he would not thus be without intelligenceL. On the other hand, if a man 'nowing little is endowed
with intelligence, people desire to listen to him also. #ntelligence, indeed, is the one centre of mergence of all these,
intelligence is their soul, and intelligence is their support. 8orship intelligence.
"##--2+ G,e who worships intelligence as &rahman, he indeed, attains the worlds of intelligence ( himself being
permanent, the permanent worlds; himself being well-established, the well-established worlds; and himself being
undistressed, the undistressed world. ,e becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of intelligence,
he who worships intelligence as &rahman5. GEeered sir, is there anything greater than intelligence C5 GSurely, there is
something greater than intelligence5. GEeered sir, communicate it to me5.
"##-i-*+ G9ontemplation surely is greater than intelligence. !he earth contemplates as it were. !he s'y contemplates as it
were. ,eaen contemplates as it were. 8ater contemplates as it were. !he mountains contemplate as it were. :ods and
men contemplate as it were. !herefore, erily, those who attain greatness among men here, they seem to hae obtained
a share of the result of contemplation. %nd those who are small people, they are ;uarrelsome, abusie and slanderous;
but those who are great men, they appear to hae obtained a share of the result of contemplation. 8orship
contemplation.
"##-i-0+ G,e who worships contemplation as &rahman becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of
contemplation, he who worships contemplation as &rahman5. GEeered sir, is there anything greater than
contemplation C5 GSurely, there is something greater than contemplation5. GEeered sir, communicate it to me5.
"##-ii-*+ GFnderstanding surely is greater than contemplation. &y understanding alone one understands the Eig-"eda,
Ia$ur-"eda, Sama-"eda, %tharana as the fourth, #tihasa-)urana as the fifth, grammar, the rules for the worship of the
ancestors; mathematics, the science of portents, the science of treasures, logic, the "edas, the physical science, the
science of war, the science of the stars, the science related to serpents, and the fine arts ( also heaen and earth, air
and %'asa, water and fire, gods and men, cattle and birds, grasses and trees, beasts down to worms, flying insects and
ants, merit and demerit, true and false, good and bad, pleasant and unpleasant, food and drin', this world and the neDt (
(all this) one understands by understanding alone. 8orship understanding.
"##-ii-0+ G,e who worships understanding as &rahman, attains the worlds containing the 'nowledge of the Scriptures and
other sub$ects. ,e becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of understanding, he who worships
understanding as &rahman5. GEeered sir, is there anything greater than understanding C5 GSurely, there is something
greater than understanding5. GEeered sir, communicate it to me5.
"##-iii-*+ GStrength surely is greater than understanding. % single man with strength causes een a hundred men with
understanding to tremble. 8hen a man becomes strong, then he rises; rising, he seres; sering, he approaches nearer;
approaching nearer, he sees, hears, reflects, understands, acts and reali1es. &y strength, indeed, the earth stands; by
strength, the s'y; by strength, heaen; by strength, the mountains; by strength, gods and men; by strength, cattle and
birds, grasses and trees, beasts down to worms, flying insects and ants; by strength the world stands. 8orship strength.
"##-iii-0+ G,e who worships strength as &rahman becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of
strength, he who worships strength as &rahman5. GEeered sir, is there anything greater than strength C5 GSurely, there is
something greater than strength5. GEeered sir, ommunicate it to me5.
"##-iD-*+ G6ood surely is greater than strength. !herefore, if one does not eat for ten days, een though he might lie, yet,
erily, he does not see, does not hear, does not reflect, does not act, and does not reali1e. &ut with the coming of food,
he sees, hears, reflects, understands, acts and reali1es. 8orship food.
"##-iD-0+ G,e who worships food as &rahman, he erily attains the worlds supplied with food and drin'. ,e is free to act as
he wishes in the sphere within the reach of food, he who worships food as &rahman5. GEeered sir, is there anything
greater than food C5 GSurely, there is something greater than food5. GEeered sir, communicate it to me5.
"##-D-*+ G8ater surely is greater than food. !herefore, when there is not good rain, liing creatures are in agony (thin'ing),
L6ood will be scarceL. &ut when there is good rain, liing creatures become $oyous (thin'ing), L6ood will aboundL. 8ater,
indeed, has assumed all these forms ( this earth, this s'y, this heaen, these mountains, these gods and men, these
cattle and birds, grasses and trees, beasts down to worms, flying insects and ants. 8ater, indeed, has assumed all these
forms. 8orship water.
"##-D-0+ G,e who worships water as &rahman obtains all desires and becomes satisfied. ,e becomes free to act as he
wishes in the sphere within the reach of water, he who worships water as &rahman5. GEeered sir, is there anything
greater than water C5 GSurely, there is something greater than water5. GEeered sir, communicate it to me5.
"##-Di-*+ G6ire surely is greater than water. #t is this fire that haing sei1ed the air warms up the %'asa. !hen people say,
L#t is hot, it is burning hot, it will surely rainL. !here, it is fire that shows itself first, and then creates water. #t is (because
of) this fire that thunders roll, along with lightnings flashing upwards and across; and so people say, L.ightning is flashing,
it is thundering, it will surely rainL. !here, it is fire that shows itself first and then creates water. 8orship fire.
"##-Di-0+ G,e who worships fire as &rahman, he, being resplendent himself, attains resplendent worlds, full of light and
free from dar'ness. ,e becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of fire, he who worships fire as
&rahman5. GEeered sir, is there anything greater than fire C5 GSurely, there is something greater than fire5. GEeered sir,
communicate it to me5.
"##-Dii-*+ %'asa surely is greater than fire. #n %'asa, indeed, eDist both the sun and the moon, lightning, stars and fire.
!hrough %'asa one calls, through %'asa one hears, through %'asa one hears the response. #n %'asa one re$oices, in
%'asa one does not re$oice. #n %'asa a thing is born, and towards %'asa it grows. 8orship %'asa.
"##-Dii-0+ G,e who worships %'asa as &rahman, he indeed, attains ast worlds full of light, unconfined and spacious. ,e is
free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of %'asa, he who worships %'asa as &rahman5. GEeered sir, is
there anything greater than %'asa C5 GSurely, there is something greater than %'asa5. GEeered sir, communicate it to me5.
"##-Diii-*+ GMemory surely is greater than %'asa. !herefore, een if many persons should assemble and if they should
hae no memory, they surely would not hear any sound, they would not thin', they would not 'now. &ut surely, should
they hae memory, then they would hear, then they would thin', then they would 'now. !hrough memory, indeed, one
discerns one5s sons, through memory one5s cattle. 8orship memory.
"##-Diii-0+ G,e who worships memory as &rahman becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of
memory, he who worships memory as &rahman5. GEeered sir, is there anything greater than memory C5 GSurely, there is
something greater than memory5. GEeered sir, communicate it to me5.
"##-Di-*+ G%spiration surely is greater than memory. Kindled by aspiration, (one5s) memory recites the hymns, performs
rites, desires sons and cattle, desires this world and the neDt. 8orship aspiration.
"##-Di-0+ G,e who worships aspiration as &rahman, by aspiration all his wishes prosper, his prayers become infallible. ,e
is free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of aspiration, he who worships aspiration as &rahman5.
GEeered sir, is there anything greater than aspiration C5 GSurely, there is something greater than aspiration5. GEeered sir,
communicate it to me5.
"##-D-*+ G)rana surely is greater than aspiration. Just as the spo'es of the wheel are fastened to the nae, so is all this
fastened to this )rana. )rana moes by )rana, )rana gies )rana and it gies )rana. )rana is the father, )rana is the
mother, )rana is the brother, )rana is the sister, )rana is the preceptor, )rana is the &rahmana.
"##-D-0+ G#f one answers something harsh to his father, mother, brother, sister, preceptor or a &rahmana, people say this
to him, L6ie on you ! Iou are indeed a slayer of your father, you are indeed a slayer of your mother, you are indeed a
slayer of your brother, you are indeed a slayer of your sister, you are indeed a slayer of your preceptor, you are indeed a
slayer of a &rahmana.L
"##-D-2+ GOn the other hand, when the )rana has departed from them, een if one piles them together, dismembers them
with a for' and burns them up, surely people would not say to him, LIou are a slayer of your fatherL, nor Lyou are a slayer
of your motherL, nor LIou are a slayer of your brotherL, nor LIou are a slayer of your sisterL, nor Lyou are a slayer of your
preceptorL, nor LIou are a slayer of a &rahmanaL.
"##-D-3+ G)rana indeed becomes all these. ,e, indeed, who sees thus, thin's thus and 'nows thus becomes a
surpassing spea'er. #f someone were to say to him, LIou are a surpassing spea'erL, he should say, LIes, # am a
surpassing spea'erL, he should not deny it.
"##-Di-*+ G&ut he really spea's surpassingly who spea's surpassingly with truth5. GEeered sir, being such, # would spea'
surpassingly with truth5. G&ut one must desire to understand the truth5. GEeered sir, # desire to understand the truth5.
"##-Dii-*+ G8hen one understands, then alone does one declare the truth. 8ithout understanding, one does not declare
the truth. Only he who understands declares the truth. &ut one must desire to understand understanding.5 GEeered sir, #
desire to understand understanding5.
"##-Diii-*+ G8hen one reflects, then alone does one understand. 8ithout reflecting one does not understand. Only he
who reflects understands. &ut one must desire to understand reflection.5 GEeered sir, # desire to understand reflection5.
"##-DiD-*+ G8hen one has faith, then alone does one reflect. 8ithout faith, one does not reflect. Only he who has faith
reflects. &ut one must desire to understand faith5. GEeered sir, # desire to understand faith5.
"##-DD-*+ G8hen one has steadfastness, then alone does one hae faith. 8ithout steadfastness, one does not hae faith.
Only he who has steadfastness has faith. &ut one must desire to understand steadfastness.5 GEeered sir, # desire to
understand steadfastness.5
"##-DDi-*+ G8hen one acts, then alone does one become steadfast. 8ithout acting, one does not become steadfast. Only
on acting does one become steadfast. &ut one must desire to understand actiity5. GEeered sir, # desire to understand
actiity5.
"##-DDii-*+ G8hen one obtains happiness5, then alone does one act. 8ithout obtaining happiness one does not act. Only
on obtaining happiness does one act. &ut one must desire to understand happiness5. GEeered sir, # desire to understand
happiness5.
"##-DDiii-*+ !hat which is infinite, is alone happiness. !here is no happiness in anything finite. !he infinite alone is
happiness. &ut one must desire to understand the infinite5. GEeered sir, # desire to understand the infinite5.
"##-DDi-*+ G#n which one sees nothing else, hears nothing else, understands nothing else, that is infinite. &ut that in which
one sees something else, hears something else, understands something else, is the finite. !hat which is infinite, is alone
immortal, and that which is finite, is mortal5. GEeered sir, in what is that infinite established C5 GOn its own greatness or
not een on its own greatness5.
"##-DDi-0+ G,ere in this world people call cows and horses, elephants and gold, serants and wies, fields and houses,
LgreatnessL. # do not spea' thus (of greatness), for in that case one thing would be established in another. 8hat # do say
is thus+
"##-DD-*+ G!hat infinite alone is below. !hat is aboe. !hat is behind. !hat is in front. !hat is to the south. !hat is to the
north. !hat alone is all this. So neDt is the teaching in regard to the self-sense. # alone am below. # am aboe. # am
behind. # am in front. # am to the south. # am to the north. # alone am all this.
"##-DD-0+ GSo now is the teaching through %tman. %tman alone is below. %tman is aboe. %tman is behind. %tman is in
front. %tman is to the south. %tman is to the north. %tman alone is all this. "erily, he it is who sees thus, and understands
thus, has pleasure in %tman, delight in %tman, union in %tman, $oy in %tman. ,e becomes Self-soereign; he becomes
free to act as he wishes in all the worlds. &ut those who 'now otherwise than this are ruled by others and lie in
perishable worlds; they are not free to act as they wish in all the worlds.
"##-DDi-*+ "erily, for him alone, who sees thus, reflects thus and understands thus, )rana springs from %tman, aspiration
from %tman, memory from %tman, %'asa from %tman, fire from %tman, water from %tman, appearance and
disappearances from %tman, food from %tman, strength from %tman, understanding from %tman, contemplation from
%tman, intelligence from %tman, will from %tman, mind from %tman, speech from %tman, name from %tman, hymns from
%tman, rites from %tman, all this (springs) from %tman alone.
"##-DDi-0+ G!here is this erse about it+ L,e who sees this does not see death nor illness nor any sorrow. ,e who sees
this sees all things and obtains all things in all ways.L G,e is one, becomes threefold, fiefold, seenfold and also
ninefold. !hen again he is called the eleenfold, also a hundred-and-ten-fold and also a thousand-and twenty-fold.
G58hen nourishment is pure, reflection and higher understanding become pure. 8hen reflection and higher
understanding are pure, memory becomes strong. 8hen memory becomes strong, there is release from all the 'nots of
the heart. !he reered Sanat'umara showed to Harada, after his impurities had been washed off, the further shore of
dar'ness. )eople call Sanat'umara as S'anda ( yea, they call him S'anda
"###-i-*+ Om. How, in this city of &rahman, there is a mansion in the shape of a small lotus; in it is a small inner %'asa.
8hat is within that, that should be sought; that indeed, one should desire to understand.
"###-i-0-2+ #f the disciples should say to him, G#n this city of &rahman in which is a small mansion in the shape of a lotus
and in the small inner %'asa within ( what is it that lies there which should be sought, which one should desire to
understand C5 ( he should say in reply, G%s large indeed as is this %'asa, so large is that %'asa in the heart. 8ithin it,
indeed, are contained both heaen and earth, both fire and air, both the sun and the moon, lightning and the stars.
8hateer there is of him in this world and whateer is not, all that is contained within it.5
"###-i-3+ #f they should say to him, G#f in this city of &rahman is contained all this, all beings and all desires, then what is left
of it when old age oerta'es it or when it perishes C5
"###-i-=+ ,e should say, G#t (the &rahman called inner %'asa) does not age with the ageing of the body, it is not 'illed by
the 'illing of this. !his (%'asa) is the real city of &rahman, in it are contained the desires. !his is the %tman, free from
eil, free from old age, free from death, free from sorrow, free from hunger, free from thirst, whose desire is of the truth,
whose resole is of the truth. Just as in this world, the sub$ects follow as they are commanded and whateer proince
they desire, be it a country or a part of the field, on that they lie. (So the ignorant depend upon others for en$oying the
fruits of their Karma).
"###-i->+ GJust as here on earth the world which is earned by wor' perishes, een so there in the other world, the world
which is earned by righteous deeds perishes. So those who depart from here without haing understood the %tman and
these true desires, for them there is no freedom to act as they wish in all the worlds. &ut those who depart from here,
haing understood the %tman and these true desires, for them there is freedom to act as they wish in all the worlds.5
"###-ii-*+ #f he becomes desirous of the world of fathers, by his mere will, fathers arise. )ossessed of that world of fathers
he feels happy and eDalted.
"###-ii-0+ %nd if he becomes desirous of the world of mothers, by his mere will, mothers arise. )ossessed of that world of
mothers he feels happy and eDalted.
"###-ii-2+ %nd if he becomes desirous of the world of brothers, by his mere will, brothers arise. )ossessed of that world of
brothers he feels happy and eDalted.
"###-ii-3+ %nd if he becomes desirous of the world of sisters, by his mere will, sisters arise. )ossessed of that world of
sisters he feels happy and eDalted.
"###-ii-=+ %nd if he becomes desirous of the world of friends, by his mere will, friends arise. )ossessed of that world of
friends he feels happy and eDalted.
"###-ii->+ %nd if he becomes desirous of the world of perfumes and garlands, by his mere will, of perfumes and garlands
arise. )ossessed of that world of perfumes and garlands he feels happy and eDalted.
"###-ii-?+ %nd if he becomes desirous of the world of food and drin', by his mere will, food and drin' arise. )ossessed of
that world of food and drin' he feels happy and eDalted.
"###-ii-@+ %nd if he becomes desirous of the world of song and music, by his mere will, song and music arise. )ossessed
of that world of song and music he feels happy and eDalted.
"###-ii-A+ %nd if he becomes desirous of the world of women, by his mere will, women arise. )ossessed of that world of
women he feels happy and eDalted.
"###-ii-*B+ 8hateer proinces he is attached to and whateer desirable ob$ects he desires by his mere will, they(arise.
)ossessed of that he feels happy and eDalted.
"###-iii-*+ !hese same are the true desires codred by the untrue. %lthough the desires are true, they are coered by the
untrue. 6or whosoeer of one5s people departs from here in this world one does not get him bac' to see.
"###-iii-0+ &ut those of his people, whether they are alie or dead and whateer else one desires but does not get, all that
one finds by going there (into the %tman, the %'asa in the heart); for here, indeed, are those true desires of his coered
by the untrue. Just as, though people who do not 'now the field wal' again and again oer the treasure of gold hidden
underground but do not find it, een so all these creatures here, though they go daily into the &rahman-world, yet do not
find it, for they are carried away by the untrue.
"###-iii-2+ !his %tean erily is in the heart. #ts etymological eDplanation is this. !his (%tman) is in the heart, hence it is the
heart. ,e who 'nows thus(indeed goes daily into the heaenly world.
"###-iii-3+ How that serene and happy being, rising out of this body and reaching the highest light, appears in his own true
form. !his is the %tman, said the teacher. !his is the immortal, the fearless. !his is &rahman. "erily, the name of this
&rahman is the !rue.
"###-iii-=+ !hese are indeed the three syllables, Gsa5, Gti5, Gyam5. 8hat is Gsa5, that is the immortal, and what is Gti5, that is the
mortal, and what is Gyam5, with it one holds the two together. &ecause with it one holds the two together, therefore it is
Gyam5. "erily, he who 'nows thus goes to the heaenly world.5
"###-i-*+ How, this %tman is the dy'e, the emban'ment for the safety of these worlds. !his dy'e, neither the day nor the
night crosses, nor old age nor death nor sorrow, nor merit nor demerit. %ll eils turn bac' from it, for this &rahman-world
is free from eil.
"###-i-0+ !herefore, erily, on reaching this dy'e, if one was blind he ceases to be blind; if wounded, he ceases to be
wounded, if afflicted- he ceases to be afflicted. !herefore, erily, on reaching this dy'e, een night becomes day, for this
&rahman-world is eer illumined.
"###-i-2+ &ut only those who attain according to the iostruction this &rahman-world through &rahmacharya, to them
belongs this &rahman-world. 6or them there is freedom to act as they wish in all the worlds.
"###--*+ How, what people call sacrifice is really &rahmacharya, for only by means of &rahmacharya does the 'nower
attain that world. %nd what people call worship (#sta) is really &rahmacharya, for only by worshipping with &rahmacharya
does one attain the %tman.
"###--0+ How, what people call the sacrificial session is really &rahmacharya, for only by means of &rahmacharya does
one obuain one5s salation from &eing. %nd what people call the ow of silence is really &rahmacharya for only through
&rahmacharya does one understand the %tman and then meditate.
"###--2+ How, what people call a course of fasting is really &rahmacharya, for this %tman neer perishes which one
attains by means of &rahmacharya. %nd what people call the life of a hermit is really &rahmacharya, for erily %ra and
Hya are the two oceans in the &rahman-world in the third heaen from here and therein is the la'e %irammadiya, and
there is the %para$ita (uncon;uered) city of &rahma, and there is the gold hall specially built by the .ord.
"###--3+ !herefore only those who attain the two oceans, %ra and Hya, in the &rahman-world by means of
&rahmacharya, only to them belongs this &rahman-world and for them there is freedom to act as they wish in all the
worlds.
"###-i-*+ How, these arteries which belong to the heart eDist filled with the $uice of a fine substance which is reddish-
brown, white, blue, yellow and red. !he yonder sun indeed is reddish-brown, he is white, he is blue, he is yellow, he is
red.
"###-i-0+ Just as an eDtending highway runs between two illages, this as well as that, een so the rays of the sun go to
both these worlds, this as well as that. !hey spread out of the yonder sun and enter into these arteries. Out of these
arteries they spread and enter into the yonder sun.
"###-i-2+ !herefore when one is thus sound sleep, composed, serene so that he 'nows no dreams, then he enters into
(the %'asa of the heart through) these arteries. !hen no eil touches him for then he is filled with the light of the sun.
"###-i-3+ How, when one is thus reduced to a wea'ened condition, those who sit around him say, G7o you 'now me C 7o
you 'now me C5 %s long as he has not departed from this body, so long he 'nows them.
"###-i-=+ &ut when he thus departs from this body, then he proceeds upwards through those ery rays, (if a 'nower) he
surely goes up meditating on Om or (does not got up if he is not a 'nower). %s long as it ta'es for the mind to trael, in
that (short) time, he goes to the sun. !hat indeed is the door to the world (of &rahman), an entrance for the 'nowers and
a shutting out for the ignorant.
"###-i->+ !here is this erse about it+ % hundred and one are the arteries of the heart; one of them leads up to the crown
of the head. )assing upwards through that, one attains immortality, while the other arteries sere for departing in arious
other directions ( yea, sere for departing.
"###-ii-*+ !he %tman which is free from eil, free from old age, free from death, free from sorrow, free from hunger and
thirst, whose desire is of the truth, whose resole is of the truth, he should be sought, him one should desire to
understand. ,e who has found out and who understands that %tman attains all the worlds and all the desires. !hus
spo'e )ra$apati.
"###-ii-0+ &oth the gods and the demons heard this and said, G8ell, let us see' that %tman by see'ing which one attains
all the worlds and all the desires.5 !hen #ndra alone from among the gods went out and so did "irochana from among the
demons. !hen without communicating with each other, they both came into the presence of )ra$apati, fuel in hand.
"###-ii-2+ 6or thirty-two years they lied there the disciplined life of a celibate student of sacred 'nowledge. !hen
)ra$apati as'ed them, G7esiring what hae you been liing C5 !hey replied, G!he %tman which is free from eil, free from
old age, free from death, free from sorrow, free from hunger and thirst, whose desire is of the truth, whose resole is of
the truth, he should be sought, him one should desire to understand. ,e who has found out and who understands that
%tman attain all the worlds and all the desires ( these are 'nown to be the words of your reered self. 7esiring that
%tman we hae been liing.5
"###-ii-3+ )ra$apati said to them, G!he person which is seen in the eye is the %tman5. ,e added, G!his is the immortal, the
fearless. !his is &rahman5. G&ut, reered sir, he who is perceied in water and he who in a mirror, which of these is the
%tman C5 #t is he himself that is perceied in all these5, replied )ra$apati.
"###-iii-*+ G.oo' at yourself in a pan of water and whateer you do not understand of the %tman, tell me that5. !hen they
loo'ed in a pan of water. )ra$apati as'ed them, G8hat do you see C5 !hey replied, GEeered sir, we both see the self
entirely as we are, the ery image, een to the ery hairs and nails.5
"###-iii-0+ !hen )ra$apati said to them, G,aing become well adorned, well dressed and well groomed, loo' into the pan
of water.5 !hey too, haing become well adorned, well dressed and well groomed, loo'ed into the pan of water. !hen
)ra$apati as'ed them, G8hat do you see C5
"###-iii-2+ !hey replied, GJust as we are ourseles, reered sir, well adorned, well dressed and well groomed, een so are
both these, reered sir, well adorned, well dressed and well groomed.5 G!his is the %tman5, said he, Gthis is the immortal,
the fearless. !his is &rahman5. !hey both went away satisfied in their hearts.
"###-iii-3+ !hen )ra$apati loo'ed at them and said, G!hey are going away without haing perceied, without haing
understood the %tman. 8hosoeer will follow such a doctrine be they gods or demons, they will be foiled.5 How,
"irochana, satisfied in his heart, went to the demons and declared this doctrine to them. G,ere the (bodily) self alone is to
be worshipped, the self is to be attended upon. ,ere it is only by worshipping the self and attending upon the self that
one obtains both the worlds, this as well as the yonder.5
"###-iii-=+ !herefore, een to this day, here people say of one who is not a gier, who has no faith, who does not perform
sacrifices, GOh, he is a demon5; for this is the doctrine of the demons. !hey adorn the body of the deceased with
en$oyable things, clothes and ornaments for, by this, they thin', they will win the other world.
"###-iD-*+ &ut #ndra, een before reaching the gods, saw this difficulty+ GJust as this (reflected self) becomes well adorned
when this body is well adorned, well dressed when the body is well dressed, well groomed when the body is well
groomed, een so this (reflected self) also becomes blind when the body is blind, one-eyed when the body is one-eyed,
crippled when the body is crippled, and it perishes when this body perishes. # see no good in this.5
"###-iD-0+ ,e came bac' again, fuel in hand. )ra$apati as'ed him, G7esiring what, O #ndra, hae you come bac', since you
went away satisfied in your heart, along with "irochana C5 #ndra replied, GEeered sir, $ust as this (reflected self) becomes
well adorned when this body is well adorned, well dressed when the body is well dressed, well groomed when the body
is well groomed, een so this (reflected self) also becomes blind when the body is blind, one-eyed when the body is one-
eyed, crippled when the body is crippled, and it perishes when this body perishes. # see no good in this.
"###-iD-2+ GSo is it indeed, O #ndra5, said )ra$apati; G,oweer, # shall eDplain this further to you. .ie here for another thirty-
two years.5 ,e lied there for another thirty-two years. !hen )ra$apati said to him+
"###-D-*-0+ )ra$apati said, G,e who moes about in dreams, he is the %tman. ,e is the immortal, the fearless. ,e is
&rahman5. #ndra went away satisfied in his heart. &ut een before reaching the gods he saw this difficulty+ G<en though
this (dream-self) is not blind when this body is blind, nor one-eyed when the body is slain, nor has running nose and eyes
when the body has running nose and eyes, yet it is as if they 'ill it, as if they chase it, it becomes conscious of pain, as it
were, and een weeps, as it were. # see no good in this5.
"###-D-2-3+ ,e came bac' again, fuel in hand. )ra$apati as'ed him, G7esiring what, O #ndra, hae you come bac', since
you went away satisfied in your heart C5 ,e replied, GEeered sir, een though this self is not blind when this body is blind,
nor one-eyed when the body is one-eyed, nor suffers defects from the defects of the body, nor is slain when the body is
slain, nor has running nose and eyes, yet it is as if they 'ill it, as if they chase it, it becomes conscious of pain as it were,
and een weeps, as it were. # see no good in this5. GSo is it indeed, O #ndra5, said )ra$apati; G,oweer, # shall eDplain this
further to you. .ie here for another thirty-two years.5 ,e lied there for another thirty-two years. !hen )ra$apati said to
him+
"###-Di-*+ )ra$apati said, G,e who is fully asleep, composed, serene and 'nows no dream, he is the %tman. ,e is the
immortal, the fearless. ,e is &rahman5. #ndra went away satisfied in his heart. &ut een before reaching the gods he saw
this difficulty+ G#n truth this one does not 'now himself now as L# am heL, nor indeed these beings. #t seems as if he has
gone to annihilation. # see no good in this5.
"###-Di-0+ ,e came bac' again, fuel in hand. )ra$apati as'ed him, G7esiring what, O #ndra, hae you come bac', since you
went away satisfied in your heart C5 ,e replied, GEeered sir, in truth this one does not 'now himself as L# am heL, nor
indeed these beings. #t seems as if he has gone to annihilation. # see no good in this5.
"###-Di-2+ GSo is it indeed, O #ndra5, said )ra$apati; G,oweer, # shall eDplain this further to you and none other than this.
.ie here for another fie years.5 ,e lied there for another fie years. !hat ma'es one hundred and one years and so
with regard to that, people say thus, G"erily, for one hundred and one years #ndra lied with )ra$apati the disciplined life of
a celibate student of sacred 'nowledgeL. !hen )ra$apati said to him+
"###-Dii-*+ GO #ndra, mortal indeed is this body, held by death. &ut it is the support of this deathless, bodiless %tman. "erily,
the embodied self is held by pleasure and pain. Surely, there is no cessation of pleasure and pain for one who is
embodied. &ut pleasure and pain do not indeed touch one who is bodiless.
"###-Dii-0-2+ &odiless is air; and white cloud, lightning, thunder, these also are bodiless. How as these arise out of the
yonder %'asa, reach the highest light and appear each with its own form, een so this serene one rises out of this body,
reaches the highest light and appears in his own form. ,e is the ,ighest )erson. !here he moes about, laughing,
playing, re$oicing with women, ehicles or relations, not remembering this body in which he was born. %s an animal is
attached to a chariot, een so is the )rana attached to this body.
"###-Dii-3+ How, where the sight merges in %'asa (inside the eye, i.e., the blac' pupil of the eye), (there eDists) that which
is the person in the eye; and the eye is only for (his) seeing. %nd he who 'nows G# smell this5, is the %tman; the nose is for
smelling. %nd he who 'nows G# spea' this5, is the %tman, the organ of speech is for spea'ing. %nd he who 'nows G# hear
this5, is the %tman; the ear is for hearing.
"###-Dii-=+ %nd he who 'nows G# thin' this5, is the %tman, the mind is his diine eye. !hrough this diine eye of the mind he
erily sees these desired ob$ects which are in the &rahman-world, and re$oices.
"###-Dii->+ G"erily, this is the %tman whom the gods worship. !herefore all the worlds and all the desired ob$ects are held
by them. ,e obtains all the worlds all the desired ob$ects, who haing 'nown that %tman (from the teacher and the
scriptures) understands it.5 !hus spo'e )ra$apati ( yea, thus spo'e )ra$apati.
"###-Diii-*+ 6rom the dar' # attain to the ariegated from the ariegated # attain to the dar'. Sha'ing off eil as a horse his
hairs, sha'ing off the body as the moon frees itself from the mouth of Eahu, #, haing fulfilled all ends, obtain the eternal
&rahman-world ( yea, # obtain it.
"###-Di-*+ "erily, what is called %'asa is the reealer of name and form. !hat within which they are, is &rahman, that is
the immortal, that is the %tman. G# attain to the assembly-hall and abode of )ra$apati. # am the glory of the &rahmanas,
the glory of the Kshatriyas, the glory of the "aisyas. # wish to attain that glory. # am the glory of the glories. May # neer go
to that which is reddish-white and toothless yet deouring and slippery ( yea, may # neer go to it.5
"###-D-*+ &rahma eDpounded this to )ra$apati. )ra$apati to Manu and Manu to his descendants. ,e who has read the
"eda according to the prescribed rule, in the time left oer after performing his duties to the teacher, he who after haing
come bac' from the teacher5s house, settles down in his household, continues the study of the "eda in a clean place,
and has irtuous sons and disciples, he who withdraws all his senses into the %tman, who practises non-in$ury to all
beings eDcept in places specially ordained, he who behaes thus throughout his life reaches the world of &rahman and
does not return again ( yea, he does not return again.
Om ! .et my limbs and speech, )rana, eyes, ears, itality
%nd all the senses grow in strength.
%ll eDistence is the &rahman of the Fpanishads.
May # neer deny &rahman, nor &rahman deny me.
.et there be no denial at all+
.et there be no denial at least from me.
May the irtues that are proclaimed in the Fpanishads be in me,
8ho am deoted to the %tman; may they reside in me.
Om ! )eace ! )eace ! )eace !
,ere ends the 9handogyopanishad, as contained in the Sama-"eda
Isavasya Upanishad
Translated by Vidyavachaspati V. Panoli
Om ! !hat is full; this is full, (for) from the full the full (indeed) arises.
8hen the full is ta'en from the full, what remains is full indeed.
Om! )eace! )eace! )eace!
*. Om. %ll this should be coered by the .ord, whatsoeer moes on the earth. &y such a renunciation protect (thyself).
9oet not the wealth of others.
0. &y performing 'arma in this world (as en$oined by the scriptures) should one yearn to lie a hundred years. !hus
action does not bind thee, the doer. !here is no other way than this.
2. !hose worlds of %suras (demons) are enshrouded by blinding gloom. !hose who are the slayers of the Self go to them
after death.
3. Fnmoing, #t is one, faster than the mind. !he senses cannot reach #t, for #t proceeds ahead. Eemaining static #t
oerta'es others that run. On account of #ts presence, Matarsia (the wind) conducts the actiities of beings.
=. #t moes; #t moes not. #t is far; #t is near. #t is within all; #t is without all.
>. ,e who perceies all beings in the Self alone, and the Self in all beings, does not entertain any hatred on account of
that perception.
?. 8hen a man realises that all beings are but the Self, what delusion is there, what grief, to that perceier of onenessC
@. !hat (Self) is all-perading, radiant, bodiless, soreless, without sinews, pure, untainted by sin, the all-seer, the lord of
the mind, transcendent and self-eDistent. !hat (Self) did allot in proper order to the eternal )ra$apatis 'nown as
samalsara (year) their duties.
A. !hose who worship aidya ('arma born of ignorance) go to pitch dar'ness, but to a greater dar'ness than this go
those who are deoted to "idya ('nowledge of the 7eatas).
*B. 7ifferent indeed, they say, is the result (attained) by idya and different indeed, they say, is the result (attained) by
aidya. !hus hae we heard from the wise who had eDplained it to us.
**. ,e who 'nows both idya and aidya together, transcends mortality through aidya and reaches immortality through
idya.
*0. !o pitch dar'ness they go who worship the Fnmanifested ()ra'riti). !o a greater dar'ness than this go those who are
deoted to the Manifested (,iranyagarbha).
*2. 7ifferent indeed, they say, is the result (attained) by the worship of the Manifested and different indeed, they say, is
the result (attained) by the worship of the Fnmanifested. !hus hae we heard from the wise who had eDplained it to us.
*3. ,e who 'nows both the Fnmanifested and the destructible (,iranyagarbha) together, transcends death by the
(worship of) the destructible and attains immortality by the (worship of ) the Fnmanifested.
*=. !he face of the !ruth (ie., )urusha in the solar orb) is eiled by a bright essel. Mayst thou uneil it, O Sun, so as to
be perceied by me whose dharma is truth.
*>. O nourisher, pilgrim of the solitude, controller, absorber (of all rasas), offspring of )ra$apati, cast away thy rays,
gather them up and gie up thy radiating brilliance. !hat form of thine, most graceful, # may behold. ,e, the )urusha (in
the solar orb), # am.
*?. .et (my) ital air (prana) now attain the immortal %ir (all-perading Self); then let this body be reduced to ashes. Om,
O mind, remember ( remember that which has been done, O mind, remember ( remember that which has been done.
*@. O 6ire, O 7ea, 'nower of all our actions or all our 'nowledge, lead us by the good path for en$oying the fruits of
actions. .iberate us from our deceitful sins. 8e offer thee eer more our words of adoration.
Om! !hat is full; this is full, (for) from the full the full (indeed) arises.
8hen the full is ta'en from the full, what remains is full indeed.
Om ! )eace ! )eace ! )eace !
,ere ends the #saasyopanishad, as contained in the Su'la-Ia$ur-"eda
Katha Upanishad
Translaetd by Vidyavachaspati V. Panoli
Om ! May ,e protect us both together (by illumining the nature of 'nowledge).
May ,e sustain us both (by ensuring the fruits of 'nowledge).
May we attain the igour (of 'nowledge) together.
.et what we learn enlighten us.
.et us not hate each other.
Om ! )eace ! )eace ! )eace !
*-#-*. Out of desire, so goes the story, the son of "a$asraa gae away all his wealth. ,e had a son named Hachi'etas.
*-#-0. !hough young, faith possessed him as presents were being brought; he thought+
*-#-2. 8ater has been drun' (for the last time by these cows), grass has been eaten (for the last time); they hae yielded
all their mil', and are deoid of (the power of) the organs. !hose worlds are indeed $oyless where he goes who offers
these.
*-#-3. ,e then said to his parent, Lfather, to whom wilt thou gie meCL % second time and a third time (he said it). !o him
he (the father) said, L!o 7eath # gie thee.L
*-#-=. Of many # go the first; of many # go the middle most. 8hat purpose of Iama could there be which (my father) will
get accomplished today through meC
*-#->. !hin' how your ancestors behaed; behold how others now behae. .i'e corn man decays, and li'e corn he is
born again.
*-#-?. .i'e "aisanara (fire), a &rahmana guest enters the houses. Men offer this to propitiate him. O "aiasata (Iama)+
fetch water (for him).
*-#-@. ,ope, eDpectation, association with the effects (of these two), pleasant discourse, sacrifice, acts of pious liberality,
sons and cattle ( all these are destroyed in the case of the man of little intellect in whose house a &rahmana dwells
without food.
*-#-A. O &rahmana, since thou, a worshipful guest, hast dwelt in my house for three nights without food, let me ma'e
salutation to thee. O &rahmana, may peace be with me. !herefore, as' for three boons in return.
*-#-*B. O 7eath, let :autama (my father) be relieed of the anDiety, let him become calm in mind and free from anger
(towards me), and let him recognise me and tal' to me when liberated by thee. Of the three boons, this is the first #
choose.
*-#-**. Ouddala'i, the son of %runa, will recognise thee as before and will, with my permission, sleep peacefully during
nights and on seeing thee released from the $aws of 7eath, he will be free from anger.
*-#-*0. !here is no fear in heaen; nor art thou there; nor is there any fear from old age. !ranscending both hunger and
thirst and rising aboe grief, man re$oices in heaen.
*-#-*2. O 7eath, thou 'nowest the 6ire that leads to heaen. #nstruct me, who am endowed with faith, about that (6ire) by
which those who dwell in heaen attain immortality. !his # choose for my second boon.
*-#-*3. # will teach thee well; listen to me and understand, O Hachi'etas, # 'now the 6ire that leads to heaen. Know that
6ire which is the means for the attainment of heaen and which is the support (of the unierse) and located in the caity.
*-#-*=. 7eath told him of the 6ire, the source of the worlds, the sort of bric's (for raising the sacrificial altar), how many,
and how (to 'indle the fire) and he (Hachi'etas) too repeated it as it was told. !hen 7eath, becoming delighted oer it,
said again+
*-#-*>. !he eDalted one, being pleased, said to him+ L# grant thee again another boon now. &y thy name itself shall this
fire be 'nown; and accept thou this nec'lace of manifold formsL.
*-#-*?. 8hoso 'indles the Hachi'etas fire thrice and becomes united with the three and does the three-fold 'arma,
transcends birth and death. Knowing the omniscient one, born of &rahma, bright and adorable, and reali1ing it, he attains
to surpassing peace.
*-#-*@. ,e who, 'nowing the three (form of bric' etc.,), piles up the Hachi'eta 6ire with this 'nowledge, throws off the
chains of death een before (the body falls off), and rising oer grief, re$oices in heaen.
*-#-*A. !his is the 6ire, O Hachi'etas, which leads to heaen and which thou hast chosen for the second boon. Of this
6ire, people will spea' as thine indeed. O Hachi'etas, choose the third boon.
*-#-0B. !his doubt as to what happens to a man after death ( some say he is, and some others say he is not, ( # shall
'now being taught by thee. Of the boons, this is the third boon.
*-#-0*. <en by the gods this doubt was entertained in days of yore. !his topic, being subtle, is not easy to comprehend.
%s' for some other boon, O Hachi'etas. 7on5t press me; gie up this (boon) for me.
*-#-00. (Hachi'etas said+) Since een by the gods was doubt entertained in this regard and (since) thou sayest, O 7eath,
that this is not easily comprehended, no other preceptor li'e thee can be had to instruct on this nor is there any other
boon e;ual to this.
*-#-02. %s' for sons and grandsons who will lie a hundred years. %s' for herds of cattle, elephants gold and horses, as
also for a ast eDtent of earth and thyself lie for as many autumns as thou desirest.
*-#-03. #f thou thin'est any other boon to be e;ual to this, as' for wealth and longeity. &e thou the ruler oer a ast
country, O Hachi'etas; # shall ma'e thee en$oy all thy longings.
*-#-0=. 8hat all things there are in the human world which are desirable, but hard to win, pray for all those desirable
things according to thy pleasure. ,ere are these damsels with the chariots and lutes, the li'e of whom can neer be had
by men. &y them, gien by me, get thy serices rendered, O Hachi'etas, do not as' about death.
*-#-0>. !hese, O 7eath, are ephemeral and they tend to wear out the igour of all the senses of man. <en the whole life
is short indeed. &e thine alone the chariots; be thine the dance and music.
*-#-0?. Man cannot be satisfied with wealth. #f we need wealth, we shall get it if we only see thee. 8e shall lie until such
time as thou wilt rule. &ut the boon to be as'ed for (by me) is that alone.
*-#-0@. ,aing gained contact with the undecaying and the immortal, what decaying mortal dwelling on the earth below
who 'nows the higher goal, will delight in long life, after becoming aware of the (transitoriness of) beauty ("arian) and
sport (rati) and the $oy (pramoda) thereof.
*-#-0A. O 7eath, tell us of that, of the great &eyond, about which man entertain doubt. Hachi'etas does not pray for any
other boon than this which enters into the secret that is hidden.
*-##-*. 7ifferent is (that which is) preferable; and different, indeed, is the pleasurable. !hese two, sering different
purposes, blind man. :ood accrues to him who, of these two, chooses the preferable. ,e who chooses the pleasurable
falls from the goal.
*-##-0. !he preferable and the pleasurable approach man. !he intelligent one eDamines both and separates them. Iea,
the intelligent one prefers the preferable to the pleasurable, (whereas) the ignorant one selects the pleasurable for the
sa'e of yoga (attainment of that which is not already possessed) and 'shema (the preseration of that which is already in
possession).
*-##-2. !hou hast relin;uished, O Hachi'etas, all ob$ects of desire, dear and of coetable nature, pondering oer their
worthlessness. !hou hast not accepted the path of wealth in which perish many a mortal.
*-##-3. 8hat is 'nown as ignorance and what is 'nown as 'nowledge are highly opposed (to each other), and lead to
different ways. # consider Hachi'etas to be aspiring after 'nowledge, for desires, numerous though they be, did not tear
thee away.
*-##-=. .iing in the midst of ignorance and deeming themseles intelligent and enlightened, the ignorant go round and
round staggering in croo'ed paths, li'e the blind led by the blind.
*-##->. !he means of attaining the other world does not become reealed to the non-discriminating one who, deluded by
wealth, has become negligent. ,e who thin's, Gthis world alone is and none else5 comes to my thraldom again and again.
*-##-?. Of the Self many are not een able to hear; ,im many, though they hear, do not comprehend. 8onderful is the
eDpounder of the Self and attainer, proficient. !he 'nower (of the Self) taught by an able preceptor is wonderful.
*-##-@. !his (Self), if taught by an inferior person, is not easily comprehended, for #t is ariously thought of. Fnless taught
by another (who is a perceier of non-difference) there is no way (of comprehending #t), for #t is not arguable and is
subtler than subtlety.
*-##-A. !his ('nowledge of the Self) attained by thee cannot be had through argumentation. O dearest, this doctrine, only
if taught by some teacher (other than a logician), leads to right 'nowledge. O, thou art rooted in truth. May a ;uestioner
be eer li'e thee, O Hachi'etas.
*-##-*B. # 'now that the treasure is impermanent, for that which is constant cannot be reached by things which are not
constant. !herefore, has the Hachi'eta 6ire been 'indled by me with impermanent things, and # hae attained the
eternal.
*-##-**. !he fulfilment of all desires, the support of the unierse, the endless fruits of sacrifice, the other shore of
fearlessness, the eDtensie path which is praiseworthy and great, as also (thy own eDalted) state ( seeing all these thou
hast, intelligent as thou art, boldly re$ected (them).
*-##-*0. !he intelligent one, 'nowing through concentration of mind the Self that is hard to perceie, lodged in the
innermost recess, located in intelligence, seated amidst misery, and ancient, abandons $oy and grief.
*-##-*2. ,aing heard this and grasped it well, the mortal, separating the irtuous being (from the body etc.,) and attaining
this subtle Self, re$oices haing obtained that which causes $oy. !he abode (of &rahman), # thin', is wide open unto
Hachi'etas.
*-##-*3. !ell me of that which thou seest as distinct from irtue, distinct from ice, distinct from effect and cause, distinct
from the past and the future.
*-##-*=. !he goal which all the "edas eDpound, which all austerities declare, and desiring which aspirants resort to
&rahmacharya, that goal, # tell thee briefly+ #t is this ( Om.
*-##-*>. !his syllable (Om) indeed is the (lower) &rahman; this syllable indeed is the higher &rahman; whosoeer 'nows
this syllable, indeed, attains whatsoeer he desires.
*-##-*?. !his support is the best; this support is the supreme. Knowing this support one is magnified in the world of
&rahman.
*-##-*@. !he intelligent Self is not born, nor does #t die. #t did not come from anywhere, nor did anything come from #t. #t is
unborn, eternal, eerlasting and ancient, and is not slain een when the body is slain.
*-##-*A. #f the slayer thin's that he slays #t and if the slain thin's of #t as slain, both these do not 'now, for #t does not slay
nor is #t slain.
*-##-0B. !he Self that is subtler than the subtle and greater than the great is seated in the heart of eery creature. One
who is free from desire sees the glory of the Self through the tran;uillity of the mind and senses and becomes absoled
from grief.
*-##-0*. 8hile sitting, #t goes far, while lying #t goes eerywhere. 8ho other than me can 'now that 7eity who is $oyful and
$oyless.
*-##-00. !he intelligent one haing 'nown the Self to be bodiless in (all) bodies, to be firmly seated in things that are
perishable, and to be great and all-perading, does not griee.
*-##-02. !he Self cannot be attained by the study of the "edas, not by intelligence nor by much hearing. Only by him who
see's to 'now the Self can #t be attained. !o him the Self reeals #ts own nature.
*-##-03. Hone who has not refrained from bad conduct, whose senses are not under restraint, whose mind is not
collected or who does not presere a tran;uil mind, can attain this Self through 'nowledge.
*-##-0=. !he Self to which both the &rahmana and the Kshatriya are food, (as it were), and 7eath a soup, how can one
'now thus where #t is.
*-###-*. !he 'nowers of &rahman and those who 'indle the fie fires and propitiate the Hachi'eta 6ire thrice, spea' of as
light and shade, the two that en$oy the results of righteous deeds, entering within the body, into the innermost caity (of
the heart), the supreme abode (of &rahman).
*-###-0. May we be able to 'now the Hachi'eta 6ire which is the bridge for the sacrificers, as also the imperishable
&rahman, fearless, as well as the other shore for those who are desirous of crossing (the ocean of samsara).
*-###-2. Know the Self to be the master of the chariot, and the body to be the chariot. Know the intellect to be the
charioteer, and the mind to be the reins.
*-###-3. !he senses they spea' of as the horses; the ob$ects within their iew, the way. 8hen the Self is yo'ed with the
mind and the senses, the wise call #t the en$oyer.
*-###-=. &ut whoso is deoid of discrimination and is possessed of a mind eer uncollected ( his senses are
uncontrollable li'e the icious horses of a drier.
*-###->. &ut whoso is discriminatie and possessed of a mind eer collected ( his senses are controllable li'e the good
horses of a drier.
*-###-?. &ut whoso is deoid of a discriminating intellect, possessed of an unrestrained mind and is eer impure, does not
attain that goal, but goes to samsara.
*-###-@. &ut whoso is possessed of a discriminating intellect and a restrained mind, and is eer pure, attains that goal from
which he is not born again.
*-###-A. &ut the man who has a discriminating intellect as his drier, and a controlled-mind as the reins, reaches the end
of the path ( that supreme state of "ishnu.
*-###-*B. !he sensory ob$ects are subtler than the senses, and subtler than the sensory ob$ects is mind. &ut intellect is
subtler than mind and subtler than intellect is Mahat (the ,iranyagarbha).
*-###-**. !he unmanifested (aya'ta) is subtler than Mahat (,iranyagarbha) and subtler than the unmanifested is
)urusha. !here is nothing subtler than )urusha. !hat is the end, that is the supreme goal.
*-###-*0. !his Self hidden in all beings does not shine. &ut by seers of subtle and pointed intellect capable of perceiing
subtle ob$ects, #t is seen.
*-###-*2. .et the wise man merge speech in his mind, merge that (mind) into the intelligent self and the intelligent self into
the Mahat. (.et him then) merge the Mahat into the peaceful Self.
*-###-*3. %rise, awa'e, and learn by approaching the eDalted ones, for that path is sharp as a ra1or5s edge, impassable,
and hard to go by, say the wise.
*-###-*=. &y 'nowing that which is soundless, touchless, formless, undecaying, so also tasteless, eternal, odourless,
beginningless, endless, subtler than Mahat and constant, man is liberated from the $aws of death.
*-###-*>. Harrating and hearing this eternal story of Hachi'etas told by 7eath, the intelligent man attains glory in the world
of &rahman.
*-###-*?. 8hoso, becoming pure, causes this supreme secret to be recited before am assembly of the &rahmanas, or at
the time of Sraddha, that (ceremony) secures for him infinite results, secures infinite results.
0-#-*. !he self-eDistent damned the out-going senses. !herefore one sees eDternally and not the internal Self. Someone
(who is) intelligent, with his eyes turned away, desirous of immortality, sees the inner Self.
0-#-0. !he unintelligent go after outward pleasures; they fall into the meshes of wide-spread death. &ut the intelligent,
haing 'nown immortality to be constant, neer coet here ob$ects that are inconstant.
0-#-2. &y the self (a man 'nows) form, taste, odour, sound, touch, and the seDual $oy. 8hat remains here (un'nowable to
the Self)C !his erily is that (thou see'est).
0-#-3. Knowing that great and all-perading Self by which one sees (the ob$ects) both in the sleep and the wa'ing states,
the intelligent man griees no more.
0-#-=. 8hoso 'nows the self closely, the honey-eater, the supporter of the ital airs and the lord of the past and the future,
will not henceforward protect himself. !his erily is that (thou see'est).
0-#->. ,e who perceies the 6irst-born that came into being from !apas (&rahman) before the waters, and that, entering
into the caity of the heart, is seated there, he perceies that ery &rahman. !his erily is that (thou see'est).
0-#-?. (,e who perceies) this %diti that comes into being as the )rana, comprising all the gods, that is manifested along
with the elements, and that, entering into the caity of the heart, is seated there, he perceies that ery &rahman. !his
erily is that (thou see'est).
0-#-@. !he (sacrificial) fire lodged in the two aranis, een as the foetus is carefully borne by the pregnant woman, is fit to
be worshipped eery day by men who are wa'eful and possessed of oblation. !his erily is that (thou see'est).
0-#-A. On that from which the sun rises and in which it sets, are fiDed all the gods. Hone eer goes beyond that. !his
erily is that (thou see'est).
0-#-*B. 8hat indeed is here is there; what is there is here again. 8hoso here sees as though different, passes from death
to death.
0-#-**. &y mind alone is this attainable; there is no difference here whatsoeer. 8hoso here sees as though different,
passes from death to death.
0-#-*0. !he )urusha, of the si1e of a thumb, dwells in the body. (Eeali1ing ,im as) the .ord of the past and the future,
one does not (henceforward) want to protect oneself. !his erily is that (thou see'est).
0-#-*2. !he )urusha of the si1e of a thumb is li'e a smo'eless flame and is the .ord of the past and the future. ,e
certainly eDists now and shall certainly eDist tomorrow. !his erily is that (thou see'est).
0-#-*3. %s rain-water fallen on a mountain ridge runs down the roc's, so does one seeing the seles differently run after
them alone.
0-#-*=. %s pure water poured into pure water remains the same only, so does the Self of the thin'er who 'nows thus
become, O :autama.
0-##-*. !he city of the unborn whose 'nowledge is li'e the light of the sun, consists of eleen gates. Meditating on ,im,
one does not griee and, becoming free (from bondage), one becomes liberated. !his erily is that (thou see'est).
0-##-0. %s moer (sun), ,e dwells in heaen; (as air), ,e perades eerything and dwells in inter-space; as fire, on the
earth; as guest, in the houses; ,e dwells in men; dwells in the gods; dwells in truth and dwells in space. ,e is all that is
born in water, all that is born on earth, all that is born in sacrifices and all that is born on the mountains; ,e is unchanging
and great.
0-##-2. (,e) raises the prana upward and casts the apana downward. %ll the gods worship ,im who is adorable and
seated in the middle.
0-##-3. 8hen this Self seated in the body is torn away and freed from the body, what remains hereC !his erily is that
(thou see'est).
0-##-=. Hot by prana, not by apana does a mortal lie; but all lie by something else on which these two depend.
0-##->. # will describe to thee, O :autama, this secret ancient &rahman and also what becomes of the Self after death.
0-##-?. Some $ias enter the womb for assuming bodies; others go into the unmoing, in accordance with their 'arma and
with their 'nowledge.
0-##-@. !his )urusha who is awa'e when all are asleep, creating all things cherished, is certainly pure; that is &rahman;
that is called the #mmortal. %ll worlds are strung on that; none passes beyond that. !his erily is that (thou see'est).
0-##-A. Just as fire, though one, haing entered the world, assumes a separate form in respect of eery form, so does the
in-dwelling Self of all beings, though one, assume a form in respect of eery form, and is outside it.
0-##-*B. Just as wind, though one, haing entered the world, assumes a separate form in respect of each form, so does
the in-dwelling Self of all beings, though one, assumes a form in respect of eery form and is outside it.
0-##-**. Just as the sun, which is the eye of the entire world, is not tainted by the eDternal impurities seen by the eyes, so
also, the in-dwelling Self of all beings, though one, is not tainted by the sorrows of the world, #t being eDternal.
0-##-*0. <ternal happiness belongs to the intelligent ( not to others ( who reali1e in their hearts ,im who is one, the
controller and the in-dwelling Self of all beings, and who ma'es the one form manifold.
0-##-*2. 8hoso among the intelligent reali1e the Self in the (inner space of the) heart as the eternal among the
ephemeral, the consciousness among the conscious, who, though one, dispenses the desired ob$ects to many, to them
belongs eternal peace, not to others.
0-##-*3. ,ow shall # 'now that indescribable and supreme &liss which they thin' of as G!his5C #s #t self-luminous or does #t
shine distinctly, (ma'ing #tself perceptible to the intellect), or does #t notC
0-##-*=. !here the sun shines not, nor do the moon and the stars, nor do these lightnings. ,ow (then) can this fire
(shine)C <erything shines after ,im that shines. &y ,is light shines all this.
0-###-*. !his peepul tree with root aboe and branches down is eternal. !hat (which is its source) is certainly pure; that is
&rahman and that is called immortal. On that are strung all the worlds; none passes beyond that. !his erily is that (thou
see'est).
0-###-0. %ll this unierse, eoled (from &rahman), moes in prana (in &rahman); the most frightful li'e an uplifted
thunderbolt. !hose who 'now this become immortal.
0-###-2. 6or fear of ,im, fire burns;
6or fear of ,im, shines the sun;
6or fear of ,im, #ndra and "ayu function;
6or fear of ,im, death, the fifth, stal's on the earth.
0-###-3. #f one could 'now here prior to the falling of the body, (one becomes liberated); (if not), one becomes fit to be
embodied in the worlds of creatures.
0-###-=. %s in a mirror, so in one5s intellect; as in a dream, so in the world of manes; as seen in water, so in the world of
the :andharas; as in the case of shade and light, so in the world of &rahma.
0-###->. !he intelligent man, haing 'nown the different nature of the senses originating separately (from their causes), as
also their rising and setting, does not griee.
0-###-?. !he mind is subtler than the senses; subtler than the mind is the intellect; Mahat (,iranyagarbha) is subtler than
the intellect; subtler than Mahat is %ya'ta (Fnmanifested).
0-###-@. &ut subtler than %ya'ta is )urusha, all-perading and without a linga (distinguishing mar') indeed, 'nowing
whom a mortal becomes freed and attains immortality.
0-###-A. ,is form does not stand within the scope of ision; none beholds ,im with the eye. &y the intellect restraining the
mind, and through meditation is ,e reealed. !hose who 'now this become immortal.
0-###-*B. 8hen the fie senses of 'nowledge are at rest together with the mind, and the intellect is not actie, that state
they call the highest.
0-###-**. !hat steady restraint oer the senses they regard as yoga. !hen one becomes igilant, for yoga can indeed
originate (in one) and can be lost (as well).
0-###-*0. Hot by speech, not by mind, not by the eye can #t be attained. <Dcept in the case of one who says, G#t eDists5,
how can #t be 'nown to anyone elseC
0-###-*2. !he Self should be apprehended as eDisting and also as #t really is. Of these two (aspects), to him who 'nows #t
to eDist, #ts true nature is reealed.
0-###-*3. 8hen all longings that are in the heart anish, then a mortal becomes immortal and attains &rahman here.
0-###-*=. 8hen all the 'nots of the heart are cut asunder here, then a mortal becomes immortal. Only this much is the
instruction.
0-###-*>. !here are a hundred and one neres of the heart. Of then, one goes out piercing the head. :oing up through
that, one attains immortality; the others sere for departing in different ways.
0-###-*?. )urusha of the si1e of a thumb, the inner Self, is eer seated in the heart of all liing beings. One should, with
steadiness, separate ,im from one5s own body as stal' from the Mun$a grass. One should 'now ,im as pure and
immortal; one should 'now ,im as pure and immortal.
0-###-*@. Hachi'etas then, haing ac;uired this 'nowledge imparted by 7eath, as also the instructions on Ioga in entirety,
attained &rahman haing become dispassionate and deathless. So does become any one else also who 'nows the inner
Self thus.
Om ! May ,e protect us both together (by illumining the nature of 'nowledge).
May ,e sustain us both (by ensuring the fruits of 'nowledge).
May we attain the igour (of 'nowledge) together.
.et what we learn enlighten us.
.et us not hate each other.
Om ! )eace ! )eace ! )eace !
,ere ends the Kathopanishad, as contained in the Krishna-Ia$ur-"eda
Kena Upanishad
Translated by Vidyavachaspati V. Panoli
Om ! May my limbs, speech, ital air, eyes, ears, strength,
%nd all the senses be fully deeloped.
%ll that is reealed by the Fpanishads is &rahman.
May # neer deny &rahman+
May &rahman neer disown me.
.et there be no repudiation (from &rahman);
.et there be no infidelity from my side.
May all the 7harmas eDtolled by the Fpanishads shine in me
8ho am intent on 'nowing the Self.
May they shine in me !
Om ! )eace ! )eace ! )eace !
#-*. 8ished by whom is the mind directed to fall (on its ob$ects)C 7irected by whom does the foremost ital air moeC &y
whom is wished this speech which the people utterC 8ho is the radiant being that unites the eye and the ear (with their
ob$ects)C
#-0. &ecause ,e is the ear of the ear, the mind of the mind, the speech of speech, the ital air of the ital air, and the eye
of the eye, the wise, freeing themseles (from the identity with the senses) and renouncing the world, become immortal.
#-2. !he eye does not reach there, nor speech, nor mind, nor do we 'now (#ts mature). !herefore we don5t 'now how to
impart instruction (about #t). 7istinct indeed is !hat from the 'nown and distinct from the un'nown. !hus hae we heard
from the ancients who eDpounded #t to us.
#-3. !hat which is not uttered by speech, that by which the word is eDpressed, 'now !hat alone to be &rahman, and not
this (non-&rahman) which is being worshipped.
#-=. !hat which one does not thin' with the mind, that by which, they say, the mind is thought, 'now !hat alone to be
&rahman, and not this (non-&rahman) which is being worshipped.
#->. !hat which man does not see with the eye, that by which man sees the actiities of the eye, 'now !hat alone to be
&rahman, and not this (non-&rahman) which is being worshipped.
#-?. !hat which man does not hear with the ear, that by which man hears the ear5s hearing, 'now !hat alone to be
&rahman, and not this (non-&rahman) which is being worshipped.
#-@. !hat which man does not smell with the organ of smell, that by which the organ of smell is attracted towards its
ob$ects, 'now !hat alone to be &rahman, and not this (non-&rahman) which is being worshipped.
##-*. #f you thin', G# 'now &rahman rightly5, you hae 'nown but little of &rahman5s (true) nature. 8hat you 'now of ,is
form and what form you 'now among the gods (too is but little). !herefore &rahman is still to be in;uired into by you. #
thin' &rahman is 'nown to me.
##-0. # thin' not # 'now &rahman rightly, nor do # thin' #t is un'nown. # 'now (and # do not 'now also). ,e among us who
'nows that 'nows #t (&rahman); not that #t is not 'nown nor that #t is 'nown.
##-2. #t is 'nown to him to whom #t is un'nown; he to whom #t is 'nown does not 'now #t. #t is un'nown to those who 'now,
and 'nown to those who 'now not.
##-3. 8hen &rahman is 'nown as the inner Self (of cognition) in eery state of consciousness, #t is 'nown in reality,
because one thus attains immortality. !hrough one5s own Self is attained strength and through 'nowledge is attained
immortality.
##-=. ,ere if one has realised, then there is accomplishment. ,ere if one has not realised, then there is utter ruin. ,aing
realised &rahman in all beings, and haing withdrawn from this world, the wise become immortal.
###-*. #t is well-'nown that &rahman indeed achieed ictory for the gods. &ut in that ictory which was &rahman5s the
gods reelled in $oy.
###-0. !hey thought, -Ours alone is this ictory, ours alone is this glory/. &rahman 'new this their pride and appeared
before them, but they 'new not who this Ia'sha (worshipful &eing) was.
###-2. !hey said to %gni+ -O Jataeda, 'now thou this as to who this Ia'sha is/. (,e said+) -So be it./
###-3. %gni approached #t. #t as'ed him, -8ho art thouC/ ,e replied, -# am %gni or # am Jataeda/.
###-=. (#t said+) -8hat is the power in thee, such as thou artC/ (%gni said+) -# can burn all this that is upon the earth./
###->. 6or him (#t) placed there a blade of grass and said+ -&urn this/. (%gni) went near it in all haste, but he could not burn
it. ,e returned from there (and said+) -# am unable to understand who that Ia'sha is/.
###-?. !hen (the gods) said to "ayu+ -O "ayu, 'now thou this as to who this Ia'sha is/. (,e said+) -So be it/.
###-@. "ayu approached #t. #t said to him, -8ho art thouC/ ,e replied, -# am "ayu or # am Matarsia/.
###-A. (#t said+) -8hat is the power in thee, such as thou artC/ ("ayu said+) -# can ta'e hold of all this that is upon the earth/.
###-*B. 6or him (#t) placed there a blade of grass and said+ -!a'e this up/. ("ayu) went near it in all haste, but he could not
ta'e it up. ,e returned from there (and said+) -# am unable to understand who that Ia'sha is/.
###-**. !hen (the gods) said to #ndra+ -O Maghaa, 'now thou this as to who this Ia'sha is/. (,e said+) -So be it/. ,e
approached #t, but #t disappeared from him.
###-*0. #n that space itself (where the Ia'sha had disappeared) #ndra approached an eDceedingly charming woman. !o
that Fma dec'ed in gold (or to the daughter of the ,imalayas), he said+ -8ho is this Ia'shaC/
#"-*. She said+ -#t was &rahman. #n the ictory that was &rahman5s you were reelling in $oy/. !hen alone did #ndra 'now
for certain that #t was &rahman.
#"-0. !herefore, these gods i1. %gni, "ayu and #ndra eDcelled other gods, for they touched &rahman who stood ery
close and indeed 'new first that #t was &rahman.
#"-2. !herefore is #ndra more eDcellent than the other gods, for he touched &rahman who stood ery close and indeed
'new first that #t was &rahman.
#"-3. #ts instruction (regarding meditation) is this. #t is similar to that which is li'e a flash of lightning or li'e the win'ling of
the eye. !his is (the analogy of &rahman) in the diine aspect.
#"-=. !hen (follows) the instruction through analogy on the aspect of the indiidual self. (#t is well-'nown that) the mind
seems to attain to #t, that #t is continually remembered by the mind, and that the mind possesses the thought (regarding
#t).
#"->. !hat &rahman is 'nown indeed as !adana (worshipful or adorable to all beings); !hat is to be worshipped as
!adana. !o him who 'nows #t thus erily all beings pray.
#"-?. (7isciple+) -Eeered sir, spea' Fpanishad to me./ (!eacher+) -# hae spo'en Fpanishad to thee. Of &rahman erily
is the Fpanishad that # hae spo'en./
#"-@. Of this 'nowledge austerity, self-restraint and action are the feet, the "edas are all limbs and truth is the abode.
#"-A. ,e who 'nows this thus, with his sins destroyed, becomes firmly seated in the infinite, blissful and supreme
&rahman. ,e becomes firmly seated (in &rahman).
Om ! May my limbs, speech, ital air, eyes, ears, strength,
%nd all the senses be fully deeloped.
%ll that is reealed by the Fpanishads is &rahman.
May # neer deny &rahman+
May &rahman neer disown me.
.et there be no repudiation (from &rahman);
.et there be no infidelity from my side.
May all the 7harmas eDtolled by the Fpanishads shine in me
8ho am intent on 'nowing the Self.
May they shine in me !
Om ! )eace ! )eace ! )eace !
,ere ends the Kenopanishad, as contained in the Sama-"eda
Mandukya Upanishad (with Gaudapada Karikas)
Translation* by 1ami <i"hilananda
Chapter I 4 "gama Pra)arana +The Chapter -ased on Vedic Testimon*,
% -arih 'um! '=,, the ord, is all this, the hole universe. ' clear eDplanation of it is as
follos3 'll that is past, present and future is, indeed, '=,. 'nd hatever else there is,
beyond the threefold division of time$that also is truly '=,.
%% 'll this is, indeed, (rahman. This 'tman is (rahman. This same 'tman has four #uarters.
%%% The first #uarter is called !aisvanara, hose sphere of activity is the a"ing state, ho is
conscious of eDternal objects, ho has seven limbs and nineteen mouths and ho is the
eDperiencer of gross objects.
%! The second #uarter is Taijasa, hose sphere of activity is the dream state, ho is conscious
of internal objects, ho is endoed ith seven limbs and nineteen mouths and ho is the
eDperiencer of subtle objects.
! That is the state of deep sleep herein one asleep neither desires any object nor sees any
dream. The third #uarter is Prajna, hose sphere is deep sleep, in hom all eDperiences
become unified, ho is, verily, a mass of consciousness, ho is full of bliss and eDperiences
bliss and ho is the door leading to the "noledge of dreaming and a"ing.
!% -e is the +ord of all. -e is the "noer of all. -e is the inner controller. -e is the source of
all; for from him all beings originate and in him they finally disappear.
Gadapada /ari)a
1 !isva is all$pervading, the eDperiencer of eDternal objects. Taijasa is the cogni?er of internal
objects. Prajna is a mass of consciousness. %t is one alone that is thus "non in the three
states.
& !isva is the cogni?er through the right eye; Taijasa is the cogni?er through the mind ithin;
Prajna is the a"asa in the heart. Therefore the one 'tman is perceived threefold in the same
body.
2$4 !isva eDperiences the gross; Taijasa, the subtle; and Prajna, the blissful. Gno these to
be the threefold eDperience. The gross object satisfies !isva; the subtle, Taijasa; and the
blissful, Prajna. Gno these to be the threefold satisfaction.
5 The eDperiencer and the objects of eDperience associated ith the three states have been
described. -e ho "nos these both does not become attached to objects though enjoying
them.
9 1urely a coming into eDistence must be predicated of all positive entities that eDist. Prana
manifests all inanimate objects. The Purusha manifests the conscious beings in their manifold
forms.
: 1ome of those ho contemplate the process of creation regard it as the manifestation of
Jod;s poers; others imagine creation to be li"e dreams and illusions.
@ Those ho are convinced about the reality of manifested objects ascribe the manifestation
solely to Jod;s ill, hile those ho speculate about time regard time as the creator of things.
B 1ome say that the manifestation is or the purpose of Jod;s enjoyment, hile others attribute
it to -is division. (ut it is the very nature of the effulgent (eing. What desire is possible for
-im ho is the fulfillment of all desiresA
!%% Turiya is not that hich is conscious of the inner /subjective0 orld, nor that hich is
conscious of the outer /objective0 orld, nor that hich is conscious of both, nor that hich is
a mass of consciousness. %t is not simple consciousness nor is %t unconsciousness. %t is
unperceived, unrelated, incomprehensible, uninferable, unthin"able and indescribable. The
essence of the >onsciousness manifesting as the self in the three states, %t is the cessation of
all phenomena; %t is all peace, all bliss and non$dual. This is hat is "non as the .ourth
/Turiya0. This is 'tman and this has to be reali?ed.
1C Turiya, the changeless 7uler, is capable of destroying all miseries. 'll other entities being
unreal, the non$dual Turiya alone is "non as effulgent and all$pervading.
11 !isva and Taijasa are conditioned by cause and effect. Prajna is conditioned by cause alone.
<either cause nor effect eDists in Turiya.
1& Prajna does not "no anything of self or non$self, of truth or untruth. (ut Turiya is ever
eDistent and all$seeing.
12 <on$cognition of duality is common to both Prajna and Turiya. (ut Prajna is associated
ith sleep in the form of cause and this sleep does not eDist in Turiya.
14 The first to, !isva and Taijasa, are associated ith dreaming and sleep respectively;
Prajna, ith 1leep bereft of dreams. Gnoers of (rahman see neither sleep nor dreams in
Turiya.
15 )reaming is the rong cognition and sleep the non$cognition, of 7eality. When the
erroneous "noledge in these to is destroyed, Turiya is reali?ed.
19 When the jiva, asleep under the influence of beginningless maya, is aa"ened, it then
reali?es birthless, sleepless and dreamless <on$duality.
1: %f the phenomenal universe ere real, then certainly it ould disappear. The universe of
duality hich is cogni?ed is mere illusion /maya0; <on$duality alone is the 1upreme 7eality.
1@ %f anyone imagines illusory ideas such as the teacher, the taught and the scriptures, then
they ill disappear. These ideas are for the purpose of instruction. )uality ceases to eDist hen
7eality is "non.
!%%% The same 'tman eDplained before as being endoed ith four #uarters is no described
from the standpoint of the syllable '=,. '=,, too, divided into parts, is vieed from the
standpoint of letters. The #uarters of 'tman are the same as the letters of '=, and the letters
are the same as the #uarters. The letters are ', = and ,.
%Q !aisvanara 'tman, hose sphere of activity is the a"ing state, is ', the first letter of '=,,
on account of his all$ pervasiveness or on account of his being the first. -e ho "nos this
obtains all desires and becomes first among the great.
Q Taijasa 'tman, hose sphere of activity is the dream state, is =, the second letter of '=,,
on account of his superiority or intermediateness. -e ho "nos this attains a superior
"noledge, receives e#ual treatment from all and finds in his family no one ignorant of
(rahman.
Q% Prajna 'tman, hose sphere is deep sleep, is ,, the third letter of '=,, because both are
the measure and also because in them all become one. -e ho "nos this is able to measure
all and also comprehends all ithin himself.
1B When it is desired to describe the identity of !isva and the letter ', the chief ground given
is the fact that each is the first in its respective sphere. 'nother reason for this identity is the
all$pervasiveness of each.
&C The clear ground for reali?ing Taijasa as of the same nature as the letter = is the common
feature of superiority. 'nother plain reason for such identity is their being in the middle.
&1 The indisputable reason given for the identity of Prajna and , is the common feature that
both are the measure. The other reason for such identity is another common feature, namely,
that both represent the state of mergence.
&& -e ho "nos for certain the similarity of the three states and the three letters of '=,,
based upon their common features, is orshipped and adored by all beings and also is a great
sage.
&2 Through meditation on ' the see"er attains !isva; through meditation on =, Taijasa; and
through meditation on ,, Prajna. ,editation on the *soundless* brings no attainment.
Q%% The .ourth /Turiya0 is ithout parts and ithout relationship; %t is the cessation of
phenomena; %t is all good and non$dual. This '=, is verily 'tman. -e ho "nos this merges
his self in 'tman$yea, he ho "nos this.
End of Mandukya Upanishad
&4 '=, should be "non #uarter by #uarter. There is no doubt that the #uarters are the same
as the letters. -aving understood '=, #uarter by #uarter, one should not thin" of anything
else.
&5 The mind should be concentrated on '=,. '=, is the fearless (rahman. -e ho is alays
absorbed in '=, "nos no fear hatever.
&9 '=, is verily the +oer (rahman. %t is also stated to be the -igher (rahman. '=, is
beginningless and uni#ue. There is nothing outside it. %t is unrelated to any effect and is
immutable.
&: '=, is, indeed, the beginning, middle and end of all things. -e ho has reali?ed '=, as
immutable immediately attains the 1upreme 7eality.
&@ Gno '=, to be %svara, ever present in the hearts of all. The calm soul, contemplating '=,
as all$pervading, does not grieve.
&B One ho "nos '=,, hich is soundless and also endoed ith infinite sounds, hich is all
good and the negation of duality, is a real sage and none other.
Chapter II !aitathya Prakarana (The Chapter on I""usion)
1 -arih 'um. The ise declare the unreality of all entities seen in dreams, because they are
located ithin the body and the space therein is confined.
& The dreamer, on account of the shortness of the time involved, cannot go out of the body
and see the dream objects. <or does he, hen aa"ened, find himself in the places seen in the
dream.
2 1cripture, on rational grounds, declares the non$eDistence of the chariots etc. perceived in
dreams. Therefore the ise say that the unreality established by reason is proclaimed by
scripture.
4 The different objects seen in the confined space of dreams are unreal on account of their
being perceived. .or the same reason i.e. on account of their being perceived, the objects seen
in the a"ing state are also unreal. The same condition i.e. the state of being perceived eDists
in both a"ing and dreaming. The only difference is the limitation of space associated ith
dream objects.
5 Thoughtful persons spea" of the sameness of the a"ing and dream states on account of the
similarity of the objects perceived in both states on the grounds already mentioned.
9 %f a thing is non$eDistent both in the beginning and in the end, it is necessarily non$
eDistent in the present. The objects that e see are really li"e illusions; still they are regarded
as real.
: The utility of the objects of a"ing eDperience is contradicted in dreams; therefore they are
certainly unreal. Thus both eDperiences, having a beginning and an end, are unreal.
@ The objects perceived by the dreamer, not usually seen in the a"ing state, oe their
eDistence to the peculiar conditions under hich the cogni?er i.e. the mind functions for the
time being, as ith those residing in heaven. The dreamer, associating himself ith the dream
conditions, perceives those objects, even as a man, ell instructed here, goes from one place
to another and sees the peculiar objects belonging to those places.
B$1C %n dreams, hat is imagined ithin the mind is illusory and hat is cogni?ed outside by
the mind, real; but truly, both are "non to be unreal. 1imilarly, in the a"ing state, hat is
imagined ithin by the mind is illusory and hat is cogni?ed outside by the mind, real; but
both should be held, on rational grounds, to be unreal.
11 %f the objects perceived in both a"ing and dreaming are illusory, ho perceives all these
objects and ho, again, imagines themA
1& %t is the self$luminous 'tman ho, through the poer of %ts on maya, imagines in %tself
by %tself all the objects that the subject eDperiences ithin and ithout. %t alone is the cogni?er
of objects. This is the decision of !edanta.
12 The +ord /'tman0, ith -is mind turned outard, imagines in diverse forms various objects
either permanent, such as the earth, or impermanent, such as lightning, hich are already in
-is mind in the form of vasanas, or desires. 'gain, -e turns -is mind ithin and imagines
various ideas.
14 Those that are cogni?ed internally only as long as the thought of them lasts and those that
are perceived outside and relate to to points in time, are all mere objects of the imagination.
There is no ground for differentiating the one from the other.
15 Those that eDist ithin the mind as subjective ideas and are "non as unmanifested and
those that are perceived to eDist outside in a manifested form, both are mere objects of the
imagination. Their difference lies only in the difference of the organs by means of hich they
are perceived.
19 .irst of all is imagined the jiva, the embodied individual and then are imagined the various
entities, both eDternal such as sounds, forms, etc. and internal such as the pranas, sense$
organs, etc., that are perceived to eDist. 's is one6s "noledge so is one6s memory.
1: 's a rope lying in dar"ness, about hose nature one remains uncertain, is imagined to be a
sna"e or a line of ater, so 'tman is imagined in various ays.
1@ When the real nature of the rope is ascertained, all misconceptions about it disappear and
there arises the conviction that it is nothing but a rope. Hven so is the true nature of 'tman
determined.
1B 'tman is imagined as prana and other numberless ideas. 'll this is due to maya, belonging
to the effulgent 'tman, by hich %t appears, %tself, to be deluded.
&C Those conversant ith prana describe 'tman as prana; those conversant ith the elements,
as the elements; those conversant ith the gunas, as the gunas; and those conversant ith
the tattvas, as the tattvas.
&1 Those ac#uainted ith the padas call %t the padas; those ac#uainted ith objects, the
objects; those ac#uainted ith the lo"as, the lo"as; those ac#uainted ith the gods, the gods.
&& Those conversant ith the !edas describe 'tman as the !edas; those conversant ith the
sacrifices, as the sacrifices; those conversant ith the enjoyer, as the enjoyer; and those
conversant ith the objects of enjoyment call %t the objects of enjoyment.
&2 The "noers of the subtle call %t the subtle and the "noers of the gross, the gross. Those
that are familiar ith the Personal )eity call %t the Personal )eity and those that are familiar
ith the void, the void.
&4 Those that "no time call 'tman time and those that "no space call %t space. Those
versed in the art of disputation call %t the object of dispute; and those "noing the orlds call
%t the orlds.
&5 The "noers of the mind call 'tman the mind; the "noers of the buddhi, the buddhi. The
"noers of the chitta call %t the chitta; and the "noers of righteousness and unrighteousness
call %t righteousness and unrighteousness.
&9 1ome say that 'tman consists of tenty$five cosmic principles; some, of tenty$siD
principles; some, again, of thirty$one principles; hile there are yet others ho describe %t as
consisting of an infinite number of principles.
&: Those ho "no ho to gratify others call 'tman gratification; those ho are conversant
ith the asramas call %t the asramas. The grammarians call %t the masculine, feminine and
neuter genders; and still others, the -igher (rahman and the +oer (rahman.
&@ The "noers of creation call %t creation; the "noers of dissolution, dissolution; and the
"noers of preservation, preservation. %n truth, all such ideas are alays imagined in 'tman.
&B The disciple grasps only that idea hich is presented to him by his teacher. 'tman assumes
the form of hat is taught and thus protects the disciple. 'bsorbed in that idea, he reali?es it
as 'tman.
2C 'tman, though non$separate from all these ideas, appears to he separate. -e ho truly
"nos this interprets, ithout any fear, the meaning of the !edas.
21 's dreams, illusions and castles in the air are vieed, so is the tangible universe vieed by
the ise, ell versed in !edanta.
2& There is neither dissolution nor creation, none in bondage and none practicing disciplines.
There is none see"ing +iberation and none liberated. This is the absolute truth.
22 'tman is imagined as the unreal objects that are perceived to eDist and as <on$duality as
ell. The objects, too, are imagined in the non$dual 'tman. Therefore <on$duality is (liss.
24 The diversity in the universe does not eDist as an entity identical With 'tman, nor does it
eDist by itself. <either is it separate from (rahman nor is it non$separate. This is the
statement of the ise.
25 The ise, ho are free from attachment, fear and anger and are ell versed in the !edas,
have reali?ed 'tman as devoid of all phantasms and free from the illusion of the manifold and
as non$dual.
29 Therefore, "noing 'tman as such, fiD your attention on <on$duality. -aving reali?ed <on
$duality, behave in the orld li"e an inert object.
2: The illumined sannyasin does not praise any deity, does not salute any superior and does
not perform rites to propitiate departed ancestors. 7egarding both body and 'tman as his
abode, he remains satisfied ith hat comes by chance.
2@ -aving "non the truth regarding hat eDists internally as also the truth regarding hat
eDists eDternally, he becomes one ith 7eality, he eDults in 7eality and never deviates from
7eality.
Chapter III # $dvaita Prakarana # (The Chapter on %ondua"ity)
1 The jiva, beta"ing himself to devotional orship, abides in the manifest (rahman. -e thin"s
that before the creation all as of the same nature as the birthless 7eality. Therefore he is said
to possess a narro intellect.
& Therefore % shall no describe (rahman, hich is unborn, the same throughout and free
from narroness. .rom this one can understand that (rahman does not in reality pass into
birth even in the slightest degree, though %t appears to be manifest everyhere.
2 'tman, hich is li"e a"asa /infinite space0, is said to be manifested in the form of jivas,
hich may be li"ened to the a"asas enclosed in pots. The bodies, also, are said to be
manifested from 'tman, just as a pot and the li"e are created out of a"asa. 's regards the
manifestation of 'tman this is the illustration.
4 's, on the destruction of the pot etc., the a"asa enclosed in them merge in the great a"asa,
so the jivas merge in 'tman.
5 's the dust, smo"e, etc. soiling the a"asa enclosed in a particular pot do not soil the other
a"asas enclosed in other
pots, so also the happiness, miseries, etc. of one jiva do not affect other jivas.
9 Though the diversity of forms, functions and names of the a"asas associated ith different
receptacles is admitted, yet this does not imply any real differentiation in a"asa itself. The
same is the conclusion regarding the jivas.
: 's the a"asa enclosed in a pot is neither an effect nor a part of the real a"asa, so the jiva is
neither an effect nor a part of atman.
@ >hildren regard a"asa as being soiled by dirt; li"eise the ignorant regard 'tman as being
similarly soiled.
B 'tman, in regard to %ts birth and death, %ts going and coming i.e. rebirth and %ts delling in
different bodies, is not unli"e a"asa.
1C 'll aggregates are produced by 'tman6s maya, as in a dream. <o rational argument can be
given to establish their reality, hether they are of e#ual status or hether some are superior
to others.
11 The 1upreme 1elf is the self of the five sheaths, such as the physical and the vital, hich
have been described in the Taittiriya =panishad. That the 1upreme 1elf is li"e a"asa has
already been stated.
1& The same a"asa dells ithin both the earth and the stomach; li"eise, the same (rahman
dells ithin the pairs described in the ,adhu$(rahmana.
12 The identity of the jiva and 'tman is praised by pointing out their non$duality; multiplicity
is condemned. Therefore non$ dualism alone is free from error.
14 The separateness of the jiva and 'tman, hich has been declared in the earlier section of
the =panishads, dealing ith the creation, is figurative, because this section states only hat
ill happen in the future. This separateness cannot be the real meaning of those passages.
15 The scriptural statements regarding the creation, using the eDamples of earth, iron and
spar"s, are for the purpose of clarifying the mind. ,ultiplicity does not really eDist in any
manner.
19 There are three stages of life, corresponding to the threefold understanding of men3
inferior, mediocre and superior. 1cripture, out of compassion, has taught this discipline for the
benefit of the unenlightened.
1: The dualists, firmly clinging to their conclusions, contradict one another. The non$dualists
find no conflict ith them.
1@ 1ince <on$duality is =ltimate 7eality, duality is said to be %ts effect. The dualist sees
duality in both the 'bsolute and the relative. Therefore the non$dualist position does not
conflict ith the dualist position.
1B The unborn 'tman becomes manifold through maya and not otherise. .or if the manifold
ere real, then the immortal ould become mortal.
&C The disputants assert that the unborn entity /'tman0 becomes born. <o can one eDpect
that an entity that is birthless and immortal should become mortalA
&1 The immortal cannot become mortal, nor can the mortal become immortal. .or it is never
possible for a thing to change its nature.
&& -o can one ho believes that an entity by nature immortal becomes mortal, maintain that
the immortal, after passing through change, retains its changeless natureA
&2 >orning into birth may be real or illusory; both vies are e#ually supported by the
scriptures. (ut that vie hich is supported by the scriptures and corroborated by reason is
alone to be accepted and not the other.
&4 .rom such scriptural passages as, *One does not see any multiplicity in 'tman* and *%ndra
/the 1upreme +ord0, through maya, assumes diverse forms*, one "nos that 'tman, though
ever unborn, appears to have become many only through maya.
&5 .urther, by the negation of the creation, coming into birth is negated. The causality of
(rahman is denied by such a statement as *Who can cause %t to come into birthA*
&9 On account of the incomprehensible nature of 'tman, the scriptural passage *<ot this, not
this* negates all dualistic ideas attributed to 'tman. Therefore the birthless 'tman alone
eDists.
&: What is ever eDistent appears to pass into birth through maya, yet from the standpoint of
7eality it does not do so. (ut he ho thin"s this passing into birth is real asserts, as a matter
of fact, that hat is born passes into birth again.
&@ The unreal cannot be born either really or through maya. .or it is not possible for the son of
a barren oman to be born either really or through maya.
&B 's in dreams the mind acts through maya, presenting the appearance of duality, so also in
the a"ing state the mind acts through maya, presenting the appearance of duality.
2C There is no doubt that the mind, hich is in reality non$dual, appears to be dual in
dreams; li"eise, there is no doubt that hat is non$dual, i.e. 'tman, appears to be dual in
the a"ing state.
21 'll the multiple objects, comprising the movable and the immovable, are perceived by the
mind alone. .or duality is never perceived hen the mind ceases to act.
2& When the mind, after reali?ing the "noledge that 'tman alone is real, becomes free from
imaginations and therefore does not cogni?e anything, for ant of objects to he cogni?ed, it
ceases to be the mind.
22 Gnoledge /Inana0, hich is unborn and free from imagination, is described by the ise as
ever inseparable from the "noable. The immutable and birthless (rahman is the goal of
"noledge. The birthless is "non by the birthless.
24 One should "no the behavior of the mind hich, being endoed ith discrimination and
free from illusions is under control. The condition of the mind in deep sleep is not li"e that but
is of a different "ind.
25 The mind is ithdran in deep sleep, but it is not so hen the mind is controlled. The
controlled mind is verily the fearless (rahman, the light of hose omniscience is all$
pervading.
29 (rahman is birthless, sleepless, dreamless, nameless and formless. %t is ever effulgent and
omniscient. <o duty, in any sense, can ever be associated ith %t.
2: 'tman is beyond all eDpression by ords and beyond all acts of the mind. %t is great peace,
eternal effulgence and samadhi; %t is unmoving and fearless.
2@ (rahman is free from mental activity and hence from all ideas of acceptance or
relin#uishment. When "noledge is established in 'tman it attains birthlessness and
sameness.
2B This yoga, hich is not in touch ith anything, is hard for yogis in general to attain. They
are afraid of it, because they see fear in that hich is really fearlessness.
4C 8ogis ho are ignorant of <on$duality depend on the control of the mind for attaining
fearlessness, the destruction of misery, 1elf$Gnoledge and imperishable peace.
41 The mind is to be brought under >ontrol by undepressed effort; it is li"e emptying the
ocean, drop by drop, ith the help of a blade of "usa grass.
4& The mind distracted by desires and enjoyments should he brought under control by proper
means; so also the mind enjoying pleasure in inactivity /laya0. .or the state of inactivity is as
harmful as the state of desires.
42 Turn bac" the mind from the enjoyment of desires, remembering that they beget only
misery. )o not see the created objects, remembering that all this is the unborn 'tman.
44 %f the mind becomes inactive, arouse it from laya; if distracted, ma"e it tran#uil.
=nderstand the nature of the mind hen it contains the seed of attachment. When the mind
has attained sameness, do not disturb it again.
45 The yogi must not taste the happiness arising from samadhi; he should detach himself from
it by the eDercise of discrimination. %f his mind, after attaining steadiness, again see"s eDternal
objects, he should ma"e it one ith 'tman through great effort.
49 When the mind does not lapse into inactivity and is not distracted by desires, that is to say,
hen it remains unsha"able and does not give rise to appearances, it verily becomes
(rahman.
4: This 1upreme (liss abides in the 1elf. %t is peace; it is +iberation; it is birthless and cannot
be described in ords. %t is called the omniscient (rahman, being one ith the birthless 1elf,
hich is the true object of "noledge.
4@ <o jiva ever comes into eDistence. There eDists no cause that can produce it. The supreme
truth is that nothing ever is born.
Chapter I! $"atasanti Prakarana (The Chapter on the &uenchin' of the Fire
(rand)
1 % bo to the best among men, ho, by means of "noledge, hich is li"e a"asa and hich is
non$different from the goal of "noledge, reali?ed the nature of the jivas /dharmas0, hich,
too, are li"e a"asa.
& % bo to the yoga "non as asparsa, taught in the scriptures, hich promotes the happiness
and ell$being of all creatures and is free from strife and contradictions.
2 1ome disputants postulate that only an eDisting entity can again come into eDistence, hile
other disputants, proud of their intellect, postulate that only a non$eDisting entity can come
into eDistence. Thus they #uarrel among themselves.
4 'n eDisting entity cannot again come into eDistence /birth0; nor can a non$eDisting entity
come into eDistence. Thus disputing among themselves, they really establish the non$dualistic
vie of ajati /non$creation0.
5 We approve the ajati /non$creation0 thus established by them. We have no #uarrel ith
them. <o hear from us about =ltimate 7eality, hich is free from all disputations.
9$@ The disputants assert that the unborn entity /'tman0 becomes born. -o can one eDpect
that an entity that is birthless and immortal should become mortalA The immortal cannot
become mortal, nor can the mortal become immortal. .or it is never possible for a thing to
change its nature. -o can one ho believes that an entity by nature immortal becomes
mortal, maintain that the immortal, after passing through change, retains its changeless
natureA
B (y the pra"riti, or nature, of a thing is understood that hich, hen ac#uired, becomes the
essential part of the thing, that hich is its characteristic #uality, that hich is its inalienable
nature from its very birth, that hich is not eDtraneous to it and that hich never ceases to be
itself.
1C 'll the jivas are, by their very nature, free from senility and death. (ut they thin" they are
subject to senility and death and by the very poer of thought they appear to deviate from
their true nature.
11 The disputant according to hom the cause itself is the effect must maintain that the cause
is born as the effect. %f it is born, ho can it be called birthlessA %f it is subject to modification,
ho then can it be said to be eternalA
1& %f, as you say, the effect is non$different from the cause, then the effect too must be
unborn. .urther, ho can the cause be eternal if it is non$different from the effect, hich is
bornA
12 There is no illustration to support the vie that the effect is born from an unborn cause.
'gain, if it is said that the effect is produced from a cause hich itself is born, then this leads
to an infinite regress.
14 -o can they ho assert that the effect is the cause of the cause and the cause is the
cause of the effect, maintain the beginninglessness of both cause and effectA
15 Those ho say that the effect is the cause of the cause and that the cause is the cause of
the effect maintain, actually, that the creation ta"es place after the manner of the birth of
father from son.
19 %f causality is asserted, then the order in hich cause and effect succeed each other must
be stated. %f it is said that they appear simultaneously, then, being li"e the to horns of an
animal, they cannot be mutually related as cause and effect.
1: The cause that you affirm, cannot be established as the cause if it is produced from the
effect. -o can the cause, hich itself is not established, give birth to the effectA
1@ %f the cause is produced from the effect and if the effect is, again, produced from the cause,
hich of the to is born first upon hich depends the birth of the otherA
1B The inability to reply to the #uestion raised above, the ignorance about the matter and the
impossibility of establishing the order of succession if the causal relation is admitted clearly
lead the ise to uphold, under all conditions, the doctrine of ajati, or non$creation.
&C The illustration of the seed and the sprout is something hich is yet to be proved. The
illustration i.e. the middle term, hich itself is not yet proved, cannot be used for establishing
a proposition to be proved.
&1 The ignorance regarding the antecedence and the subse#uence of cause and effect clearly
proves the absence of creation /ajati0. %f the jiva /dharma0 has really been horn, then hy can
you not point out its antecedent causeA
&& <othing hatsoever is born, either of itself or of another entity. <othing is ever produced,
hether it be being or non$being or both being and non$being.
&2 The cause cannot be produced from a beginningless effect; nor can the effect be produced
from a beginningless cause. That hich is ithout beginning is necessarily free from birth.
&4 1ubjective "noledge must have an object for its cause; otherise variety becomes non$
eDistent. .urther, from the eDperience of pain, the eDistence of eDternal objects, accepted by
the dualistic scriptures, must be admitted.
&5 The dualists, by force of reason, assert that there is a cause of subjective "noledge. (ut
from the standpoint of the true nature of things e assert that the so$called cause is, after
all, no cause.
&9 The mind is not related to eDternal objects or to the ideas that appear as such objects. This
is so because objects are non$ eDistent and the ideas that appear as eDternal objects are not
distinct from the mind.
&: The mind does not enter into the causal relation in any of the three periods of time. -o
can it ever be subject to delusion, hen there is no cause for such delusionA
&@ Therefore neither the mind nor the objects perceived by the mind are ever born. To see
their birth is li"e seeing the footprints of birds in the s"y.
&B The cause, (rahman, from hich the birthless mind is asserted, by the dualists, to have
been born is itself unborn. (ecause (rahman is ever unborn, therefore it is never possible for
%t to be other than hat %t is.
2C %f, as the dualists contend, the orld is beginningless, then it cannot be non$eternal.
,o"sha /+iberation0 cannot have a beginning and be eternal.
21$2& %f a thing is non$eDistent in the beginning and in the end, it is necessarily non$
eDistent in the present. The objects that e see are really li"e illusions; still they are regarded
as real. The utility of the objects of a"ing eDperience is contradicted in dreams; therefore
they are certainly unreal. (oth eDperiences have a beginning and an end.
22 'll entities seen in dreams are unreal, because they are perceived inside the body. -o is it
possible for things that are perceived to eDist, really to eDist in (rahman, hich is indivisible
and homogeneousA
24 %t is not reasonable to thin" that a dreamer actually goes out in order to eDperience the
objects seen in the dream, because of the discrepancy of the time involved in such a journey.
<or does he, hen aa"ened, find himself in the places seen in the dream.
25 The dreamer, after aa"ing, reali?es the illusoriness of the conversations he had ith
friends etc. in the dream state. .urther, he does not possess in the a"ing state anything he
ac#uired hile dreaming.
29 The dream body is unsubstantial because the other i.e. the physical body, different from it,
is perceived. +i"e the dream body, all things cogni?ed by the mind are unsubstantial.
2: 1ince the eDperience of objects in dreams is similar to the eDperience of objects in the
a"ing state, a"ing eDperience is regarded as the cause of dream eDperience. %t is only by
him ho admits a"ing eDperience to be the cause of dream eDperience that a"ing
eDperience can be regarded as real.
2@ 'll entities are aRsaid to be unborn, since birth cannot be established as a fact. %t is utterly
impossible for the unreal to be born of the real.
2B ' man filled ith the impressions of the unreal objects seen in the a"ing state sees those
very things in dreams as ell. (ut he does not see in the a"ing state the unreal objects seen
in dreams.
4C The unreal cannot have another unreality for its cause, nor can the real have the unreal for
its cause. The real cannot be the cause of the real. 'nd ho utterly impossible it is for the real
to be the cause of the unreal!
41 's a person in the a"ing state through false "noledge appears to handle objects, hose
nature is inscrutable, as if they ere real, so also, in dreams, he perceives, through false
"noledge, objects hose eDistence is possible in the dream state alone.
4& Wise men teach causality only for the sa"e of those ho, afraid of non$creation, assert the
reality of eDternal objects because they perceive such objects and also because they cling to
various social and religious duties.
42 Those ho, because of their fear of the truth of absolute non$ creation and also because of
their perception of eDternal objects, deny ajati /non$creation0 are not affected by the evil
conse#uent on the belief in creation. This evil, if there is any, is insignificant.
44 's an elephant conjured up by a magician is ta"en to be real because it is perceived to eDist
and also because it ansers to the behavior of a real elephant, so also eDternal objects are
ta"en to be real because they are perceived to eDist and because one can deal ith them.
45 %t is >onsciousness, !ijnana, alone that appears to be born or to move or to ta"e the form
of matter. (ut this >onsciousness is really ever unborn, immovable and free from the traits of
materiality; it is all peace and non$dual.
49 Thus the mind is never subject to birth. 'll beings, too, are free from birth. Those ho
"no this do not fall into false "noledge.
4: 's the line made by a moving fire$brand appears to be straight, croo"ed, etc., so
>onsciousness, hen set in motion, appears as the perceiver, the perceived and the li"e.
4@ 's the fire$brand, hen not in motion, is free from all appearances and remains
changeless, so >onsciousness, hen not in motion, is free from all appearances and remains
>hangeless.
4B When the fire$brand is set in motion, the appearances that are seen in it do not come from
elsehere. When it is still, the appearances do not leave the motionless fire$brand and go
elsehere, nor do they enter into the fire$brand itself.
5C The appearances do not emerge from the fire$brand, because their nature is not that of a
substance. This applies li"eise to >onsciousness, because of the similarity of the
appearances.
51$5& When >onsciousness is associated ith the idea of activity, as in the a"ing and dream
states, the appearances that seem to arise do not come from anyhere else. When
>onsciousness is non$active, as in deep sleep, the appearances do not leave the non$active
>onsciousness and go elsehere, nor do they merge in it. The appearances do not emerge
from >onsciousness, for their nature is not that of a substance. They are incomprehensible,
because they are not subject to the relation of cause and effect.
52 ' substance may be the cause of another substance and a non$ substance, the cause of
another non$substance. (ut the jivas cannot possibly be anything li"e a substance or a non$
substance.
54 Thus eDternal appearances /objects0 are not caused by the mind, nor is the mind caused by
them. -ence thoughtful people hold to the principle of absolute non$creation.
55 's long as a person clings to the belief in causality, he ill find cause producing effect. (ut
hen this attachment to causality ears aay, cause and effect become non$eDistent.
59 's long as a person clings to the belief in causality, samsara ill continue to eDpand for
him. (ut hen this attachment to causality ears aay, samsara becomes non$eDistent.
5: The entire universe is created by false "noledge; therefore nothing in it is eternal.
Hverything, again, as one ith =ltimate 7eality, is unborn; therefore there is no such thing as
destruction.
5@ (irth is ascribed to the jivas; but such birth is not possible from the standpoint of 7eality.
Their birth is li"e that of an illusory object. That illusion, again, does not eDist.
5B The illusory sprout is born of the illusory seed. This illusory sprout is neither permanent nor
destructible. The same applies to the jivas.
9C The term permanent or impermanent cannot be applied to the birthless jivas. What is
indescribable in ords cannot be discriminated about as permanent or impermanent.
91$9& 's in dreams the mind acts through maya, presenting the appearance of duality, so
also in the a"ing state the mind acts through maya, presenting the appearance of duality.
There is no doubt that the mind, hich is in reality non$dual, appears to be dual in dreams;
li"eise, there is no doubt that hat is non$dual i.e. 'tman, appears to be dual in the a"ing
state.
92 The dreamer, andering about in all the ten directions in his dream, sees the hole variety
of jivas, born of eggs, moisture, etc.
94 These entities, hich are objects of the mind of the dreamer, do not eDist apart from his
mind. +i"eise, the mind of the dreamer is an object of perception of the dreamer alone.
95$99 The a"ing man, andering about in all the ten directions in his a"ing state, sees the
hole variety of jivas, born of eggs, moisture, etc. They are the objects of the mind of the
a"ing man and do not eDist apart from it. +i"eise, the mind of the a"ing man is an object
of his perception alone.
9: (oth the mind and the jivas are objects of each other6s perception. >an the one eDist
independent of the otherA The reply of the ise is in the negative. There is no evidence of the
eDistence of the one ithout the other; they are cogni?ed only through each other.
9@$:C 's the dream jiva comes into eDistence and disappears, so also these jivas perceived in
the a"ing state appear and disappear. 's the jiva conjured up by the magician comes into
eDistence and disappears, so also these jivas perceived in the a"ing state appear and
disappear. 's an artificial jiva comes into eDistence and disappears, so also these jivas
perceived in the a"ing state appear and disappear.
:1 <o jiva ever comes into eDistence. There eDists no cause that can produce it. The supreme
truth is that nothing ever is born.
:& The orld of duality, hich is perceived to eDist and is characteri?ed by the subject$object
relationship, is verily a movement of the mind. The mind, again, from the standpoint of 7eality
has no contact ith any object. -ence it is declared to be eternal and unattached.
:2 That hich eDists on the strength of false "noledge based upon imagination does not
really eDist. 'gain, that hich is said to eDist on the strength of the vies advanced by other
schools of thought does not really eDist.
:4 'tman is called birthless /aja0 from the standpoint of false "noledge based upon
imagination; in reality %t is not even birthless. The unborn 'tman is said to be born from the
standpoint of the false "noledge cherished by other schools of thought.
:5 People persistently hold to the idea of unreality i.e. duality. (ut such duality does not eDist.
One ho has reali?ed the absence of duality is not born again, since there remains no longer
any cause for his birth.
:9 When the mind finds no cause$superior, inferior, or middling$it becomes free from birth.
-o can there be an effect ithout a causeA :: The birthlessness of the mind, hich is free
from manifestation and causal relationship, is absolute and constant. .or duality i.e. the
perceiving mind and its objects is merely an objectification of the mind.
:@ 7eali?ing the absence of causality as ultimate truth and not finding any other reason for
birth, one attains that state hich is free from grief, desire and fear.
:B On account of attachment to unreal objects the mind pursues such objects. (ut it comes
bac" to its pure state hen it attains non$attachment, reali?ing their unreality.
@C The mind freed from attachment to all eDternal objects and undistracted by fresh objects
attains the state of immutability. The ise reali?e such a mind to be (rahman; %t is
undifferentiated, birthless and non$dual.
@1 The birthless, dreamless and sleepless 7eality reveals %tself by %tself; for this )harma
/'tman0 by %ts very nature is self$ luminous.
@& The +ord /'tman0 becomes easily hidden because of attachment to any single object and is
revealed ith great difficulty.
@2 The ignorant, ith their childish minds, verily cover 'tman by predicating of %t such
attributes as eDistence, non$eDistence, eDistence and non$eDistence and total non$
eDistence, deriving these characteristics from the notions of change, immovability, combination
of change and immovability and absolute negation hich they associate ith 'tman.
@4 These are the four theories regarding 'tman, through attachment to hich %t alays
remains hidden from one6s vie. -e ho "nos the +ord to he ever untouched by them indeed
"nos all.
@5 What else remains to be desired by him ho has attained the state of the brahmin$a state
of complete omniscience and non$duality, hich is ithout beginning, middle, or endA
@9 The humility /vinaya0 of the brahmins is natural. Their tran#uility /sama0 is also natural.
.urther, the control of the senses /dama0 comes natural to them. -e ho has reali?ed
(rahman attains peace.
@: !edanta recogni?es the ordinary state of a"ing, in hich duality, consisting of objects and
the idea of coming in contact ith them, is admitted. %t also recogni?es a purer ordinary state
i.e. the dream state, in hich is eDperienced duality consisting of objects and the idea of
coming in contact ith them, though such objects do not eDist.
@@ The ise recogni?e another state, in hich there eDist neither objects nor ideas regarding
them. This state is beyond all empirical eDperiences. They describe the three3 "noledge, the
objects of "noledge i.e. the three states and the supremely "noable i.e. =ltimate 7eality.
@B -aving "non "noledge and the threefold "noable, one after another, the "noer,
endoed ith supreme intellect, attains in this very life and everyhere, the state of
omniscience.
BC One should be conversant, at the very outset, ith four things. These are as follos3 the
things to be avoided, the goal to be reali?ed, the disciplines to be cultivated and the tendencies
to be rendered ineffective. Of these four, all eDcept the goal to be reali?ed i.e. the 1upreme
7eality eDist only as products of the imagination.
B1 'll 'tmans /)harmas0 are to be "non, by their very nature, to be beginningless and
unattached li"e a"asa. There is not the slightest variety in there in any ay or at any time.
B& 'll jivas are, by their very nature, illumined from the very beginning. There can never be
any doubt about their nature. -e ho,. having "non this, rests ithout see"ing further
"noledge is alone capable of attaining %mmortality.
B2 The jivas, from the very beginning and by their very nature, are all peace, unborn and
completely free. They are characteri?ed
by sameness and non$separateness. The unborn 'tman is alays established in sameness
and purity.
B4 Those ho alays ander in the realm of separateness cannot reali?e the purity of 'tman.
Their minds are inclined to differentiation and they assert the separateness of the 'tmans.
Therefore they are called narro$minded.
B5 They alone in this orld are endoed ith the highest isdom ho are firm in their
conviction of the sameness and birthlessness of 'tman. The ordinary man does not understand
their ay.
B9 Gnoledge, hich is the very essence of the unborn jivas, is itself called unborn and
unrelated. This Gnoledge is proclaimed to be unattached, since it is unrelated to any other
object.
B: To those ignorant people ho believe that 'tman can deviate from %ts true nature even in
the slightest measure, %ts eternally unrelated character is lost. %n that case the destruction of
the veil is out of the #uestion.
B@ 'll jivas are ever free from bondage and pure by nature. They are illumined and free from
the very beginning. 8et the ise spea" of the jivas as capable of "noing =ltimate 7eality.
BB The Gnoledge of the ise man, ho is all light, is never related to any object. 'll the jivas,
as ell as Gnoledge, are ever unrelated to objects. This is not the vie of (uddha.
1CC -aving reali?ed the Gnoledge of the 1upreme 7eality, hich is hard to grasp, profound,
birthless, the same throughout, all light and free from multiplicity, e salute %t as best e can.
'um. Peace! Peace! Peace!
Fina" )a"utation (y )ri )ankaracharya
% salute (rahman, the destroyer of the fear of those ho ta"e refuge in %t$hich, though
unborn, appears to be associated ith birth through %ts on majestic poers; hich, though
motionless, appears to be moving; and hich, though non$ dual, appears to have assumed
many forms to those hose vision is deluded by the perception of diverse objects and their
attributes.
% prostrate myself at the feet of the teacher of my teacher, the most adored among the
adorable, ho$out of sheer compassion for the beings droned in the deep ocean of the
orld, infested by the terrible shar"s of incessant births and deaths$rescued, for the benefit
of all, this nectar, hardly attainable even by the immortals, from the inmost depths of the
ocean of the !edas by churning it ith the rod of his illumined isdom.
% ma"e obeisance ith my hole being to those holy feet$the dispellers of the fear of the
chain of births and deaths$of my on great teacher, ho, through the light of his illumined
isdom, destroyed the dar"ness of delusion enveloping my mind; ho put an end, for ever, to
my appearance and disappearance in this terrible ocean of innumerable births and deaths; and
ho enables all others, too, that ta"e shelter at his feet, to attain unfailing "noledge of the
scriptures, peace and the state of perfect non$differentiation.
Aum Tat Sat
Mundaka Upanishad
Translation* by 1ami <i"hilananda
Invocation
Om. ,ay e, O gods, hear ith our ears hat is auspicious! ,ay e, O orshipful gods, see
ith our eyes hat is good! ,ay e, strong in limbs and body, sing your praise and enjoy the
life allotted to us by Prajapati!
Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!
First Mundaka
Chapter I
1 Om. (rahma, the ,a"er of the universe and the Preserver of the orld, as the first among
the devas. -e told -is eldest son 'tharva about the Gnoledge of (rahman, the foundation of
all "noledge.
& The Gnoledge of (rahman about hich (rahma told 'tharva, 'tharva, in olden times, told
'ngir. 'ngir taught it to 1atyavaha, belonging to the clan of (haradvaja and the latter taught
it, in succession, to 'ngiras
2 1auna"a, the great householder, approached 'ngiras in the proper manner and said3
7evered sir, hat is that by the "noing of hich all this becomes "nonA
4 To him he said3 To "inds of "noledge must be "non$that is hat the "noers of
(rahman tell us. They are the -igher Gnoledge and the loer "noledge.
5 Of these to, the loer "noledge is the 7ig$!eda, the 8agur$!eda, the 1ama$!eda, the
'tharva$!eda, si"sha /phonetics0, "alpa /rituals0, vya"aranam /grammar0, niru"ta
/etymology0, chhandas /metre0 and jyotis /astronomy0; and the -igher Gnoledge is that by
hich the %mperishable (rahman is attained.
9 (y means of the -igher Gnoledge the ise behold everyhere (rahman, hich otherise
cannot be seen or sei?ed, hich has no root or attributes, no eyes or ears, no hands or feet;
hich is eternal and omnipresent, all$pervading and eDtremely subtle; hich is imperishable
and the source of all beings.
: 's the spider sends forth and dras in its thread, as plants gro on the earth, as hair gros
on the head and the body of a living man$so does everything in the universe arise from the
%mperishable.
@ (rahman eDpands by means of austerity and from %t primal matter is produced; from matter,
Prana; from Prana, mind; from mind, the elements; from the elements, the orlds; thence
or"s and from the or"s, their immortal fruits.
B .or him ho "nos all and understands everything, hose austerity consists of "noledge$
from -im, the %mperishable (rahman, are born (rahma, name, form and food.
Chapter II
1 This is the Truth3 The sacrificial or"s hich ere revealed to the rishis in the hymns have
been described in many ays in the three !edas. Practise them, being desirous to attain their
true results. This is your path leading to the fruits of your or"s.
& When the fire is ell lighted and the flames flic"er, let a man offer his oblations in the space
beteen the to portions of melted butter.
2 %f a man;s 'gnihotra sacrifice is not accompanied by the )arsa and the Paurnamasa sacrifice,
by the .our ,onths; sacrifice and the 'utumnal sacrifice; if it is unattended by hospitality to
guests or if the oblations are not offered at the right time; or if the sacrifice is unaccompanied
by the !aisvadeva ceremony or is improperly performed$then it destroys his seven orlds.
4 Gali /the (lac"0, Garali /the Terrific0, ,anojava /the 1ift as thought0, 1ulohita /the !ery
red0, 1udhumravarna /of the colour of bright smo"e; purple0, 1plulingini /the 1cintillating0 and
the luminous !isvaruchi /the 'll$gleaming, all$ formed0$these seven, flic"ering about, form
the seven tongues of the fire.
5 ' man ho performs the sacrifices hen these flames are shining and offers oblations at the
right time, is carried by these oblations on the rays of the sun to here dells the sole
sovereign of the gods.
9 The luminous oblations say to the sacrifiers3 >ome hither! >ome hither! 'nd lead him on the
rays of the sun, orshipping him all the hile and greeting him ith the pleasant ords3 This
is the holy heaven of (rahma, earned by your good deeds.
: (ut frail indeed are those rafts of sacrifices, conducted by eighteen persons, upon hom
rests the inferior or"; therefore they are destructible. .ools ho rejoice in them as the
-ighest Jood fall victims again and again to old age and death.
@ .ools, delling in dar"ness, but ise in their on conceit and puffed up ith vain
scholarship, ander about, being afflicted by many ills, li"e blind men led by the blind.
B >hildren, immersed in ignorance in various ays, flatter themselves, saying3 We have
accomplished life6s purpose. (ecause these performers of "arma do not "no the Truth oing
to their attachment, they fall from heaven, misery$ stric"en, hen the fruit of their or" is
eDhausted.
1C %gnorant fools, regarding sacrifices and humanitarian or"s as the highest, do not "no
any higher good. -aving enjoyed their reard on the heights of heaven, gained by good or"s,
they enter again this orld or a loer one.
11 (ut those ise men of tran#uil minds ho lives in the forest on alms, practising penances
appropriate to their stations of life and contemplating such deities as -iranyagarbha, depart,
freed from impurities, by the Path of the 1un, to the place here that immortal Person dells
hose nature is imperishable.
1& +et a brahmin, after having eDamined all these orlds that are gained by or"s, ac#uire
freedom from desires3 nothing that is eternal can be produced by hat is not eternal. %n order
that he may understand that Hternal, let him, fuel in hand, approach a guru ho is ell versed
in the !edas and alays devoted to (rahman.
12 To that pupil ho has duly approached him, hose mind is completely serene and hose
senses are controlled, the ise teacher should indeed rightly impart the Gnoledge of
(rahman, through hich one "nos the immutable and the true Purusha.
)econd Mundaka
Chapter I
1 This is the Truth3 's from a bla?ing fire, spar"s essentially a"in to it fly forth by the
thousand, so also, my good friend, do various beings come forth from the imperishable
(rahman and unto -im again return.
& -e is the self$luminous and formless Purusha, uncreated and eDisting both ithin and
ithout. -e is devoid of prana, devoid of mind, pure and higher than the supreme
%mperishable.
2 .rom -im are born prana, mind, all the sense$organs, '"asa, air, fire, ater and earth,
hich supports all.
4 The heavens are -is head; the sun and moon, -is eyes; the #uarters, -is ears; the revealed
!edas, -is speech; the ind is -is breath; the universe, -is heart. .rom his feet is produced
the earth. -e is, indeed, the inner 1elf of all beings
5 .rom -im comes the .ire hose fuel is the sun; from the moon comes rain; from rain, the
herbs that gro on the earth; from the herbs, the seminal fluid hich a man pours into a
oman. Thus many living beings are born of the Purusha.
9 .rom -im have come the 7i", the 1aman, the 8ajus, the )i"sha, all sacrifices, the Gratus,
gifts, the year, the sacrificer and the orlds hich the moon sanctifies and the sun illumines.
: (y -im are begotten the various devas, the sadhyas, men, cattle, birds and also prana and
apana, rice and corn, penance, faith, truth, continence and la.
@ .rom -im have sprung the seven pranas, the seven flames, the seven "inds of fuel, the
seven oblations and also the seven planes here move the pranas, lying in the cave, hich are
seven in each living being.
B .rom -im come all the oceans and the mountains; from -im flo rivers of every "ind; from
-im have come, as ell, all plants and flavours, by hich the inner self subsists surrounded by
the elements.
1C The Purusha alone is verily the universe, hich consists of or" and austerity. O my good
friend, he ho "nos this (rahman$the 1upreme and the %mmortal, hidden in the cave of the
heart$cuts asunder even here the "not of ignorance.
Chapter II
1 The +uminous (rahman dells in the cave of the heart and is "non to move there. %t is the
great support of all; for in %t is centred everything that moves, breathes and blin"s. O
disciples, "no that to be your 1elf$that hich is both gross and subtle, hich is adorable,
supreme and beyond the understanding of creatures.
& That hich is radiant, subtler than the subtle, That by hich all the orlds and their
inhabitants are supported$That, verily, is the indestructible (rahman; That is the prana,
speech and the mind; That is the True and That is the %mmortal. That alone is to be struc".
1tri"e %t, my good friend.
2 Ta"e the =panishad as the bo, the great eapon and place upon it the arro sharpened by
meditation. Then, having dran it bac" ith a mind directed to the thought of (rahman, stri"e
that mar", O my good friend$that hich is the %mperishable
4 Om is the bo; the atman is the arro; (rahman is said to be the mar". %t is to be struc" by
an undistracted mind. Then the atman becomes one ith (rahman, as the arro ith the
target.
5 %n -im are oven heaven, earth and the space beteen and the mind ith all the sense$
organs. Gno that non$dual 'tman alone and give up all other tal". -e is the bridge to
%mmortality.
9 -e moves about, becoming manifold, ithin the heart, here the arteries meet, li"e the
spo"es fastened in the nave of a chariot heel. ,editate on 'tman as Om. -ail to you! ,ay
you cross beyond the sea of dar"ness!
: -e ho "nos all and understands all and to hom belongs all the glory in the orld$-e,
'tman, is placed in the space in the effulgent abode of (rahman. -e assumes the forms of the
mind and leads the body and the senses. -e dells in the body, inside the heart. (y the
"noledge of That hich shines as the blissful and immortal 'tman, the ise behold -im fully
in all things.
@ The fetters of the heart are bro"en, all doubts are resolved and all or"s cease to bear fruit,
hen -e is beheld ho is both high and lo.
B There the stainless and indivisible (rahman shines in the highest, golden sheath. %t is pure;
%t is the +ight of lights; %t is That hich they "no ho "no the 1elf.
1C The sun does not shine there, nor the moon and the stars, nor these lightnings, not to
spea" of this fire. When -e shines, everything shines after -im; by -is light everything is
lighted.
11 That immortal (rahman alone is before, that (rahman is behind, that (rahman is to the
right and left. (rahman alone pervades everything above and belo; this universe is that
1upreme (rahman alone.
Third Mundaka
Chapter I
1 To birds, united alays and "non by the same name, closely cling to the same tree. One
of them eats the seet fruit; the other loo"s on ithout eating.
& 1eated on the same tree, the jiva moans, beildered by his impotence. (ut hen he beholds
the other, the +ord orshipped by all and -is glory, he then becomes free from grief.
2 When the seer beholds the self$luminous >reator, the +ord, the Purusha, the progenitor of
(rahma, then he, the ise seer, sha"es off good and evil, becomes stainless and reaches the
supreme unity.
4 -e indeed is Prana; -e shines forth variously in all beings. The ise man ho "nos -im
does not babble. 7evelling in the 1elf, delighting in the 1elf, performing actions, he is the
foremost among the "noers of (rahman.
5 This 'tman, resplendent and pure, hom the sinless sannyasins behold residing ithin the
body, is attained by unceasing practice of truthfulness, austerity, right "noledge and
continence
9 Truth alone prevails, not falsehood. (y truth the path is laid out, the Way of the Jods, on
hich the seers, hose every desire is satisfied, proceed to the -ighest 'bode of the True.
: That (rahman shines forth, vast, self$luminous, inconceivable, subtler than the subtle. -e is
far beyond hat is far and yet here very near at hand. !erily, -e is seen here, delling in the
cave of the heart of conscious beings.
@ (rahman is not grasped by the eye, nor by speech, nor by the other senses, nor by penance
or good or"s. ' man becomes pure through serenity of intellect; thereupon, in meditation, he
beholds -im ho is ithout parts.
B That subtle 'tman is to be "non by the intellect here in the body here the prana has
entered fivefold. (y 'tman the intellects of men are pervaded, together ith the senses. When
the intellect is purified, 'tman shines forth.
1C Whatever orld a man of pure understanding envisages in his mind and hatever desires
he cherishes, that orld he con#uers and those desires he obtains, Therefore let everyone ho
ants prosperity orship the man ho "nos the 1elf.
Chapter II
1 -e, the Gnoer of the 1elf, "nos that 1upreme 'bode of (rahman, hich shines brightly
and in hich the universe rests. Those ise men ho, free from desires, orship such a
person transcend the seed of birth.
& -e ho, cherishing objects, desires them, is born again here or there through his desires,
(ut for him hose desires are satisfied and ho is established in the 1elf, all desires vanish
even here on earth.
2 This 'tman cannot be attained through study of the !edas, nor through intelligence, nor
through much learning. -e ho chooses 'tman$by him alone is 'tman attained. %t is 'tman
that reveals to the see"er %ts true nature.
4 This 'tman cannot be attained by one ho is ithout strength or earnestness or ho is
ithout "noledge accompanied by renunciation. (ut if a ise man strives by means of these
aids, his soul enters the 'bode of (rahman.
5 -aving reali?ed 'tman, the seers become satisfied ith that Gnoledge. Their souls are
established in the 1upreme 1elf, they are free from passions and they are tran#uil in mind.
1uch calm souls ever devoted to the 1elf, behold everyhere the omnipresent (rahman and in
the end enter into %t, hich is all this.
9 -aving ell ascertained the 1elf, the goal of the !edantic "noledge and having purified
their minds through the practice of sannyasa, the seers, never relaDing their efforts, enjoy
here supreme %mmortality and at the time of the great end attain complete freedom in
(rahman.
: The fifteen parts go bac" to their causes and all the senses to their deities; the actions and
the 'tman reflected in the buddhi, become one ith the highest imperishable (rahman, hich
is the 1elf of all.
@ 's floing rivers disappear in the sea, losing their names and forms, so a ise man, freed
from name and form, attains the Purusha, ho is greater than the Jreat.
B -e ho "nos the 1upreme (rahman verily becomes (rahman. %n his family no one is born
ignorant of (rahman. -e overcomes grief; he overcomes evil; free from the fetters of the
heart, he becomes immortal.
1C ' 7i"$verse declares3 This Gnoledge of (rahman should he told to those only ho have
performed the necessary duties, ho are versed in the !edas and devoted to (rahman and
ho, full of faith, have offered oblations in the H"arshi .ire and performed, according to rule,
the rite of carrying fire on the head.
11 Thus the seer 'ngiras declared this truth in olden times. ' man ho has not performed the
vo should not read it. 1alutation to the great seers! 1alutation to the great seers!
End of Mundaka Upanishad
The Peace Chant
Om. ,ay e, O gods, hear ith our ears hat is auspicious! ,ay e, O orshipful gods, see
ith our eyes hat is good! ,ay e, strong in limbs and body, sing your praise and enjoy the
life allotted to us by Prajapati! Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!
Svetasvatara Upanishad
Translated by Swami Tyagisananda
Published by Sri Ramakrishna Math, Chennai
Om! May &rahman protect us both together.
May ,e nourish us both together.
May we both wor' together, with great energy.
May our study be igorous and effectie.
May we not hate each other.
Om! )eace ! )eace ! )eace !
#-*+ Students of &rahman (i.e. the "edas) discuss (among themseles)+ 8hat is the cause C (#s it) &rahman C 8hence
are we born C 8hy do we lie C 8here is our final rest C Fnder whose orders are we, who 'now the &rahman, sub$ected
to the law of happiness and misery C
#-0+ !ime, nature, law, chance, matter, energy, intelligence ( neither these, nor combination of these, can bear
eDamination because of their own birth, identity and the eDistence of the self. !he self also is not a free agent, being
under the sway of happiness and misery.
#-2+ )ractising the method of meditation, they reali1ed that &eing who is the :od of religion, the Self of philosophy and
the <nergy of science; who eDists as the self-luminous power in eeryone; who is the source of the intellect, emotions
and will; who is one without a second; who presides oer all the causes enumerated aboe, beginning with time and
ending with the indiidual soul; and who had been incomprehensible because of the limitations of their own intellect.
#-3+ 8e thin' of ,im as the unierse resembling a wheel which has one felly with a triple tyre, siDteen eDtremities, fifty
spo'es, twenty counter-spo'es and siD sets of eight; which is drien along three different roads by means of a belt that is
single yet manifold; and which each reolution gies rise to two.
#-=+ 8e thin' of ,im (in ,is manifestation as the unierse) who is li'e a rier that contains the waters of fie streams; that
has fie big turnings due to fie causes; that has the fie )ranas for the waes, the mind ( the basis of fie-fold
perception ( for the source, and the fie-fold misery for its rapids; and that has fie whirlpools, fie branches and
innumerable aspects.
#->+ #n this infinite wheel of &rahman, in which eerything lies and rests, the pilgrim soul is whirled about. Knowing the
indiidual soul, hitherto regarded as separate, to be itself the Moing 6orce, and blessed by ,im, it attains immortality.
#-?+ !his is eDpressly declared to be the Supreme &rahman. #n that is the triad. #t is the firm support, and it is the
imperishable. Knowing the inner essence of this, the 'nowers of "eda become deoted to &rahman, merge themseles
in #t, and are released from birth.
#-@+ !he .ord supports this unierse, which consists of a combination of the perishable and the imperishable, the
manifest and the unmanifest. %s long as the self does not 'now the .ord, it gets attached to worldly pleasures, and is
bound; but when it 'nows ,im, all fetters fall away from it.
#-A+ !he conscious sub$ect and the unconscious ob$ect, the master and the dependent, are both unborn. She, too, who is
engaged in bringing about the relation of the en$oyer and the en$oyed (or between these two), is unborn. 8hen all these
three are reali1ed as &rahman, the self becomes infinite, uniersal and free from the sense of agentship.
#-*B+ Matter is perishable, but :od is imperishable and immortal. ,e, the only :od, rules oer the perishable matter and
indiidual souls. &y meditating on him, by uniting with ,im, and by becoming one with ,im, there is cessation of all
illusion in the end.
#-**+ 8ith the 'nowledge of :od, all fetters fall off. 8ith the waning of ignorance, birth and death cease. :oing beyond
the consciousness of the body by meditating on ,im, one reaches the third state, i1., the uniersal lordship. %ll his
desires are satisfied, and he becomes one without a second.
#-*0+ !his is to be 'nown as eternally eDisting in one5s own self. #ndeed, there is nothing to be 'nown beyond this. %s a
result of meditation the en$oyer, the en$oyed and the power which brings about the en$oyment ( all are declared to be the
three aspects of &rahman.
#-*2+ 6ire is not perceied in its source, the fire-stic', till it is ignited by percussion. !he subtle essence of fire,
neertheless, is not absent in the stic'; for fire can be obtained from the source, the fire-stic', by stri'ing again. (!he
state of the %tman before and after reali1ation). &y meditating on the )ranaa, the %tman is perceied manifestly in the
body, (but it was there in a latent state een before reali1ation).
#-*3+ Ma'ing one5s own body the lower piece of wood, and the )ranaa the upper piece of wood, and practising churning
in the form of meditation, one should reali1e :od as one would find out something hidden.
#-*=-*>+ %s oil in sesame seeds, as butter in curds, as water in underground springs, as fire in wood, een so this Self is
perceied in the self. ,e who, by means of truthfulness, self-control and concentration, loo's again and again for this
Self, which is all-perading li'e butter contained in mil', and which is rooted in self-'nowledge and meditation ( he
becomes that Supreme &rahman, the destroyer of ignorance.
##-*+ 6irst harnessing the mind and the senses with a iew to reali1ing the !ruth, and then haing found out the light of the
fire, the <oling Soul brought itself out of the earth.
##-0+ 8ith our minds controlled so as to manifest the self-luminous #mmanent Soul, we shall igorously endeaour for the
attainment of supreme bliss.
##-2+ 9ontrolling the heaen-aspiring senses with the help of the mind and the intellect, the #mmanent Soul so
regenerates them as to enable them to manifest the self-luminous #nfinite .ight.
##-3+ :reat is the glory of the #mmanent Soul who is all-perading, all-'nowing, infinite and self-luminous. Only those rare
few who 'now, undergo the necessary discipline and spiritual practices. !he wise do, indeed, control the actiities of the
intellect, and practise meditation and concentration.
##-=+ 6ollowing only in the footsteps of the wise, # merge you both in the ancient &rahman by continued meditation. May
the :lorious One manifest ,imself ! May the sons of #mmortal &liss hear'en to me ( een they who occupy celestial
regions !
##->+ 8here fire is churned out, where air is controlled, where Soma $uice oerflows ( there the mind attains perfection.
##-?+ %ttaining whom thou destroyest the source and art no more troubled by the results of past actions ( to that ancient
&rahman be thou deoted through the )rime 9ause, the #mmanent Soul.
##-@+ )lacing the body in a straight posture, holding the chest, throat and head erect, and drawing the senses and the
mind into the heart, the 'nowing one should cross oer all the fearful currents by means of the raft of &rahman.
##-A+ 9ontrolling the senses with an effort, and regulating the actiities in the body, one should breathe out through the
nostrils when the ital actiities become gentle. !hen the 'nowing one, without being in the least distracted, should 'eep
his hold on the mind as on the reins attached to restie horses.
##-*B+ One should perform one5s eDercises in concentration, resorting to caes and such other pure places helpful to its
practice ( places where the ground is leel without pebbles, and the scenery pleasing to the eyes; where there is no
wind, dust, fire, dampness and disturbing noises.
##-**+ 6orms that appear li'e snow, smo'e, sun, wind, fire, fire-fly, lightning, crystal and moon, precede the manifestation
of &rahman in Ioga practice.
##-*0+ 8hen the fiefold perception of Ioga, arising from (concentrating the mind on) earth, water, light, air and ether,
hae appeared to the Iogin, then he has become possessed of a body made of the fire of Ioga, and he will not be
touched by disease, old age or death.
##-*2+ #t is said that the first signs of entering Ioga are lightness of body, health, thirstlessness of mind, clearness of
compleDion, a beautiful oice, an agreeable odour and scantiness eDcretions.
##-*3+ Just as the same metal disc, which was stained by dust before, shines brilliantly when cleaned, so the embodied
being, seeing the truth of %tman, reali1es oneness, attains the goal and becomes sorrowless.
##-*=+ 8hen the Iogin reali1es the truth of &rahman, through the perception of the truth of %tman in this body as a self-
luminous entity, then, 'nowing the 7iinity as unborn, eternal and free from all the modifications of )ra'riti, he is freed
from all sins.
##-*>+ !his 7iinity perades all directions in their entirety. ,e is the first-born (,iranyagarbha). ,e has entered into the
womb. ,e alone is born, and is to be born in future. ,e is inside all persons as the #ndwelling Self, facing all directions.
##-*?+ Salutations to that 7iinity who is in the fire, who is in the water, who is in the plants, who is in the trees, who has
peraded the whole unierse.
###-*+ #t is the self-same One who eDists alone at the time of creation and dissolution of the unierse, that assumes
manifold powers and appears as the 7iine .ord by irtue of ,is inscrutable power of Maya. ,e it is that protects all the
worlds and controls all the arious forces wor'ing therein. !hose who reali1e this &eing becomes immortal.
###-0+ ,e who protects and controls the worlds by ,is own powers, ,e ( Eudra ( is indeed one only. !here is no one
beside ,im who can ma'e ,im the second. O men, ,e is present inside the hearts of all beings. %fter pro$ecting and
maintaining all the worlds, ,e finally withdraws them into ,imself.
###-2+ !hough :od, the creator of heaen and earth, is one only, yet ,eaen is the real owner of all the eyes, faces, hands
and feet in this unierse. #t is ,eaen who inspires them all to do their respectie duties in accordance with the
'nowledge, past actions and tendencies of the arious beings (with whom they appear to be associated).
###-3+ May ,eaen, who created the gods and supports them; who is the origin also of the cosmic soul; who confers bliss
and wisdom on the deotes, destroying their sins and sorrows, and punishing all breaches of law ( may ,eaen, the
great seer and the lord of all, endow us with good thoughts.
###-=+ O .ord, who blesses all creatures by reealing the "edas, deign to ma'e us happy by !hy calm and blissful self,
which roots out terror as well as sin.
###->+ O reealer of the "edic truths, deign to ma'e propitious that arrow which !hou holdest in !hy hand for shooting at
somebody. O protector of deotees, do not destroy that benign personal form of !hine which has manifested as the
unierse.
###-?+ ,igher than this )ersonal &rahman is the infinite Supreme &rahman, who is concealed in all beings according to
their bodies, and who, though remaining single, enelops the whole unierse. Knowing him to be the .ord, one becomes
immortal.
###-@+ # hae reali1ed this :reat &eing who shines effulgent li'e the sun beyond all dar'ness. One passes beyond death
only on reali1ing ,im. !here is no other way of escape from the circle of births and deaths.
###-A+ !here is naught higher than or different from ,im; naught greater or more minute than ,im. Eooted in ,is own glory
,e stands li'e a tree, one without a second and immoable. &y that &eing the whole unierse is filled.
###-*B+ !hat &eing is far beyond this world, is formless and free from misery. !hey who 'now this become immortal. &ut all
others hae indeed to suffer misery alone.
###-**+ !herefore, that 7iine .ord, being all-perading, omnipresent and beneolent, dwells in the hearts of all beings,
and ma'es use of all faces, heads and nec's in this world.
###-*0+ !his Self is indeed the mighty .ord. ,e is the imperishable (internal) light that controls eerything. ,e guides the
intellect of all beings so as to enable them to gain that eDtremely pure state (of Mu'ti).
###-*2+ %ssuming a form of the si1e of a thumb, by irtue of intellect, emotion, imagination and will, the #nfinite &eing
dwells in the hearts of creatures as their inner self. !hose who reali1e this become immortal.
###-*3+ !hat #nfinite &eing has a thousand heads, a thousand eyes and a thousand feet eneloping the whole unierse on
all sides. ,e eDists beyond ten fingers.
###-*=+ !hat which is, that which was, and that which is yet to be ( all this is nothing but this #nfinite &eing. !hough ,e
grows beyond ,is own nature into the form of the ob$ectie unierse, ,e still remains the lord of immortality.
###-*>+ 8ith hands and feet eerywhere, with eyes, heads and mouths eerywhere, with ears eerywhere, !hat eDists,
perading eerything in the unierse.
###-*?+ !hey reali1e ,im as shining by the functions of all the senses yet without the senses as the lord of all, the ruler of
all, the refuge of all and the friend of all.
###-*@+ #t is ,e who resides in the body, the city of nine gates. ,e is the soul that sports in the outside world. ,e is the
master of the whole world, animate and inanimate.
###-*A+ 8ithout hands and feet ,e goes fast and grasps; without eyes ,e sees; without ears ,e hears. ,e 'nows
whateer is to be 'nown, yet there is none who 'nows ,im. !hey say ,e is the foremost, the great #nfinite &eing.
###-0B+ Subtler than een the subtlest and greater than the greatest, the %tman is concealed in the heart of the creature.
&y the grace of the 9reator, one becomes free from sorrows and desires, and then reali1es ,im as the great .ord.
###-0*+ # 'now this undecaying primeal #mmanent Self of all, who is omnipresent because of ,is all-perasieness, and
whom the eDpounders of &rahman declare to be eternally free from birth.
#"-*+ May that 7iine &eing, who, though ,imself colourless, gies rise to arious colours in different ways with the help
of ,is own power, for ,is own inscrutable purpose, and who dissoles the whole world in ,imself in the end ( may ,e
endow us with good thoughts !
#"-0+ !hat #tself is the fire, !hat is the sun, !hat is the air, !hat is the moon, !hat is also the starry firmament, !hat is the
&rahman, !hat is the waters, !hat is )ra$apati.
#"-2+ !hou art the woman, !hou art the man, !hou art the youth and the maiden too. !hou art the old man who totters
along, leaning on the staff. !hou art born with faces turned in all directions.
#"-3+ !hou art the dar' blue butterfly, and the green parrot with red eyes. !hou art the thunder-cloud, the seasons and
the oceans. !hou art without beginning, and beyond all time and space. !hou art ,e from whom all the worlds are born.
#"-=+ !here is a single 6emale of red, white and blac' colours, who is unoriginated, and who produces numerous
offsprings resembling herself. &y her side lies one unborn Male out of attachment for her, while another Male, also
unoriginated, forsa'es her after haing en$oyed her.
#"->+ !wo birds of beautiful plumage, who are inseparable friends, reside on the self-same tree. Of these, one eats the
fruits of the tree with relish while the other loo's on without eating.
#"-?+ Sitting on the same tree the indiidual soul gets entangled and feels miserable, being deluded on account of his
forgetting his diine nature. 8hen he sees the other, the .ord of all, whom all deotees worship, and reali1es that all
greatness is ,is, then he is relieed of his misery.
#"-@+ Of what aail are the "edas to him who does not 'now that indestructible, highest <thereal &eing, in whom the
gods and the "edas reside C Only those who 'now !hat are satisfied.
#"-A+ !he .ord of Maya pro$ects the "edas, sacrifices, spiritual practices, past and future, religious obserances, all that
the "edas declare, and the whole world including ourseles. !he other, again, is bound by Maya in this.
#"-*B+ Know then that Hature is Maya, and that the great :od is the .ord of Maya. !he whole world is filled with beings
who form ,is parts.
#"-**+ One attains infinite peace on reali1ing that self-effulgent %dorable .ord, the bestower of blessings, who, though
one, presides oer all the arious aspects of )ra$apati, and in whom this unierse dissoles, and in whom it appears in
manifold forms.
#"-*0+ May ,e, who created the gods and supports them; who witnessed the birth of the cosmic soul; who confers bliss
and wisdom on the deoted, destroying their sins and sorrows, and punishing all breaches of law ( may ,e, the great
seer and the lord of all, endow us with good thoughts !
#"-*2+ .et us offer our worship with oblations to that blissful 7iine &eing who is the lord of the 7eas, who goerns the
bipeds and the ;uadrupeds and in whom the worlds rest.
#"-*3+ One attains infinite peace when one reali1es that &lissful One who is subtler than the subtlest, who creates the
world in the midst of chaos, who assumes arious forms, and who is the only one that encompasses the unierse.
#"-*=+ ,e alone is the protector of the world at the proper time. ,e is the lord of the unierse hidden in all creatures. #n
,im the diine sages and the gods merge themseles. Eeali1ing ,im thus, one cuts asunder the fetters of death.
#"-*>+ One is released from all fetters on reali1ing the &lissful One who encompasses the world, and who hides ,imself
in all beings in an eDtremely subtle form as the essence finer than ghee.
#"-*?+ !his 7iinity, who created the unierse and who perades eerything, always dwells in the hearts of creatures,
being finiti1ed by emotions, intellect, will and imagination. !hose who reali1e this become immortal.
#"-*@+ 8hen ignorance is dispelled, there is neither day nor night, neither being nor non-being. !here is only that
%uspicious One who is imperishable, and who is worthy of being adored by the creator. 6rom ,im has proceeded the
ancient wisdom.
#"-*A+ Ho one can grasp ,im aboe, or across, or in the middle. !here is none e;ual to ,im whose name is great glory.
#"-0B+ ,is form does not stand within the range of the senses. Ho one perceies ,im with the eye. !hose who 'now ,im
through the faculty of intuition as thus seated in their heart, become immortal.
#"-0*+ Some, being afraid, approach !hee, thin'ing that !hou art the unborn. O Eudra, deign to protect me with that
beneolent face of !hine.
#"-00+ #n$ure us not in respect of children, grand-children and life, nor in respect of cows and horses. 7o not destroy our
heroes in !hy anger, O Eudra. 8e ino'e !hee always with offerings.
"-*+ #gnorance leads to the perishable. 8isdom leads to immortality. <ntirely different from these is he, the imperishable,
infinite, secret, Supreme &rahman, in whom eDists wisdom as well as ignorance, and who goerns them both.
"-0+ ,e alone presides oer Hature in all aspect, and controls eery form and eery cause of production. ,e witnesses
the birth of the first born seer of golden colour and nourishes him with wisdom.
"-2+ 7ifferentiating each genus into its species, and each species into its members, the Supreme &eing withdraws them
once more into their own ground. %gain, bringing forth the agents of creation, the :reat Self holds sway oer them all.
"-3+ Just as the sun shines lighting up all space aboe, below and across, een so does that one adorable :od, the
repository of all goodness and greatness, preside oer eerything that has the nature of a cause.
"-=+ ,e who is the one source of the world brings out eerything out of ,is own Hature, and leads creatures to perfection
according to their deserts, and endows each being with its distinguishing characteristic. !hus he presides oer the whole
unierse.
"->+ ,e lies hidden in the Fpanishads, which form the essence of the "edas. ,im the ,iranyagarbha 'nows as the
source of ,imself and the "edas. !hose gods and seers who reali1ed ,im in former days became identified with ,im,
and erily became immortal.
"-?+ Only he who gets attached to the pleasurable ;ualities of things does wor' for the sa'e of its fruits, and en$oys the
fruits of his own deeds. !hough really the master of the senses, he becomes bound by the three :unas, and assuming
arious forms, wanders about through the three paths as a result of his own deeds.
"-@+ Subtle as the point of a goad, and pure, effulgent and infinite li'e the sun, ,e alone is seen assuming as another the
si1e of a thumb on account of the finiteness of the heart (in which ,e appears), and associating ,imself with egoism and
San'alpa on account of the limitations of the intellect.
"-A+!hat indiidual soul is as subtle as a hairpoint diided and sub-diided hundreds of times. Iet he is potentially infinite.
,e has to be 'nown.
"-*B+ ,e is neither female, nor male, nor neuter. 8hateer body he assumes, he becomes identified with that.
"-**+ &y desire, contact, sight and delusion, the embodied soul assumes successiely arious forms in arious places
according to his deeds, $ust as the body grows nourished by showers of food and drin'.
"-*0+ !he embodied self chooses many forms, gross and subtle, based on the ;ualities belonging to himself, to the
actions, and to the mind. !he cause of their combination is found to be still another.
"-*2+ Eeali1ing ,im who is without beginning or end, who creates the cosmos in the midst of chaos, who assumes many
forms, and who alone enelops eerything, one becomes free from all fetters.
"-*3+ !hat Supreme 7iinity who created both .ife and Matter, who is the source of all arts and sciences, who can be
intuited by a pure and deoted mind ( reali1ing ,im, the blissful the incorporeal and the nameless, one is freed from
further embodiment.
"#-*+ Some deluded thin'ers spea' of Hature, and others of time, as the force that reoles this wheel of &rahman. &ut
really all this is only the glory of :od manifested in the world.
"#-0+ #t should be 'nown that energy assumes arious forms such as earth, water, light, air and ether at the command of
,im who is the master of :unas and the ma'er of time, who is omniscient, who is )ure consciousness itself, and by
whom all this is eer eneloped.
"#-2+ %fter setting the creation in motion and withdrawing ,imself from it, ,e unites the principle of Spirit with the principle
of Matter ( with one, with two, with three and with eight ( through the mere instrumentality of time and their own inherent
properties.
"#-3+ ,e gies the start to the creation associated with the three :unas of Hature, and others all things. %gain, in the
absence of the :unas, ,e destroys all created ob$ects, and after destruction, remains aloof in ,is essence.
"#-=+ &y preiously meditating as seated in one5s own heart, on that %dorable &eing who appears as the unierse, and
who is the true source of all creatures, ,e can be perceied een though ,e is the primeal cause of the union (of Spirit
with Matter), as well as the partless entity transcending the three diisions of time.
"#->+ Knowing ,im who is the origin and dissolution of the unierse ( the source of all irtue, the destroyer of all sins, the
master of all good ;ualities, the immortal, and the abode of the unierse ( as seated in one5s own self, ,e is perceied
as different from, and transcending, the tree of Samsara as well as time and form.
"#-?+ May we reali1e ,im ( the transcendent and adorable master of the unierse ( who is the supreme lord oer all the
lords, the supreme :od aboe all the gods, and the supreme ruler oer all the rulers.
"#-@+ ,is has nothing to achiee for ,imself, nor has ,e any organ of action. Ho one is seen e;ual or superior to ,im.
,is great power alone is described in the "edas to be of arious 'inds, and ,is 'nowledge, strength and action are
described as inherent in ,im.
"#-A+ Ho one in the world is ,is master, nor has anybody any control oer ,im. !here is no sign by which ,e can be
inferred. ,e is the cause of all, and the ruler of indiidual souls. ,e has no parent, nor is there any one who is ,is lord.
"#-*B+ May the Supreme &eing, who spontaneously coers ,imself with the products of Hature, $ust as a spider does
with the threads drawn from its own nael, grant us absorption in &rahman !
"#-**+ :od, who is one only, is hidden in all beings. ,e is all-perading, and is the inner self of all creatures. ,e presides
oer all actions, and all beings reside in ,im. ,e is the witness, and ,e is the )ure 9onsciousness free from the three
:unas of Hature.
"#-*0+ !hose wise men, who eer feel in their own hearts the presence of ,im who is the one ruler of the inactie many,
and who ma'es the one seed manifold ( to them belongs eternal happiness, and to none else.
"#-*2+ ,e is the eternal among the eternal and the intelligent among all that are intelligent. !hough one, ,e grants the
desires of the many. One is released from all fetters on reali1ing ,im, the cause of all, who is comprehensible through
philosophy and religious discipline.
"#-*3+ !he sun does not shine there; neither the moon, nor the stars. !here these lightnings shine not ( how then this fire
C &ecause ,e shines, eerything shines after ,im. &y ,is light all this shines.
"#-*=+ !he one destroyer of ignorance in the midst of this unierse, ,e alone is the fire which is stationed in water.
Eeali1ing ,im alone one oercomes death. !here is no other path for emancipation.
"#-*>+ ,e is the creator of eerything as well as the 'nower of eerything. ,e is ,is own source, ,e is all-'nowing, and
,e is the destroyer of time. ,e is the repository of all good ;ualities, and the master of all sciences. ,e is the controller of
Matter and Spirit, and the lord of the :unas. ,e is the cause of liberation from the cycle of birth and death, and of
bondage which results in its continuance.
"#-*?+ ,e is the soul of the unierse, ,e is immortal, and ,is is the rulership. ,e is the all 'nowing, the all-perading, the
protector of the unierse, the eternal ruler. Hone else is there efficient to goern the world eternally.
"#-*@-*A+ ,e who at the beginning of creation pro$ected &rahma (Fniersal 9onsciousness), who deliered the "edas
unto him, who constitutes the supreme bridge of immortality, who is the partless, free from actions, tran;uil, faultless,
taintless and resembles the fire that has consumed its fuel ( see'ing liberation # go for refuge to that <ffulgent One,
whose light turns the understanding towards the %tman.
"#-0B+ Only when men shall roll up the s'y li'e a s'in, will there be an end of misery for them without reali1ing :od.
"#-0*+ ,imself reali1ing &rahman by the power of self-control and concentration of mind, as well as by the grace of :od,
the sage Setasatara eDpounded well to the highest order of Sannyasins, the truth of that supremely holy &rahman
resorted to by all the seers.
"#-00+ !his highest mysticism, eDpounded in the "edanta in a former age, should not be taught to one whose passions
hae not been subdued, nor to one who is not a worthy son, nor to an unworthy disciple.
"#-02+ !hese truths, when taught, shine forth only in that high-souled one who has supreme deotion to :od, and an
e;ual degree of deotion to the spiritual teacher. !hey shine forth in that high-souled one only.
Om ! May &rahman protect us both together.
May ,e nourish us both together.
May we both wor' together, with great energy.
May our study be igorous and effectie.
May we not hate each other.
Om! )eace! )eace! )eace!
,ere ends the Setasataropanishad, included in the Krishna-Ia$ur-"eda
Taittirya Upanishad
Translated by Swami Gambhirananda
Published by Advaita Ashram, Kolkatta
Om ! May ,e protect us both together; may ,e nourish us both together;
May we wor' con$ointly with great energy,
May our study be igorous and effectie;
May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any).
Om ! .et there be )eace in me !
.et there be )eace in my enironment !
.et there be )eace in the forces that act on me !
Si'sha "alli
#-i-*+ May Mitra be blissful to us. May "aruna be blissful to us. May %ryaman be blissful to us. May #ndra and &rihaspati
be blissful to us. May "ishnu, of long strides, be blissful to us. Salutation to &rahman. Salutation to you, O "ayu. Iou,
indeed, are the immediate &rahman. Iou alone # shall call the direct &rahman. # shall call you righteousness. # shall call
you truth. May ,e protect me. May ,e protect the teacher. May ,e protect me. May ,e protect the teacher. Om, peace,
peace, peace !
#-ii-*+ 8e shall spea' of the science of pronunciation. (!he things to be learnt are) the alphabet, accent, measure,
emphasis, uniformity, $uDtaposition. !hus has been spo'en the chapter on pronunciation.
#-iii-*+ May we both attain fame together. May spiritual pre-eminence be ouchsafed to both of us together. How
therefore, we shall state the meditation on $uDtaposition through fie categories ( relating to the worlds, to the shining
things, to 'nowledge, to progeny, and to the body. !hese, they call the great $uDtapositions. How then, as regards the
meditation on the worlds. !he earth is the first letter. ,eaen is the last letter. !he s'y is the meeting-place.
#-iii-0-3+ "ayu is the lin'. !his is the meditation with regard to the worlds. !hen follows the meditation with regard to the
shining things. 6ire is the first letter. !he sun is the last letter. 8ater is the rallying point. .ightning is the lin'. !his is the
meditation with regard to the shining things. !hen follows the meditation with regard to 'nowledge. !he teacher is the
first letter. !he student is the last letter. Knowledge is the meeting-place. #nstruction is the lin'. !his is the meditation with
regard to 'nowledge. !hen follows the meditation with regard to progeny. !he mother is the first letter. !he father is the
last letter. !he progeny is the focal point. :eneration is the lin'. !his is the meditation with regard to progeny. !hen
follows the meditation with regard to the (indiidual) body. !he lower $aw is the first letter. !he upper $aw is the last letter.
Speech is the meeting-place. !he tongue is the lin'. !his is the meditation with regard to the (indiidual) body. !hese are
the great $uDtapositions. %nyone who meditates on these great $uDtapositions, as they are eDplained, becomes con$oined
with progeny, animals, the splendour of holiness, edible food, and the heaenly world.
#-i-*-0+ !he Om that is the most eDalted in the "edas, that perades all worlds, and that emerged from the immortal
"edas as their ;uintessence, may he (Om that is #ndra), the supreme .ord, gratify me with intelligence. O .ord, may # be
the receptacle of immortality. May my body be fit; may my tongue be surpassingly sweet; may # hear much through the
ears. Iou are the sheath of &rahman+ you are coered by (worldly) wisdom. )rotect what # hae heard. !hen ouchsafe
to me who am her (i.e. )rosperity5s) own, that )rosperity which brings, increases, and accomplishes ;uic'ly for me
clothes, cattle, food, and drin' for eer, and which is associated with furry and other animals. Saha. May the
&rahmacharins (i.e. students) come to me from all sides. Saha. May the &rahmacharins come to me in arious ways.
Saha. May the &rahmacharins come to me in the proper way. Saha. May the &rahmacharins hae physical self-
control. Saha. May the &rahmacharins hae mental self-control. Saha.
#-i-2+ May # become famous among people. Saha. May # become praiseworthy among the wealthy. Saha. O adorable
One, may # enter into you, such as you are. Saha. O enerable One, you, such as you are, enter into me. Saha. O
adorable One, who are greatly diersified, may # purify my sins in you. Saha. %s water flows down a slope, as months
roll into a year, similarly O .ord, may the students come to me from all ;uarters. Saha. Iou are li'e a resting house, so
you become reealed to me, you reach me through and through.
#--*-0+ &huh, &huah, Suah ( these three, indeed, are the "yahritis. Of them Mahacamasya 'new a fourth one ( Maha
by name. #t is &rahman; it is the Self. !he other gods are the limbs. &huh, indeed, is this world. &huah is the
intermediate space. Suah is the other world. Maha is the sun; through the sun, indeed, do all the worlds flourish. &huh,
indeed is the fire. &huah is the air. Suah is the sun. Maha is the moon; through the moon, indeed, all the luminaries
flourish. &huh, indeed, is the Eig-"eda. &huah is the Sama-"eda. Suah is the Ia$ur-"eda.
#--2+ Maha is &rahman (i.e. Om), for by &rahman (Om), indeed, are all the "edas nourished. &huh, indeed, is )rana;
&huah is %pana; Suah is "yana; Maha is food; for by food, indeed, are all the ital forces nourished. !hese, then, that
are four, are (each) fourfold. !he "yahritis are diided into four groups of four (each). ,e who 'nows these 'nows
&rahman. %ll the gods carry presents to him.
#-i-*-0+ #n the space that there is in the heart, is this )erson who is realisable through 'nowledge, and who is immortal
and effulgent. !his thing that hangs down between the palates li'e a teat, through it runs the path of &rahman; and
reaching where the hairs part, it passes out by separating the s'ulls. ()assing out through that path, a man) becomes
established in 6ire as the "yahriti &huh; he becomes established in %ir as the "yahriti &huah; in the sun as the "yahriti
Suah; in &rahman as the "yahriti Mahah. ,e himself gets independent soereignty; he attains the lord of the mind; he
becomes the ruler of speech, the ruler of eyes, the ruler of ears, the ruler of 'nowledge. Oer and aboe all these he
becomes &rahman which is embodied in %'asa, which is identified with the gross and the subtle and has truth as #ts real
nature, which reeals in life, under whose possession the mind is a source of bliss, which is enriched with peace and is
immortal. !hus, O )racinayogya, you worship.
#-ii-*+ !he earth, s'y, heaen, the primary ;uarters, and the intermediate ;uarters; fire, air, the sun, the moon, and the
stars; water, herbs, trees, s'y, and "irat ( these relate to natural factors. !hen follow the indiidual ones+ )rana, "yana,
%pana, Fdana and Samana; the eye, the ear, the mind, speech and sense of touch; s'in, flesh, muscles, bones and
marrow. ,aing imagined these thus, the seer said, -%ll this is constituted by fie factors; one fills up the (outer) fiefold
ones by the (indiidual) fiefold ones.
#-iii-*+ Om is &rahman. Om is all this. Om is well 'nown as a word of imitation (i.e. concurrence). Moreoer, they ma'e
them recite (to the gods) with the words, -Om, recite (to the gods)/. !hey commence singing Samas with Om. Fttering
the words -Om som/ they recite the Shastras. !he (priest) &rahma approes with the word Om. One permits the
performance of the %gnihotra sacrifice with the word Om. % &rahmana, when about to recite the "edas utters Om under
the idea, # shall attain &rahman/. ,e does erily attain &rahman.
#-iD-*+ Eighteousness and learning and teaching (are to be practised). !ruth and learning and teaching (are to be
practised). %usterity and learning and teaching (are to be resorted to). 9ontrol of the outer senses and learning and
teaching (are to be practised). 9ontrol of the inner organs and learning and teaching (are to be resorted to). !he fires
(are to be lighted up), and learning and teaching (are to be followed). !he %gnihotra (is to be performed), and learning
and teaching (are to be carried on). :uests (are to be entertained), and learning and teaching (are to be practised).
Social good conduct (is to be adhered to), and learning and teaching (are to be practised). 9hildren (are to be begotten),
and learning and teaching (are to carried on). )rocreation and learning and teaching (are to carried on). % grandson (is to
be raised), and learning and teaching (are to be practised). !ruth (is the thing) ( this is what Satyaacha, of the line of
Eathitara, thin's. %usterity (is the thing) ( this is what !aponitya, son of )urusisti, thin's. .earning and teaching alone
(are the things) ( this is what Ha'a, son of Mudgala, thin's. 6or that indeed is the austerity; for that indeed is the
austerity.
#-D-#+ # am the inigorator of the tree (of the world). My fame is high li'e the ridge of a mountain. My source is the pure
(&rahman). # am li'e that pure reality (of the Self) that is in the sun. # am the effulgent wealth. # am possessed of a fine
intellect, and am immortal and undecaying. !hus was the statement of !risan'u after the attainment of realisation.
#-Di-*+ ,aing taught the "edas, the preceptor imparts this post-instruction to the students+ -Spea' the truth. )ractise
righteousness. Ma'e no mista'e about study. ,aing offered the desirable wealth to the teacher, do not cut off the line of
progeny. !here should be no inadertence about truth. !here should be no deiation from righteous actiity. !here should
be no error about protection of yourself. 7o not neglect propitious actiities. 7o not be careless about learning and
teaching.
#-Di-0-3+ !here should be no error in the duties towards the gods and manes. .et your mother be a goddess unto you. .et
your father be a god unto you. .et your teacher be a god unto you. .et your guest be a god unto you. !he wor's that are
not blameworthy are to be resorted to, but not the others. !hese actions of ours that are commendable are to be followed
by you, but not the others. Iou should, by offering seats, remoe the fatigue of those &rahmanas who are more
praiseworthy among us. !he offering should be with honour; the offering should not be with dishonour. !he offering
should be in plenty. !he offering should be with modesty. !he offering should be with awe. !he offering should be with
sympathy. !hen, should you hae any doubt with regard to duties or customs, you should behae in those matters $ust as
&rahmanas do, who may happen to be there and who are able deliberators, who are adepts in those duties and
customs, who are not directed by others, who are not cruel, and who are desirous of merit. !hen, as for the accused
people, you should behae with regard to them $ust as the &rahmanas do, who may happen to be there and who are
able deliberators, who are adepts in those duties and customs, who are not directed by others, who are not cruel, who
are desirous of merit. !his is the in$unction. !his is the instruction. !his is the secret of the "edas. !his is diine behest.
!his is how the meditation is to be done. !his is how this must be meditated on.
#-Dii-*+ May Mitra be blissful to us. May "aruna be blissful to us. May %ryaman be blissful to us. May #ndra and &rihaspati
be blissful to us. May "ishnu, of long strides, be blissful to us. Salutation to &rahman. Salutation to you, O "ayu. Iou,
indeed, are the immediate &rahman. Iou alone # shall call the direct &rahman. # shall call you righteousness. # shall call
you truth. May ,e protect me. May ,e protect the teacher. May ,e protect me. May ,e protect the teacher. Om, peace,
peace, peace !
&rahmananda "alli
##-i+ May ,e protect us both together. May ,e nourish us both together. May we both ac;uire strength together. .et our
study be brilliant. May we not cail at each other.
Om! )eace ! )eace ! )eace !
##-i-*+ !he 'nower of &rahman attains the highest. ,ere is a erse uttering that ery fact+ -&rahman is truth, 'nowledge,
and infinite. ,e who 'nows that &rahman as eDisting in the intellect, lodged in the supreme space in the heart, en$oys, as
identified with the all - 'nowing &rahman, all desirable things simultaneously.
6rom that &rahman, which is the Self, was produced space. 6rom space emerged air. 6rom air was born fire. 6rom fire
was created water. 6rom water sprang up earth. 6rom earth were born the herbs. 6rom the herbs was produced food.
6rom food was born man. !hat man, such as he is, is a product of the essence of food. Of him this indeed, is the head,
this is the southern side; this is the northern side; this is the Self; this is the stabilising tail.
,ere is a erse pertaining to that ery fact+
##-ii-*+ %ll beings that rest on the earth are born erily from food. &esides, they lie on food, and at the end, they get
merged in food. 6ood was erily born before all creatures; therefore it is called the medicine for all, those who worship
food as &rahman ac;uire all the food. 6ood was erily born before all creatures; therefore it is called the medicine for all.
9reatures are born of food; being born, they grow by food. Since it is eaten and it eats the creatures, it is called food.
%s compared with this self made of the essence of food, as said before, there is another inner self which is made of air.
&y that is this one filled. !his Self is also of the human form. #ts human form ta'es after the human form of that (earlier
one). Of this, )rana is the head, "yana is the southern side, %pana is the northern side, space is the self, the earth is the
tail that stabilises. )ertaining to that is this (following) erse+
##-iii-*+ !he senses act by following the ital force in the mouth; all human beings and animals that are there act similarly;
since on the ital force depends the life of all creatures, therefore it is called the life of all; those who worship the ital
force as &rahman, attain the full span of life; since on the ital force depends the life of all, it is called the life of all.
Of the preceding (physical) one, this one, indeed, is the embodied self. %s compared with this ital body, there is another
internal self constituted by mind. &y that one is this one filled up. !hat self constituted by mind is also of a human shape.
!he human shape of the mental body ta'es after the human shape of the ital body. Of the mental body, the Ia$ur-
mantras are the head. !he Eig-mantras are the right side, the Sama-mantras are the left side, the &rahmana portion is
the self (trun'), the mantras seen by %tharangiras are the stabilising tail. )ertaining to this there is a erse+
##-i-*+ One is not sub$ected to fear at any time if one 'nows the &liss that is &rahman failing to reach which (&rahman,
as conditioned by the mind), words, along with the mind, turn bac'.
Of that preceding (ital) one, this (mental one is erily the embodied self. %s compared with this mental body, there is
another internal self constituted by alid 'nowledge. &y that one is this one filled up. !his one as aforesaid, has erily a
human shape. #t is humanly shaped in accordance with the human shape of the earlier one. Of him faith is erily the
head; righteousness is the right side; truth is the left side; concentration is the self (trun'); (the principle, called) Mahat, is
the stabilising tail. )ertaining to this, here is a erse+
##--*+ Knowledge actualises a sacrifice, and it eDecutes the duties as well. %ll the gods meditate on the first-born
&rahman, conditioned by 'nowledge. #f one 'nows the 'nowledge-&rahman, and if one does not err about it, one
abandons all sins in the body and fully en$oys all en$oyable things.
Of that preceding (mental) one this (cognitie one) is erily the embodied self. %s compared with this cognitie body,
there is another internal self constituted by bliss. &y that one is this one filled up. !his one, as aforesaid, has erily a
human shape. #t is humanly shaped in accordance with the human shape of the earlier one. Of him $oy is erily the head,
en$oyment is the right side, hilarity is the left side; bliss is the self (trun'). &rahman is the tail that stabilises. %propos of
this here is a erse+
##-i-*+ #f anyone 'nows &rahman as non-eDisting, he himself becomes non-eDistent. #f anyone 'nows that &rahman does
eDist, then they consider him as eDisting by irtue of that ('nowledge).
Of that preceding (blissful) one, this one is the embodied self. ,ence hereafter follow these ;uestions+ %fter departing
(from here) does any ignorant man go to the other world (or does he not) C %lternatiely, does any man of 'nowledge,
after departing (from here) reach the other world (or does he not) C
,e (the Self) wished, -.et me be many, let me be born. ,e undertoo' a deliberation. ,aing deliberated, he created all
this that eDists. !hat (&rahman), haing created (that), entered into that ery thing. %nd haing entered there, #t became
the formed and the formless, the defined and the undefined, the sustaining and the non-sustaining, the sentient and the
insentient, the true and the untrue. !ruth became all this that there is. !hey call that &rahman !ruth. )ertaining to this,
there occurs this erse+
##-ii-*+ #n the beginning all this was but the Fnmanifested (&rahman). 6rom that emerged the manifested. !hat &rahman
created #tself by #tself. !herefore #t is called the self-creator.
!hat which is 'nown as the self-creator is erily the source of $oy; for one becomes happy by coming in contact with that
source of $oy. 8ho, indeed, will inhale, and who will eDhale, if this &liss be not there in the supreme space (within the
heart). !his one, indeed, enliens (people). 6or wheneer an aspirant gets fearlessly established in this un-perceiable,
bodiless, ineDpressible, and un-supporting &rahman, he reaches the state of fearlessness. 6or, wheneer the aspirant
creates the slightest difference in #t, he is smitten with fear. Heertheless, that ery &rahman is a terror to the (so-called)
learned man who lac's the unitie outloo'.
#llustratie of this is this erse here+
##-iii-*-3+ Out of ,is fear the 8ind blows. Out of fear the Sun rises. Out of ,is fear runs 6ire, as also #ndra, and 7eath,
the fifth.
!his, then, is an ealuation of that &liss+
Suppose there is a young man ( in the prime of life, good, learned, most eDpeditious, most strongly built, and most
energetic. Suppose there lies this earth for him filled with wealth. !his will be one unit of human $oy. #f this human $oy be
multiplied a hundred times, it is one $oy of the man-:andharas, and so also of a follower of the "edas unaffected by
desires. #f this $oy of the man-:andharas be multiplied a hundred times, it is one $oy of the diine-:andharas, and so
also of a follower of the "edas unaffected by desires. #f the $oy of the diine-:andharas be increased a hundredfold, it is
one $oy of the manes whose world is eerlasting, and so also of a follower of the "edas unaffected by desires. #f the $oy
of the manes that dwell in the eerlasting world be increased a hundredfold, it is one $oy of those that are born as gods in
heaen, and so also of a follower of the "edas untouched by desires. #f the $oy of those that are born as gods in heaen
be multiplied a hundredfold, it is one $oy of the gods called the Karma-7eas, who reach the gods through "edic rites,
and so also of a follower of the "edas unaffected by desires. #f the $oy of the gods, called the Karma-7eas, be multiplied
a hundredfold, it is one $oy of the gods, and so also of a follower of the "edas untarnished by desires. #f the $oy of the
gods be increased a hundred times, it is one $oy of #ndra, and so also of a follower of the "edas unaffected by desires. #f
the $oy of #ndra be multiplied a hundredfold, it is one $oy of &rihaspati and so also of a follower of the "edas unaffected by
desires. #f the $oy of &rihaspati be increased a hundred times, it is one $oy of "irat, and so also of a follower of the "edas
untarnished by desires. #f the $oy of "irat be multiplied a hundred times, it is one $oy of ,iranyagarbha, and so also of a
follower of the "edas unsullied by desires.
##-iii-=+ ,e that is here in the human person, and ,e that is there in the sun, are one. ,e who 'nows thus attains, after
desisting from this world, this self made of food, attains this self made of ital force, attains this self made of mind, attains
this self made of intelligence, attains this self made of bliss.
<Dpressie of this there occurs this erse+
##-iD-*+ !he enlightened man is not afraid of anything after realising that &liss of &rahman, failing to reach which, words
turn bac' along with the mind.
,im, indeed, this remorse does not afflict+ -8hy did # not perform good deeds, and why did # perform bad deeds C ,e
who is thus enlightened strengthens the Self with which these two are identical; for it is he, indeed, who 'nows thus, that
can strengthen the Self which these two really are. !his is the secret teaching.
&hrigu "alli
###-i-*+ &hrigu, the well-'nown son of "aruna, approached his father "aruna with the (formal) re;uest, -O, reered sir,
teach me &rahman/. !o him he ("aruna) said this+ -6ood, ital force, eye, ear, mind, speech ( (these are the aids to
'nowledge of &rahman)/. !o him he ("aruna) said+ -9rae to 'now that from which all these beings ta'e birth, that by
which they lie after being born, that towards which they moe and into which they merge. !hat is &rahman/. ,e
practised concentration. ,e, haing practised concentration,
###-ii-*+ ,e realised food (i.e. "irat, the gross 9osmic person) as &rahman. 6or it is erily from food that all these beings
ta'e birth, on food they subsist after being born and they moe towards and merge into food. ,aing realised that, he
again approached his father "aruna with the (formal) re;uest. -O, reered sir, teach me &rahman/. !o him he ("aruna)
said+ -9rae to 'now &rahman through concentration; concentration is &rahman/. ,e practised concentration. ,e, haing
practised concentration,
###-iii-*+ ,e 'new the ital force as &rahman; for from the ital force, indeed, spring all these beings; haing come into
being, they lie through the ital force; they moe towards and enter into the ital force, ,aing 'nown thus, he again
approached his father "aruna with the (formal) re;uest. -O, reered sir, teach me &rahman/. !o him he ("aruna) said+
-9rae to 'now &rahman through concentration; concentration is &rahman/. ,e practised concentration. ,aing
practised concentration,
###-i-*+ ,e 'new mind as &rahman; for from mind, indeed, spring all these beings; haing been born, they are sustained
by mind; and they moe towards and merge into mind. ,aing 'nown that, he again approached his father "aruna with
the (formal) re;uest. -O, reered sir, teach me &rahman/. !o him he ("aruna) said+ -9rae to 'now &rahman through
concentration; concentration is &rahman/. ,e practised concentration. ,aing practised concentration,
###--*+ ,e 'new 'nowledge as &rahman; for from 'nowledge, indeed, spring all these beings; haing been born, they are
sustained by 'nowledge; they moe towards and merge in 'nowledge. ,aing 'nown that, he again approached his
father "aruna with the (formal) re;uest. -O, reered sir, teach me &rahman/. !o him he ("aruna) said+ -9rae to 'now
&rahman through concentration; concentration is &rahman/. ,e practised concentration. ,aing practised concentration,
###-i-*+ ,e 'new &liss as &rahman; for from &liss, indeed, all these beings originate; ,aing been born, they are
sustained by &liss; they moe towards and merge in &liss. !his 'nowledge realised by &hrigu and imparted by "aruna
(starts from the food-self and) terminates in the supreme (&liss), established in the caity of the heart. ,e who 'nows
thus becomes firmly established; he becomes the possessor of food and the eater of food; and he becomes great in
progeny, cattle and the lustre of holiness, and great in glory.
###-ii-*+ ,is ow is that, he should not deprecate food. !he ital force is erily the food, and the body is the eater; for the
ital force is lodged in the body. (%gain, the body is the food and the ital force is the eater, for) the body is fiDed on the
ital force. !hus (the body and ital force are both foods; and) one food is lodged in another. ,e who 'nows thus that one
food is lodged in another, gets firmly established. ,e becomes a possessor and an eater of food. ,e becomes great in
progeny, cattle, and the lustre of holiness and great in glory.
###-iii-*+ ,is ow is that he should not discard food. 8ater, indeed, is food; fire is the eater; for water is established on
fire. (6ire is food and water is the eater, for) fire resides in water. !hus one food is lodged in another food. ,e who 'nows
thus that one food is lodged in another, gets firmly established. ,e becomes a possessor and an eater of food. ,e
becomes great in progeny, cattle, and the lustre of holiness and great in glory.
###-iD-*+ ,is ow is that he should ma'e food plentiful. <arth is food; space is eater; for earth is placed in space. (Space is
food; and earth is eater, for) space is placed on earth. !hus one food is lodged in another food. ,e who 'nows thus that
one food is lodged in another, gets firmly established. ,e becomes a possessor and an eater of food. ,e becomes great
in progeny, cattle, and the lustre of holiness and great in glory.
###-D-*-0+ ,is ow is that he should not refuse anyone come for shelter. !herefore one should collect plenty of food by
whatsoeer means he may. (%nd one should collect food for the further reason that) they say, -6ood is ready for him/.
&ecause he offers coo'ed food in his early age with honour, food falls to his share in the early age with honour. &ecause
he offers food in his middle age with medium courtesy, food falls to his share in his middle age with medium honour.
&ecause he offers food in his old age with scant esteem, food falls to his share in old age with scant consideration. !o
him who 'nows thus (comes the result as described).
(&rahman is to be meditated on) as preseration in speech; as ac;uisition and preseration in eDhaling and inhaling; as
action in the hands; as moement in the feet; discharge in the anus. !here are meditations on the human plane.
!hen follow the diine ones. (&rahman is to be meditated on) as contentment in rain; as energy in lightning.
###-D-2-3+ &rahman is to be worshipped as fame in beasts; as light in the stars; as procreation, immortality, and $oy in the
generatie organ; as eerything in space. One should meditate on that &rahman as the support; thereby one becomes
supported. One should meditate on that &rahman as great; thereby one becomes great. One should meditate on #t as
thin'ing; thereby one becomes able to thin'. One should meditate on #t as bowing down; thereby the en$oyable things
bow down to one. One should meditate on #t as the most eDalted; !hereby one becomes eDalted. One should meditate
on #t as &rahman5s medium of destruction; thereby the adersaries that eny such a one die, and so do the enemies
whom this one disli'es.
!his being that is in the human personality, and the being that is there in the sun are one.
###-D-=->+ ,e who 'nows thus, attains, after desisting from this world, this self made of food. %fter attaining this self made
of food then, attaining this self made of ital force, then attaining this self made of mind, then attaining this self made of
intelligence, then attaining this self made of bliss, and roaming oer these worlds with command oer food at will and
command oer all forms at will, he continues singing this Sama song+ -,alloo ! ,alloo ! ,alloo ! # am the food, # am the
food, # am the food; # am the eater, # am the eater, # am the eater; # am the unifier, # am the unifier, # am the unifier; # am
(,iranyagarbha) the first born of this world consisting of the formed and the formless, # (as "irat) am earlier than the
gods. # am the nael of immortality. ,e who offers me thus (as food), protect me $ust as # am. #, food as # am, eat him up
who eats food without offering. # defeat (i.e. engulf) the entire unierse. Our effulgence is li'e that of the sun. !his is the
Fpanishad.
Om ! May ,e protect us both together; may ,e nourish us both together;
May we wor' con$ointly with great energy,
May our study be igorous and effectie;
May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any).
Om ! .et there be )eace in me !
.et there be )eace in my enironment !
.et there be )eace in the forces that act on me !
,ere ends the !aittiriyopanishad, included in the Krishna-Ia$ur-"eda