1
8
y
1
f(x)
= y
1
f(x)
=
y
1
f(x)
=
y
x
(3, 1)
2 4
asymptote
(v)
e
y
x 3
(3, e)
y = e
f(x)
asymptote
4U945a)!
Let f x
x x
x
( )
( )( )
, =
+
=
2 1
5
5 for x .
i. Show that f x x
x
( ) = +
4
18
5
.
ii. Explain why the graph of y = f(x) approaches that of y = x  4 as x approaches and as x
approaches .
iii. Find the values of x for which f(x) is positive, and the values of x for which f(x) is negative.
iv. Using part (i), show that the graph of y = f(x) has two stationary points. (There is no need to
find the y coordinates of the stationary points.)
v. Sketch the curve y = f(x). Label all asymptotes, and show the x intercepts.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS GRAPHS HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
(i) Proof (ii) As x approaches ,
18
5 x
approaches zero and so f(x) approaches x  4 (iii) Positive
when x < 1, 2 < x < 5 and negative when 1 < x < 2, x > 5 (iv) Proof (v)
1 2 5 x
y
y = x  4
4
asymptotes
4U934a)!
Let f(x)
1 x
x
=
. On separate diagrams sketch the graphs of
the following functions. For each graph label the asymptote.
i. y = f(x)
ii. y = f(x)
iii. y = e
f(x)
iv. y = f(x)
Discuss the behaviour of the curve of (iv) at x = 1.
(i)
y
x
1
1
asymptotes
(ii)
y
x
1
1
asymptotes
1
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS GRAPHS HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
(iii)
1
e
y
x
asymptotes
(iv)
y
x
1
0
asymptote
NB: there is a
vertical tangent at x = 1
4U924b)!
Let f(x) = Ln(1 + x)  Ln(1  x) where 1 < x < 1.
i. Show that ' > f x ( ) 0for 1 < x < 1.
ii. On the same diagram, sketch
y = Ln(1 + x) for x > 1,
y = Ln(1  x) for x < 1 and
y = f(x) for 1 < x < 1.
Clearly label the three graphs.
iii. Find an expression for the inverse function y f x =
1
( ) .
(i) Proof (ii)
x
y
y = ln(1 + x)
y = f(x)
y = ln(1  x)
y = f(x)
1 1
0
(iii) y
e 1
e 1
x
x
=
+
4U928a)!
Consider the function f x e
x
x
( ) =

\

.
 1
10
10
.
i. Find the turning points of the graph of y f x = ( ) .
ii. Sketch the curve y = f(x) and label the turning points and any asymptotes.
iii. From your graph, deduce that
e
x
x
s

\

.

1
10
10
for x < 10.
iv. Using (iii), show that
11
10
10
9
10 10

\

.
 s s

\

.
 e .
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS GRAPHS HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
(i) (0, 1) is a maximum turning point and (10, 0) is a minimum turning point. (ii)
x
y
10
NB: The xaxis is an asymptote. (iii) Proof (iv) Proof
4U914a)!
1 0 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1
1
y
x
The diagram is a sketch of the function y = f(x). On separate diagrams sketch:
i. y = f(x)
ii. y = f(x)
iii. y = f(x)
iv. y = sin
1
(f(x)).
(i)
3 2 1 1 2 3
1
1
y
x
(ii)
3 2 1 1 2 3
1
y
x
(iii)
3 2 1 1 2 3
1
1
y
x
(iv)
2 1 2 3
t
2
y
x
t
2
4U914b)!
The even function g is defined by
g(x)
4e 6e
for x 0
for x 0
x 2x
=
>
<
g x ( )
i. Show that the graph of y = g(x) has a maximum turning point at Ln3,
2
3

\

.
 .
ii. Sketch the curve y = g(x) and label the turning points, any points of inflexion, asymptotes,
and points of intersection with the axes.
iii. Discuss the behaviour of the curve y = g(x) at x = 0.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS GRAPHS HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
(i) Proof (ii)
x
(0, 2)
(ln , )
3
2
0 ( ln , )
3
2
0
(ln , ) 6
1
2
( ln , ) 6
1
2
(ln , ) 3
2
3
( ln , ) 3
2
3
y
(iii) y = g(x) has a cusp
at (0, 2)
4U918a)!
Let f(x)
sinx
x
1
for 0 x
2
for x 0
=
< <
=
t
.
i. Find the derivative of f for 0
2
< < x
t
and prove that f ' is negative in this interval.
ii. Sketch the graph of y = f(x) for 0
2
< < x
t
and deduce that sin x >
2x
t
in this interval.
(i) ' =
f (x)
cos x(x tan x)
x
2
(ii)
t
2
1
y
x
2
t
4U903b)!
Consider the functions f, g defined by
f(x) =
x 1
x +2
, for x = 2,
g(x) = f(x)  
2
.
i. Sketch the hyperbola y = f(x), clearly labelling the horizontal and vertical asymptotes and the
points of intersection with the x and y axes.
ii. Find all turning points of y = g(x).
iii. Using the same diagram as used in (i) sketch the curve y = g(x) clearly labelling it.
iv. On a separate diagram sketch the curve given by y = g(x).
(i) (iii)
1
4
y = f(x)
y = g(x)
y = g(x)
2
x
y
1
0.5
1
(ii) Min (1, 0) (iv)
1
4
x
y
y = g(x)
y = g(x)
1
2
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS GRAPHS HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
4U904a)!
t
f
4
4
3 6 10 12
(6, 4)
(12, 2)
The diagram shows the graph of the function f, where
f(t)
4
4
3
t
, for 0 t 6
t 10,
for 6 t 12
=
s s
s s
.
The function F is defined for 0 s x s12 by F(x) f(t) dt
0
x
=
}
.
i. Calculate F(6) and F(12).
ii. Calculate those values of x for which F(x)=0.
iii. Find all turning points of F.
(i) F(6) = 0, F(12) = 6 (ii) x = 0, 6 (iii) (3,6) is a relative maximum & (10, 8) is a relative minimum
4U896a)!
x
y
3
y = f '(x)
2
1 3 2 1 0
The function f(x) has derivative f '(x) whose graph appears above. You are given that
' = ' = ' f f f x s ( ) ( ) , ( ) 2 1 0 approache as x approaches and ' f x ( ) approaches 0 as
x approaches .
i. Sketch the graph of f(x) showing its behaviour at its stationary points. You are given that
f(0) = 0 and f(3) > 0.
ii. Describe the behaviour of f(x) as x approaches .
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS GRAPHS HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
(i)
3 2 1 1 2 3 0
y
x
MIN
MAX
(ii) As x approaches , f(x) approaches an
horizontal asymptote. As x approaches , f(x) approaches .
4U896b)!
i. Sketch the graph of g(x) = x
4
4x
3
+ 4x
2
1
2
showing that it has four real zeros.
ii. On different diagrams sketch the curves:
o. y = g(x);
. y
2
= g(x).
iii. o. Indicate the nature of the curve y = g(x) at a zero of g(x).
. Calculate the slope of the curve y
2
= g(x) at any point x and describe the nature of
the curve at a zero of g(x).
(i)
y
x 1 2
1
2
(ii) (o)
y
x
y = g(x)
1 2 3 1
()
y
x
y
2
= g(x)
1 1 2 3
(iii) (o) Since the curve is reflected in the xaxis, the curve has
sharp points at zeros. ()
dy
dx
g (x)
2 g(x)
=
'
. The curve has a vertical tangent.
4U882)!
a. Draw a neat sketch of the function f(x) = (x  2)(6  x). State the coordinates of its vertex
and of its points of intersection with both coordinate axes.
b. Hence or otherwise draw a neat sketch of the function g(x) =
16
(x 2)(6 x)
. Clearly
indicate on your sketch the equations of the vertical asymptotes and the coordinates of any
stationary points.
c. The lines with equations x = 3 and x = 5 cut the graph of y = g(x) at P and Q respectively.
Mark on your sketch the coordinates of P and Q. Shade the region R bounded by y = g(x)
and the line PQ.
d. Prove that the area of R is
32
3
8 3

\

.
 log
e
square units.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS GRAPHS HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
(a) (b) (c)
P(3, )
16
3 Q(5, )
16
3
x
x = 2
4
3
16
3
x = 6
y = g(x)
y = f(x)
(4, 4)
2 6
y = g(x)
y
y = g(x)
(d) Proof
4U873)!
a. A function f(x) is defined by f(x) =
log
e
x
x
for x > 0.
Prove that the graph of f(x) has a relative maximum turning point at x = e and a point of
inflexion at x = e
3
2
b. Discuss the behaviour of f(x) in the neighbourhood of x = 0 and for large values of x.
c. Hence draw a clear sketch of f(x) indicating on it all these features.
d. Draw separate sketches of the graphs of:
o. y =
log
e
x
x
;
. y =
x
log
e
x
.
(Hint: There is no need to find any further derivatives to answer this part.)
e. What is the range of the function y =
x
log
e
x
?
(a) Proof (b) As x approaches 0, f(x) approaches . As x approaches , f(x) approaches 0. (c)
x
f x
x
x
e
( )
log
=
e e
3
2
3
2
3
2
,

\

.

e
e
,
1 
\

.

1
y
(d) (o)
x
f x
x
x
e
( )
log
=
e
e
,
1 
\

.

1
y
e e
3
2
3
2
3
2
,

\

.

()
x
f x
x
x
e
( )
log
=
y
(e, e)
(e) y < 0 and y > e
4U852ii)!
a. Sketch the function g(x) = xe
x
, for x > 1.
b. Given g(x) as in (a) above, the function f(x) is given by the rule
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS GRAPHS HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
f x
g x
g x
x
x
( )
( ),
( ),
=
>
s
2 1
1
.
Find the zeros of this function, and the maximum and minimum values. Draw a sketch of the
graph of y = f(x).
(a)
( )
2,
2
e
2
( ) 1,
1
e
(1, e)
x
y = xe
y
x
, x > 1
(b)
( ) 1,
1
e
( )  2,
2
e
2 ( )
4,
2
e
2
( ) 3,
1
e
y
x
(1, e)
1 0 1 2
4U842i)!
Sketch the graphs of:
a. (x + 3)(y  2) = 1;
b. x
2
+ y
2
+ 1 = 2(x + y).
(a)
x 0
y
3
2
(x + 3)(y  2) = 1
2
1
3
3
1
2
(b)
1
1
C(1, 1)
x
2
+ y
2
+ 1 = 2(x + y)
y
x 0
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS COMPLEX NUMBERS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
Complex Numbers 1: 1997  1991
4U972a)!
i. Express 3 i in modulusargument form.
ii. Hence evaluate
( )
3
6
i .
i) 2cis
11
6
i
t
ii) 64
4U972b)!
i. Simplify (2i)
3
.
ii. Hence find all complex numbers z such that z
3
= 8i. Express your answers in the form
x + iy.
i) 8i ii) 2i, 3 + + i,  3 i
4U972c)!
Sketch the region where the inequalities z  3+ i and z +1 z 1 s s 5 both hold.
5
3
X
Y
(3, 1)
4U972d)!
Let w=
3+ 4i
5
and z =
5+12i
13
so that w , = = z 1.
i. Find wz and wz in the form x + iy.
ii. Hence find two distinct ways of writing 65
2
as the sum a
2
+ b
2
, where a and b are integers
and 0 < a < b.
i)
+
33
65
56
65
16
65
i,
63
65
i ii) 65 33 56 16 63
2 2 2 2 2
= + = +
4U978b)!
U
S
R
O
T
The diagram shows points O, R, S, T and U in the complex plane. These points correspond to the
complex numbers 0, r, s, t and u respectively. The triangles ORS and OTU are equilateral. Let
e
t t
= + cos
3
i sin
3
.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS COMPLEX NUMBERS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
i. Explain why u= t e .
ii. Find the complex number r in terms of s.
iii. Using complex numbers, show that the lengths of RT and SU are equal.
i) Rotation
t
3
anticlockwise and ZUOT =
t
3
ii) r =
s
e
iii) Proof
4U962a)!
Suppose that c is a real number, and that z c i = . Express the following in the form x iy + , where x
and y are real numbers:
i. ( ) iz ;
ii.
1
z
.
i) 1 ci ii)
c
c
i
c 1 1
2 2
+
+
+
4U962b)!
On an Argand diagram, shade the region specified by both the conditions
Re( ) z and z i s + s 4 4 5 3.
O
x
y
4 5i
z (4 5i) = 3
Re(z) = 4
4U962c)!
i. Prove by induction that (cos sin ) cos( ) sin( ) u u u u + = + i n i n
n
for all integers n >1.
ii. Express w i = 3 in modulusargument form.
iii. Hence express w
5
in the form x iy + , where x and y are real numbers.
i) Proof ii) 2 cis
t
6
iii) 16 3 16i
4U962d)!
3
u
O
1
z
The diagram shows the locus of points z in the complex plane such that
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS COMPLEX NUMBERS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
arg( ) arg( ) z z + = 3 1
3
t
.
This locus is part of a circle. The angle between the lines from 1 to z and from 3 to z is u , as shown.
Copy this diagram into your Writing Booklet.
i. Explain why u
t
=
3
.
ii. Find the centre of the circle.
i) The exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the interior opposite angles. ii) (1,
2 3
3
)
4U968a)!
Let w = cos sin
2
9
2
9
t t
+i .
i. Show that w
k
is a solution of z
9
 1 = 0, where k is an integer.
ii. Prove that w + w
2
+ w
3
+ w
4
+ w
5
+ w
6
+ w
7
+ w
8
= 1.
iii. Hence show that cos cos cos
t t t
9
2
9
4
9
1
8

\

.


\

.


\

.

= .
Proof
4U952a)!
Let w
1
= 8  2i and w
2
=  5 + 3i.
Find w w
1 2
+ .
3  5i
4U952b)!
i. Show that (1  2i) =  3  4i
ii. Hence solve the equation z  5z + (7 + i) = 0.
(i) Proof (ii) Z = 3  i or 2 + i
4U952c)!
Sketch the locus of z satisfying:
i. arg(z  4) =
3
4
t
;
ii. Im z = z.
(i)
Im(z)
Re(z) 4
4
3
4
t
(ii)
Im(z)
z
Re(z)
4U952d)!
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS COMPLEX NUMBERS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
Q
P
O
The diagram shows a complex plane with origin 0. The points P and Q represent arbitrary non  zero
complex numbers z and w respectively. Thus the length of PQ is z  w.
i. Copy the diagram into your Writing Booklet, and use it to show that z  w s z + w.
ii. Construct the point R representing z + w. What can be said about the quadrilateral OPRQ?
iii. If z  w = z + w, what can be said about the complex number
w
z
?
(i) (ii)
Q
R
P
O
OPRQ is a parallelogram (iii)
w
z
is imaginary
4U954a)!
i. Find the least positive integer k such that cos
4
7
isin
4
7
t t

\

.
 +

\

.
 is a solution of z
k
= 1.
ii. Show that if the complex number w is a solution of z
n
= 1, then so is w
m
, where m and n are
arbitrary integers.
(i) k = 7 (ii) Proof
4U942a)!
Let z = a + ib, where a and b are real. Find:
i. Im(4i  z);
ii. (3iz) in the form of x + iy, where x and y are real;
iii. tanu, where u = arg(z )
2
.
(i) 4  b (ii) 3b  3ai (iii)
2ab
a b
2 2
4U942b)!
Express in modulus  argument form:
i. 1 + i;
ii. ( 1 i)
n
+ , where n is a positive integer.
(i)
( )
2 cos
3
4
i sin
3
4
t t
+ (ii)
( )
2
2
n
cos
3n
4
i sin
3n
4
t t
+
4U942c)!
i. On the same diagram, draw a neat sketch of the locus specified by each of the following:
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS COMPLEX NUMBERS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
o. z i + = ( ) 3 2 2
. z z + = 3 5 .
ii. Hence write down all values of z which satisfy simultaneously
z i + = ( ) 3 2 2 and z z + = 3 5 .
iii. Use your diagram in (i) to determine the values of k for which the simultaneous equations
z i + = ( ) 3 2 2 and z i k = 2
have exactly one solution for z.
(i)
Re(z)
Im(z)
(3 + 2i)
1 5
4
(ii) z = 1 + 2i (iii) k = 1, 5
4U944a)!
Find o and , given that z z i z z
3 2
3 2 + + = ( ) ( ) o  .
o = i,  = 2i
4U947a)!
i. It is known that if f x '( ) >0 and f(0) = 0, then f x ( ) >0 for x > 0. Show that
sin x x
x
6
0
3
+ > for x > 0, and hence show that
sin x
x
1
x
6
2
> for x > 0.
Let the points A A A A
n 0 1 2 1
, , ,....,
represent the nth roots of unity on an Argand diagram, where A
k
represents cos sin
2 2 k
n
i
k
n
t t
+ . Let P be the regular polygon A A A
n 0 1 1
...
.
ii. Show that the area of P is
n
n 2
2
sin
t
.
iii. Using part (i), or otherwise, show that for all n 26 > , P covers more than 99% of the unit
circle.
Proof
4U948b)!
Let x = o be a root of the quartic polynomial P x x Ax Bx Ax ( ) = + + + +
4 3 2
1, where A and B are
real. Note that o may be complex.
i. Show that o = 0.
ii. Show that x = o is also a root of Q x x
x
A x
x
B ( ) = + + +

\

.

+
2
2
1 1
.
iii. With u x
1
x
, = + show that Q(x) becomes R u u Au B ( ) ( ) = + +
2
2 .
iv. For certain values of A and B, P(x) has no real roots. Let D be the region of the AB plane
where P(x) has no real roots for A > 0.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS COMPLEX NUMBERS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
2
0
L
B
T
c
A
The region D is shaded in the figure. Specify the bounding straightline segment L and curved
segment c. Determine the coordinates of T.
(i) Proof (ii) Proof (iii) Proof (iv) The straight line segment is B = 2A  2 and the curved segment is
B A 2
1
4
2
= + . T is the point (4, 6).
4U932a)!
i. On an Argand diagram, shade in the region determined by the inequalities 2 s Im z s 4 and
t t
6
arg z
4
s s .
ii. Let z
0
be the complex number of maximum modulus satisfying the inequalities of (i).
Express z
0
in the form a + ib.
(i)
y
x
4
2
t
4 t
6
(ii) z 4 3 4i
0
= +
4U932b)!
Let u be a real number and consider (cos u + i sin u)
3
.
i. Prove cos 3 cos 3cos sin
3 2
u u u u = .
ii. Find a similar expression for sin 3u.
(i) Proof (ii) sin 3 3sin cos sin
2 3
u u u u =
4U932c)!
Find the equation, in Cartesian form, of the locus of the point z if Re
z 4
z
0

\

.
 = .
x
2
+ y
2
 4x = 0, excluding the origin (0, 0)
4U932d)!
By substituting appropriate values of z
1
and z
2
into the equation arg
z
z
arg z arg z
1
2
1 2
= show that
t
4
tan 2 tan
1
3
1 1
=
.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS COMPLEX NUMBERS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
Proof
4U932e)!
Let P, Q, and R represent the complex numbers w
1
, w
2
and w
3
respectively. What geometric
properties characterise triangle PQR if w
2
 w
1
= i(w
3
 w
1
)? Give reasons for your answer.
APQR is a rightangled isosceles triangle, with Z = RPQ
t
2
and PQ=PR
4U938a)!
Let the points A
1
, A
2
, ..., A
n
represent the nth rots of unity, w
1
, w
2
, ..., w
n
, and suppose P represents any
complex number z such that z = 1.
i. Prove that w
1
+ w
2
+ ... + w
n
= 0.
ii. Show that PA (z w )(z w )
i
2
i i
= for i = 1, 2, ..., n.
iii. Prove that PA 2n
i
2
z 1
n
=
=
.
Proof
4U922a)!
The points A and B represent the complex numbers 3  2i and 1 + i respectively.
i. Plot the points A and B on an Argand diagram and mark the point P such that OAPB is a
parallelogram.
ii. What complex number does P represent?
(i)
1 2 3 4 x
0
1
2
2
1
P(4, 1)
A
B
y
(ii) 4  i
4U922b)!
Let z = a + ib where a b 0.
2 2
+ =
i Show that if Im(z) > 0 then Im
1
z

\

.

< 0.
ii. Prove that
1 1
z z
= .
Proof
4U922c)!
Describe and sketch the locus of those points z such that:
i. z i z i = +
ii. z i z i = + 2 .
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS COMPLEX NUMBERS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
(i) The locus is the real axis.
x
i
i
y
(ii) The locus is a circle, centre (0, 3) and
radius 2 2 .
x
3
y
4U922d)!
It is given that 1 + i is a root of P z z z rz s ( ) = + + 2 3
3 2
where r and s are real numbers.
i. Explain why 1  i is also a root of P(z).
ii. Factorise P(z) over the real numbers.
(i) If z
1
is a root of P(z) = 0 then z
1
is also a root. Thus, if (1 + i) is a root then ( ) 1 i 1 i + = is also a
root. (ii) P(z) (2z 1)(z 2z 2)
2
= + +
4U927b)!
Suppose that z
7
1 = where z =1.
i. Deduce that z z z
z z z
3 2
2 3
1
1 1 1
0 + + + + + + = .
ii. By letting x z
z
= +
1
reduce the equation in (i) to a cubic equation in x.
iii. Hence deduce that cos cos cos
t t t
7
2
7
3
7
1
8
= .
(i) Proof (ii) x
3
+ x
2
 2x  1 = 0 (iii) Proof
4U912a)!
Plot on an Argand diagram the points P, Q, and R which correspond to the complex numbers 2i, 3 
i, and  3 i, respectively.
Prove that P, Q, and R are the vertices of an equilateral triangle.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS COMPLEX NUMBERS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
2
Q( 3, 1) R( 3, 1)
1 1 2 3
1
2
3
1
y
x
P(0, 2)
4U912b)!
Let z
1
= cosu
1
+ isinu
1
and z
2
= cosu
2
+ isinu
2
, where u
1
and u
2
are real. Show that:
i.
1
z
1
= cosu
1
 isinu
1
ii. z
1
z
2
= cos(u
1
+ u
2
) + isin(u
1
+ u
2
).
Proof
4U912c)!
i. Find all pairs of integers x and y such that (x + iy)
2
= 3  4i.
ii. Using (i), or otherwise, solve the quadratic equation z 3z (3 i) 0
2
+ + = .
(i) x = 1, y = 2 and x = 1, y = 2 (ii) z = 2  i or 1 i +
4U912d)!
A
C
F
D
B
0
E
In the Argand diagram, ABCD is a square, and OE and OF are parallel and equal in length to AB and
AD respectively. The vertices A and B correspond to the complex numbers w
1
and w
2
respectively.
i. Explain why the point E corresponds to w
2
 w
1
.
ii. What complex number corresponds to the point F?
iii. What complex number corresponds to the vertex D?
(i) Proof (ii) i(w
2
 w
1
) (iii) w
1
(1  i) + iw
2
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS COMPLEX NUMBERS 2 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
Complex Numbers 2: 1990  1984
4U901a)!
Let z = a+ib, where a and b are real numbers and a = 0.
i. Express z and tan(arg z) in terms of a and b.
ii. Express
z
3+ 5i
in the form x+iy, where x and y are real.
(i) z a b
2 2
= + , tan(arg z)
b
a
= (ii)
(3a 5b)
34
i( 5a 3b)
34
+
+
+
4U901b)!
i. If w
i
=
+ 1 3
2
show that w
3
= 1.
ii. Hence calculate w
10
.
(i) Proof (ii)
1
2
i
3
2
4U901c)!
If z = 5  5i write z, z
2
and
1
z
in modulus argument form.
z 5 2 cos
4
i sin
4
=

\

.
 +

\

.

`
)
t t
, z cos
2
i sin
2
2
=

\

.
 +

\

.

`
)
50
t t
,
1
z
cos
4
isin
4
=

\

.

+

\

.

`
)
1
5 2
t t
4U901d)!
Let u and v be two complex numbers, where u = 2+i, and v is defined by v = 3 and argv =
t
3
.
i. On an Argand diagram plot the points A and B representing the complex numbers u and v
respectively.
ii. Plot the points C and D represented by the complex numbers uv and iu, respectively.
Indicate any geometric relationships between the four points A, B, C, and D.
A
B
C
D
O
x
3
y
t
3
4U891a)!
Evaluate 2 + 3i.
13
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS COMPLEX NUMBERS 2 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
4U891b)!
Given that a and b are real numbers, express in the form x + iy, where x and y are real:
i. (a bi)(5 i) + + ;
ii.
a + bi
3+ 4i
.
(i) (5a + b) + (5b  a)i (ii)
3a 4b
25
3b 4a
25
i
+
+
4U891c)!
Find the complex square roots of 10  24i, giving your answers in the form x + iy, where x and y are
real.
(3 2 2 2i)
4U891d)!
On and Argand diagram shade in the region containing all points representing complex numbers z
such that 2 sRez s4 and 1sImz s3.
3
1
2 4
y
x
4U891e)!
Find in modulusargument form all complex numbers z such that z
3
= 1 and plot them on an Argand
diagram.
z cos
3
isin
3
1
= +
t t
, z cos isin
2
= + t t, z cos
5
3
isin
5
3
3
= +
t t
;
y
x
z
1
z
3
z
2
t
3
4U891f)!
On separate diagrams draw a neat sketch of the locus specified by:
i. arg ( ( )) z z i + =
t
1 3
3
;
ii. z z 16i
2
2
= .
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS COMPLEX NUMBERS 2 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
(i)
3
1
y
x
z
t
3
(ii)
y
x
xy = 4
4U884a)!
i. Express z = 2 2 i in modulusargument form.
ii. Hence write z
22
in the form a + ib, where a and b are real.
(i) z 2 cos
4
i sin
4
=

\

.
 +

\

.


\

.

t t
(ii) 2
22
i
4U884b)!
i. On an Argand diagram shade in the region R containing all points representing complex
numbers z such that 1 < z < 2 and
t
4
< argz <
t
2
.
ii. In R mark with a dot the point K representing a complex number z. Clearly indicate on your
diagram the points M, N, P and Q representing the complex numbers z, z,
1
z
and 2z
respectively.
y
x
N
M
P
K
2 1
2
1
Q
t
4
4U884c)!
Show that the locus specified by 3z  (4 + 4i) = z  (12 + 12i) is a circle. Write down its radius and
the coordinates of its centre. Draw a neat sketch of the circle.
Centre is (3, 3) and radius is 3 2 .
(3, 3)
R(z)
Im(z)
6
6
O
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS COMPLEX NUMBERS 2 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
4U874i)!
Find the complex square roots of 7 6 2i + giving your answers in the form x + iy, where x and y are
real.
3 i 2 + and + (3 i 2)
4U874ii)!
Let z
1
= 4 + 8i and z
2
= 4  8i.
a. Draw a neat sketch of the locus specified by z  z
1
 = z  z
2
.
b. Show that the locus specified by z  z
1
 = 3z  z
2
 is a circle. Give its centre and radius.
(a)
z
1
z
2
P(z)
Im(z)
Re(z)
(b) Proof, centre is (5  10i) and radius is 3 5 units.
4U874iii)!
a. Let OABC be a square on an Argand diagram where O is the origin. The points A and C
represent the complex numbers z and iz respectively. Find the complex number representing
B.
b. The square is now rotated about O through 45 in an anticlockwise direction to OA'B'C'.
Find the complex numbers representing A', B' and C'.
(a) (1 + i)z (b)
1
2
(1 i)z + , i 2z and
1
2
(1 i)z + represent A', B' and C' respectively.
4U864i)!
Given that z
1
= 3  i, z
2
= 2 + 5i, express in the form a + ib, where a, b are real,
a. (z
1
)
2
;
b.
z
z
1
2
;
c.
z
z
1
2
.
(a) 8 + 6i (b)
1
29
i
17
29
(c)
10
29
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS COMPLEX NUMBERS 2 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
4U864ii)!
Given that for the complex number z, z = 2, arg z =
2
5
t
write in the form a + ib, where a, b are real:
a. z;
b. z
7
.
(a) z 2 cos
2
5
i 2sin
2
5
= +
t t
(b) z 2 (cos
5
i sin
5
7 7
= +
t t
)
4U864iii)!
a. Draw a sketch of the region of the Argand diagram consisting of the set of all values of z for
which 1 s z s 4 and
t t
4
arg z
3
4
s s .
b. o. The curve in the Argand diagram for which
z  2 + z  4 = 10 is an ellipse. Write down the coordinates of the centre, and the
lengths of the major and minor axes of this ellipse.
. On a separate Argand diagram, show the region for which z satisfies the inequalities
z + z s 6 or z  2 + z  4 s 10.
(a)
1 4 x
y
t
4
(b) (o) Centre is (3, 0). Major axis is 10 units and Minor axis
is 4 6 units. ()
y
2 3 x 8
4U853i)!
Reduce the complex expression
(2 i)(8 +3i)
(3+i)
to the form a + ib, where a, b are real numbers.
11
2
5
2
i
4U853ii)!
The complex number z is given by z 3 i = + .
a. Write down the values of arg z and z.
b. Hence, or otherwise, show that z
7
+ 64z = 0.
(a) arg z
5
6
=
t
, ,z, = 2 (b) Proof
4U853iii)!
On the Argand diagram, let A = 3 + 4i, B = 9 + 4i.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS COMPLEX NUMBERS 2 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
a. Draw a clear sketch to show the important features of the curve defined by z  A = 5. Also,
for z on this curve, find the maximum value of z.
b. On a separate diagram, draw a clear sketch to show the important features of the curve
defined by z  A + z  B = 12. For z on this curve, find the greatest value of arg z.
(a)
y
x
4
3
5
,z  a, = 5
A(3 + 4i)
Maximum value of ,z, = 10. (b)
A(3 + 4i)
B(9 + 4i)
6 + 4i
y
x
,z  A, + ,z  B, = 12
Greatest value of arg z
2
=
t
.
4U843i)!
Calculate the modulus and argument of the product of the roots of the equation
(5 + 3i)z
2
 (1  4i)z + (8  2i) = 0.
P 2 = , arg P
4
=
t
4U843ii)!
Let A = 1 + i, B = 2  i. Draw sketches to show the loci specified on the Argand diagram by
a. arg(z  A) =
t
4
b. z  A = z  B.
(a)
A(1 + i)
arg(z  A)
Locus of z
P(z)
1
1 0
x
y
t
4
(b)
A(1 + i)
x
y
0
Locus of z
B(2  i)
P(z)
4U843iii)!
Show that the point representing cos sin
t
+
t
3 3
i on the Argand diagram lies on the circle of radius one
with centre at the point which represents 1.
Proof
4U843iv)!
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS COMPLEX NUMBERS 2 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984  1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
R is a positive real number and z
1
, z
2
are complex numbers. Show that the points on the Argand
diagram which represent respectively the numbers z
1
, z
2
,
z
1
iRz
2
1iR
, form the vertices of a right
angled triangle.
Proof
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS CONICS CSSA
CSSA OF NSW 1984  1996
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1996
Conics
4U964)!
a. The diameter of the ellipse
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + = (where a > b > 0) through the point P(a cos u,
b sin u) meets the circle x
2
+ y
2
= a
2
at the point R(a cos , a sin ).
i. Show this information on a sketch.
ii. Show that tan  =
b
a
tan u.
iii. Prove that the tangent to the ellipse at P has equation bx + ay tan u = ab sec u.
iv. Show that the tangent to the circle at R has equation ax + by tan u = a
2
sec .
v. If the tangent to the ellipse at P and the tangent to the circle at R are concurrent with
the right hand directrix of the ellipse, show that sec u =
2
e
, where e is the
eccentricity of the ellipse.
b. The diameter of the ellipse
x y
2 2
25 9
1 + = through the point P on the ellipse meets the circle
x
2
+ y
2
= 25 at R. Tangents to the ellipse at P and the circle at R are concurrent with a
directrix of the ellipse. Using the results from part (a):
If P lies in the first quadrant,
i. find the coordinates of P and R.
ii. Sketch the ellipse and the circle, showing the coordinates of P and R, and the point
of intersection of the tangents and the appropriate directrix.
a) i)
x
R
P
a a
a
b
b
a
ii) iii) iv) v) Proof b) i) P 2
3 21
5
,

\

.
 , R
50
17
15 21
17
,

\

.
 ii)
Y
x
x =
25
4
25
4
5 21
14
,

\

.

R
P
5 5
5
3
3
5
4U954)!
The hyperbola xy = c
2
meets the ellipse
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + = at P ct
c
t
1
1
,

\

.
 and Q ct
c
t
2
2
,

\

.
 where t
1
> t
2
> 0.
Tangents to the hyperbola at P and Q meet in T, while tangents to the ellipse at P and Q meet in V.
i. Show this information on a sketch.
ii. Show that the parameter t of a point ct
c
t
,

\

.
 where xy = c
2
and
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + = intersect
satisfies the equation b
2
c
2
t
4
 a
2
b
2
t
2
+ a
2
c
2
=0.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS CONICS CSSA
CSSA OF NSW 1984  1996
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1996
iii. Using without proof the result that the tangent to hyperbola xy = c
2
at the point ct
c
t
,

\

.
 has
equation x + t
2
y = 2ct, show that T has coordinates
2 2
1 2
1 2 1 2
ct t
t t
c
t t + +

\

.
 , .
iv. Using without proof the result that the tangent to
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + = at the point (x
1
, y
1
) has
equation b
2
x
1
x + a
2
y
1
y = a
2
b
2
, , show that V has coordinates
a
c t t
b t t
t t
2
1 2
2
1 2
1 2
( )
,
( ) + +

\

.

v. Show that TV passes through the origin.
vi. Show that if V lies at a focus of the hyperbola, then the ellipse is in fact a circle and find the
radius of this circle in terms of c.
i)
Q
V
P
T
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + =
xy = c
2
y
x
ii) iii) iv) v) Proof vi) Proof
Radius = c 1 5 +
4U944)!
P(20cos u, 12sin u) is a point on the ellipse
x y
2
2
2
2
20 12
1 + = .
P lies in the first quadrant, and the tangent to the ellipse at P meets the directrices in Q and R where Q
is nearer the focus S' and R is nearer the focus S. Q and R each lie above the x axis, and QS' meets
RS in K where K lies in the third quadrant.
i. Sketch the ellipse showing its directrices and foci and the points P, Q, R and K.
ii. Show that the tangent at P has equation 3x cos u + 5y sin u = 60.
iii. Show that K has coordinates

\

.
 20
4 9 25
3
2
cos ,
( sin )
sin
u
u
u
.
iv. If K lies on the ellipse, find the coordinates of P and show that PSKS' is a rectangle.
i)
R
Q
P(20cosu, 12sinu)
x
y
x = 25 x = 25
12
12
20 16 O 20 16
ii) iii) Proof iv) k(5 7 , 9), Proof
4U934a)!
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS CONICS CSSA
CSSA OF NSW 1984  1996
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1996
a a ae 0
x
y
x
a
y
b
1
2
2
2
2
=
(x  ae)
2
+ y
2
= a
2
(e
2
+ 1)
i. Show that the tangent at P(a sec u, b tan u) on the hyperbola
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 = has equation
x
a
y
b
sec tan u u
= 1 0.
ii. Show that if the tangent at P is also a tangent to the circle with centre (ae, 0) and radius
a e
2
1 + , then sec u = e.
iii. Deduce that the points of contact P, Q on the hyperbola of the common tangents to the circle
and hyperbola are the extremities of a latus rectum of the hyperbola, and state the co
ordinates of P and Q.
iv. Find the equations of the common tangents to the circle and hyperbola, and find the
coordinates of their points of contact with the circle.
i) ii) Proof iii) P(ae, b e
2
1 ), Q(ae, b e
2
1 ) iv) xe y + a = 0, (0, a)
4U924b)!
Consider the ellipse
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + = , where a > b > 0.
i. Show that the tangent to the ellipse at the point P(a cos u, b sin u) has equation
bx cos u + ay sin u  ab = 0.
ii. R and R' are the feet of the perpendiculars from the foci S and S' on to the tangent at P. Show
that SR.S'R' = b
2
.
Proof
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS CONICS CSSA
CSSA OF NSW 1984  1996
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1996
4U914)!
a. P(a cos u, b sin u), Q(a sec u, b tan u) lie on the ellipse
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + = and the hyperbola
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 = respectively. M and N are the feet of the perpendiculars from P, Q respectively
to the x axis. O < u <
t
2
, and QP produced meets the x axis in K. A is the point with
coordinates (a, 0).
i. Using without proof the similarity of AKPM and AKQN, show that
KM
KN
= cosu,
and hence show that K has coordinates (a, 0).
ii. Sketch the ellipse and hyperbola showing the positions of P, Q, M, N, A and K.
iii. Show that the tangent to the ellipse at P has equation
x
a
y
b
cos sin u u
+ =1 and
deduce that this tangent passes through N.
iv. Given that the tangent to the hyperbola at Q has equation
x
a
y
b
sec tan u u
=1,
show that this tangent passes through M.
v. Show that the tangents PN and QM and the common tangent at A are concurrent,
and show that the point of concurrence is T(a, b tan
u
2
).
vi. If the common tangent at A meets QP in V, show that T is the midpoint of AV.
b. The result in (a) (i) provides a method of constructing the hyperbola
x
y
2
2
4
1 = from the
auxiliary circle x
2
+ y
2
= 4, and the ellipse
x
y
2
2
4
1 + = . Indicate why this is so on a new
sketch by using the auxiliary circle to construct one such pair of points P, Q each with
parameter u, 0 < u <
t
2
.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS CONICS CSSA
CSSA OF NSW 1984  1996
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1996
a) i) Proof ii)
P
Q
A N M
b
x
y
b
K
a a
iii) iv) v) vi)
Proof b)
y
x
Q
N M 2 2
2
1
2
1
P
u
4U904)!
a. Show that the tangent to the ellipse
x y
2 2
9 4
1 + = at the point P(x
1
, y
1
) has cartesian equation
xx yy
1 1
9 4
1 + = .
b. Show that if tangents are drawn from a point W(x
0
, y
0
) external to the ellipse
x y
2 2
9 4
1 + = ,
touching the ellipse at P, Q respectively, then the equation of the chord of contact PQ is
xx yy
0 0
9 4
1 + = .
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS CONICS CSSA
CSSA OF NSW 1984  1996
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1996
c.
y = mx + k
2
3 0 3 5
7 x 9
P(x
1
, y
1
)
R(x
2
, y
2
)
y = 2
y = 2
(x  7)
2
+ y
2
= 4
2
y
x
y
2
9
2
4
1 + =
The above diagram shows the ellipse
x y
2 2
9 4
1 + = and the circle (x  7)
2
+ y
2
= 4. Clearly
y = 2 and y = 2 are common tangents to the ellipse and the circle. Suppose the line
y = mx + k, m = 0, is also a common tangent, touching the ellipse at P(x
1
, y
1
) and the circle at
R(x
2
, y
2
) as shown.
i. Copy the diagram and use symmetry to draw a fourth common tangent, touching the
ellipse at Q and the circle at T, and write down the coordinates of Q and T, on your
diagram. Deduce that the equation of QT is y = mx  k.
ii. PR and QT intersect at V. Show V has coordinates

\

.

k
m
, 0 .
iii. Use the fact that PQ is the chord of contact of tangents from V to the ellipse to show
that x
1
=
9m
k
.
iv. Deduce that x
1
=
9m
k
is a double root of the equation
x mx k
2 2
9 4
1 +
+
=
( )
, and
hence show that 9m
2
 k
2
+ 4 = 0.
v. Show that if y = mx + k is a tangent to the circle (x  7)
2
+ y
2
= 4, then
45m
2
+ k
2
+ 14mk  4 = 0.
vi. Show that
m
k
=
7
27
, and find the coordinates of P, Q and V, and the equations of
the two oblique common tangents.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS CONICS CSSA
CSSA OF NSW 1984  1996
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1996
a) b) Proof c) i)
2
3 0 3 5
7
9
P(x
1
, y
1
)
Q(x
1
, y
1
)
T(x
2
, y
2
)
R(x
2
, y
2
)
y = 2
y = 2
2
y
ii) iii) iv)
v) Proof vi) P
7
3
8 2
9
,

\

.
 , Q
7
3
8 2
9
,

\

.
 , V
27
7
0 ,

\

.
 ,
7
27
2 2
9
1
x y
+ = ,
7
27
2 2
9
1
x y
=
4U905b)!
A parabola passes through the points (a, 0), (0, h) and (a, 0) where a > 0, h > 0. Show that the area
enclosed by this parabola and the x axis is
4
3
ah.
Proof
4U894a)!
i. Show that the ellipse 4x
2
+ 9y
2
= 36 and the hyperbola 4x
2
 y
2
= 4 intersect at right angles.
ii. Find the equation of the circle through the points of intersection of the two conics.
i) Proof ii) x
2
+ y
2
= 5
4U894b)!
i. Show that the tangent to the hyperbola
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 = (where a > b > 0) at the point P(a secu,
b tanu) has equation bx secu  ay tanu = ab.
ii. If this tangent passes through a focus of the ellipse
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + = (where a > b > 0) show that
it is parallel to one of the lines y = x, y = x and that its point of contact with the hyperbola
lies on a directrix of the ellipse.
Proof
4U884)!
P(2Ap, Ap
2
) is a point on the parabola x
2
= 4Ay. Q(a cosu, b sinu) is a point on the ellipse
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + = .
In what follows you may use without proof the results that the tangent to x
2
= 4Ay at P and the tangent
to
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + = at Q have equations px  y = Ap
2
and
x
a
y
b
cos sin u u
+ =1 respectively.
a. Using the fact that two lines are coincident if the corresponding coefficients are in proportion
deduce that the tangent to x
2
= 4Ay at P is also the tangent to
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + = at Q if
cosu =
a
Ap
and sinu =
b
Ap
2
.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS CONICS CSSA
CSSA OF NSW 1984  1996
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1996
b. Hence show that PQ is a common tangent to x
2
= 4Ay and
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + = if
A
2
p
4
 a
2
p
2
 b
2
= 0, and deduce that there are exactly two such common tangents.
c. Let p
0
> 0 be the parameter of the point of contact of one of these common tangents with the
parabola and let A > 0.
Sketch the parabola, the ellipse and both common tangents showing, in terms of p
0
the
coordinates of the points of contact of the tangents with both curves and the intercepts of the
tangents on the coordinate axes.
d. Using symmetry sketch on the same diagram the parabola x
2
= 4Ay and the two common
tangents to x
2
= 4Ay and
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + = .
What is the nature of the quadrilateral formed by the four tangents on this diagram? Deduce
that this quadrilateral is a square if A
2
= a
2
+ b
2
.
e. Find the equation of the circle with centre (0, 0) for which the quadrilateral formed by the
four tangents common to the circle and the curve x
2
= 8y is a square.
a) Proof b) Proof c) d)
y
O
x Ap
0
Ap
0
Ap
0
2
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + =
(2Ap
0
, Ap
0
2
) (2Ap
0
,
Ap
0
2
)
a
Ap
b
Ap
2
0
2
0
2
,

\

.


\

.

a
Ap
b
Ap
2
0
2
0
2
,
p
0
x  y = Ap
0
2
p
0
x  y = Ap
0
2
e) x
2
+ y
2
= 2
4U874i)!
a. Show that the normal to the ellipse
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + = (a
2
> b
2
) at the point P(x
1
, y
1
) has equation
a
2
y
1
x  b
2
x
1
y = (a
2
 b
2
)x
1
y
1
.
b. This normal meets the major axis of the ellipse at G. S is one focus of the ellipse. Show that
GS = e.PS where e is the eccentricity of the ellipse.
Proof
4U874ii)!
a. By using the result in part (i)(a) above, or otherwise, show that the normal to the ellipse
x y
2 2
25 9
1 + = at the point P(5 cosu, 3 sinu) has equation 5xsinu  3ysinu = 16sinu cosu.
b. This normal cuts the major and minor axes of the ellipse at G and H respectively. Show that
as P moves on the ellipse the mid point of GH describes another ellipse with the same
eccentricity as the first.
c. On the same axes sketch the two ellipses showing clearly the coordinates of the intercepts on
the coordinate axes.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS CONICS CSSA
CSSA OF NSW 1984  1996
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1996
a) Proof b) Proof c)
x
y
5 5
3
3
2.6
2.6
1.6 1.6
4U864i)!
Show that the curves x
2
 y
2
= c
2
and xy = c
2
cross at right angles.
Proof
4U864ii)!
Show that the tangent to the hyperbola
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 = at the point P(a secu, b tanu) has equation
bx secu  ay tanu = ab, and deduce that the normal there has equation by
secu + ax tanu = (a
2
+ b
2
) secutanu. The tangent and the normal cut the yaxis at A and B
respectively. Show that the circle on AB as diameter passes through the foci of the hyperbola. (It is
enough to show that the circle passes through one focus and then to use symmetry).
Proof
4U854)!
i. Show that the point P (a sec u, b tan u) lies on the hyperbola
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 = for all values of u.
If Q is the point (a sec , b tan ) where u +  =
t
2
show that the locus of the midpoint of PQ
is
x
a
y
b
y
b
2
2
2
2
= .
ii. Show that the equation of the normal to the hyperbola
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 = at the point (a sec u, b tan
u) is ax tan u + by sec u = (a
2
+ b
2
) sec u tan u.
The ordinate at P meets an asymptote of the hyperbola at Q. The normal at P meets the x
axis at G. Show that GQ is at right angles to the asymptote.
Proof
4U844i)!
Show that the condition for the line y = mx + c to be tangent to the ellipse
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + = is
c
2
= a
2
m
2
+ b
2
. Show that the pair of tangents drawn from the point (3, 4) to the ellipse
x y
2 2
16 9
1 + =
are at right angles to one another.
Proof
4U844ii)!
Show that the equation of the normal at the point P(a secu, b tanu) on the hyperbola
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + = is
ax sinu + by = (a
2
+ b
2
)tanu. The normal at the point P(a secu, b tanu) on the hyperbola
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + =
meets the x axis at G and PN is the perpendicular from P to the x axis. Prove that OG = e
2
.ON (where
O is the origin).
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS CONICS CSSA
CSSA OF NSW 1984  1996
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1996
Proof