Ben 2010present
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UNIT 1: Space
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Definitions
Earths Gravitational Field
Factors of a Rocket Journey (Projectile Motion)
Gravity in the Solar System
Theories of Time & Space (Aether + Special Relativity)
a. Definitions
Weight (N)
Work (W)
Gravitational
Field
Fg =
where:
Fg is the gravitational force in Newtons (N)
G is the universal gravitational constant (6.67x1011 Nm2kg2)
d is the distance between the centre of the two masses (m)
mo & mp are the masses of the object and planet respectively (kg)
g=G
Universal
Gravitational
Constant
Gravitational
Potential
Energy (Ep)
where:
g is the acceleration due to gravity in ms2
G is the universal gravitational constant (6.67x1011 Nm2kg2)
d is the distance from the centre of the mass (planet) in metres
Acceleration due to gravity at earths surface is 9.8ms2 downwards
A numerical constant existing in many of Newtons equations. It equal
to:
Ep =
where:
Ep is Gravitational Potential Energy in joules
G is the universal gravitational constant (6.67x1011 Nm2kg2)
d is the distance between the centre of the two masses (m)
m1 & m2 are the masses of the object and planet respectively (kg)
Any moving object that moves only under the sustained force of
Projectile
gravity.
The velocity that must be attained by an object in order to escape the
gravitational field of a planet. Escape velocity is determined by the
1
Escape Velocity mass and radius of the planet. Earths escape velocity is 11.2 kms
v2 =
GForce
A GForce is a unit of force acting upon an Astronaut. Multiple GForces equate to multiples of the Astronauts regular Weight Force.
(i.e.
2
GForce
=
2x
Normal
Weight)
The Gforce scale is an easily understood and communicated scale.
The scale is applicable to all Astronauts, regardless of their mass. This is
because the force they experience will be relative their personal weight.
gforce =
Frame of time during which a rocket needs to be launched so that it
Launch Window reaches its destination at the right time. Launch windows are largely
based upon Earths rotation and Earths orbit around the sun.
Keplers Law of
This equation, derived from Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation,
Periods
Orbital Decay
Atmospheric
Drag
Ionosphere
Exosphere
ReEntry
Point of
Weightless ness
in the fraction
Simultaneity
Limiting
Velocity
SI Units
metres (m)
seconds
metrespersecond (ms1)
Newtonseconds (Ft)
Joules
Kilogrammetrespersecond (Kgms1)
Mass (the amount of matter of which an object consists) does not change with location
Weight (the force acting upon a mass due to gravity) changes according to gravity
Gravitational Fields are regions in which a mass experiences a force towards the centre
of gravity usually the centre of a large mass (e.g. planet) the gravitational force of
such a field at a point is given by Newtons Gravitational Force Equation:
Fg =
This equation is derived from the below equation, from which g (a) is replaced by
(F = ma)
The acceleration due to gravity (g) at a point caused by a large mass is given by:
g=G
This formula can be used to ascertain the acceleration due to gravity (g) on the surface of any given planet
PRACTICAL: Perform an investigation to determine a value for acceleration due to gravity using pendulum
motion and identify reasons for possible deviations from the correct value of 9.8ms2
AIM: Determine acceleration due to gravity using a pendulum and compare experimental
results to published results. The relationships between the period (T) of a simple pendulum
is related to its length (l) and acceleration due to gravity (g) is shown by:
T=2
EQUIPMENT: Retort stand, bosshead and clamp, roll of string, masses, stopwatch
METHOD:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Set up a retort stand and clamp on the edge of a desk and tie a length of string to it
Tie a 200g mass 1 metre down the string (cut off excess string)
Release the masses from 20o deviation from vertical
Using a stopwatch, time how long it takes for the pendulum to complete 10 full periods
Record this time in a results table with the corresponding length of string
Perform a total of three times for each length of string
Shorten the length of string by 10cm after each set of three trials and repeat steps 47
until results are obtained for a string length of 50cm.
EXPERIMENTAL ERRORS:
The trial for each different length of string could be repeated several more times
to allow for greater accuracy
Observing the time taken for 20 Periods to pass instead of 10 will reduce the error
involved with the reaction time of the person with the stopwatch
A light gate could be used to gather more precise measurements of the period of
the swing
FACTORS AFFECTING THE VALUE OF g ON EARTH:
Due to Earths spin, there is a slight bulge at the equator and flattening at the
poles. Because the force of a gravitation field (Fg) acting upon an object is directly
proportional to
The density and chemical composition of the Earths crust between an object and
the origin of force influences the magnitude of the force the object experiences
this is because there is more mass per volume, which equates to greater force.
Ep =
As the object travels from infinity to earth, Ep decreases until it reaches the surface, where Ep = 0
Uy
Ux
Solve Projectile Motion Problems using horizontal and vertical components in combination with Newtons
equations of motion
Horizontal
Ux = ucos
Vx = ux (a = 0)
Vx2 = ux2
Sx = Uxt (a = 0)
Vertical
Uy = usin
Vy = uy + 9.8t
V2 = uy2 + 2aysy
Sy = uyt + at2
Explain escape velocity in terms of the gravitational constant and the mass & radius of the planet
To escape Earths gravitational pull, a projectile fired from the surface of Earth needs to be
given kinetic energy equal to its gravitational potential energy:
EK = m1v2
Ep =
EK > Ep
m1v2 >
v2 >
Escape velocity increases with the planets mass and decreases with distance from the centre of gravity.
Escape velocity is independent of the projectiles mass.
gforce =
1g = 9.8 ms2 ; In a rocket accelerating upwards at 9.8ms2, astronauts experience 2g = 19.6ms2
Perform a firsthand investigation to calculate initial and final velocities, range and time of flight of a
projectile.
i.e. Mega Marble LauncherTM
Projectile Motion Class Assignment\Projectile Motion Assignment Mega Marble Ludicrous Launcher
with graph.docx
AIM:
To determine and graph the relationship between the launch angle and range of an oblique
projectile using the Mega Marble Launcher  and hence find the optimum launch angle that
corresponds to the maximum range possible.
SAFETY:
Ensure all personelle wear safety goggles at all times throughout the experiment
Conduct experiment in isolated area secluded from students and other hazards
Only fire projectile when the firing range is clear and all personnel are behind the line of fire
METHOD:
1. Set up the Mega Marble Launcher in a remote location, pointed in a direction with at least 50m of
space and free from obstruction.
2. Arm the launcher, first setting the launch angle to 20o and placing a marble into the shaft. (Ensure all
marbles launched in the experiment are of the same size and shape)
3. When the firing range is clear, launch the marble.
4. Measure the range with a measuring tape and retrieve the marble. Record this value for the range in a
table like the one below with the corresponding launch angle:
Launch Angle
Range (m)
20o
xx
5. Repeat the trial with the same launch angle a total of 5 times to ensure reliable results are collected.
6. Repeat steps 25 with a launch angle of 30o, 45o, then again for 60o, completing each trial a total of 5
times to ensure reliable results are collected.
7. Graph the results, with launch angle (o) on the horizontal axis and average range (m) on the vertical.
R = V2 x
LIMITATIONS, ERRORS & IMPROVEMENTS:

10
+
+
+
The contour and texture of the test range (grass) caused the marble to roll or
bounce upon landing.
The crosswind proved to be a major factor that influenced the results
Perform more trials for each launch angle to obtain reliable results
Apply a greater consistent launching force to the marbles so that longer, more
diverse (and hence comparable) ranges are reached.
Use a firing range that is flat and sheltered to minimise wind resistance and/or
projectile bouncing and rolling.
Analyse the changing acceleration of a rocket during launch in terms of Conservation of Momentum and
the forces experienced by astronauts
Momentum of Exhaust
Pilots experience vision problems at 4g, and lose consciousness at 8g. 3g was
once considered safe.
Astronauts can survive up to 20g if:
Facing opposite to the direction of force (stops eyes from popping out)
The forces acting upon a rocket during its launch and flight include:
11
Discuss the effect of Earths orbital and rotational motion on rocket launches
The earth spins counterclockwise (when viewed from above the north pole)
Rockets are launched eastward from the equator, where the rotational speed of the
earth is greatest, and adds an extra 1700kmh1 to their trajectory.
The orbital speed of the Earth around the Sun can also be harnessed to attain greater
velocity in respect to the solar system (used for IntraSolarSystem travel.)
Less fuel needs to be spent to attain escape velocity and more storage mass (payload)
can be carried if rotational speeds are harnessed.
Launch Windows are frames of time during which a rocket must be launched to arrive
at its destination at the right time taking full advantage of orbital speeds.
Analyse the forces involved in uniform circular motion for a range of objects, including orbiting satellites
Fc =
ac =
In the context of a rocket orbiting earth, the force of gravity is considered the
centripetal force as the rocket produces a rightangle velocity around earth.
To stay in orbit, a satellite needs to maintain a speed in proportion with the earths
gravity, its own mass (m) and its distance from Earths centre (r.) This is because the
centripetal force (Fc = gravity, in this case) will remain constant, so the satellite must
adjust its velocity to balance it and thus undergo uniform circular motion.
In Orbit: Fc = Fg
where
Fg =
12
Feature
Geostationary Satellites
ALTITUDE
PERIOD
ORBIT
POSITION
35 800 km
~24hrs (1 Earthday)
Equatorial Orbit
Fixed position above Equator
Communications, GPS, Foxtel,
bounce signals
Constant Lineofsight to Receivers
Slow Low gravitational pull
USES
REASON
SPEED
Tsiolkovsky (18981935):
1. Calculated escape velocity
2. Suggested propulsion by reaction
3. Designed (didnt build) multistage rockets
4. Examined potential medical implications for Astronauts
5. First to suggest using oxygen + hydrogen as fuels
Define Orbital Velocity and its relationship with G, the mass of the planet and satellite, and the radius of
the orbit, qualitatively and quantitatively
Orbital Velocity
Orbital velocity is simply the speed at which the satellite is travelling.
It can be calculated by dividing the distance it travels in its orbit by its orbital period:
v2 =
v=
Fc = Fg
=
2r
T
:
v=
The orbital velocity of an object is dependent only upon the mass of the planet and the orbital radius
13
Keplers Law
Substituting
v=
):
=
=
This equation, known as Keplers Law of Periods, can be used to find the orbital
period, T, of any orbiting mass around any planet.
When solving questions, first find the ratio
the planet (Keplers law), substituting the pronumeral for the unknown quantity and solve.
Orbital Decay refers to the orbital descent and eventual fall to earth
experienced by satellites in LEO orbits. It is caused by atmospheric drag.
Atmospheric friction causes a satellite to lose forward velocity, and hence
causes it to lose altitude (according to Fc = Fg.)
Safe Reentry
14
Identify optimum angle for reentry into Earths atmosphere and consequences of failing to achieve this
The optimum reentry angle for survival: 6.2o to the horizontal (plus or minus 1o)
Angle too shallow: Spacecraft bounces off atmosphere and be lost in space
Angle too large: gforces will exceed fatal magnitudes and capsule melts
The purpose of the reentry angle is to minimise the gforces experienced by
the astronauts while still preventing the craft from bouncing off the atmosphere.
Gravitational Fields
Fg =
Because we know the value of g on earth (9.8ms2), the gravitational force acting
on any object on earths surface is given by its weight force:
F = mg
g=
15
Discuss the importance of Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation in calculating the motion of satellites
Formula is used to explain and calculate launch windows & the slingshot effect
Gravity is the reason rocket launches are expensive and require so much energy
Identify that a slingshot effect can be provided by planets for space probes
16
METHOD:
A beam of light emitted by a light source was split by a halfslivered mirror and sent at 90o
to one another towards two different mirrors
They were reflected back and combined, such that both rays travelled the same distance to
reach a detector at the end of their journey.
The whole apparatus was floated on liquid mercury which enabled a smooth rotation of the
entire experiment.
RESULTS:
CONCLUSION:
The null result did NOT disprove the theory immediately: scientists were forced to reconsider the model and
create adhoc explanations (aether drag.)
The result was later used by Einstein to support his theory of relativity and to disprove the aether model.
Although it was a failure, the conclusion drawn from the null result was both valid and reliable and
changed scientific theory dramatically, making it one of historys most important experiments.
Gather and process information to interpret the results of the MichelsonMorley experiment
The Michelson & Morely experiment was based upon the presumption that aether remained
stationary while earth moved through it. They expected to detect this motion of the earth through the
aether by observing how much the light was influenced when it travelled through the aether wind
17
In much the same way that two boats travel the same distances, one up the current and the other
across the current, the light rays were expected to arrive at different times according to whether they
were moving against the aether or across it, as earth moved through the aether.
The table upon which the experiment was conducted floated upon a pool of mercury, allowing the
entire experiment to be rotated. M&M were looking to detect any differences in velocity or
interference patterns when they altered the direction at which the light moved through the aether.
No such change in interference pattern resulted, therefore providing a null result.
o There is no stationary background medium (aether) in space moving relative to the earth
o All moving objects (frames of reference) receive light travelling at the same speed in a
vacuum in all directions.
Since the Earth was known to move, the aether model was pronounced flawed, later to be disproved
by Einstein, who used these results in confirming his theories of the constancy of the speed of light.
The experiment supported Einsteins theory that light remains constant, and refuted the aether model
Outline the nature of inertial frames of reference
There is no absolute frame of reference in the universe, as everything is in motion. All motion
is simply relative to other motion (e.g. when still, we are stationary relative to earths surface)
In 1905, Einstein published a paper proposing a Special Theory of Relativity. This theory
superseded Newtonian Relativity.
Special relativity is based upon two fundamental principles:
1. The laws of physics are the same for all inertial frames of reference.
2. The speed of light (c) is constant for all observers regardless of their velocity
These principles inferred the following visible implications for observers:
o Length contracts in the direction of motion
o Time dilates (object appears to slow as the seconds lengthen)
o Mass increases with velocity
Length, Mass and Time distort to keep the speed of light constant for all observers
The speed of light (c) is the only thing that remains constant in the universe
Einsteins theory of special relativity, in conflict with the popular scientific theory of aether,
was revolutionary and hesitantly received. The theory was based upon thought
experiments and hence, it could not be experimentally proven for a number of years.
18
Describe the significance of Einsteins assumption of the constancy of the speed of light.
Special relativity assumes that the speed of light remains constant for all observers (c)
This means that all observers will measure the speed of light travelling at the same speed
This idea is in conflict with Newtonian logic, which implies that light will exceed the value of c
when light is emitted from a fastmoving object according to vector addition
Employing the logic of Einsteins relativity, we can accurately determine how objects behave
at relativistic velocities (e.g. time dilates, length contracts, mass increases)
There exists a spacetime continuum, in which any event has 4 dimension: 3 spacial
coordinates and 1 time coordinate
Analyse and interpret some of Einsteins thought experiments involving mirrors and trains and discuss the
relationship between thought and reality.
Einstein wondered whether he would be able to see his face normally in a mirror he held
in front of his face if the train was travelling at the speed of light.
He decided that he would be able to, because he was in an inertial frame and should
have no way to determine he was moving at c.
But with vector addition, a stationary observer would see light travelling away from
Einsteins face at c, but as the train was also moving at c, the observer would see light
travel twice the distance in the same amount of time.
o Einsteins interpretation of this was that the time observed for light to travel that
distance had changed (increased), so that a stationary observer would see light
travelling at c.
Inside the moving train, the light is seen to travel straight up and down from the roof to
floor and back again.
From a stationary observer however, the light is seen to travel a much longer path, but in
the same amount of time, which would result in a changed speed of light (going against
Einsteins theory)
Again his interpretation was that time had slowed (dilated) so that c remains constant.
19
Identify that if c is constant then space and time become relative.
In traditional physics, the behaviour of light had to adapt to the motion of the observer. With the light of
speed being a constant under Einsteins theory, the dimensions involved in motion have to adapt to light.
This means that space and time become relative to velocity so that c is always constant.
Explain that length is defined in terms of time
between two lines on a platinumiridium bar, which provided the standard measure of the metre.
However, today the metre is defined as the distance light travels in
distance is calculated with respect to time a unit of distance measure in terms of how much distance
light travels in a period of time. (like a lightyear, the distance light travels in one year)
Analyse information to discuss the relationship between theory and evidence supporting it, using
Einsteins predictions based on relativity that were made many years before evidence was available
Atomic Clocks have been raced around the world in extremely fast jets to test
Einsteins prediction of time dilation. The results showed that the precision atomic
clocks aboard the jets had slowed by a few nanoseconds, hence time dilates at high
velocities.
A muon is a particle similar to an electron, but heavier. When stationary it has a half
life of around 2 microseconds, but when accelerated in a particle accelerator to
speeds up to 0.9994c, it was found their observed half life was around 60
microseconds confirming Einsteins theory.
Explain the consequences of special relativity in relation to the relativity of simultaneity
20
LENGTH CONTRACTION:
Lv = Lo
A stationary observer sees a moving object contract in the direction of relativistic motion
The moving observer sees the stationary observer contract in the direction of motion
TIME DILATION:
Tv =
Seconds measured by the stationary observer seem longer than those measured by the moving observer
Seconds measured by both observers seem to remain the same but the clocks in the other frame of
reference (either faster or stationary) seem to run slower in comparison.
All clocks, biological or mechanical run slower because time itself is passing more slowly
MASS DILATION:
Mv =
When an object travels at relativistic velocities, the mass of the object increases
This has implications for the limiting velocity that can be achieved by an object:
NO OBJECT CAN TRAVEL FASTER THAN THE VELOCITY OF LIGHT (c) (i.e. 3x108 ms1)
All of these observations are true only when the frame being observed and the frame of observation are
both inertial frames of reference. Note also that these changes are actual changes in the properties of
spacetime.
E = mc2
This equation shows the rest energy of an object and also the amount of energy released if matter
is destroyed and converted into pure energy. (e.g. nuclear reactions, fission, fusion etc;)
Length, Time and Mass all change in proportion to keep the speed of light constant
Discuss the implications of mass increase, time dilation and length contraction for space travel.
TIME DILATION:
Allows travel into the future at high speeds, but not back to the past.
Astronauts travelling in a relativistic spacecraft will age slower than people back on earth, which
means they can comparatively live longer during space travel and people on earth will pass away
before
they
return.
(Twin
paradox)
LENGTH CONTRACTION:
As a space craft speeds up, the apparent distance to objects ahead decreases. This means trips on a
relativistic spacecraft will appear to cover less distance to observers in the spacecraft.
Could
possibly
allow
travel
to
distant
stars
etc.
MASS DILATION:
As the speed of a spacecraft increases to the speed of light, its mass will increase up to infinity and
hence restricting the velocity it is able to achieve.
21
Travelling at a constant velocity (constant thrust), mass increases causing acceleration to decrease as
the thrust becomes less and less effective requiring more fuel.