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Letter of Transmittal

December 06, 2010


Mr. Mohammad Shahab Uddin,
Lecturer
Department of Management Studies.
University of Chittagong.
Sub : Submission of report.
Dear Sir,
We are glad to submit our report on Training and development. We
have completed our report visiting different public and private organizations.
Our working period was December 19, 2009 To March 05, 2010. During the
period, we have come out to know about our topic. For our assignment we
collected secondary data studying different studying different books, journals
and articles from University Central Library. We want to give cordial thanks to
the managers of the organizations who helped us greatly.
We hope that you will accept our report.
Sincerely yours
Group: Merger

Tables of Content
SL

Particulars

Executive Summary

Introduction

literatures Review

Objective of the Study

Methodology

Analysis of the Topic

Data analysis

Findings and analysis

Conclusion and policy implication

10

References

11

Annexure

Page no.

Preface
Report is a project, which is conducted to acquire practical knowledge. It is
believed that practical knowledge will be added advantage in our future life
that May also help to achieve our aim and ambition.
It is really a matter of pleasure that, we have completed our report
visiting many organizations. This report was conducted from 19th December,
2009 to 6th March, 2010. We have tried our level best to complete this report.
During the completion of the report we focused some difficulties. Updated
data arent available. Most of the books are written in foreign context. Some
organizations didnt give us their full support due to their time limitations.
This report has been prepared for the fulfillment to academic
curriculum as required under BBA program while preparing this report we
gathered practical experience of working field.

Acknowledgement
First of all we are grateful to the almighty, the merciful and the benevolent
Allah (SWT), who has enabled us to successfully complete our assignment.
We got all out support and assistance from many organizations of
personnel. We express heartiest gratitude of profound respect to all of them.
We are specially thankful to our honorable teacher Mr. Mohammad Shahab
uddin, lecturer, Department of Management studies, University of Chittgong.
Without their active co-operation the preparation of this report couldnt be
possible.
We shall be remish, if we dont Thank to Mr. Salim Uddin Ahmed (Abul
Khair Group), Md. Jahangir Alam (Bank Asia Ltd.), Md. Mofizul Hoque (PHP
group), Shamsuddin (BD Seafood Ltd.), M.M. Fazle Rahim (Asia Pacific
General Insurance Co. Ltd), S.M. Omar Faruk (Salim & Brothers), Mr. Indrajit
Mallick (IDLS Finance Ltd.).

Executive Summary
Employees are the most valuable asset of any organization. The increased
productivity & total quality depend upon the drive, initiative, core
competence, skills of technical knowledge of employees. So they must be
trained & educated for survival & growth of the organization. Practically it is
seen that organizations are also very much concerned about training &
development of employees. Most of the organizations spend a huge amount of
money to raise the skill level of versatility of the employees. Organizations
realize that the advancement in technology, wide use of computerized and
related sophistication have increased the need for training by manifold.
Basically organizations follow on the job training programs. They usually
provide training to new comers. Some organizations are reluctant to provide
training due to time and money constraints. Organizations hardly maintain
separate training department. It is recommended by the managers of the
organizations that training programs should be continuous and
implementation as well as evaluation should be properly carried on.

Introduction
Bangladesh is a country with cheap & abundant supply of labor. The labors
have a lion share contribution to the economic development of our country.
But most the work forces arent trained. So they fail to give their best efforts to
increase productivity. So training can play an important role to make them
efficient and effective. It improves the knowledge and skills, and changes the
attitudes of an individual for doing a specific job.
Countries like China, Japan, and India are able to produce products at a lower
cost. The reason behind is that they possess skilled manpower whole
Bangladesh is lagging behind to compete with these countries. So it is high
time to patronage our organizations to have a skilled manpower.

Literature review:

Conventional 'training' is required to cover essential work-related skills,


techniques and knowledge, and much of this section deals with taking a
positive progressive approach to this sort of traditional 'training'.
Importantly however, the most effective way to develop people is quite
different from conventional skills training, which let's face it many employees
regard quite negatively. They'll do it of course, but they won't enjoy it much
because it's about work, not about themselves as people. The most effective
way to develop people is instead to enable learning and personal
development, with all that this implies.

Purpose of training:
Any training program must have a definite purpose. Training module should
be designed to suit that purpose. Normally training serves the following
purposes:
- To give individuals the managerial or technical knowledge or skill
needed to perform the job effectively.
- To ensure that employees continue to grow both as human beings and
as workers/managers in the organization.
- To help people adjust to organizational changes.
- To help people develop basic management skills viz, communication
skill, inter-personal skill, interviewing skill etc.
- To help people see how their jobs relate to the goals of the organization.
System model of training:
In system model of training three major steps are involved: assessment,
development and evaluation. The goal of the assessment phase is to collect
information to determine if training is needed n the organization. This
information is collected by conducting three types of analyses: at the

organizational job, and individual level of analysis. After the information is


compiled objectives for the training program can be derived. The goal of the
development phase of training is to design the training environment
necessary to achieve the objectives. The goal of the evaluation phase is to
examine whether the training program has been effective in meeting the
stated objectives.
NEEDS ASSESSMENT
Identify needs for training
conducting needs analysis:

o
o
o

DEVELOPMENT

by

EVALUATION
Identify or develop criteria
to evaluate outcomes:

Organization
Task or job
Person

o
o
o
o

Derive instructional objectives

Reactions
Learning
Behavior change
Organizational
results

Choose evaluation design

Design a learning environment by examining


o Characteristics of adult learners
o Learning principle

Identify or develop training


materials and methods

Conduct training

Conduct evaluation and


cost-effectiveness of
training program

Training cycle:

A systematic approach to training and development will generally follow a


logical sequence of activities commencing with the establishment of a policy
and the resources of sustain it followed by and assessment of training needs
for which appropriate training is provided, and ending with some form of
evaluation and feedback.
Training policy

Establish training organization

Identify training needs


Evaluate training

Plan training

Carry out training

Understanding training policy


the policy statement sets out what the organization is pre-pared to do in
terms of developing its employees. For some organizations policy statement is
a brief sentence such as: the company will provide the means to ensure that
every employee will be adequately trained in the basic tasks of his or her
employment.

For others the policy statement may be quite lengthy, as in the following
example:
The company believes that it is in its own interests as well as in employees
interests that full support should be given to training and development.
Systematic assessments of training needs will be carried out before any
planned training takes places.
Training and development activities will also be regarded as key elements in
an individuals mastery of, and satisfaction in, his principal duties.
The company will, wherever appropriate, provide opportunities for selected
employees to participate in development activities to prepare them for new
roles in the organization.
Training and development activities will be reviewed at least annually by the
companys joint consultative committee and any proposals for amending this
policy will be seriously considered by the board.
The fulfillment of an organizations policy can be achieved in a number of
different ways. Some organizations have a long tradition of growing their own
managers and specialists and provide a substantial internal training
organization to sustain all their needs. Thus, most of the training and
development is provided on an in-company basis with little reliance on
outsiders. Other organizations believe in contracting out their training to
external providers such as colleges, consultants and private training
organizations. In these cases the internal training organization may be little
more than one or two persons acting as a liaison between the company and its
suppliers.
Yet other organizations adopt a midway position, providing induction
training and job-training internally, but contracting out management and
supervisory training.
Trainers role in organization:

The role of the trainer usually mean the terms of our expectations of the way
in which the jobholder performs in the job. A persons role is somewhat wider
in scope than his or her job duties and position in the job hierarchy. The
concept of role is clouded precisely because of its closeness to other concepts,
such as the job, the jobholder, and the organizational culture.
Nadler isolated three main roles and a number of subordinate roles. They are:

a) Learning specialist
Instructor
Curricular builder
Methods and materials developer
b) Administrator
Developer of personnel
Maintainer of community relations
Sponsor of ongoing programmes
Arranger for facilities and finances
c) Problem solver
Advocate
Expert
Alternative identifier
Catalyst
Process specialist
Training Need assessment
The first step in training is to determine that a need for training actually
exists. An organization should commit it resources of a training activity only if
the training can be expected to achieve some organizational goal. A need
assessment is a systematic, objective determination of training needs that
involves conducting three primary types of analyses. These analyses are used
to derive objectives for the training program. The three analyses consist of an
organizational analysis, a job analyses, and a person analyses. After
completing the results, objectives for the training program can be derived.

Before organizing any training programme, a manager should assess the


training needs if the people employed in the organization. He should start
with the following questions:
-who needs training?
- What training do they need?
- Why they need such training?
To understand the training needs, the manager responsible for organizing
training should analyze:
- The organization
- The jobs
- The profile of the job-holder.
Organization analysis:
While making organizational analysis, a manager should obtain a clear
understanding of immediate and long term goals of the organization. He
should then evaluate past and present efforts to meet the company objectives
with material and human resources. He should also find out what kind of
inefficiencies fits into the social, economic and political environment in which
it operates.
Job analysis:
For doing job analysis, a manager should:
-spell out in detail what tasks constitute the job dins out how the tasks are to
be performed
- make an assessment of what skills, knowledge and attitudes are needed to
perform the tasks effectively.
Manpower analysis:
-evaluate each employees performance and make an assessment of what
training is needed.

-specify the areas in which each employee should gain new skills.
- decide whether the employee can benefit from the periodically.
Training needs
Organizations adopting a systematic approach to training and development
will usually set about defining their needs for training in accordance with a
well-organized procedure. Such a procedure will entail looking at training
needs from a number of different perspectives:
1.
2.
3.
4.

The organization
The department
The job or occupational group
The individual employees

Basically, training need is any shortfall in employee performance, or potential


performance, which can be removed by appropriate training. There are many
ways of overcoming deficiencies in human performance at work, and training
is only one of them.

Demands of the Job:


Knowledge
Understanding
Skills:
Manual
Social
Intellectual
Attitude
Demands of change in
the organization.

Level of knowledge, understanding


etc possessed by employee
Less
Extent of employees willingness to
adapt.

equals
sals

Training need

The diagram shows the demans of the job will be made up of appropriate
performance of knowledge, understanding, skills and attitudes. Add to these

factors the demans for change, and it will be got a picture of what is required
to perform the job in context concerned. Against these requirement are set the
employees level of knowledge, skill and so on, together with the extent of his
willingness to cooperate in change. If the two sides match perfectly, there will
be no training requirement; if, as is more likely, there is a mismatch between
what is required and what is available, then a training need has been
identified.

Training needs survey:


A systematic survey, or analysis, of training needs will progress through a
number of key staged. These are likely to be as indicated in figure bellow:
Preparation

Data collection

Action plan
The various stages are as follows:
1. Preparatory
a. Determining the scope of the survey
b. Agreeing objectives of survey
c. Agreeing time-scale, resources etc.
2. Data collection
a. Organization-level information
b. Occupational-group level
c. Job-level
d. Individual performance
3. Interpretation of data

Interpretation

Recommendations

a. Nature of training needs arising


b. Extent of needs identified
c. Non-training needs (for referrals to others)
4. Recommendations
a. Training proposed
b. Resources required
c. Time-scale
d. Evaluation arrangements
e. Estimated costs
5. Action plan
a. Identify those responsible
b. Time-schedule

Sources needed for the survey:


The information necessary for answering the second question may be
obtained partly from documentary evidence, such as Job descriptions,
collective agreements, and personnel materials, partly from appraisal reports
and partly from interviews with relevant data for a training needs survey are
as follows:
Recorded data:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Personnel statistics
Job descriptions
Appraisal records
Time and method study data
Training reports
Production records
Marketing statistics

Interviews:
1. With immediate staff
2. With their managers

3. With relevant specialist staff


Questionnaires:
1. To immediate staff
2. To their managers
Observation:
1. By work study or O&M staff
2. By managers of those concerned
3. By trainers or other specialists
Aptitude tests:
1. For relevant work-group
2. For potential work-group members
Group discussion:
1. Via quality circles
2. Via brainstorming sessions
3. Via other work-groups

As the above list shows, recoded data from the largest single source of
information for those undertaking an training needs analysis. Most training
needs surveys have to go beyond the paper work evidence. Usually employers
are asked directly for their views and perceptions either by interview or by
questionnaire. Mostly people are asked about their own job and their views
and perceptions either by interview or by questionnaire. Mostly people are
asked about their own job and their own performance. But managers and
supervisors will also be asked to comment on the performance of their teammembers.
The methods that can be used to support a survey of training needs are wideranging and involve more than just a few training specialists.

Introducing training programs:


Once training needs have been ascertained, the role of the training specialist is
to act as a designer of the relevant programs. The design of training is no easy
task. It is important, therefore, to take account of the following issues if
training is to be both relevant and effective:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)

What are we trying to achieve in this program?


What do we expect participants to achieve?
What content is required to achieve these aims?
How should this content be structured?
What learning methods should we employ?
Who should conduct the training?
Where and when should the training take place?
To what extent should participants be consulted about the nature and
scope of the program?
i) How should we evaluate the success of the program?

Setting specific objectives of training program:


As in many other human activities, it is useful for planners of training to
remind themselves of the reason for their planning. Setting clear goals enables
planners to structure their activities with relevance and establish a basis for
evaluating their efforts. There are several ways of approaching this task, each
with its own set of assumptions. Firstly, let us consider what different
meaning can be ascribed to the words aim, goal and objectives:
a) Goals/Aims- Goals and aims will be considered to have the same
meaning that is board statements of purpose or intention on part of the
provider.
b) Objectives- these are statements of specific and intended outcomes of a
training activity. Such outcomes may be expressed in terms of learnerbehavior or in some other way. Objectives develop goals or aim by
adding a more precise or measurable element.

INPUTS

PROCESSESS

OUTPUTS

Students/trainers

learning methods

skilled employees

Tutors/ instructors
examinations

tutor-trainee interactions

success in

Materials

group interactions

job mastery

Learning aids

environmental factor

Intentions

expensive objectives

personal satisfaction

behavioral objectives

As we shall see below, most course objectives focus on terminal behavior, i.e.
on outputs. Some objectives, especially in the areas of feelings and values
focus on processes. These are what have been described as expressive
objectives. Some objectives focus on inputs, especially those which express
intentions of providers more than anything else.

Choosing methods for the training program:


Training methods can be divided into two categories:
1. Informational training methods
2. Experiential training methods
These training methods are describing bellow:
Informational methods:
Informational methods are used primarily to teach factual material, skills or
attitude. Generally, they do not require the trainee to actually experience or
practice the material taught during the training session. Some of the

commonly used informational techniques include lectures, audio and video


media, and self-directed learning methods.

Uses
Lecture
Gaining new knowledge to present
introductory material
Audiovisuals
Gaining new knowledge
Gaining attention
Independent study
Gaining new knowledge
Completing degree requirements
Continuous education
Programmed instructions
Gaining new knowledge
Pertaining preparation to ensure that
all trainees have similar backgrounds

Benefits
Equality as good as programmed
instruction and television
Low cost
Reaches a large audience at one time
audience is often comfortable with it
Can reach a large audience at one
time
Allows for replays
Versatility
Allows trainees to go at their own
pace
Minimizes trainers time
Minimizes costs of development
Allows trainees to go at their own
pace
Can guarantee mastery at a specified
level
Encourages active trainee
involvement
Provides immediate feedback to
trainees

Experiential methods
Experiential methods are used to teach physical and cognitive skills and
abilities. These techniques include OJT, computer-based training (CBT),
equipment simulation, games and other simulation, case analyses, role-

playing, and behavior modeling. In addition, a variety of electronic trainingdelivery media and distance learning techniques have increased in their usage
as instructional methods.
Uses
On-the-Job-Training
Learning job skills
Apprenticeship training
Job rotation
Computer-assisted instruction
(CAT)
Gaining new knowledge
Drill and practice
Individualized training
Equipment simulators
To reproduce real-world conditions
For physical and cognitive skills
For team training
Games and simulations
Decision making skills
Management training
Interpersonal skills
Case study for analysis
Decision making skills
Analytical skills
Communication skills
To illustrate diversity of solution
Role-playing
For changing attitudes
To practice skills
To analyze interpersonal problems
Behavioral modeling
To teach interpersonal skills
To teach cognitive skills
Sensitivity training
To enhance self-awareness
To allow trainees to see how others
see them

Benefits
Good transfer
Limited transfer costs
High trainee motivation since training
in relevant
Self-paced
Standardization of training over time
Feedback given
Good retention
Effective for learning and transfer
Can practice most of the job skills
Resembles the job tasks
Provides feedback
Presents realistic challenges
Decision making practice
Real-worlds training materials
Active learning
Good for developing problem-solving
skills
Gain experience of other roles
Active learning
Close to reality
Allows practice
Provides feedback
Retention is improved
Can improve self-concept
Can reduce prejudice
Can change interpersonal behaviors

Location of training
According to location of training we can classify training methods into two
ways:
o

Off the job


External- At college, university, or private training agency.
In company- Using the organizations own training facilities.
On the job
External- By means of secondment or special project.
In-company- Guided experiences in the workplace.

Training for skills


We can categorize these methods according to different skills:

a)
b)
c)

a)
b)
c)
d)

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Manual skills:
Job instruction
Sitting by Nellie
Off-the-job instruction
Thinking skills
Case study exercises
Problem-solving exercises
Setting written questions
Project work
Communication and social skills
Effective speaking courses
Report-writing courses
Role-play exercises
Discussion groups
Leadership exercises

Trainees suggestion and management style:

Participative management style


Authoritarian style
Paternal style

Evaluation of training and development:


Evaluation means to assess the value or worth of something. Its necessary
to do the evaluation of training in organization. To assess training in terms
of merit and worth, evaluators are interested in processes and outcomes of
training. This assesses by (a) finding out about the training activity and (b)
looking for possible improvements to the training.
The evaluation step includes two steps. They are:
Formative evaluation, if trainer is assessing the ultimate outcomes of the
training, then he is attempting to evaluate the worth of the activity. Scriven
calls the step summative evaluation, because it takes places at the
conclusion of an event and reviews it as a whole.
Evaluation vs. validation:
Evaluation is not the same as validation, although the two are sometimes
confused. Validation is just one aspect of evaluation, and refers to the
assessment of progress towards the achievement of course or program
objectives. It has a much narrower focus than evaluation. The term
validation has, in recent years, come to mean approval by an external
body.

Evaluation in training cycle:

The place of evaluation activities in training can be demonstrated


diagrammatically as
Training needs
analysis

Program
aims/objective

Program
content/methods

Program
implementation

Results

Program improvements

Program evaluation

Program dropped

Taking a systems view above the process, the program aims, content and
learning methods represent inputs, the program implementation represents
the process, and the program results represent the outputs. The last
mentioned may represent either intend outcomes, as expressed in program
objectives, or unintended outcomes, whereas a responsive approach would
actively seek out such outcomes.

Planning an evaluation activity:


Identify course or
program to be evaluated

Agree aims/scope of
evaluation

Identify focal
groups/key issues

Decide data collection


methods

Present evaluation results

Conduct evaluation

Obtain resources

apart, perhaps, from routine formative evaluation conducted by training staff,


most evaluation exercises have to be agreed and planned between the trainers
and the variouse interested parties.
Having

Objective of the study


The main objective of this paper is to determine the present scenario of
training in our organizations. The paper also covers the following objectives:i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

To get an overall idea about training


To know present skill levels of employees
To know the budget allocation for training
To be acquainted with the different types of training and development
methods.
To gather practical knowledge for career development
To recommend suggestions to increase the skill levels of employees.

Methodology
Preparing the report we follow several steps. First of all we collected
forwarding letter from our department. Next we prepared a questionnaire for
collecting primary data. We divided our group into three subgroups consisting
four (4) members in each. Then we submitted the questionnaires including
forwarding letter to the organizations. They gave us a specific date for
collecting the feedback. We combined all feedbacks. Then we went for
collecting secondary data in the central library. We collected photocopies of
different Journals and books. We edited and summarized the collected
materials to make literature as a part of the report.

The collected data at findings have been processed and analyzed carefully to
make the report more informative useful.

Analysis of the topic


Training involves the change of skills, knowledge, attitudes or behaviors of
employees. Training differs from development. Training is more present day
oriented. It focuses on individuals current jobs and it enhances specific skills
and abilities to immediately perform their jobs. On the other hand, employer
development in future oriented. It focuses on future jobs in the organization.
Training & development may be on the job or off the job. On the job training
includes coaching, job rotation, understudy method etc. Off the job training
includes conference & seminars, films & slide-show, lecture method etc.

Data analysis
The collected data from the different organization reflect some statistics. The
statistics are shows bellow:

1. 40% organizations save separate training department that means 60%


organizations rely on outside training center or trainers.
2. Our primary sources of data shows that organizations allocate money
for meeting different expenditure. 5% total budget is allocated for
training which is not sufficient.

3. 80% organizations insist on IT based training in future which is good.


4. 80% organizations hire outside consultants for giving training which is
costly.
5. Most of the organizations prefer on-the-job training which indicates
that this method is effective.

Findings and analysis

Almost every organization considers training as an important part of the


organizational strategy 70 percent organizations are willing to spend 5
percent of the total budget for training and development. Moreover, training
and development expenditures are increasing annually which means training
and development are getting more importance in the organizations.

Most of the training programs is provided to new employees. Training


programs have positive impact on organizational productivity. Training and
development programs increase skills and performance of employees.
Organizations focus on team spirit through training and development
programs.

80 percent organizations hire consultant for the training purpose. Trainers


should possess friendly character as well as they should have motivational
power.
90% organizations provide training programs on specific technical skills. The
training programs are mainly provided manually. Among the manuals
programs classroom training is mostly preferred by the organizations.
Feedback are taken after training session using Q/A session between trainers
and trainees for effective evaluation of the training. Organizations are very
much interested to increase IT based training programs in future.

It is a matter of regret that only 40% organizations have separate training


department. The managers of the organizations mentioned some problems.
Money and time limitations are the main barriers.

80% organizations are prefer on the job development methods in compare to


off the job development methods. Among the various on the job methods job
rotation and coaching methods are highly practiced.

Analyzing the findings we found some favorable as well as some unfavorable


aspects. First we would like to mention favorable aspects. Expenditures for
training and development are increasing day by day which means
organizations are very much concerned about the skills of employees.
Organizations have keen interest on providing IT based training programs in
future. Feedbacks are taken after training session which is very useful for both
employers and employees. Training programs have positive impact
organizational productivity.

Now we would like to mention some unfavorable aspects. Lack of experienced


personnel organizations are to hire outside consultants. Some cases desired
qualities of consultants arent so good. Money and time limitations are
substantial barriers in case of providing training. Only 40% organizations
maintain separate training department.

Conclusion and policy implications


In modern management concept, training is considered to be an effective
weapon to improve the efficiency of Job performance of an individual. But it is
also an established experience that mere training is not sufficient enough to
increase the output of a worker, unless necessary working facilities are
provided. This fact has once again been supported by the findings of the
present study. In addition, continuous supervision by the authority is essential
to obtain feedback from clients about their response to a particular training
program. Above all, creating adequate working environment after any training
course is essential as it will lead to its successful consequences and will
provide holistic basis for its possible use.

As a result of the findings & conclusion of this study the followings


recommendations can be made:-

1. Organizations should establish better working facilities to get the


maximum outcomes of training.
2. Organization should supervise trained employees to know the feedback
of training.
3. Both time & money should be increased for the training.
4. Separate training department should be maintained.
5. Training should be continues of entertaining.
6. Training materials should be provided to employees.
7. Training center should be in a suitable so that employees feel
comfortable to attend in time training session.
8. Training should be given through projector system.
9. Training should be organized and planned because unorganized
training fails to achieve effectiveness.

Reference
Halim. A. And M.S. Islam. 1990. Extension of Farming systems Research
technology in Bangladesh. In : Development communication for Agriculture
(R. K. Samanata), B.R. Publishing Corporation, Delhi.
Miah, Md. Abdul Momen and Md. Amir Hossain