You are on page 1of 8

Contents

Part 1 Hydrate Prediction and Prevention


Objectives
Overview
Dew Point
Dew Point Depression
Why Dehydrate?
Water Content of Gas
Introduction
Partial Pressure and Fugacity
Empirical Plots
Sour Gas Correlations
Weighted-Average Method
Sharma Correlation
SRK Sour Gas Correlation
Effect of Nitrogen and Heavy Ends
Example 1-1: Calculation of Water Content in a Sour
Gas Stream
Applications
Amount of Water Condensed
Gas Hydrates
What Are Gas Hydrates?
Why Is Hydrate Control Necessary?
What Conditions Are Necessary to Promote Hydrate
Formation?
How Do We Prevent or Control Hydrates?
Prediction of Operating Temperature and Pressure
Wellhead Conditions
Flowline Conditions
Calculation of Temperature and Pressure
at the Wellhead
Calculation of Flowline Downstream Temperature
Temperature Drop Determination
Overview
Temperature Drop Correlation
Example 1-2: Determine the Temperature Drop
across a Choke
Hydrate Prediction Correlations
Overview
Vapor-Solid Equilibrium Constants
Pressure-Temperature Curves
Equations of State Calculations
Vapor-Solid Equilibrium Constants

1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
6
6
6
6
7
11
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
15
15
17
17
19
19
19
19
19
19

vi

Contents
Example 1-3: Determination of Hydrate Formation
Temperature Using Vapor-Solid Constants
Pressure-Temperature Curves
Example 1-4: Determine the Hydrate Formation
Temperature Using Pressure-Temperature
Correlations
Hydrate Prevention
Overview
Adding Heat
Temperature Control
Indirect Heaters
Overview
Wellhead Heater Description
High-Pressure Flowline
Expansion Loop
Long-Nose Heater Choke
Heater Bypass Valve
Heater Coil
Pressure Relief Valve
Heater Flame Arrestor
Flowline Heaters
System Optimization
Heater Sizing
Downhole Regulators
Chemical Injection
Overview
Methanol Injection Considerations
Methanol Injection System Description
Glycol Injection Considerations
Glycol Injection and Recovery System Description
Nozzle Design
Glycol Selection
Dow Chemical Company Guidelines
Injection Requirement Categories
Low PressureHigh Volume
High PressureLow Volume
High PressureHigh Volume
Single versus Two-Step Injection Considerations
Single-Step Injection
Two-Step Injection
Chemical Injection System
Overview
Single-Point Chemical Injection
Disadvantages
Multi-Point Chemical Injection
Advantages
Disadvantages
Metering Pump Considerations
Diaphragm Pumps
Advantages

22
24

25
25
25
26
26
26
26
27
27
27
27
27
30
30
30
30
30
31
31
32
32
32
34
34
34
37
37
38
39
39
40
40
41
41
41
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
43
43

Contents

vii

Disadvantages
Plunger Pumps
Advantages
Disadvantages
Comparison of Hydrate Prevention Methods
Overview
Heaters
Chemical Injection
Downhole Regulators
Summary of Hydrate Prevention Methods
Hydrate Inhibition
Hammerschmidt Equation
Determination of Total Inhibitor Required
Procedure for Determining Inhibitor Requirements
Example 1-5: Determining the Amount of Methanol
Required in a Wet Gas Stream
Exercises

43
43
43
43
43
43
44
44
44
45
45
45
47
47

Part 2 Dehydration Considerations


Overview
Adsorption
Process Overview
Principles of Adsorption
Process Reversal
Mass Transfer Zone (MTZ)
Principles of Operation
Introduction
System Components
Drying/Reactivation Cycle
Performance
Advantages
Disadvantages
Effect of Process Variables
Quality on Inlet Gas
Temperature
General Considerations
Maximum Temperature
Pressure
Cycle Time
Gas Velocities
Source of Regeneration Gas
Direction of Gas Flow
Desiccant Selection
Molecular Sieves
Silica Gel and Alumina
Silica Gel
Desirable Characteristics of Solid
Desiccants
Effect of Regeneration Gas on Outlet Gas Quality
Pressure Drop Considerations

55
55
56
56
56
57
57
58
58
59
60
63
63
63
64
64
65
65
66
66
67
67
70
71
72
73
73
74

47
52

74
74
75

viii

Contents
Example 2-1: Determination of Pressure Drop
through a Dry Bed Desiccant Dehydration Tower
Equipment
Inlet Gas Cleaning Equipment
Adsorber Tower
General Considerations
Insufficient Gas Distribution
Inadequate Insulation
Improper Bed Supports
Pressurization
Regeneration Gas Exchangers, Heaters, and Coolers
Regeneration Gas Separator
Control Valves
Expander Plant Molecular Sieve Applications
Desiccant Performance
General Conditions
Moisture Analyzer
Effect of Contaminants in Inlet Feed Stream
Effect of Regeneration Gases Rich in Heavy
Hydrocarbons
Effect of Methanol in the Inlet Gas Stream
Useful Life
Effect of Insufficient Reactivation
Effect of High Reactivation Temperature
Areas Requiring Engineering Attention
Example 2-2: Preliminary Solid Bed Desiccant Design
Absorption
Process Overview
Principles of Absorption
Absorption and Stripping
Raoult and Daltons Laws
Glycol-Water Equilibrium
Glycol Dehydration
Principles of Operation
Introduction
Gas System
Inlet Scrubber/Microfiber Filter Separator
Glycol Gas Contactor
Glycol System
Glycol Gas Heat Exchanger
Glycol Gas Contactor
Reflux Condenser
Glycol-Glycol Preheater
Gas-Glycol-Condensate Separator
Microfiber Filter
Charcoal (Carbon) Filter
Glycol-Glycol Heat Exchanger
Still Column
Reconcentrator

77
78
78
78
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
84
85
86
86
86
86
87
87
87
87
88
88
88
93
93
93
93
94
95
96
96
96
96
96
97
101
101
102
103
103
103
104
105
105
105
107

Contents
Stripping Gas
Effect of Operating Variables
General Considerations
Glycol Selection
Ethylene Glycol (EG)
Diethyelene Glycol (DEG)
Triethyelene Glycol (TEG)
Tetraethyelene Glycol (TTEG)
Inlet Gas Temperature
Lean Glycol Temperature
Glycol Reconcentrator Temperature
Temperature at Top of Still Column
Contactor Pressure
Reconcentrator Pressure
Contractor Pressure
Glycol Concentration
Glycol Circulation Rate
Number of Absorber Trays
System Design
Sizing Considerations
Inlet Microfiber Filter Separator
Glycol Gas Contactor
Contactor Diameter
Tray Design
Bubble Cap Trays
Valve or Flapper Trays
Perforated (Sieve) Trays
Structured (Matrix) Packing
Tray Spacing
Number of Trays
Downcomers
Glycol Circulation Rate
Lean Glycol Concentration
Glycol-Glycol Preheater
Glycol-Gas Cooler
Glycol-Glycol Heat Exchanger
Gas-Glycol-Condensate Separator
Reconcentrator
Heat Duty
Fire Tube Sizing
Reflux Condenser
Stripping Still Column
Diameter Size
Packing
Amount of Stripping Gas
Filters
Microfiber
Activated Charcoal (Carbon)
Glycol Pumps

ix
108
109
109
109
110
110
110
110
110
111
111
112
113
113
114
114
116
118
119
119
120
121
123
125
125
126
127
127
127
128
128
129
133
133
134
134
134
134
135
135
136
136
137
138
138
140
140
140
140

Contents
Glycol-Gas Powered Pump
Electric Driven Positive Displacement Piston/
Plunger Pump
Still Emissions
Mercury Considerations
Mercury
Treatment
Special Glycol Dehydration Systems
General Considerations
Drizo (wt.-2) Process
Process Description
Applications
Cold Finger Condenser Process
Process Description
Application
Systems Utilizing Glycol-Gas Powered Pumps
Systems Utilizing Electric Driven Pumps
Example 2-3: Glycol Dehydration
Nonregenerable Dehydrator
Overview
Calcium Chloride Unit
Principles of Operation
Advantages
Disadvantages
Operating Problems
Design Considerations
Physical Properties of Common Glycols

Part 3 Glycol Maintenance, Care, and Troubleshooting


Preventive Maintenance
Scheduled Preventive Maintenance
Five Steps to a Successful Preventive Maintenance
Program
Record-Keeping
Mechanical Maintenance
Glycol Care
Corrosion Control
Communication
Record-Keeping
Mechanical Maintenance
Glycol Care
General Considerations
Smell the Sample
Corrosion Control
Overview
General Considerations
Oxidation
Sour Corrosion
Sweet Corrosion
Prevention and Control Programs

140
141
141
143
143
143
144
144
144
145
146
146
147
149
149
149
151
157
157
157
158
158
158
159
159
160
169
169
169
169
169
170
170
170
171
172
173
177
177
178
179
179
179
180
180
180
181

Contents
General Considerations
pH Buffers
Plating Inhibitors
Communication
General Considerations
Oxidation
Thermal Decomposition
pH Control
Salt Contamination
Salt Deposits
Hydrocarbons
Sludge
Foaming
General Considerations
Defoamers
Analysis and Control of Glycol
General Considerations
Visual Inspection
Chemical Analysis
Chemical Analysis Interpretation
pH
Sludge
Hydrocarbons
Water Content
Suspended Solids
Residue
Chlorides
Iron
Foaming
General Considerations
Foam Test
Acceptable Limits
Specific Gravity
Glycol Composition
Troubleshooting
General Considerations
High Dew Points
Insufficient Glycol Circulation
Insufficient Reconcentration
Operating Conditions Different from Design
Low Flow Rate
Absorber Tray Damage
Breakdown or Contamination of Glycol
Glycol Loss from the Contactor
Foaming
Plugged or Dirty Trays
Excessive Velocity
Interrupted Liquid Seal on the Trays (Gas Surge)
Cold Glycol (Cold Gas)
Leaks

xi
181
181
182
182
183
183
184
184
185
185
186
186
187
187
188
188
188
188
189
190
190
191
191
192
193
194
194
195
195
195
196
197
197
197
198
198
199
199
199
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
201
201
201
201

xii

Contents
Accumulation in Integral Scrubber
Glycol Loss from the Reconcentrator
Leaks
Bad Glycol Relief Valve
Exiting the Still Column
Vaporization
Glycol LossGlycol Hydrocarbon Separator
Improper Control Operation
Leaks
Accumulation in Oil Bucket (Bucket-and-Weir)
Glycol LossMiscellaneous
Leaks
Poor Quality or Contamination Replacement
Glycol
Three-Step Approach to Troubleshooting
Timeframe
List Changes
Investigate
Glycol System Cleaning
General Considerations
Cleaning Techniques to Avoid
Eliminating Operating Problems
General Considerations
Inlet Scrubber/Microfiber Filter Separator
Absorber
Glycol-Gas Heat Exchanger
Lean Glycol Storage Tank or Accumulator
Stripper or Still Column
Reboiler
Stripping Gas
Circulating Pump
Flash Tank or Glycol-Gas Separator
Gas Blanket
Reclaimer
Improving Glycol Filtration
General Considerations
Use of Carbon Purification
General Considerations

References
Index

201
202
202
202
202
202
202
202
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
204
204
204
204
205
205
205
209
213
214
215
220
226
227
231
232
232
232
232
236
236
239
241