You are on page 1of 3

Q1. How to analyze solid clay sample?

Generally we called clay is consisting of several combination of the clay minerals. It also consist an
impurities like trace of metal oxides and organic matters. Normal clay deposits are composed of
pyllosilicate minerals containing variable amount of water trapped in the mineral structure.
Soil and clay cant identify by seeing it. Clay is different in size and mineralogy than fine soil. In
general condition silt which is having fine grain soil that do not consist of clay. But it is somewhat
larger than the clay (clay particle size <2m).

In the very beginning we have to divide the sample into two. Because one sample for analyze
and other keep as a reference or other experiment. And then testing pieces are crushed into
small pieces which can pass through the 0.62mm sieve. Collect the 100grams of the sample
and mixed with the sodium meta phosphate or sodium tetra phosphate. Mechanical string is
used to sample dispersion. And it must to do 10 15 min for get proper disperse solution.
So, prepared sample is sieved by the .62mm sieve with using nearly 600ml of distilled water.
And filtrate get in to the 1000ml cylinder. Cylinder with the filtrate is inserted tot the endover-end shaker and tumbled nearly two hours at about 16rpm. After that it allows to
precipitate larger than 2m. very important thing is we have to calculate the time period before the
doing experiment. That calculated time period want to allow to precipitate the particles. After
separation washed repeatedly by centrifuging until dispersion can be effected. If there is not
flocculation suspended material decanted into a beaker.
After separation of the suspension by using vacuum filter candle. The filter is kept in the clay

suspension and after a coating of clay has collected around the candle, and then the
vacuum is released and the clay sloughs off or is easily removed with by a rubber
scraper. When materials are precipitated on the bottom of the cylinder, it is transfer to the
250ml centrifuge bottle and add distilled water to fill it. And bottle is hand shaken kept in the
centrifuge and spin at 600rpm.
The top most liquid part is decanted into a beaker. And another time proceed same procedure
until the supernatant liquid is get a somewhat clear level. After the filter candle has
removed all but 200 ml of water from the suspension, the sample is stirred with a
motor-driven brush to disperse lumps of clay which form around the filter candle.
Separate the suspension and one part is passed through a calcium ion-exchange resin column
in order to saturate the cat ion exchange positions with Ca 2+. After that water remove from
the suspension using filter candle. Remaining part is clay sample. It is kept in room

temperature to dry. And get the sample and crushed and paced in 8 ml specimen vials. The
firstly separated silt fraction also dry and placed in envelop. Then the X-ray analysis is
followed with a x-ray diffractometer for the analyzing. And also can be used differential
thermal analysis, petrographic microscope, staining techniques, partial chemical exchange
and others.

Q2. How to analyze a rock sample?


There are eleven element for a series in the sample wen consider the standard geochemical procedure.
The procedure utilized for the analysis is a lithium borate fusion followed by digestion of the melt
utilizing nitric acid. This lithium borate fusion is completely break down the sample matrix. So, we
can use the prepared sample for the simple analysis procedure. Using that analyze we can observed
the each and every element in the samples.

After that row material analyses transfer to spreadsheet which is used to calculate oxide equivalent.
So, we can presented our data row sample analysis data and also calculated oxide data. In element
analysis also calculated the loss-on-ignition values. In high temperature such as 2000 0F, conducting
the LOI about one hour. Included in the LOI of an oxide material would be any change in weight due
to the presence of organic carbon, the presence of non-sulfate sulfur, the evolution of carbon dioxide
from carbonates that are present and any additional loss from structural waters (waters of hydration)
that may be present in the sample. Generally, whole rock sample analysis on oxide material, gave a
result about the sum of calculated oxide plus is 100%5.

Element

Oxide

Oxide factor

Al
Ca
Cr
Fe
K
Mg
Mn
Na
Si
P
Ti

Al2O3
CaO
Cr2O3
Fe2O3
K2O
MgO
MnO
Na2O
SiO2
P2O5
P2O5

1.889
1.399
1.462
1.43
1.205
1.658
1.291
1.348
2.139
2.291
1.668

Limits of
detection(oxide)
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.1
0.01
0.01
0.05
0.02
0.03
0.01

Several test are present to analyze the rock sample insitu or laboratory.

Reference
-

John C. Hathaway, procedure for clay mineral analyses used in the sedimentary

petrology laboratory of the u. s. geological survey. Pdf


Hillebrand, WF, 1990, Some principles and method of rock analysis, USGS,

Government printing office, page 27-107


http://www.florinanalytical.com/index.php?

option=com_content&task=view&id=21&Itemid , date visited: 10.12.2013


http://eps.ucsc.edu/research/facilities/geochem-rock.html, date visited:10.12.2013