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PDH

FOCUS QUESTON #1
HOW ARE PRIORITY HEALTH ISSUES IDENTIFIED IN AUSTRALIA?
MEASURING HEALTH STATUS
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Role of Epidemiology
- Its role is to develop the health profile of the population through specific
data collection it is a useful tool in developing health priority areas.
- Measures of Epidemiology
- Mortality Deaths rates measures over a period of time, normally one
year. It is measured in deaths per 100 000 and can be age specified.
- Infant Mortality The annual number of deaths for children under 1
year of age per 1000 live births.
- Morbidity This refers to the rates of illness and disease in specific
location.
- Life Expectancy The average number of years a person is given to
live. It is most commonly calculated at birth. WOMEN 82-84 MEN 70-80
- MEASURES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY DO NOT TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE
POSITIVE DIMENSION OF HEALTH, QUALITY OF LIFE OR MANY OF
THE SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH
IDENTIFYING PRIORITY HEALTH ISSUES
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Prevalence of the condition


- Does this health problem affect a large number of people within the
population?
- Is there evidence that the extent of this health problem is increasing?
- Australian governments have established well-organised systems for
reporting, collecting, measuring and monitoring the prevalence of health
conditions throughout the country and the changes that are occurring in
characteristics and structure of the population.
- EG. CVD REPORTED TO BE THE UNDERLYING CAUSE OF 35% OF
ALL DEATHS IN AUS
- Potential for prevention and early intervention
- Is this health problem the result of risk factors or determinants that can
be changed or modified?
- Can the harm caused by this condition be reduced by earlier detection
and intervention?
- Can the impact of this condition be predicted and reduced by
understanding changes in the population?
- Costs to the individual and the community
- Does this condition impose high or inequitable costs on its suffered and
their communities?
- The costs imposed on the individuals by poor health can be extensive
and varied and can include :
- Financial cost of treatment or lost employment and
medications
- Physical cost of lost mobility or functionality
- Emotional suffering caused by chronic pain or depression
- Social cost resulting from damaged relationships and family
suffering
- The combination of premature death and time spent with a
disability
- Social justice principle

Equity the balanced (though not always equal) distribution of


resources, to ensure fair health outcomes for all groups, including the
disadvantaged.
- Access removing barriers to make sure that all people regardless of
their circumstances are provided with satisfactory health services and
information.
- Rights the laws that protect human rights should rights should protect
good health as one of the most fundamental rights of all.
- Supportive Environments social, environmental and political
conditions all have a profound effect on health and need to be included in
the processes of decision making and planning if population health is to
be improved.
- Priority population groups
- Does a specific group within the population suffer higher prevalence of
the condition?
- Can this health issue be improved by targeting a specific population
group?
- These questions identify priority groups for different causes of sickness
and death.
FOCUS QUESTION #2
WHAT ARE THE PRIORITY ISSUES FOR IMPROVING AUSTRALIAS HEALTH?
GROUPS EXPERIENCING HEALTH INEQUITIES
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People in rural and remote areas


Socioeconomically disadvantaged people
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders people
Elderly
Overseas born people
People with disabilities

GROWING AND AGEING POPULATION


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Healthy Ageing
Increase in population living with chronic diseases and disabilities
Demand for health services and workforce shortages
Availability of careers and volunteers

NATIONAL HEALTH PRIORITY AREAS


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Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)


Diabetes
Respiratory Disease
Injury
Mental health problems and illnesses
Cancer
- Skin
- Breast
- Lung

FOCUS QUESTION #3
WHAT ROLE DO HEALTH CARE FACILITIES AND SERVICES PLAY IN ACHIEVEING
BETTER HEALTH FOR ALL AUSTRALIANS?
COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE HEALTH CARE APPROACHES

Reasons for growth, complementary and alternative health products and


services
Range of products and services available
How to make an informed consumer choice

HEALTH CARE IN AUSTRALIA


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Health Care expenditure VS. Expenditure on early intervention and


prevention
Responsibility for health facilities and services
Range and types of health facilities and services
Equity of access to health facilities and services
Health Insurance
- Medicare
- Private
Impact of emerging new treatments and technologies on health care
- Benefits of early detection
- Access
- Cost

FOCUS QUESTION #4
WHAT ACTIONS ARE NEEDED TO ADDRESS AUSTRALIAS HEALTH PRIORITES?
HEALTH PROMOTION BASED ON THE 5 ACTION AREAS OF THE OTTAWA CHARTER
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Levels of responsibility for health promotion


The benefits of partnerships in health promotion
- Government sector
Non-government agencies
- The local community
- How health promotion based on the Ottawa Charter promotes social justice
- The Ottawa Charter in action
EVERYTIME I THINK ABOUT MY FUTURE I GET THAT MUCH MORE
DEPRESSED... SHOULD I PURSUE A CAREER THAT MAKES ME HAPPY OR A
CAREER THAT ALLOWS ME A STABLE LIFESTYLE? SHOULD I TAKE THE RISKS?
OR BECOME LIKE EVERYONE ELSE AND TAKE ON A STABLE CAREER WITH A
DECENT INCOME AND JUST SETTLE?