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The$Hudson$River$Sustainable$

Shorelines$Project$:$Engineering$
Jon$K.$Miller,$Ph.D.$and$Andrew$Rella,$Ph.D.$
Stevens$Ins:tute$of$Technology$
$
$

And'a'cast'of'thousands'including:'Betsy'Blair,'Emilie'Hauser,'Dan'Miller,'
Stuart'Findlay,'Dave'Strayer,'Kristen'Marcell,'Ona'Ferguson,'Nickitas'
Georgas,'and''

$
Cary$Ins:tute$of$Ecosystem$Studies,$Consensus$Building$Ins:tute,$Hudson$River$
Na:onal$Estuarine$Research$Reserve,$New$York$State$Department$of$Environmental$
Conserva:on,$Stevens$Ins:tute$of$Technology,$and$other$partners$
$

Study'Components'
Literature'Review'

Iden;ca;on'of'all'known'Tradi;onal'and'Innova;ve'Approaches'for'Stabilizing'
Shorelines'(Not$Hudson$River$Estuary$Specic)$

Compara;ve'Cost'Analysis'
Comparison'of'economic'value'associated'with'9'Hudson'River'appropriate'
structures,'across'three'site'loca;ons,'considering'two'sea'level'rise'scenarios.'''
Considering;'Material'Costs;'Installa;on'Costs;'Maintenance'Costs;'Replacement'
Costs'(signicant'storm'events);'Adapta;on'Costs'(2'SLR'scenarios)'

Physical'Forces'Analysis'

Ice'
Wakes'
Currents'
Waves'

Forensic'Analysis'

A'retrospec;ve'study'examining'the'success/failure'of'3'tradi;onal'and'3'alterna;ve'
stabiliza;on'structures'during'three'recent'extreme'weather'events.'''

A$Literature$Review$of$ExisDng$Methods$for$LimiDng$Erosion
along$Sheltered$Shorelines'
29'Techniques'Iden;ed'

'

'

!TradiDonal$Approaches$
Bulkheads'
Gabions'
Groins'
RipCrap'Revetments'
'

!Hybrid$Approaches$
Sills'
Live'Crib'Wall'
Joint'Plan;ng'
Biowalls'
'

!Natural$Approaches$
Living'breakwaters'
Coconut'Fiber'Rolls'
'

hFp://hrnerr.thewordpressdesigner.com/les/2012/08/RellaMiller2012a_EngineeringLiteratureReview.pdf'

Finished$Product$

Finished$Product$

hFps://www.hrnerr.org/doc/?doc=240189605'

A$ComparaDve$Cost$Analysis$
9''Stabiliza;on'Approaches'

Wood'and'Steel'Bulkheads'
Crib'Walls'
Live'Crib'Walls'
Revetments'
RipCRap'
Joint'Plan;ng'
Bio'Wall'
Sill''
Vegeta;ve'Geogrid''

3'sites'
Poughkeepsie'
Henry'Hudson'Park'(Albany)''
Bowline'Point'Park'(Haverstraw)'

2'Sea'Level'Rise'Scenarios'
Current'Rate'(2.77mm/yr)''
Rapid'Ice'Melt'(48'by'2080)'

hFp://hrnerr.thewordpressdesigner.com/les/2012/08/Compara;veCCostCAnalysis.pdf'

Cost$analysis$includes:$
IniDal$Costs$(IC)$
Material'and'labor'costs'to'construct'the'stabiliza;on'measure'

Maintenance$and$Repair$Costs$(M&R)$
Costs'associated'with'rou;ne'maintenance'and'repairs'(i.e.'not'
associated'with'any'given'storm)'

Damage$Costs$(DC)$
Costs'associated'with'restoring'a'structure'to'its'original'func;on'aoer'a'
specic'storm'causes'damage'

Replacement$Costs$(RC)$
Costs'of'replacing'a'structure'once'it'reaches'the'end'of'its'serviceable'
life.''(Typically'associated'with'material'decay/degreda;on)'

Finished$Product$
Wood$Bulkhead$Cost$EsDmate$
IniDal$Cost$(IC)$

'$'171,500''

Current$Rate$of$SLR$
Period'1'(2012C2037)'
Category$

Period'2'(2037C2062)'

Period'3'(2062C2082)'

Storm'Tr'

%'IC'

#'Events'

*Cost'

#'Events'

*Cost'

#'Events'

*Cost'

Damage$Cost$(DC)$

50'

10%'

0.56'

'$''''''''7,220''

0.75'

'$''''''''5,566''

1.01'

'$''''''''4,537''

Damage$Cost$(DC)$

25'

Total'(2012C2082)'
Extended'Cost'
$''''''''''17,323'

%'Final'
4.6%'

5%'

1.13'

'$''''''''7,302''

1.53'

'$''''''''5,686''

2.14'

'$''''''''4,789''

$''''''''''17,776'

4.7%'

Replacement$Cost$(RC)$

100%'

0.00'

'$'''''''''''''''C''''

1.00'

'$''''''74,139''

1.00'

'$''''''44,825''

$''''''''118,965'

31.7%'

Maintenance$Cost$(MC)$

20%'

1.00'

'$''''''25,935''

1.00'

'$''''''14,828''

1.00'

'$''''''''8,965''

$''''''''''49,728'

13.3%'

'PostCConstruc;on'Costs'(DCs+RC+MC)''

$''''''''203,792'

54.3%'

Ini;al'Cost'(IC)'

$''''''''171,500'

45.7%'

Total'Cost'

$''''''''375,292'

100.0%'

*Costs$are$calculated$as$the$IC$x$%IC$x$#Events$with$inaDon$and$discounDng$applied$mid$period$

Rapid$Ice$Melt$Rate$of$SLR$
Period'2'(2037C2062)'
Period'3'(2062C2082)'
*Cost'
#'Events'
*Cost'
#'Events'
*Cost'
'$''''''17,524''
9.26'
'$''''''68,648'' 25.00'
'$'''112,063''
'$''''''19,530''
16.67'
'$''''''61,783'' 25.00'
'$''''''56,031''
'$'''''''''''''''C''''
1.00'
'$''''''74,139''
1.00'
'$''''''44,825''
'$''''''32,419''
1.00'
'$''''''18,535''
1.00'
'$''''''11,206''

Period'1'(2012C2037)'
Category$

Storm'Tr'

%'IC'

#'Events'

Damage$Cost$(DC)$

50'

10%'

1.35'

Damage$Cost$(DC)$

25'

5%'

3.01'

Replacement$Cost$(RC)$

100%'

0.00'

Maintenance$Cost$(MC)$

25%'

1.00'

*Costs$are$calculated$as$the$IC$x$%IC$x$#Events$with$inaDon$and$discounDng$applied$mid$period$

Total'(2012C2082)'
Extended'Cost'

%'Final'

$''''''''198,234'

28.8%'

$''''''''137,344'

20.0%'

$''''''''118,965'

17.3%'

$''''''''''62,160'

9.0%'

'PostCConstruc;on'Costs'(DCs+RC+MC)''

$''''''''516,703'

75.1%'

Ini;al'Cost'(IC)'

$''''''''171,500'

24.9%'

Total'Cost'

$''''''''688,203'

100.0%'

Finished$Product$
Several'alterna;ves'
exist'at'each'site'for'
which'the'costs'are'
rela;vely'similar.'
'
Alterna;ve'
solu;ons'can'be'
cost'compe;;ve'
with'tradi;onal'
approaches'
(Consistent'with'
NOAAs'Weighing'
Your'Op;ons'report.)''

Physical$Forces$CharacterizaDon$
Characteriza;on'of'the'physical'environments'of'
the'Hudson'River'
Wakes'
Ice'
Water'Levels'
Currents'
Stresses'
Surface'wind'waves''
hFps://www.hrnerr.org/hudsonCriverCsustainableCshorelines/spa;alCinforma;onCdesigningCshoreline/'

'

Wakes$Analysis$
Wakes'were'observed'at'
over'32'sites'over'the'course'
of'4'days,'both'in'2012/2013'
Analy;cal'approach'will'be'
u;lized'to'supplement'data'

Ice$Reports$

Ice'climatology'developed'based'on'Coast'Guard'reports'

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1)'The'16'ice'regions'of'the';dal'Hudson.'2)'%'of'ice'season'days'(DecemberCMarch)'with'ice'present,'by'region.'3)'Prevalent'Ice'Type'when'
ice' present.' 4)' Median' Ice' covered' area;' %' of' each' region,' median' of' all' days' with' ice' reported.' 5)' Median' ice' thickness;' inches' of' ice' by'
region,'median'of'all'days'with'ice'reported.'6)'95th'percen;le'of'ice'thickness;'inches'of'ice'by'region,'95%'of'all'days'with'ice'reported'had'
ice'thinner'than'this'value.'(hFp://www.hrnerr.org/hudsonCriverCsustainableCshorelines/shorelinesCengineering/iceCcondi;ons/)'

Currents$
Ultra'high'resolu;on'version'of'NYHOPS'developed'for'understanding'
wave'&'current''variability'

Forensic$Analysis$of$Shoreline$
Performance$During$3$Extreme$Storms$
1'Year'Retrospec;ve'Study'Considering;'
! 6'structures'
"
"

3'Tradi;onal'Hard'Engineered'Structures'
3'Ecologically'Enhanced'Shorelines'

! 3'Storm'Events'
" Tropical'Storm'Lee'(Rainfall'Event)'
" Post'Tropical'Storm'Sandy'(Wind'and'Surge'Event)'
" Tropical'Storm'Irene'(Rainfall,''Surge'and'Wind'Event)'

'
Objec;ves'
'

1)

Characterize'the'condi;ons'of'tradi;onal'and'nonCtradi;onal'treatments'at'4''6'
sites'to'understand'the'determinants'of'success'or'failure'during'extreme'
weather'events.'

2)

Characterize'the'impacts'experienced'at'all'3'sites'during'each'of'the'three'
storm'events.'

Data'Collec;on'

'

Historic'Aerial'Photographs/Topographic'Maps'
Photos'(construc;on,'pre'and'postCstorm'photographs'of'the'site)'
Ini;al'Site'Visit'
Discussions'with'Property'Owner/Design'Engineer'
Final'Site'Visit'(including'topographic/bathymetric'survey)'
Hindcast'of'Storm'Condi;ons'(Wave'and'Water'Level'Climatology)'

Common'Findings'

Vegeta;on'Establishment'
Slope'Compa;bility'
Debris'Impact'
Leeside'Erosion'
Adap;ve'Management'
Stone'Sizing'

Next'Steps'
'Demo'sites'C'Monitor/measure'
'BeFer'understanding'of'wakes'and'ice'
'Inuence'of'biology'growth'on'structural''
stability.''(Oyster'on'piles,'enhancements'on'
bulkheads,'roots'on'revetments)'