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SPE 115697

Measurement of Non-Wetting Phase Trapping in Sand Packs


Christopher H Pentland, Saleh Al-Mansoori, Stefan Iglauer, Branko Bijeljic and Martin J Blunt, SPE, Imperial
College London

Copyright 2008, Society of Petroleum Engineers


This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2008 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition held in Denver, Colorado, USA, 2124 September 2008.
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been
reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its
officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to
reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright.

Abstract
We measure the trapped non-wetting phase saturation as a function of initial saturation in sand packs. The application of the
work is for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in aquifers, where capillary trapping is a rapid and effective mechanism to render
the injected fluid immobile: the CO2 is injected into the formation followed by chase brine injection or natural groundwater
flow that displaces and traps it. Current models to predict the amount of trapping are based on experiments in consolidated
media; while CO2 is likely to be injected at depths greater than around 800 m to render it super-critical, it may be injected
into formations that tend to have a higher porosity and permeability than deep oilfield rocks. We use analogue fluids water
and refined oil at ambient conditions. The initial conditions are established by injecting oil into vertical or horizontal sand
packs 1 m long at different flow rates and then allowing the oil to migrate due to buoyancy forces. The packs are then
flooded with water. The columns are sliced and the residual saturation measured with great accuracy and sensitivity by gas
chromatography. This method allows low saturations to be measured reliably. The trapped saturation initially rises linearly
with initial saturation to a value of around 0.11, followed by a constant residual as the initial saturation increases further.
This behavior is not predicted by the traditional Land (1968) model, but is physically consistent with poorly consolidated
media where most of the larger pores can easily be invaded at relatively low saturation and there is, overall, relatively little
trapping. The best match to our experimental data was achieved with the Aissaoui (1983) trapping model.
Introduction
If we are to avoid potentially dangerous climate change, we need to capture and store CO2 emitted by fossil-fuel burning
power stations and other industrial plants (Orr, 2004). Saline aquifers provide the largest potential for storage and the widest
geographical spread (Hawkes et al., 2005). Subsequent leakage of CO2 into the atmosphere, even over hundreds of years,
would render any sequestration scheme inefficient. However, based on the experience of the oil and gas industry, there is a
good understanding of trapping mechanisms that take place in geological formations.
Hydrodynamic trapping is the primary mechanism by which hydrocarbons accumulate in the subsurface. The same
mechanism would take place during carbon sequestration, with the less dense CO2 rising due to buoyancy forces until it is
trapped under impermeable cap-rock (Bachu et al., 1994). However, this process relies on there being an intact barrier to
upwards flow.
Solution trapping occurs when there is dissolution of CO2 in the aquifer brine. The CO2 saturated brine is denser than the
surrounding brine leading to convective mixing where the denser brine migrates deeper into the formation (Lindeberg and
Wessel-Berg, 1997; Riaz et al., 2006; Ennis-King and Paterson, 2005).
Mineral trapping occurs over longer timescales than other trapping methods. As CO2 dissolves in formation brine
carbonic acid is formed (H2CO3) which dissociates and can subsequently react with the host rock or brine to generate solid
minerals over periods of thousands to billions of years (Gunter and Perkins, 1993; Gunter et al., 1997; Egermann et al., 2005;
Lin et al., 2008).
The final trapping mechanism involves CO2 becoming immobile at the pore scale by capillary forces. This process occurs
as the CO2 migrates upwards, when it is displaced by natural groundwater flow or by the injection of chase brine. It is a rapid
and effective trapping mechanism that reduces the need to ensure cap-rock integrity (Kumar et al., 2005; Hesse et al., 2006;
Obi and Blunt, 2006; Juanes et al., 2006; Qi et al., 2007; Saadatpoor et al., 2008).

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Capillary trapping
Capillary trapping has been measured in oil-water, gas-water and three-phase gas-water-oil systems; Figures 1 and 2 show a
compilation of two-phase data in the literature (Geffen et al., 1952; Chierici et al., 1963; Crowell et al., 1966; Land, 1968,
1971; McKay, 1974; Delclaud, 1991; Ma and Youngren, 1994; Jerauld, 1997; Kleppe et al., 1997; Kralik et al., 2000;
Kantzas et al., 2001; Suzanne et al., 2003; Plug, 2007) while Table 1 gives a summary of the associated parameters for each
study.
70
Chierici et al. (consolidated), 1963
Crowell et al., 1966
Delclaud (unconsolidated), 1991
Jerauld, 1997
Kleppe et al., 1997
Land (Berea), 1971
Ma & Youngren, 1994
Plug, 2007

60

S(nw) r (%)

50

Chierici et al. (unconsolidated), 1963


Delclaud (consolidated), 1991
Geff en et al., 1953
Kantzas et al., 2001
Kralik et al., 2000
Land (Alundum), 1971
McKay, 1974

40

30

20

10

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

S(nw) i (%)
Figure 1. Database of residual non-wetting phase saturation S(nw)r versus initial non-wetting phase saturations S(nw)i in the
literature.

S(nw) r (%)

15
Chierici et al. (consolidated), 1963
Crowell et al., 1966
Delclaud (unconsolidated), 1991
Jerauld, 1997
Kleppe et al., 1997
Land (Berea), 1971
Ma & Youngren, 1994
Plug, 2007

10

Chierici et al. (unconsolidated), 1963


Delclaud (consolidated), 1991
Gef fen et al., 1953
Kantzas et al., 2001
Kralik et al., 2000
Land (Alundum), 1971
McKay, 1974

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

S(nw) i (%)
Figure 2. Database of trapping capacity S(nw)r versus initial non-wetting phase saturations S(nw)I in the literature.

100

[SPE 115697]

Author
Chierici et al., 1963

Fluid System
gas/water

Rock System
unconsolidated &
consolidated sandstone
Crowell et al., 1966
gas/water
consolidated sandstone
Delclaud, 1991
gas/water
unconsolidated &
consolidated sandstone
Geffen et al., 1952
gas/water
consolidated sandstone
Jerauld, 1997
gas/water & gas/oil
consolidated sandstone
Kantzas et al., 2001
gas/water
consolidated sandstone
Kleppe et al., 1997
gas/water
Artificial consolidated
material (Aerolithe)
Kralik et al., 2000
gas/water
consolidated sandstone
Land, 1971
gas/oil
consolidated sandstone
and Alundum
Ma & Youngren, 1994
gas/water
consolidated sandstone
McKay, 1974
gas/water
consolidated sandstone
Plug, 2007
gas/water
unconsolidated sand
Table 1. Summary of experimental systems published in the literature and displayed in Figures 1 and 2.

No clear trends emerge from a study of Figures 1 and 2, since the trapped saturation depends on the details of the pore
structure and the contact angle between the phases. For CO2 storage applications, it is not the residual saturation itself that is
of interest, but the fraction of the rock volume that contains trapped phase. We call this the trapping capacity which is
defined as S(nw)r: this data is presented in Figure 2. Plotting the data in this way slightly decreases the scatter for low initial
saturations. The trapping capacity appears to increase approximately linearly with initial saturation until an initial saturation
of around 50%. Beyond this there is considerable scatter, with most of the data indicating a maximum trapping capacity of
between 4 and 10%.
Based on this data, several models to predict the trend of trapped saturation have been proposed. Land (1968), building
upon the work of Geffen et al., (1952), Naar and Henderson (1961) and Agarwal (1967), proposed a relationship between the
trapped gas saturation and the initial gas saturation. This was based upon experimental data for consolidated media.

S gi*

*
S gr
=

1 + C S gi*

(1)

where

C=
S

* max
gr

(2)

and S* is the effective saturation: S* = S/(1-Swc) where Swc is the connate or irreducible water saturation.
Jerauld (1997) extended Lands relationship proposing a zero slope adaptation to match trapped gas saturation data
from the mixed-wet Prudhoe Bay oil field in Alaska.
*
S gr
=

S gi*

max

1 + 1 S * gr 1 S gi*

max
1 1 S * gr

(3)

Another adaptation of Lands relationship was proposed by Ma and Youngren (1994) based on an oil-wet experimental
data set from the Kuparuk River Unit in Alaska. Ma and Youngren observed that at higher initial gas saturations there was a
sharp leveling off of the trapped gas saturation. This led to the introduction of two empirically derived curve fitting
constants, a and b, where b=1 and a=C in Lands original correlation:
*
S gr
=

S gi*

( )

1+ a S

(4)

* b
gi

Other studies (Kleppe et al., 1997; Suzanne et al., 2003) have questioned the validity of applying Lands trapping
relationship to rock/fluid systems other than those analyzed by Land consolidated rock with a strongly water-wet gas/liquid
system where the initial saturation was established by evaporation, rather than by displacement. A shortcoming of the Land
equation (1) is that it is based upon the end point only (Soimax , Sormax). There is no scope to tune the shape of the curve itself.
Jeraulds and Ma and Youngrens adaptation of the Land curve went some way to tackling this limitation, but as we show
later does not match all the available data accurately.
Kleppe et al.s (1997) data, based on an artificial core (Aerolith 10, 43% porosity) did not fit to Lands trapping curve.
The following linear relationship was proposed to match the experiments:

[SPE 115697]

S gr =

S gi
S gimax

S grmax

(5)

Note that equation (5), unlike the previous correlations, is not based upon effective saturations.
Kleppe et al.s proposal of a linear relationship is in agreement with the findings of Aissaoui (1983). Aissaouis proposed
trapping relationship, described below, was found to be the best match to Suzanne et al.s (2003) extensive experimental data
set. It features two linear components. Initially Sgr increases linearly with Sgi before plateauing out at S grmax .

If S gi < S gc then S gr =

S grmax
S gc

S gi ; else S gr = S grmax ,

(6)

where Sgc is the critical gas saturation corresponding to the point where the maximum trapped saturation is reached.
Another approach to the prediction of trapped saturation is the use of pore-scale modeling. Spiteri et al. (2005) used a
pore-network model developed by Valvatne and Blunt (2004) to predict the trapped saturation as a function of initial
saturation and average contact angle. Their model matched the residual saturation measured on Berea sandstone by Oak
(1990). They matched the simulated trend of trapped saturation for a given contact angle distribution as a quadratic function
of initial saturation:

S or = S oi S oi2 ,

(7)

where and are contact-angle dependent coefficients.


To recap, the early studies of trapping focused on gas/water systems in consolidated media. Our experiments will focus
on application to super-critical CO2 storage in poorly consolidated formations that probe a range of behavior for highporosity liquid/liquid systems which has not been studied previously.
Experimental Methodology and Equipment
Our experiments used unconsolidated sand packs and analogue fluids at ambient conditions. Above its critical point
critical temperature = 304.45 K; critical pressure = 7.39 MPa (IPCC, 2005) CO2 has unique properties with a density similar
to a liquid and a viscosity more akin to a gas. The non-wetting phase was chosen to be n-octane since it has a density similar
to CO2 at reservoir conditions. The octane was colored red using Sudan Red 7B dye to observe its movement during the
experiments. The wetting phase was brine (de-ionized water with 1 weight % Potassium Chloride, and 5 weight % Sodium
Chloride). Table 2 shows the properties of the fluids used. The ambient temperature in the lab was recorded as being
consistently 293.15 K ( 1 K). Ambient pressure was measured to be 0.101 MPa ( 0.003 MPa).
Property
Value
Octane Viscosity
5.1x10-4 Pa.s *
Brine Viscosity
1.085x10-3 Pa.s **
Octane Density
709 kg.m-3
Brine Density
1042 kg.m-3
Table 2. Octane and brine properties at ambient conditions of 0.101 MPa and 293.15 K unless stated
(density figures averaged over 15 experiments).
* Reference temperature 298.15 K (CRC Handbook, 2007)
** 5 weight % NaCl Brine (no KCl present) (CRC Handbook, 2007)

The sand used in the experiments was unconsolidated Levenseat 60 (LV60) sand (WBB Minerals, UK). The grain size
distribution was determined by sieving for 80 minutes using British standard meshes on an electric shaker. Nuclear magnetic
resonance (NMR) scans and micro-computer tomography (micro-CT) imaging have been conducted for this sand. These
results are presented elsewhere (Talabi et al., 2008).
The sand pack was contained in a custom machined Polymethylmethacrylate column 1 m long. The design of the column
features pre-machined grooves around the circumference every 5 cm along the column length. These grooves allowed the
column to be sliced upon completion of the flow experiment such that direct samples could be taken from the sand pack for
analysis using gas chromatography (GC). Figure 3 provides a mechanical sketch of the column and end cap design. When
packing the column with sand, a circular piece of wire mesh (brass) and two circular pieces of filter paper (VWR Int. Filter
Papers 415) were placed between the sand face and the end cap to prevent sand production.
The use of GC for direct sample measurement (DiCarlo et al., 2000) is a precise approach that is more accurate than mass
or volume balance for these experiments. A PerkinElmer Autosystem XL GC fitted with a SGE forte capillary column (30m
x 0.25mm ID, BP20 0.5 m, polyethylene glycol) and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) was used to detect fluid
concentrations. The GC set-up allowed detection of changes of the magnitude of 1 ppm within each GC sample vial. The

[SPE 115697]

measurement programme is summarized in Table 3. A high precision syringe pump (Teledyne Pump 1000D) was used in all
flooding experiments. Flow accuracy according to technical specifications is +/- 0.5%.
In total four experiments were performed. Each experiment consists of one set of Soi measurements and one set of Sor
measurements. In three experiments octane was injected into a vertical column, while the fourth used horizontal injection. In
each experiment the volume of octane injected varied to probe the full range of initial oil saturations. In two experiments
three replicates were performed to find both Soi and Sor. Table 4 outlines the experiments performed and their associated
parameters.
Parameter
Run time
Sampling Rate
Oven Temperature

Value
3 minutes
12 readings per second
Initial: 353.15 K, increase to 443.15 K
at a rate of 30 K per minute
Injector Temperature
473.15 K
Detector Temperature
513.15 K
Carrier Gas
Helium, 2mL/min flow rate
Detector Gas
Helium, 18 mL/min; reference gas:
Helium 20 mL/min; split flow = 50
mL/min / total flow rate = 54 mL/min
Retention Time n-octane
1.344 minutes
Retention Time 2-Propanol
1.496 minutes
Retention Time Water
1.734 minutes
Table 3. GC measurement parameters.
Experiment
Number
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4

Experiment Name

Sand Pack
Volume of Octane
Volume of Brine
Orientation
Injected
Injected
Soi Vertical 30ml
Vertical
30 ml
0 ml
Sor Vertical 30ml
Vertical
30 ml
450 ml
Soi Vertical 50ml
Vertical
50 ml
0 ml
Sor Vertical 50ml
Vertical
50 ml
450 ml
Soi Vertical 80ml
Vertical
80 ml
0 ml
Sor Vertical 80ml
Vertical
80 ml
450 ml
Soi Horizontal 500ml
Horizontal
500 ml
0 ml
Sor Horizontal 500ml
Horizontal
500 ml
450 ml
Table 4. Experiments and associated parameters.

Number of
Replicates
3
3
3
3
1
1
1
1

[SPE 115697]

Figure 3. Engineering sketch of the Polymethylmethacrylate column and end cap used for the experimental sand pack.

Experimental Procedure
The experimental procedure was as follows:
1. Column dry packed with LV60 sand.
2. Column fully saturated with brine.
3. Octane injection (primary drainage) performed to reach Soi.
4. Brine injection (secondary imbibition) performed to reach Sor.
5. Column sliced into eighteen sections for sampling.
6. Addition of solvent to each sample of sand + n-octane + brine.
7. Filtering of each sample removes sand leaving a single homogeneous liquid phase.
8. Injection of homogeneous liquid samples into GC for compositional analysis.

[SPE 115697]

The procedure begins with the packing of a column with LV60 sand. Each individual sand-packed column will yield
either an Soi or an Sor set of data. Two columns as a minimum are required to produce a single set of Soi versus Sor values;
we added additional replicates to assess the reproducibility of the results.
A known mass of sand was added to a column with a known bulk volume. The subsequent porosity of the sand pack was
determined by mass balance. A packing density of 1654 kg/m3 was used throughout. The bulk volume of the columns was
found by filling them with water of a known density and measuring the mass and comparing with the mass of the dry column.
The packing process was performed with dry sand poured into the column in one continuous motion under vibration. Table 5
gives the average properties of the packs.
Porosity
37% 0.2%
Permeability
32 D 0.3 D
Pore Volume
111.2 ml 2.7 ml
Formation Factor
4.8
Table 5. Average properties of an LV60 sand pack.

Establishing an initial brine saturation of 100% was accomplished in three steps. The brine was completely de-aired by
bubbling oxygen-free nitrogen gas through the brine for a minimum of 15 minutes. In addition, and prior to brine injection,
the column was completely saturated with gaseous CO2. 500 ml of brine was injected under a 0.138 MPa back-pressure to
displace the CO2. The back-pressure was applied with a needle valve, forcing the brine into the smaller pores. Even so any
remaining trapped CO2 gas dissolved in the brine, resulting in a 100% saturated sand pack.
Three vertical experiments were performed, with different volumes of octane injected in each case (Table 4). The octane
was injected into the top of a column which was positioned vertically. Once the desired volume of octane had been injected
the column was inverted such that the high oil saturation interval was at the bottom. The octane subsequently migrated
upwards due to buoyancy forces. Oil migration was stopped by placing the column horizontally once the first drop of octane
reached the filter paper at the top end of the column.
The column would either be sliced to find Soi or brine injection would start. To reach residual conditions 450 ml of brine,
four pore volumes, was injected. Oil production always ceased soon after brine breakthrough and long before the end of the
experiment.
This experimental procedure replicates a situation where injected CO2 migrates upwards due to buoyancy forces before
being trapped as a residual phase by chase brine. This is true for the portion of the column uninvaded by oil at the point of
flipping when buoyancy driven migration begins. The results from this portion of the column were of primary interest;
however, as will be seen, the results from the entire length of the column describe a consistent trend and as such are included
here.
In addition to the vertical experiments described above, an additional horizontal experiment was performed to investigate
the effect of ignoring gravity. 500 ml of octane was injected into a fully brine-saturated column positioned horizontally. The
column was then sliced to find Soi or brine injection was started, following the procedure described above for the vertical
experiment.
Table 6 gives the phase injection rates, Darcy velocities and capillary numbers associated with these experiments.
Experiment(s)
1 to 3
4
ALL

Phase Injected
Injection Rate
Darcy Velocity
n-octane
0.5 ml/min
2.65 x 10-5 m/s
n-octane
5 ml/min
7.17 x 10-4 m/s
brine
5 ml/min
7.17 x 10-4 m/s
Table 6. Injection conditions associated with each experiment.

Capillary Number
1 x 10-6
1 x 10-5
2 x 10-5

At the end of injection the columns were sliced into eighteen sample sections. Each section was mixed with 10 g of 2propanol solvent. This amount of solvent had been determined to be sufficient to dissolve both the n-octane and brine giving
a single homogeneous liquid phase. The mixture of sand and liquid was then filtered to remove the sand. The liquid was
sampled into vials ready for GC analysis. This process was repeated for each of the eighteen samples from each column.
Results
Figure 4 shows the measured saturation profiles while Figure 5 shows the inferred trapping curve. The four experiments
cover different ranges of Soi: in experiment 1 it ranges from 1.6% to 49.9%; 1.1% to 73.9% in experiment 2; 50.1% to 78.9%
in experiment 3; and 70.0% to 80.4% for experiment 4. The error bars shown in Figure 5 are based on the standard deviation
from experiments 1 and 2 where three replicates were performed for each of the Soi and Sor data sets.
Figure 6 compares our data with the correlations proposed in the literature that were discussed previously: we used our
data to find the parameters in the various correlations. It is evident that the best fit is given by Aissaouis law (equation 6
with o for oil substituted for g), with an initial linear increase in Sor to S ormax =11.2% at Soc= 50% followed by a constant Sor.

[SPE 115697]

So (%)
0

20

40

So (%)
60

80

100

40

20

40

20

40

60

80

80

100

60

80

100

20

40

60

80

100

100

(a)

(b)
So (%)

20

40

So (%)
60

80

100

Distance from top of column (cm)

Distance from top of column (cm)

60

Distance from top of column (cm)

Distance from top of column (cm)

20

20

40

60

80

20

40

60

80

100

100

(c)

(d)

Figure 4. Oil Saturation profiles. The lines to the right show the initial conditions, while the lines to the left show the trapped oil
saturation.
(a) Experiment 1: vertical 30 ml oil injection. Three Soi replicates and three Sor replicates are shown.
(b) Experiment 2: vertical 50 ml oil Injection. Three Soi replicates and three Sor replicates are shown.
(c) Experiment 3: vertical 80 ml oil injection.
(d) Experiment 4: horizontal 500 ml oil injection.

14

12

Sor (%)

10

6
Experiment 1

Experiment 2
Experiment 3

2
Experiment 4

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Soi (%)
Figure 5. Experimental trapping curve showing results from all four experiments.

80

90

[SPE 115697]

14

12

Sor (%)

10

Experimental Data
Land Equation 1968 - Eq. 1
Jerauld Equation 1997 - Eq. 3

Ma & Youngren Equation 1994 - Eq. 4


Kleppe et al. Equation 1997 - Eq. 5

Aissaoui Equation 1983 - Eq. 6


Spiteri et al. Equation 2006 - Eq. 7

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Soi (%)
Figure 6. Comparison between the experimental data and empirical trapping equations in the literature.

Discussion and Conclusions


We have measured the trend of residual oil saturation with initial saturation in unconsolidated sand packs. We found
relatively low residual saturations: in the high-porosity homogeneous pore space, waterflooding at the pore scale proceeds as
a uniform advance controlled by cooperative pore filling with little snap-off and trapping (Valvatne and Blunt, 2004). The
residual saturation increases linearly with saturation until a maximum of 11.2% is reached for an initial saturation of
approximately 50%. The trapping capacity Sor = 4.1%. The residual saturation does not increase as the initial saturation is
increased further. At 50% saturation, the non-wetting phase is able to occupy all the larger pore spaces in which it will be
trapped during waterflooding invasion of smaller pores during primary drainage does not increase the residual saturation
since the non-wetting phase will be displaced from these regions. This is in contrast to highly consolidated media with a
wide pore size distribution, where the non-wetting phase can be trapped in small pores that are only filled at high initial
saturations. The Land (1968) trapping model does not give good predictions of the trapped saturation for unconsolidated
media; instead the linear Aissaoui (1983) correlation (equation 6) is a good match to the data.
This work implies that CO2 injection in poorly consolidated media would lead to rather poor storage efficiencies, with at
most 4% of the rock volume occupied by trapped CO2: this is at the lower end of the compilation of literature results shown
in Figure 2. Using the Land correlation to predict the behavior would tend to over-estimate the degree of trapping except for
high initial saturations.
Nomenclature
CCS :
GC :
ppm:
:
Sgi :
Sgr :
Sgrmax :
Sgc :
S* :
Sgi* :
Sgr* :
Sgr* max :
S(nw)i :
S(nw)r :
S(nw)rmax :
Soi :

carbon capture & storage


gas chromatography/chromatograph
parts per million
porosity
initial gas saturation
residual gas saturation
maximum residual gas saturation
critical gas saturation
effective saturation
effective initial gas saturation
effective residual gas saturation
maximum effective residual gas saturation
initial non wetting phase saturation
residual non wetting phase saturation
maximum residual non wetting phase saturation
initial oil saturation

where; S* = S/(1-Swc)
where; Sgi* = Sgi /(1-Swc)
where; Sgr* = Sgr /(1-Swc)
where; Sgr* max = Sgrmax /(1-Swc)

10

Soimax :
Sor :
Sormax :
Swc :
TCD:

[SPE 115697]

maximum initial oil saturation


residual oil saturation
maximum residual oil saturation
connate water saturation
thermal conductivity detector

Acknowledgements
We would like to acknowledge funding from the following agencies: Shell under the Grand Challenge on Clean Fossil Fuels;
Qatar Petroleum, Shell and the Qatar Science and Technology Park under the Qatar Carbonates and Carbon Storage Research
Centre; the EPSRC (grant number EP/C536754/1); NERC (grant number NE/C516401/1); and ADNOC (Abu Dhabi).
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