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# Teachingtothe

Marian Small
February 2009

Gettingto20

## You are on a number line. You can jump however you

want as long as you always take the same size jump.

## How can you land on 20?

HowWouldYouUseStudent

way?

## Anna jumped to 2, then 4, then 6, . Ryan jumped to 4,

then 8, then 12, Who took more jumps? Why?

## Which way of counting to 20 was easiest?

NoticeTheContrast

## What I just did is in contrast to telling students how to

proceed- how to count. If I do that, its much harder to
think about the fact that there are always different ways
to count.

WhatareBigIdeas?

## These are ideas that underpin a great number of

problems, concepts, or ideas that we want students to
learn.

## A big idea is NOT a topic like fractions, but might be an

idea like a fraction only makes sense if you know the
whole of which it is a fraction.

## Some people use language like key concepts or

enduring understandings.

## Helps students build essential connections

MakingBigIdeasExplicit

## We cannot assume that students will see the big ideas if

we do not bring them to the students attention.

## Many teachers, though, do not know what the big ideas

in a lesson are, even if they know the lesson goal.

WhatDoesTheTeacherDo
Differently?

S/he thinks about what the big idea really is and then sets
out, often toward the end of the lesson so that it stays
with the student.

TryThis
How many are in each group? How did you know?

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BigIdea1

## Numbers tell how many are in a group. You usually (but

dont always) count to determine the size of a group

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BigIdea3

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WhyDoesItMatter?

## Why is it useful for students to be able to represent

numbers in different ways? For example, what do these
four representations of 4 describe about 4?

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BigIdea4

Work in pairs.

greater and why.

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BigIdea1

Group 1

Group 2

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BigIdea1

## 1. Numbers tell how many are in a group. Counting

numbers beyond 10 or 20 is often based on creating
subgroups and counting these.

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MoreOnBI1
On some tables, put 32 counters into ten frames. On other
tables, put 32 loose counters. Ask each group to tell how
many counters are there.

## Why did finish counting more quickly than ?

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YourTurn
We did not yet look at the big idea:
Students gain a sense of the size of numbers by comparing
them to meaningful benchmark numbers.

What could you have student do and what could you ask to
bring this out?

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YourTurn
One idea:

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WhatOperationWouldYouUse?

## Anika had 12 cookies on a plate. If she ate them 3 at a

time, how many times could she go back to get cookies?

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CreateAProblem
Create a story problem for each of these number
sentences.
Well then group them.

5 + 8 = 13

10 3 = 7

3 x 5 = 15

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DifferentMeanings

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Differentmeanings

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Differentmeanings

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DangerOfClue Words

## Create an addition question that uses the word less.

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TryThisComputation

## Think of 3 different ways to calculate 15 8.

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SomePossibilities

## Add 2 to get to 10 and then 5 more.

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TryThisComputation

## Think of 3 different ways to calculate 200 134.

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SomePossibilities

## Add 60 to get to 194 and then 6 more.

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WhatDoYouThinkOfThis?

200
- 134
134 = 100 30 4 = 66

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WhatDoYouThinkOfThis?

200 = 199 + 1
- 134

- 134
65 + 1 = 66

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WhatIsAPattern?

## What makes them patterns?

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MakingNonPatterns

## What sorts of questions might you ask a student to focus

them on the idea that a pattern has to be about
regularity?

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ContinuingAPattern

## What comes next: 3, 5, 7,.?

It could be 3, 5, 7, 3, 5, 7, 3, 5, 7,

3, 5, 7, 7, 5, 3, 3, 5, 7, 7, 5, 3, ..

3, 5, 7, 9, 11,

## 3, 5, 7, 13, 15, 17, 23, 25, 27,

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ContinuingAPattern
Number of
People

Number of Eyes

## What is the pattern rule?

Is there more than one
way to express it?

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ComparingPatterns

## What do we mean by the structure of a pattern?

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ArrangingRepeatingPatterns

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ArrangingRepeatingPatterns

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FindFourPatterns

## Think about a question you

could ask to see if the
student could use the
pattern more generally.
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FindFourPatterns

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FindFourPatterns

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FindFourPatterns

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FindFourPatterns

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BuildingConjectures

## I conjecture that there are more evens than odds in the

first 30 numbers.

## Is that true? Try to explain.

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BuildingConjectures

## Make two conjectures about it and then verify whether or

not they are true.

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WhatComesOutIf10GoesIn?
In

Out

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14

17
3 x In + 2

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RepresentingRelationships

## You can think about 8 as four more than 4 (just like 10 is

four more than 6.)

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RepresentingRelationships

## How can you represent the doubling relationship with a

picture? The picture should be useful no matter what
number you are doubling.

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RepresentingRelationships

## How can you represent the +4 relationship with a picture?

The picture has to work no matter what number you are
+4

For example:

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RepresentingEquality

8 + 4 = + 5

## What goes in the blank and why?

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StudentSuccessWithThatQuestion

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AndSo

## We could use words: You add a number to 5 and you

end up with the same amount you would if you added 8
and 4. What did you add? (BI 2)

## We could use a balance metaphor for equality, viewing

equality as a relationship.

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RepresentingEquality
2+1=

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RepresentingEquality

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RepresentingEquality
2+=5+3

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RepresentingEquality

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RepresentTheseandSolve
5+=8+3
+ =8

would verbally say these
equations to your
students.

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UseTheBalanceToShow

That 10 is double 5.

## That 8 is one less than 9.

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Modelling Subtraction

## How would you use the balance to solve 4 = 6?

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WhichDoesntBelong?

## Which shape below doesnt belong?

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BigIdeasinGeometry

## Use members of the group to hold the yarn to form each

shape and be ready to tell how you arranged yourself to
make it work: a triangle, a rectangle, an isosceles
triangle, a hexagon, a circle.

## Why was it more challenging to make the isosceles

triangle than the hexagon?

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BigIdeasinGeometry

## Can you always cut a shape into triangles? Explain.

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BigIdeasinGeometry

## What different shapes can you make with 4 trapezoids?

When trapezoids touch, whole sides have to match.

## Could you make a shape with an odd number of sides?

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BigIdeasinGeometry

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BigIdeasinGeometry

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YourTurn
We have not yet dealt with the big idea: Many of the attributes and
properties of 2-D shapes also apply to 3-D shapes.
What could you have students do and what could you ask to bring this
out?

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ForExample

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Length

## Work in pairs. One of you makes a wiggly path with

each of the two pieces of yarn you have. Dont let your
partner see which is longer and curve the paths so its
not obvious. The partner estimates which is longer and
then tests.

## How can you test to see which length is longer? Is there

more than one way to test?

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BigIdeasinMeasurement

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BigIdeasinMeasurement

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BigIdeasinMeasurement

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BuildingaLinePlot

## We are going to make a line plot to show how often

people in the room have had their hair cut in the last
year.

## Why is a line plot a good idea for this data?

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What could these

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WatchTheVideo

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BigIdeasinData

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HowDoTeachersFigureOutWhat
TheBigIdeasAre?

## Professional conversations with colleagues.

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ThenWhat?

You make sure you ask the question to bring out that big
idea.

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HowDoYouFigureOutWhatTheBig
IdeasAre?

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FromaResource
From
Big Ideas from
Dr. Small

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FromaResource
From
Math Focus K-3

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InSummary

connected whole.

## We have to focus in, therefore, on the big ideas, but we

also have to ask open and directed questions.

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