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Formulals,ConversionsandDatarequiredtosolvegate

problems
Conversions
1litre=.001cubicmeter
1m^3=1000litres
1BTU(britishthermalunit)=1055joules
1btu/hr=3.412joules/s
Area
100cents=1Acre
1Acre=4840sqyards
1yard=3'or36"
1cents=435.60sqft
1sq.m=10.76sq.ft
1Acre=4047sqm
2,47cents=1are(100sqmeter)
2.47acres=1hectare(10,000sqmeters)
Fibonacciseries
Fn=Fn1+Fn2
0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21....
GoldenRatio

Slope/Gradient
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grade_(slope)
Contourinterval:thedifferenceinaltituderepresentedbythespacebetweentwo
contourlinesonamap

PERTTe(expectedtime)=(O+4M+P)/6whereO=optimistictime,
M=mostlikelytime,P=pessimistictime.
V(variance)=((PO)/6)^2
Projectvariance=sumofvariancesalongthecriticalpath

Standarddeviation=sqrootofvariance
unitmassofreinforcedconcrete=2400kg/m3
unitwtofreinfircedconcrete=2400*10(9.8)N/m3
densityofsteel=7850kg/m3
BMandSFdiagram
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q0DghZBRAU
HooksLaw,YoungsModulus,BulkModulus,Poisson'sRatio
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QMmOMLstGm0
ScaleofAerialPhotograph=Focallength/AltitudeaboveGround
level
ForecastingPopulation
Arithmaticmethod
dP/dt=Ka
P=P1 +Ka(tt1 )

P=population
t=time
Ka=arithmeticgrowthconstant
Geometricmethod

dP/dt=KgP
lnP=lnP1 +Kg (tt1 )
Kg =lnP2lnP1/t2t1=ln[P2/P1]/t2t1

P=population
t=time
Kg=geometricgrowthconstant
Note:lim(1+K)1/K=e=2.718baseofthenaturallogarithms
K0

1lux=1lumen/sqmeter
luxistheunitofilluminance
Flux=illuminationrequired(lux)xsurfacearea(sqm)
Flux(lumenoutput)(received)=MF(maintenancefactor)xUF(utilization
factor)xFlux(installed)
depreciationfactor=reciprocalofmaintenancefactor
lux=candela/d^2
cd(candela)=lm(lumen)/(2(1cos(/2)))
forisotrophiclightsource(alldirections),lumen=candelax4x22/7
http://www.compuphase.com/electronics/candela_lumen.htm
RoomIndex(RI)=LxW/[Hmx(L+W)]
Hm=mountingheight
SpacingtoheightratioSHR=1/Hmx[(A/N)^1/2]
Acoustics
T(reverbarationtimeinseconds)=.161xV(volumeinm3)/A(sound
absorptionpowerinm2sabine=areaxcoeffcientofabsorption)
Lp=20log10 (Prms/Pref)dB
Lp2=Lp1+20log10 (r1/r2)
lpsoundpressure
soundlevel10log10 (Prms/Pref)dB

Thehandlingcapacity(lifts)iscalculatedbythe
formula:H=3OOxQx100/TXP
where
H=handlingcapacityasthepercentageofthepeakpopulationhandled
during5minperiod,
Q=averagenumberofpassengerscarriedinacar,
T=waitinginterval,and
P=totalpopulationtobehandledduringpeakmorningperiod.(Itisrelated
totheareaservedbyaparticularbankoflifts.)
ThevalueofQdependsonthedimensionsofthecar.Itmaybenotedthat
thecarisnotloadedalwaystoitsmaximumcapacityduringeachtripand,
therefore,forcalculatingHthevalueofQistakenas80percentofthe
maximumcarryingcapacityofthecar.
Thewaitingintervaliscalculatedbytheformula:
T=RTT/N

iv
where
T=waitinginterval
N=numberoflifts,and
RTT=roundtriptime,thatis,theaveragetimerequiredbyeachliftin
takingonefullloadofpassengersfromgroundfloor,dischargingthemin
variousupperfloorsandcomingbacktogroundfloorfortakingfresh
passengersforthenexttrip.

Thermaltransmittance,alsoknownasUvalue,istherateoftransferof
heat(inwatts)throughonesquaremetreofastructuredividedbythe
differenceintemperatureacrossthestructure.Itisexpressedinwattsper
metressquaredkelvin,orW/mK.Wellinsulatedpartsofabuildinghavea
lowthermaltransmittancewhereaspoorlyinsulatedpartsofabuildinghave
ahighthermaltransmittance.
=AU(T 1 T 2)
whereistheheattransferinwatts,Uisthethermaltransmittance,T 1 is
thetemperatureononesideofthestructure,T 2isthetemperatureonthe
othersideofthestructureandAistheareainsquaremetres.
Theformulaforventilationheatlossis:
Q=N.V.Sp.ht.dt
Where
Q=heatloss(Watts)(W)
N=Numberofairchangesperhour.Anairchangeisoneroomvolume.
V=Roomvolume(m3)
Sp.ht.=Specificheatfactorforair.Thisisfoundfromthefollowing
formula.
Sp.Ht.Factor=(Specificheatcapacityofairx1000toconvertfromkJto
Joulesxdensityofair)/3600toconvertfromhrtosecs.
Sp.Ht.Factor=(1.01x1000x1.2)/(3600)
Sp.Ht.Factor=0.34
dt=temperaturedifferencebetweeninsideandoutside(oC)
DuctcrosssectionalareaA(m2)=q(airflowratem3/s)/v(air
speedm/s)

Trafficformulas
q(flow=novehicles/time)=1/h(timeheadway=timebetweenrearbumperto
rearbumper)
densityk=n/distance(numberofvehiclesoccupyingagivenlengthnof
highway
distanceheadway=distancebetweencorrespondingpointsintwo

successivevehicles
k(density)=1/s(distanceheadway)

PlumbingandWaterSupply
HazenWilliamsFormula
usedforpipeslargerthan2"andsmallerthan6'india
v=1.32.Ch.R^0.63.S^0.54
v=averagevelocityft/s
Ch=HazenWilliamsCoefficient
R=Hydraulicradiusofflowconduit(ft)
s=ratioofhL/L,energyloss/headlenghthofconduit(ft/ft)
inSIUnits
v=0.85.Ch.R^0.63.S^0.54
v=averagevelocity(m/s)
Ch=HazenWilliamsCoefficient
R=Hydraulicradiusofflowconduit(m)
s=ratioofhL/L,energyloss/headlenghthofconduit(m/m)
VolumeflowrateQ=Av

Ammortisationformulaforsinkingfund

CompoundInterest

r=rateofinterestasdecimal
n=nooftimesinterestiscompoundedinayear
t=noofyears