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PETE
PETE 310
310
Lecture
Lecture ## 1515
Properties
Properties ofof Black
Black Oils
Oils
Definitions
Definitions
(pages
(pages 224
224--240)
240)
Pressure
Path of Production
Initial Reservoir
Temperature
CP
Separator Conditions
Conditions
50%
25%
75%
Reservoir
Oil Reservoir
Black Oil
Black
Diagram ofof aa
Phase Diagram
Phase

Engineering Calculations:

Reservoir Engineering

Properties ofof Black

Oils Needed

Calculations:

Needed for

Black Oils

Properties

Reservoir

for

Isothermal Compressibility
Coefficient ofof Isothermal
Compressibility Co
Formation Volume
Formation Volume
Total Formation
Volume Factor
Volume Factor
–– Coefficient
Factor ofof oil
Factor ofof oil
Solution Gas
–– Formation
–– Solution
Ratio Rs Rs
oil Ratio
–– Total
Gas oil
oil Bo
oil Bt
Co
Bo
Bt

Engineering Calculations:

Reservoir Engineering

Properties ofof Black

Oils Needed

Calculations:

Needed for

Black Oils

Properties

Reservoir

for

 Coefficient ofof isobaric Interfacial Tension thermal expansion isobaric thermal –– Coefficient –– Interfacial expansion ββ oo Viscosity µµ oo Viscosity Tension Oil Oil ––
Learning
Learning Goals
Goals
Understand
Understand the
the behavior
behavior ofof those
those PVT
PVT
properties
properties (Bo,
(Bo,Rs Rs,…)
,…) vsvs PP and
and type
type ofof
fluid
fluid (now)
(now)
Evaluate
Evaluate PVT
PVT properties
properties from
from (later)
(later)
–– Field
Field data
data
–– Laboratory
Laboratory studies
studies
–– Correlations
Correlations
Definitions
Definitions
Specific
Specific gravity
gravity ofof aa liquid
liquid
ρ
(
P T
,
)
o
1
1
γ =
o
ρ
(
P T
,
)
w
1
1
API API gravity
gravity
141.5
o API =
− 135
γ
o
Formation Formation Volume
Volume Factor
Factor ofof Oil
Surface (Ps,Ts)
(Ps,Ts)
Solution Solution
Surface
Gas out
Oil
out ofof
Gas
Reservoir (P,T)
Reservoir
(P,T)
Definitions
Definitions
Definitions
Definitions
Volume
Volume ofof Oil
Oil ++ Dissolved
Dissolved gas
gas
Bo
Bo == at
at Reservoir
Reservoir Pressure
Pressure && Temp.
Temp.
Volume
Volume ofof Oil
Oil entering
entering Stock
Stock
tank
tank at
at Tsc
Tsc,, Psc
Psc
Units
Units == Reservoir
Reservoir barrels
barrels (bbl)
(bbl) /Stock
/Stock tank
tank barrels
barrels (STB)
(STB)
Shape ofof Bo
Reservoir TT == constant
General Shape
Reservoir
constant
General
Bo
Bo
PbPb
Bo
Reservoir
Reservoir Pressure
Pressure
Solution
Solution Gas
Gas Oil
Oil Ratio
Ratio ((Rs Rs))
How
How much
much gas
gas isis dissolved
dissolved inin the
the oil
oil
volume
volume per
per volume
volume basis
basis
Rs
Rs depends
depends upon
upon pressure
pressure
Units
Units [=[= ]] SCF
SCF gas
gas /STB
/STB oil oil
Oil Ratio
General Shape
Oil
General
Ratio ((Rs Rs))
Shape ofof Solution
constant
Solution Gas
PbPb
Reservoir TT == constant
Rs Rs
Gas
Reservoir
Reservoir
Reservoir Pressure
Pressure

Total Formation

Total

Formation Volume

Volume Factor

Factor Bt

Bt

Hg
Hg
Oil
Oil
PP bb

BB obob

BB gg ((RR sbsb --RR ss ))
BB oo
Gas
Gas
Oil
Oil
Hg
Hg
Definition
Definition ofof Bt
Bt
Also
Also called
called Two
Two--phase
phase formation
formation
volume
volume factor
factor
B = B + B R − R
(
)
t
o
g
sb
s
Units… Units…
bbl/STB
bbl/STB ++ bbl/SCF
bbl/SCF ** (SCF/STB)
(SCF/STB)
Bo
Bt
General
General Shape
Shape ofof Bt
Bo, Bt Bt
Reservoir Pressure
Pressure
Reservoir
constant
Bo
Bo,
PbPb
Reservoir TT == constant
Bt Bt
Reservoir
Bt=Bo
Bt=Bo
=
=
oil
oil
gas
Reservoir
R v
P 1
P 2
B g
Separator gas
Separator gas
Separator gas
Separator gas
=
STB
Decreasing Pressure
B o =
oil
STB
R s
STB
P 4
gas
oil
Separator gas
STB
Standard
Conditions
P 3
gas
oil
Standard
Conditions
Properties
PVT Properties
Definition ofof Oil
Oil && Gas
Definition
Gas PVT

The Coefficient

The

Coefficient ofof Isothermal

Isothermal

Compressibili

Compressibilityty ofof Oil

Oil

Provides

Provides Instantaneous

Instantaneous change

change ofof

volume with

volume

• C o

at constant

constant TT

with PP at

Also

A

# )

T

A

A

and

specific volume

volume

volume

Also with

with molar

and specific

molar volume

### P , T = −

P
∆V
∆Τ
Temperature
Expansion
Expansion
Specific Volume
Coefficient ofof Thermal
Coefficient
Thermal
Injection Processes)
Steam Injection
(Use inin Steam
Processes)
(Use
Oil
Oil Viscosity
Viscosity
Viscosity
Viscosity isis aa measure
measure ofof the
the resistance
resistance
toto flow
flow exerted
exerted byby aa fluid
fluid
This
This isis called
called dynamic
dynamic viscosity
viscosity and
and has
has
units
units ofof
centipoise
centipoise == gg mass
mass // 100
100 sec
sec cmcm
Kinematic
Kinematic viscosity
viscosity isis viscosity
viscosity // density,
density,
units
units are
are inin
centistokes
centistokes == centipoise
centipoise /g/cc
/g/cc

Needs ofof Crude

Needs

Crude Oil

Oil Viscosity

Viscosity

injection processes
Calculation ofof two
depletion oror from
natural depletion
as waterflooding
techniques such
recovery either
pipeline design
from recovery
Calculate Calculate oil
waterflooding
gas--injection
Calculation
either from
oil recovery
and pipeline
phase flow
techniques
two--phase
processes
Gas Gas--lift
recovery
and gas
such as
lift and
natural
design
from
flow
and
Injection
Oil Zone
11 1
Miscible Front
Miscible Front
Oil Bank /
Oil Bank /
2 22
from Pipeline
from Pipeline
or Recycle
or Recycle
Injection
Injection
Oil Zone
Injection
HC Gas
HC Gas
Well
Well
2 2
1 1
Storage Facilities
Production Well
Separation and
Separation and
Production Well
Storage
Facilities
Gas
Variation
Oil Viscosity
Variation ofof Oil
Viscosity
Oil Viscosity
PP bb
Two
Flow
Two Phase
Phase Flow
of
Oil
Out of
Gas Out
Solution
Solution
Flow
Single
constant
Phase Flow
TT == constant
Single Phase
Viscosity