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Thinking Critically With


Psychological Science

CHAPTER OVERViEW
b-.
Chapter 1 explains the
fllOO sunse in reasoniog

and com
about behavior and mental

limits of intuition

p-rocessesz To counteract otir human tendency toward


tn

n- -orr

:\ dR

logists dop

sLlCfltlflL

gists often rely on measures of central tendency such


as the mean, median, and mode, as weh as variation
measures soch as the range and standard deviation,
Statistical reasoning also helps psychologists deter
mine wn;en it is safe to generalize from a sample to
the iaraer populat;on.

Chapter 1 concludes with a discussion. of several


questions people often ask ahont psychology, includ
ing why animal research is relevant, whether labora
tory experiments are ethical, whether behavior varies
with culture and gender, and whether psychologys
principles dont have the potential for misuse.
Chapter 1 introduces a number of concepts and
issues that will play an important role in later chap
ters. Pay particular attention to the strengths and
weaknesses of descriphve and correlational research
In addition, make sure that x on understand the
meThod of expernnentat;on, especlallv the importance
of control conditions and; the ditference between
independent and:; depencfent variables. Pinally, von
r
1cfodio fnu upo
&ri
concerning populations; and samples. as well as the
concept t co ticance in tcstnrv difa ionce

CL

tude that Is: based on curiosity, skepticism, humi1ity


and critical thinking. Chapter 1 also explains how
psychologists, using the scientific method, employ
the research strategies of description, correlation, and
experimentation in order to objectively describe, pre
dict, and explain behavior,
The next section discusses how statistical reason
ing is used to heip psychologists describe data and to
generalize from instances. To descrihe data, psycholo

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18

(hapter I l hinking Critically With Psychological Science

Objective 1: Define hindsight bias, and explain how it


can make research findings seem like mere common
seflSC.

8. An explanation using an integrated set of princi


ples that organizes and predicts behaviors or
Testable pre
events is a
dictions that allow a scientist to evaluate a theory
These predic
are called

1. The tendency to percei\ e an outcome that has


occurred as heinu obvious and predictable is
Lalled thr
I his phenomenon is
(rare common) in
(hildren/adults both
children and adults).
(atter the
2. Because it is
tact usually wrong), this tendency makes a
research findings seem like mere common sense.
Objective 2: Describe how o erconfidence contami
nates our ci ervday judgments.
3. Our

ci cry day

thinking is also limited by


in what we think we knov.,

hich occurs because of our


to seek information that confirms our judgments.
ii

4. Most people are


(better/n orse/equally

wrong)

tions gix e direction to


9. In order to prevent theoretical biases from in flu
encing scientific observations, research must be
reported preciseliusing clear
of all conceptsso that
the findings.
others can
10. Ehe test of a useful theory is the extent to which it
observations
effectively
and implies clear
11. Psychologists conduct research using
methods
and
methods.

Description (pp. 2630)

in predicting their

social behas ior


Objective 3: 1 xplain how the scientific attitude
encourages critical thinking.
5. The scientific approach is characterized by the
attitude- of
Sand
6 Scientific inquiry thus encourages reasoning that
cxamins assumptions, discerns hidden values,
r aluates c x deuce and assesses conclusions,

If you do not kwthernningofanvofth


following words, phrases, or expressions in the
context in which they appear in the text, refer
to page 40 for an explanation: Numbers are
numbing; Anecdotes are often more startling; a
thimbleful; snapshot of the opinions.

Objective 5: Identify an advantage and a disadvan


tage of using case studies to study behavior and men
tal processes.
1. The research strategy in which one or more indi
viduals is studied in depth in order to reveal uni
versal principles of behavior is the

uh s calca

Objectixe 4: Dccrihu hw psxchoiogicai theories


guide scicntitie research.

to guide their tudy of


chasic raid mental processes. They make
and form
hich are
hac. d on nen

2. Although case studies can suggest


for further study, a poten
tial problem with this method is that any given
individual may he
Objective 6: Identify the adi antages and disad van
tages of using surveys to study behavior and mental
processes, and explain the importance of wording
effects and random sampling.

ii

3. The method in which a group of people is ques


tioned about their attitudes or behavior is the

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it

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sinths

uo
c

)syd ologists

rciatit is

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Oil

Object ye 10: Dt
reat ns

the

N
it

ottc

o
3. 1

ors.
c

cswxr
tti itt)

7. \ trt xe
is

ti

tutt

ihtx

r ci

ur

t e do

ft

s tnt pit

8. People art r rc

d ret Ii n in

it tru i

their bc iet

that
-

this ira r

ieig ex lai many

n tin ikin

jefets.

Objective 13 1 ,
dine rnd random
rxcar I lindi is

u uh the doub e blind proce


a gnmer t by d onfidence in

4. Rest arthc a a n etimes aive et rtair p trticipants a

Objective U: xplan th turn n


cent o dc r randon qn ces

ide

to p

scu Ioheat ext called a


r p re tbt i behavior with that ot partich

at d

pants w 1 o icc th e the at tual treatment. When


9. Inott tr ccr m

it

ttnde u st percuve ordi

flc

th kir

t a! inc

ic

rece ng a treatment

pioouce rinults a
10. Pattcr sate

caks r rardo

sequ( ice occu-

more less) often than peo


ole exm et and they
do ni)

iy

is sad to occur.
r
When neithe the subjects nor the person collect
a.

(do /

ing thi data knots s which cond t on a subject is


.

pear random.

Experimentation
It you k
a d
hetc t

t C

(pp

in thc researe icr s making use t the

6 )9

t know the near in of the I ilk a


tI
in t x v hex t appca
page 0 o i xoi atior:

k i expirin e itn ust mx olve at cast two condi

tors:tte

en dhion in

he xe

ah
thc
Objctv

12

es
C

it

iental treatrit its bresent, and


ntichiti
Ito

t
.1

t
da

dii

ur

Csti

t dk

hi

qen

ttir
Objective 14: I x ah r
pert/c ta-i d tide

2. P

na t
tt

WIfe r e bctxsee i an inde


x iabt.

d
8.

11

e
i

ti

ar

atdi

n npcr
abc.

The measurabk factor that may changc as a result


ol these manipulations is called the
ra nble.
9. lhc aim

an cxperim r t is to

01

Objective 17: Desa be tI


tendency, and tell rfrc r
c ores.
thrcc r as

tI
m

variable,

a(n
the

x anabic and

and the

alother

4. Ihemottrqu

F xplain at least one adi antagc )t tbc cxperiment as a


research r icthod

tion is c 11 d n
5, thc mear scir

uted s
I

the
6. The median is thc

percentile
7. 1% hen a distribntrc r is c F d
t

(mean median nodc

Statistical Reasoning (pp 39 44)

extreme scores

It von do not knon the meaning ol ant of the


following words, phrases or expressions in the
context in which they appear in the text, refer to
pages 40-41 for an cxplanation Off the top of
the head cstm ate, iatioial uic une coke gauges
data arc niisy.

Objective 18: Dtstiibe

8. &r erages dciii ed Ii ) r


(high Ron) r anab lut
those

ith

ii

rariability
Objective 15: 1 xplain the inrportanc e ot statistical
principles and gh e an exampic of their use in every
day hfe.
1, Researchers use

to help

9. The measnrcs of s a at on
an

10, The rangc is o r put d

the n see and interpret their obsc ix atrons


Oblective 16 1 xp I ur bc r I ar gr p is ar misrepre
sent daia
2 0

tic

it ii xc c,a

r rOtlc r

visually rcpresentrng data is to nse a


It is

dard de

ioi

itior

nct t ke into c r d
nlrotethc
d cng

ti.

(more ac ur itc Ic s c
hon than tbc

inportari )read tIe

ted I

sc r

12. fhc siardard dc

thor i One simple way of

rcp

11. Th rryt t t
crudc
uratc c
cxtrcr

hcy i inst

e
isl adbv

51)

rsc

ii

22

Chapter 1

Thinking

Critically With Psychological

Science

Objective 19: Identify three principles of making gen


eralizations from samples.
13. It is safer to generalize from a
sample.

sample than trom a

14. A erages are more reliable when they are based


(high low)

on scores with
variability.

stresses

flexibly cope with


also cope flexibly with

2. Psychologists conduit experiments on simplified


beha iors in a laboratory environment in order to
o er the many vari

gain

ables present in the real world. ln doing so,


they are able to test

15. Small samples pros ide a

of behavior that also oper

(more less) reliable basis for generalizing than

ate in the real world.

large samples.
Objective 20: Explain how psychologists decide
whether difterences are meaningful.

Objective 22: Discuss a hether psychological research


can be generalized across cultures and genders.
3. Culture refers to shared

are used

16. lests of statistical

and

to estimate whether observed differences are

that one generation passes

real that is, to make sure that they are not sim
variation.

ply the result of

The differences are probably real if the sample


averages are

and the differ


(rela

ence between them is


tively small/relatively large).

on to the next.
4. Although specific attitudes and behaviors vary
across culture, the underlying
are the same. For instance, throughout the world
people diagnosed with
malfunc

exhibit the same

17. Statistical significance does not necessarily indi

tion. Likewise, similarities between the

sig

cate the importance or

far outweigh differences.

nificance of a difference or result.


Objective 23: Explain why psychologists study ani
mals, and discuss the ethics of experimentation with
both animals and humans,

Frequently Asked Questions About


Psychology (pp.44- 50)
If you do not knoa the meaning of an of the
following words, phrases, or expressions in the
context in which the appear in the text, refer to
page 41 for an explanation: plunge Zn; lo under
screen
ctand how a ornbustion eninc works
color the fads.
.

5. Many psychologists study animals because they


are fascinating. More important, they study ani
larities differences) between humans and other

animals. These studies have led to treatments for


human

Objective 21: 1 xplain the value of simplitied labora


tory conditions in disoering general principles ot
behax ior.
1. In laboratory experiments, psychologists concern
is not with specific heha iors but with the under
lying theoretical

(simi

mals because of the

As an

example, researchers ha e found that people who

and to a better

understanding of human functioning.


6. Some people question whether experiments with
animals are

They wonder

whether it is right to place the


of humans o er those of animals.
7. Opposition to animal experimentation also raises
the question of what
protect the a eli being of animals

should

23
Dc sci F c
I p

ais of the ethical guidelines Ii r pv


arch.

PROG
I

Objc ti
r
s
u

24 Ic i Ion persoralvaluc cai rio


h rsts rcseirci md its apyncati n ar
s hcl g
potertialtor anifnla epccp e

S I

t logists values

(do

do or) ir iluc net their theories, obserm abon

mmd

ci

ioniladvite

pcic
9

\th ug psc mologv


(c n car r ot) be sed to nanipr latc people its
pnrpoe

is

iu I r inking c.

caliyj Inc mien point alien

it

questions scientih c bjec

ty argum r that most scion ide co icepts a


m ey
is

ientsts

ag cc dicag cc
i

it

II s

crstmucts,
o)mca
arid

ii

m nhether there

is

h fact m

psychoiogital princ pies that

icrte car r veal.


II

F nkin
0 ( ititadvl Peopit uho scrxc on juries
pt ipit smmemtcases
d

mot represent thc pm atcr popu a on

tics

a dn ir
r

riavdtt

tad
ed

ts

)F

tmitr

kI

i F

24

(hap er 1 1 hrnking Critically With Psychological Science

6. 1 o ensure that other researchers can repeat their


uc rk psychologists use:
a. cc ntrol groups
I,. random assignment.
c dor bk-blind procedures.
d o eraton I dLfinitions,
7. 1 a scientific attitude of skepticism is based on
tt belief that
a people are rarc hr andid in rer ealing their
thoughts.
b. mental processes cant be studied objectir ely.
c the scientist s intuition about behavior is usu
ally correct
d. ideas need to be tested against observable evi
dence,
8, 14hk h of tl followina is not a basic research
technique used by psychologists?
a. description
b replication
c. experimentation
d. correlation
9, Psy hologists personal r alues:
a har e little influence on how their experiments
arc conducted,
b. do not influence the interpretation of experi
mental results because of the use of statistical
techniques that guard against subjective bias,
c. can bias both scientific observation and inter
pretation of data,
d. has c little influence on investigatir e methods
b it a significant effect on interpretation.
10, It shoe size and IQ are negatir ely correlated,
a hich of the following is true?
a, eopie with large feet tend to hare high lQs.
b. I cc pie with small feet tend to have high IQs
c Pr opl s ith small feet tend to hare low IQs.
rri
predictable heced n a perconc hoe
11 V
of h I I owing would he best for deter
n r , isle scr a col ol i upairs memorr?
a
c. surrey
sr ctd
b
at iralist c c bserr ation d. experiment
12 1
sent i
ito
a
b c
d

c
et mcaure attitude in a repre
of an
s c subset or
gr rp or
puiatic r random sample
tr a r p cxpe imentai group
e a gr p or trol group
i anpe P
1 latior
0
,

13. What is the mean of the following distribution of


scores: 2, 3, 7, 6, 1, 4, 9, 5, 8, 2?
c,4,7
a,5
d.3.7
b,4
14. What is the median of the following distribution
of scores: 1, 3, 7 7, 2, 8, 4?
c. 3
a. 1
d.4
b.2
15. lAhat is the mode of the following distribution: 8,

2, 1, 1,3,7,6,2,0,2?
a. I
b.2

c. 3
d.7

16. In generalizing from a sample to the population,


it is important that:
a. the sample is representative of the population.
b. the sample is large.
c. the scores in the sample have lois variability.
d. all of the abore are observed,
17. When a difference between two groups is statis
tically significant, this means that:
a. the difference is statistically real but of little
practical significance.
b. the difference is probably the result of sam
pling variation.
c. the difference is not likely to be due to chance
variation.
d. all of the above are true.
18. A lopsided set of scores that includes a number of
extreme or unusual r alues is said to be:
a. sy mmetricaL
c. skewed.
I,, normal,
d. dispersed.
19. Juwan eagerly opened an online trading account,
belier ing that his market savvy would allow him
to pick stocks that would make him a rich day
trader, This belief best illustrates:
a. the false consensus effect,
b. illusory correlation,
c. hindsight bias,
d. overconfidence,
20. Which of the following is the measure of central
tendency that would be most affected by a few
extreme scores?
c. median
a. mean
b. range
d. mode

Wa I
M
de

It us
h

e t

definitien or

fT

It

I)

a
b

b c
d

3
10
11
I

at

cur ttni
aton
ms ffet t

u
u

if

iiti

I u

tin

elatior

PROGRESS TEST 2
Pre p al,
d
nplct d during a final
4
Jay te erie
t
t following questions after
)O h ii
if
i
aid lie o r e anscrers for
th
t Ci n
saidl og ess hstl

Mi hip
1 ( teat
1 Wi
I

a.
b
2

ir

p
i
C

ci

1 iers
it

or
y

cea h m thods does

Co

if
mu r

st o s

)i

thea
r
d tic ran
C
e he
s r
f tic
dW e
3
t
g ag
t (
I
h an cur tv
r
I hird d a i c
i c
r
oratic n 0 r
j 1k cc it I i
n t
k reasoning hi I
i
L experim wt e Pt
in cnerestn at n )t i
F
n false pu pitr )
r ii if

he

at
ii dd
st
t

Ito

Ii

)Fserx stion

it

fTP
It

to
4 s
su

3 Wuhs
it
ton
lnele
ai
a Ocr
rwt usc lice
b. \Ilegatoi
t
cct a nls
Inn e
It
it
c. lie
a
thc Fit I
tn n I es
n
d Fir
e

ffe

41
a
b
d ci

ii

b
i

t
r r
C

5
5

C
C

26

Chapter

15 ik ig C tically With syci ologita Science

5, One reason escarche r basc the r f ndi igs on


representatn c sam iles 5 to as c id t e false coin
sensus effect. w ref reters to our tenUcncr to
a. ot erestimatc t c cx ut t w er others share

IL \khich ot the lollossir g is true according to the


text?

a. Bee iuse E bor hors e\periments are artificial,


any a ne tes d scot ered cannot he applied

to es cry Ta, rehas mors.

our belief.

b. talsets perceh e a

et ti rst ip betn ecu tiso

us cuts it hen none exists


underestimate errors in our judgment.
d. make all or the above reaconing errors,

b. \o psy e iological theors can he considered a


good o e unfit it produces testable predie

c.

6.

If hich or the fellow ing cc-f dew rihes the hind


sight bias?
a. Es cuts seem more predictable hetore thee
hate oct erred,
b. Es cuts seem met e predictable after thet have
occurred.
c. A persons intuition is usuattv corret.
d. A perst us in tuition i mualh not correct

7. The procedure designed to ensure that the experi


mental and control groups do not Jitter in ant
way that might affer t tne experiments resrdts is

called:
a. variable controlling.
b. random assignment
c, representatis e sampling.
d. stratificat on.
8. lflnsory correlation refers to:
a. the perception that two negatix elf correlated
variables are nositix clv correlated.
b. the perception of a correlation where there is
none.
c. an insignificant correlation.
d. a correlation that equals I,).
9. In generalizing from a sample to the popolation,
it A important that:
a. the sample he representath e.
h. the ampie be nonrandem,
c. the -ample ran he us largc.
d. all of the chine he true.
10.

1 lie ti euOh sf the c


abmshir Lsetweeu us
1
s is 0 us et its n tIl most ikel be:
a. siciiifmcamii.
b. psitnt

C. negative.
d. os erestimateti.

c.

d.

lsx chologx s them mes reflect common sense.


choiogs has rest ties to other diciptines.

Pss

12. flhicb txpe or research isould allots von to deter


mine is hether students college grades accurately
predict later income?
c. experimentation
a. cast studi
b. naturalistic observation d. cmrrelation

13. In a test of the etfects ot air pollution. grnups of


stodents pertormed a reaction-time task in a pol
luted or air unpolluted room. lo sshat condition
2
xs crc students in the unpolluted room exposed
c. randomls assigned
a. experimental
d. dependent
b. control
14. In order to studs the effects of lighting on mood,
Dr. v oper hart students nil out qoestioruraires in
bright s lit ss dimly lit rooms. In this study, the
ndependent s anabte consisted ot:
a. the number of students assigned to each
group.

b. the students responses to the questionnaire


c. the room ighhng
d. the ublcet matter of the questions asked.
15. lNhh is t c mode of the fodoiving distribution of
scores. 2 2,4,4 4 II?
a. 2
c.
b.4

d.6

16. IX hat A the mean cit the foliosvinu distribution of


sconc:TH,s,lo, ii,4.5,O. 1,4?
a. a
b. I
17. XVI ,at is th n edman of
ii S ooi

a. h
b.7

the tollon mg d isti ihution.

c. r
d.c

IS. \Viikh or the oliosving is the measure ot saria


ton that A Imost aftected hs exhemne scores?
a. iiieui
b. ta d

c. mode
rution

d. range

Is

19. 1 he set of scores that would likely be most repre


sentative of thc population from ix hich it was
drawn would be a sample nun a relatively:
a. large standard deviatio r
b. small standard des iation,
c. large range.
d. small range.

20. U a ditterei cc bc iv cu x i aorplc


c fi thu folios
calls signihe rut
contluded
riOt
a. lhe diffcrmcc s pa hahix rt a 1
b. [he ddfcir ncr is probaul n t a liable.
c. Ihe ddfercnu could he clot tc cnipIi

ation

uJo.
5
d. All or the ahovc can bu :tn

Matching Items

Match each term with its detinition or description.


Definitions or Descriptions

Icnns

1. hypothesis
thtorx
3. independent x ariable
4, dependent x arable
D. experimental couditiou
6. control condition
I, case study
8. su rves
9, rephcation
10. random assignment
ii, experiment
12 double blind

a. an iradepth obsert atonal ctudx o nc Ox n- m


b. the x ariable being manipulate d 10 an Cr pci inixrt
C. tile x ariahie being measured; in an c\rerrnont
d. thu treatmenLahsent eondton i. or tape ii
m err t
e. testable proposition
S
f. repeating an experu rent to see x heihei thi

results are obtained


g. the process in xshicl ieseareh partic

difteient p
selected by chance t
experiment
bgot d 1
h. an explanation usurg r
r
pies that organizes n I pri d ts )
5 dr ti
v
1. the research strategy
or more x ariables n char or are t cd
oadition
j. the treatment prese
ment
k. the resarch strate s n which a reprc
sample of indixtiduas is quectroned

L experimcntal procedure in u hih neihe


research participant nor thu tape rio a nte kn
which condition tile parti iput i to

PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED

a.
b.
c.
d.

\nsn cc these questions the dcx before an exam as a


final che k on x our understanding of the chapters
terms

and corn epts

%iuItipleCIioice Questions

1. You decide to test your eiiet that men drink


more sott drinks than xx omen by finding out
whether more sott drinks are consumed per dax
the a omens dorm.
in tile moo s dorm tE r
your h iel is a(n
r I x our research
predit tion is a(n

2.

hvpothoks: thoors
theory, ha pothusis
independent or able: dope,

i ahab

dependent yarabiu; iodcpoh or

\our ntomuote a

ridra Log

tu
lx qu uodent 1
1
how mans hours the txpical ,,
ies each dcx She plans ho rta tr:f lt co shin
a
nt
naire to the memhur of icr sO win.
out that her hnding xx di hu rc, x at in a
1 to
at r
or
a. sin has not sptertiud an dc

b. she ha not speeitied a dupe ode ot


xii probaht or t he r
c. nc sa n
nohnat
t
r hiy p
ons
d of II I

ia
cc

Chapter 1 Thinking Critically With Psychological Science

28

3. The concept of control is important in psychologi


cal research because:
a. without control over independent and depen
dent variables, researchers cannot describe,
predict, or explain behavior,
b. experimental control allows researchers to
studs the influence of one or two independent
variables on a dependent variable while holdin g other potential influences constant.
c. without experimental control, results cannot
he genera liied from a sample to a population.
d. of all the above reasons.
4. Martina believes that high doses of caffeine slow
a persons reaction time. In order to test this
belief, she has five friends each drink three 8ounce cups of coffee and then measures their
reaction time on a learning task. What is wrong
with Martinas research strategy?
a. No independent variable is specified.
b. No dependent variable is specified.
I here is no control condition,
d. There is no provision for replication of the
findings.
,

5. A researcher was interested in determining


whether her students test performance could he
predicted from their proximity to the front of the
classroom. So she matched her students scores
on a math test with their seating position. This
study is an example of:
a. experimentation.
b. correlational research,
c. a survey.
d. naturalistic ohsenation.
6. Your best friend criticizes psychological research
for being artificial and having no relevance to
behavior in real life. In defense of psychologys
use of laboratory experiments you point out that:
a. psychologists make e cry attempt to avoid
artificiality bs setting up experiments that
closely simulate real-world environments,
b. psychologists who conduct basic research are
not concerned with the applicability of their
findings to the real world.
c. most psychological research is not conducted
in a lahoratorx environment.
d. psychologists intentionally study behavior in
simplified environments in order to gain
greater control over variables and to test gen
eral principles that help to explain mans
heha\ iors.

7. A professor constructs a questionnaire to deter


mine how students at the university feel about
nuclear disarmament, Which of the following
techniques should be used in order to survey a
random sample of the student body?
a. Every student should he sent the question
naire.
b. Only students majoring in psychology should
be asked to complete the questionnaire.

c. Only students ii ing on campus should he


asked to complete the questionnaire.
d. From an alphabetical listing of all students,
every tenth (or fifteenth, e.g.) student should
be asked to complete the questionnaire.
8. If eating saturated fat and the likelihood of con
tracting cancer are positively correlated, which of
the following is true?
a. Saturated fat causes cancer.

b. People who are prone to develop cancer pre


fer foods containing saturated fat.

c. A separate factor links the consumption of sat


urated fat to cancer.
d None of the above is necessarily true.
9, 10 say that psychology is a science means that:
a. psychologists study only obserx able behav
iors.
b. psychologists study thoughts and actions with
an attitude of skepticism and derive their con
clusions from direct observations.
c. psychological research should be free of value
judgments.
d. all of the above are true.
10. Rashad, who is participating in a psychology
experiment on the effects of alcohol on percep
tion, is truthfully told by the experimenter that he
has been assigned to the high-dose condition.
What is wrong with this experiment?
a. There is no control condition.
b. Rashads expectations concerning the effects
of high doses of alcohol on perception may
influence hls performance.
c. Knowing that Rashad is in the high-dose
condition ma v influence the experimenters
interpretations of Rashad s resu Its.
d. Both b. and c. are correct.

29
3. f in c rujon iii in anthropol g is critical of
p r ic I x,ic i r search because it often ignorc s
c i it nec of cuituie on thoughb and acu ins.
3 mo it nitth t
t xc
xerx littl cx idcncc that cultural d x c
t
s a sianificant effcct on spec I leha
o s nd itt tudcs
b
c archers assign participants t cxp xi
r ent i and ontrot onditmons in such a xi a
c ai I represen the u1tura dire s
i c
f ulaticn undcr study
r ossi ak for psx hologists to coc tr P br
c cr p0 sibe xanable that riht mnlue c
r h at mcipant
ien sy c citic thoughts and ac tior s x a
d c r
cr ss c rlturcs as the often do the ur derly
in ; p occsses are much the same

xi

t
Oi

it i

tFc s enti ic athtudc of humdtx is I ased ) r tt e


idea t iat
a rcsca-chcrs must exaluate nexx idcas nd the
heetivetv rather than ac ept them
or c
b nd
b scientih theories must be testable
ir pie explanations of bchax mor niake better
c
ti eui it s di de uinptex exptar atmui
d c ear hers must be prc pared to reject their
xi n lea in the tace of c o iflicting cx id mc
3

F hi h ) the fc Ilowing procedures is an cxar iple


Fe m
i placebo
1
a h a tet of thc effects of i drug on me non a
va tcipa t s lcd to behcxc that a harmless
U ic uabbx contains an actn e drug
b. 3 pa ticipant in an experiment 3. led tc
hi ties e that i pill, which actually c )ntains an
a t x dri g is harnrless
c
I r iciy nts ii an expermmnt a c nit
Ii
siti f tr atmcntcordition sinclfe t
d

Ne F
i

hc

Kro
i

mx

ticipants nor

t xc exper

it

iF

ri

vg

cisle

i m ter

ncff

egh r pcst
f
r rn
ascf t
a

i
i

ra

x swi F trca
merte ndt ir
1

cr

rc c

ceit

thc bnc r truc


11

Heft
s

anst ntrxia
th omntngd
ontI h
ill
c
d
ia

ic

d
18

) of

Y
hat
t oh s

b
I

s 1 1

cal
nilv
I n
d n

30

(hapter

I Thinking Critically With Psychological Science

issay Question
1io has a theor that regular exercise can improve
thinking. Help him design an experiment evaluating
this theors ([se the space belou to list the points OU
n ant to make, and organize them. Then x rite the
esa\ on a separate piece of paper.)

KEY TERMS
Writing Definitions
Using your own words, on a separate piece of paper
write a brief definition or explanation of each of the
following.

1. hindsight bias
2. critical thinking
3. theory
4. hypothesis
5. operational definition
6. replication
7. case study
8. survey
9. false consensus effect
10. population
11. random sample

12. naturalistic observation


13. correlation
14. scatterplot
15. illusory correlation
16. experiment
17. doubleblind procedure
18. placebo effect
19. experimental condition
20. control condition
21. random assignment

22, independent variable


23. dependent variable
24. mode
25. mean
26. median
27. range
28. standard deviation
29. stathticai significance
30. culture

31

Answers

Cross-Check

-1
f--c-

1-

on learned in the Prologue


rev cv ir a id werlearning or
material art important to the
lea ni ig arocc s. \fter you fLare
wrItten the deftntiom ot the key
terms n his cFapter iou should
complete the rossu ord puzzle to
ensurt tht r ou can ret erse the
prmeacrc ropnize the teem,
gix en the derinition
As

fff:

--

_:4

it

ACROSS
1. Scot tlatfa sattherOther
cc itIe, cutth p a distribution
r h It.
7. tacplauatiun using an integrat
e I sat of ir dp es that orga
nizes at P predicts oehar iors

Ij
I

no
u er Zrts,
ing
tix
occurr
\Iost trequen
.<or in a distribution
Descriptirt research strategy
in n nich one perso i is stud
ied hi great depth.
M asure U r ariation cumput22
cc as the different e hetn een
tit lngfest and lowest scores
in a distrihuton,
\4-asure or central tendency conputed bi adding
die scorw n a distrrbutiou and dix iding hr the
nunroer of saores.
Pcrccpton nt a or eIaton betu ecu two events

9.

14.

15.

16.

19.

.-,

tr

8. The bias in ra hich we hehexe, after learning an


outcome, that we could hat e foreseen it.

10. Our tendency to oxerestmmate the extent to which


others chare our beliefs and behaviors.
11. Control procedure in which neither the experi
menter nor the research participants are aware of

here none exists

20. Descuf tire icscarch tccnniqueinxrhich a repre


e ot people is questioned
1
sentatx e, random amp

ak or I their aDt ides r f ci ax m irs


21. Depiction of the reationship hetxx een two sets of
coi s fv 0e n of a grapfcd cluster of dots.
t
22. Sample in hi h cx err member tit the ponulauun
h s i qual h ic c I ire . ided
.

DOWN
2. apr nniemLn

wa

htion

arc n
It 0
hwn

p r apaUs
liar

,r,

I L

2(

.Inch mesearcl
th P depe idtnt

3. lw cape o ient, lie xa-rnaoic being wan pulated


invr ctratum
ai .d rested hr ti
4. Rsnarch metned in rrui I. heha- icr is obserxed
and worded in natur Ph Oct urring cituations
v. irhoot ant manipulation or rontrol.
5. \ pier n derinitiun o tf e procec ores isc d to
aehie
derhh, a
jap ow,
ave ,ra iup vi c riies
6

which condition is in effect.


12. Testable prediehon, often iniphed by a theory.

13. Measure that mdieatcs the extent to which one


factor predietN another taetor.

17. 1 xpermmental condition ux

it

hith the treatnient of

interest is withheld.
18. Who i a r starch partr inant s t xneet itions
pi oduce the reults tt an experiment, it is railed a

ofrc

ANSWERS
Chapter Review
The ,\eed for Psychological S fence
1. hhidbght bia or r on both chiidrcn ard adults
2. after the tact

a alt
hal:
a
4

P
a

t(

2(0

0 5

er Iuates er !dtnce and

3.

c u tidc cc I as

4. email-

5.

iu in

urlo.ntx: skeptrisn; huniitx

12

Chapter 1 Thinking Critically With Psychological Science

6. en

al thir king

8. indepenc ci

7. Pentitu method; observations; theories; revised;


bs r itions
8. tiluorl; hi pothe-es; research
9. ip ational definition%; replicate
10. ortzanlzes; redictions
ii. dt muiptit c correlation experimental
Des

dcpei dci
9. maninubte. inuependuri rcacrc dnd. it;
cont 1
r bl
Expernnentadon ha inc 1
d ionic
4 rn atna the
ins esiigatmr cc Pr ii o ho I t let nt Lid iii Icy lit
variabk s that m ph in a e I
it
r
n its
also permit the mx estlga 10 1.
He. 0 0 0 r, ,ittol
and des ipton m tic ci
Ic
1
1 m
in hehas ior
I

nption

1.

Statistical Re isoni ig

a c study

hx pttheses; atx pical

1. statistics

2. data ory ani ;l

tic

4,

ording

it

sid

9. range stard

ii. odaI; solitary; varies

correlated;

negatively

correlated

tc set

4. strength;

it

13. representati
14. lou

catterplots

3 ptn eli

eakness; causation; cause-effect

Its is an xample of a negative correlahon, As one


tat ton Itmme spent studi ing) increases, the other factor
(anx.eti levell decreases,
cdi tcd

15, less
16. sigmfica ice
17. practical

ma x

al

in

Fiequeirtlii Asked Qnestzon tO.. Lit Poichnletpi


r
1. principles lab mr ton A
na r
2.

6. cx cut caused; explanation

cnnti nI;

nc ral p nnc plc -

3. ideas hchax ions attitudes rr.o cm s

llusor\ correlation

4 princ pies

8. uonrnn supersttnu

r at

tic

11. crude is
12, mote acenratc; take

1. con hated; predict; correlation coefticient

10.

Id

10. difference Imeum cem rhe (0cc-c nod hg.-i stoIcs

lotion

rid

lip

7. skexncd mci

0, ds rib

mh P

dtli

6.

8. lou;liigh

9,

Ic

5. total um n nnL r

9. natural sue observation

S.

4. iuodc

are

Corn

mp

3. modc, nidian mea

1
a
isc cunensus effect
6. aniom population; does
3.

8,

ii

etc its
do

in

to

,m.Jit:

6. e tic

s- c

desc

7, %atecuar
p

1.

it

tzon

:cs etfect
1;

Ill
NtatiNtically

tactorn

penn cuts manipulates

I rn ol ing
3,

h.hat iot; experimental effect

4. p ac he placebo eftec
S.

doublet hod procedure


I cut il
i md tom issignumunt
ii

it

holding constant

ci

, d

ntotinid e .o,cent horn p


tec t them lit m harm cc d
mation obtai cd
mr p Ic
It fnlh explain tbe resutirt h
8. do

9. can; enlipht.n
10.

11.

det nut; lts

str cd

12 d. no

im.,

ii

p.,
to

a
-iii.

i.

sc

t
I

t 0 1

Answers

Progress Test

6. d. the ao.sxxer. (p 23)


7. ci. is the ans
(p. 23)
8. b. is the answer. Replication is the repetition of an
experiment in order to do-fermine xihether its
findings are reliable, It is not a research method,
(p, 25)
481
9. c. is the ansxxer.
a., b., & d. Psychologists personal valuesr can
influence all of these.
10. b. is th.e answer. (p. 31)
a. & C, These answers would have been correct
had the queshon stated that there is a pnsiihc cor
\
tQ w
ml tim Ki cc C cm t
all!
at
is probably no correlation
Ii, d. is the answer. in an experiment, it would he
1
possible to manipuicite alcohol consumptioot and
observe the effects, if any, on m emory. (p. 3Cc
a., b., & c. These answers are incorrect because
r
on to d wet co r ting b u C es 0
est can a researcher uncover cause-effect relation
ships.
12. d. is the answer. i. 28)
a. A sample is a subset of a population.
b. &. c. Control and experimental groups are used
in experimentation., not in survey research.
13, c. is the answer. The mean is the sum of scores
dhided by the number of scores. [(2 3 + 7 6
l+4+95+8+71/lO=47.lft3.411
14. d. is the answer. When the scores are put in order
l 2
P 4jc mhrsnn pc.weult ph
4
ting the distribution Ln half. (p. 41;
15. b. is the answer. The mode is the most frequently
occurring score. Becaus.e there are oo,ore twos
than any other numbcr in the distribution, 2 is. the
mode. (p. 41)
16. d. is. the answer. (pp. -i243;
17. c. is the answer. (p. 43)
a. A statistically significant difference may or
max no,t he of practicrd importance.
b. This is often the case when a difference is not
statishcall significant.
18. c. is the answer. (p. 41)
19, d. is the answer. (p. 22)
a. This is the tendency to overeshmate the extent
to which. others share our beliefs.
b. This is the false perception of a relahonship
between hvo exents.
c. 4his is the tendency to believe, after ioarninp an
outcome, that one could harm forescen it.
20. a. is die answer. As an average, calculated by
nd
thom, sn,i
scores. the mean could easily be affected by the
inclusion of a few extreme scores. (p. 411
is

A4u1tip1eCIzoice Questions
1. a. is the answer. In a ease stuciv one subject is

studied iu depth. (p. 26)


5 ier
c
1
zn p o toD
e raarh
b
viexved
C Correlatious ideutify whether two tactors are
rota ted
d tn an exuernuent au investigator manipulates
oue variable to observe its eiieci ou auother.
2. c. is the answer. Exert6so is the variable being
manipuiateo in the urperiment. cp. 38)
a. A control condition for this experiment would
6 e a roup ot oeople o,ot permitted to exercise.
b. An interveninguariable is a variable other than
those being manipulated that may influence
behavior.
d. The dependent x ariable is the behavior mea
sured by the experimenteon-in this case, the
-

effects of exercise.

3. c. is the a.nswer. The control condition is that for


which the experimental treatment (the new drug)
absent. (p. 37)
a. A randon sample is a subset of a population in
which every person has an equal chance of being
seiccted.
b. Tb.e experbnenta[ condition is the group for
which the experimental treatment (the new drug)
is

d. Test group is an ambiguous term; both the


experimental and control group are tested.
the answer. Cc. 24)
4. d.
a. hivpotbeses are testabie propositions.
b. Dependent variables are factors that may
change in response to manipulated independent
varabies.
Stafistical indexes may be used to test specific
bvotheses (and therethre as indirect tests of the
onesi. but daex are meren: mathematical tools,
not general principles, as are theories.
is

c.

3. d. is the anso.er. in this case, the children are he


in.g olasenreo in their normal environment rather
than in a laboratory. (p. 29)
, m
efi wnsm s
lt P
a C
nenveen two factors, The psychologist max later
determine whether there are correlahons
between. the variables studied un.der natural
was

want

to

con

i:,,

UIL,00s.

b. In a case study, one subject is studied in depth.


he nsvcnolo
oct , mu tim of
A
direr tb. controlling the variables hem.
&fiSt
stud ied.
oect se

is

not

wer,

is present.

33

34

Cnatci I ll.nP ng (nfl-ill


3 With Psychological science

b.T

r .i,.
tic
mica rc of entral tendenci.
d. 1ie ;:rjiat. and mode git e equal it eight
% t.3i
oi-: t.tfl tounts only once and its
itt!
I
\
it i
um
ton
.

&

..

1,

j;j
1

tern

L
2 rip -i
(f

6. hp 42;
7. ip
8

1
3.

10. ip 4)

.1,

tjl

11. thp.41)
12. mjp.28)
13kp24
14.np 3)

P gre

Tes

L Itipit

hoic.. .lurst oils

d. ; Lit If arI (Ink epenirnents tan ret cal


aa ttIttt elati shtpv the other m thods can
1
ip (p 361
2 d.is cans cr (
a., & L. t
ii. duh1e-bIiad procedure is one is av to
t a o% cper.ne to! and ii ntrol groups.
-. k
r n ni us ar randoml assigned to
t
c
r
ion ontrol group
d.
e ens 4 i \L mat shelters are forced to kilt
f time-.
many dogs and cats as are used in
.17
?f%c3
1.

-.

it

I
:n

con
on the companson group,
lcJ, d.- .-xpcrniental tieatment (the treat
ii

intt.t

b.

Itll .o..ti

iLt)I

ii

o
be.jn:

35

tt.nin.
a
1
t.I

5. a. : tflt ,..,t s ip
b.IF etc
1
I
t
)

6 It
a.

7. b. ,It

Ot
-

ttkted to lundsight rather

rn
sn
ol
hi ir
in
rtt t txr a
c .i t ti C . i at. the c. red intuition
II em tidi -.uhfrds are u.ed in an
id u
arc 1 ind mh assignecl to
ifftieices dat emere
,a
mud temfrmt[eexpen
r

nil

ivc relafi r

ii

2,

>i

, t mc na

&

it

alsi.nt.

di dl co-Served and measured


ab
th xpeni icnt
hc.
el. mdent anabk, which is

i .1

if
i f
, . d e.W (4 .h -fl. t0nhi% des 1 itt prcc..au
et I
tl[ ,., Lipi tc t4X mmciii

8. b. is the insn r. (p
9. a. is the anssstr. ,p. 42)
b. & c. large random sample aic non. ikel,
berepresenttte )
Ia
t
I
j.
thc.yan dras

ti

10. d. is the answer. Because is r in .Psitive to drd


niatic or unusual in ents. iv- rc espet ial!t likeh
to iwrcei e a dation hip I, s te ti em
14)
a.,b.,&c.lhtitlt
I
ii .
is no more ik h t, be s nice
p0
e.
negative than that bes cen it s- drmtic tn ent...
11. b. is the answer. (p. 2
a.ln tact thc a tific ilti o
pen
its
irt
anmtentionalattenijtb
tea o trclder
ronment in which to tc.t t icoret ca
t pr nciple
that are applicable to alt hehai itr.
c. Some pcvcliJogical than Ic go against whMt
isc. consider ommc i sci
t hut
.
many issues tIitps hot i at
se
a
from clear is h t the commo t ens position is
d. Psvchologt has alit a had ties tc other di-,...
plinec, and in recent times. thee ties ha
increasmg.

lc 1
12. d is the answc r Con? itic srio On
factor can be predic ted from another p 3tm;
a. Because a tase tudi focuses in ceat detail on
the behavior of an mdii idu ii ifs p tbobiv no
useful in showing cli h
rdictrn
possibk
b. \aturalistic. oh-en atton i, a mcthcd of descnil,
ing, rather than predicting. bcha ion.
c. in eperimental research he effects ot nianip
ulated Indepindent sinia 1 s
dep d
ianiablesaremeasur
It
)tc
hci n
peniment could help dcternm.te islsthei IQ tc-.t
predict academic success.
13. b. is thc. ansisin flit intnc ond rn i he ol
inisiichthc natn it i
5
)t
p
iSiOsent p.,
a. Students in the polluted r. cm iuld ti. J
experimental cenditi,,n
C. Preu naN, ill & u lent iii t h c ditior
vu rndmy si
t
r
s
o
assignr c. t is neti
to
tat m_,
)ti.
rather than a condititu.

, it n ti fit kind of anab:e


1
d. The is ord .len n
in expernicnt. conditions
ithcrti, nen
tal or c )ntrol
14. c. is thc ansiscn Ihc ghtir i il tact 1 in
nmatnpulated. (p. 8
a. & d. The-e anncr.. air inctn, a 1% 0-t fhe
usc a pitt f ti-c q .r cr iii
i (1
an Lu C
.,

Answers

b. his ,nsn er
dent vanahie.

tIn dependent not the inclepein

r. is er I re m n is the sum at the


th
o es ha icied hs the univ bet of scores () 10
as p 31)
X\ hen the scores are put in order
1. c. i the isis
A) 8 is at the h)th penentile
8 ,
tilig he dAtrjbution in halt, (p. 31)
18. d. is the ansn er. Since the rance is the difference
be veen the highest and Ion est scores, it is A
aftet dby ext une sores (p 41)
d r t
e nuan an I mode are measures at cen
a. & c.
trei tendenci, not at ariation.
Ii, iThe nanj ard dci ]atjon is less atfected than the
r n ,e c use vs hen it is calc Iated, the devia
tio u cv ii scare tram the mean is computed.
19. b. is time JrlsX\ en Averages dens ed tram scares
vsltir ion x ariahihtv tend to he more reliable esti
mats a the populations tro n vs hich they are
us a and c. are ncorrect. Because the
d r ass n.
-tandar d des iatian n a more accurate estimate of
variahiliti than the range. d. s incorrect. (p. 43)
16

dittorerace tncit Is statistically


the unsuci
d,
s
icCi t Is a true difference rather than an
apaarent difietence due to (actors such as sam
phng ariatiota. and it is reliable. (p. 43)
Matm .zzng items
2)
1.
i (p. 3)
Li (p. 37)
6.
2. hp.24)
i(p26)
7.
3, hI
8 38
38)
k
8.
4 c
(p 27)
.

9. t(p.25)
)
7
10. pip.3
11. i (p 36)
12. 1 (p. 37)

Psychology Applied
A

1, 1 -(ho, c Questions

I. b.

the nwer. A general belief such a th, one


;ithe 1
nw,as
a
A orgaibze. c\piain. and gener

a c
a

s
Tic

is

cAt
uc

s a led m pA escs) uch


vs in
sof drin s A

d. tndepeuderjt and deiaendant s ariables are


1 t atu cuts md I chc iors, respec
Th rin rta
y
I 1 A m I predictions r a As olve such
ti s
.u ahl s hut are not themsels cc those s ariahies.
2. c i- tue iflii en. 3 he members of one ororitv a e
ik is te ran iron nter sts, tr A, a cI attitudes
is a 81 oful
as
s
t
75.
its
Li
c.

a.
L

&

er ho not cpu v
maP ruIat mdc urdeut and de

& h. Ln(ike tpaianients. nirm

A ecI

35

pendent s ariablec. In a sense, survey questions


are independent variables, and the answers, de
pendent sariables.
3. b.isthearswe p.38)
a. Although the descriptive methods of case stud
ICs, sums es s, naturalistic observation, and correla
tional research do not involve control of vari
ables, they nc vertheless enable researchers to
describe and predict behavior.
X\ hetlier or not a sample is representatix of a
popultion. rather thati control over variables,
determines wne tlrer results can he generalized
from a sample to a population.
4. c. is the ansu em. In order to determine the effects
of cafteine on reaction time, Martina needs to
measure reaction time in a control, or compari
son, group that does not receive caffeine, (p. 37)
a. Caffeine is the independent s aniable,
b. Reaction time is the dependent variable.
d \\hether or not Martinas experiment can he
replicated is determined by the precision with
vs hich he reports her piocedures, which is not an
aspect at research strategy.
5. b. is tire answer. pp. 3031)
a. this is not an experiment because the re
searcher is not manipulating the independent
ariable tseating position); she is merely measur
ing whether variation in this factor predicts test
performance.
c. If thc study were based entirely on students
self-reported responses, this would be a survey.
d. This study goes beyond naturalistic observa
tion, isnich mereh describes behas ion as it
occurs, to determine if test scares can be predict
ed from students seating position.
6. d. is the answer. (p. 45
7. d. s the Lmsvser. Selecting every tenth person
vs ould pr )bablv result in a representative sample
of the e itire population at students at the unis er
sit, (p.2i
a. it vs oaid In di tflL ut, if not rmposihie, to sur
s e em ci st dcrit u campus.
h. I sx c a ogs students are not representatim e of
the entire strident population.
c. Thi dflsi\ cS is incorn-c t for the same reason as
I h s vs ould constitute a biased sample.
8.

i (1w ansi en. (pp 3o 32


5
a. C orrelation dan.- not impis causality.
b. Again, a positis a .orre1a (ion simply means that
Ac tactc s ttnd to increasc or decrease together;
implied.
8 5 ift
(irA er e aLa hi
or
not he ins oh ed.
mac
nias
ctr
a
t
c. A sem.rjte
correlated
does not imply
ac
h,,tors
I hat tI e txu
example, be a
fin
rar,
Acre
i
a epai te (a nor.

d.

36

Chapter 1 Thinking Critically With Psychological Science

direct causal relationship between the two factors


themselves.
9. b. is the answer. Psychology is a science because
psychologists use the scientific method and
approach the study of behavior and mental
processes xvi th attitudes of curiosity, skepticism,
and humility. (p. 23)
a. Psychologists study both overt (observable)
behaviors and covert thoughts and feelings.
c. Psvchoiogis ts values definitely do influence
their research.

17.
18.

10. d. is the answer, (p. 37)


a. The low-dose comparison group is the control
group
11. d. is the answer. (p. 46)
a. In fact, just the opposite is true.
b. Actually, psychological experiments tend to
use the most readily available people, often white
North American college students.
c. Although this may be true, psychological
experiments remain important because they help
explain underlying processes of human behavior
everywhere. Therefore, d. is a much better re
sponse than c.
12. d. is the answer. (p. 23)
a. This follows from the attitude of skepticism,
rather than humility.
b. & c. Although both of these are true of the sci
entific method, neither has anything to do with
humility.
13. a. is the answer. (p. 37)
b. Use of a placebo tests whether the behavior of
a research participant, who mistakenly believes
that a treatment (such as a drug) is in effect, is the
same as it would be if the treatment were actually
present.
c. & d. These are examples of blind and
don b1ebimd control procedures.
14. c. is the answer. if height and weight are positive
iv correlated, increased height is associated with
increased weight. Thus, one can predict a per
sons weight from his or her height. (p. 30)
a. Correlation does not imply causality.
b. This situation depicts a negative correlation
between height and weight.
15. d. is the answer. A small or large standard devia
tion indicates whether a distribution is homoge
neous or variable. (p. 42)
a., b., & c. These statistics would not give any
information regarding the consistency of perfor
mance.
1 6. c. is the answer. A correlation that is perceived

but doesnt actually exist, as in the example, is


known as an illusory correlation, (p. 33)

19.

20.

a. Statistical significance is a statement o f how


likely it is that an obtained result occurred by
chance.
b. Overconfidence is the tendency to think we are
more right than we actually are.
d. Hindsight bias is the tendency to believe, after
learning an outcome, that one would have fcre
seen it.
d. is the answer. (pp. 41, 42)
c. is the answer. (p. 41)
a. The mean is computed as the sum of the scores
divided by the number of scores.
b. The median is the midmost score in a distribu
tion.
d. The range is the difference between the highest
and lowest scores in a distribution,
a. is the answer. The mean is strongly influenced
by extreme scores. In this example, the mean
would change from $25,000 to (75,000 + 25,000 +
25,000 + 25,000 + 25,000)/S = $35,000. (p. 41)
b. & c. Both the median and the mode would
remain $25,000, even with the addition of the fifth
familys income.
d. The standard deviation is a measure of varia
tion, not central tendency.
b. is the answer. (p. 43)
a. If the difference between the sample means is
not significant, then the groups probably do not
differ in the measured ability.
c. When a result is not significant it means that
the observed difference is unreliable.

Essay Question
Elios hypothesis is that daily aerobic exercise for one
month will improve memory. Exercise is the indepen
dent variable. The dependent variable is memory.
Exercise could be manipulated by having people in
an experimental group jog for 30 minutes each day.
Memor could be measured by comparing the num
ber of words they recall from a test list studied before
the exercise experiment begins, and again afterward.
A control group that does not exercise is needed so
that any improvement in the experimental groups
memory can he attributed to exercise, and not to
some other factor, such as the passage of one months
time or familiarity with the memory test. The control
group should engage in some nonexercise activity for
the same amount of time each day that the experi
mental group exercises. The participants should he
randomly selected from the population at large, and
then randomly assigned to the experimental and con
trol groups.

Ansners

37

Key Terms

coetficient is a statistical measure ot the retahon

Writng Definitions

Ea,unuvle; if there i. a positive correlation between


air teunpcrature and ice cream sales, the is armer

ship; it can be positive or negatir e. (p. 301

1. Hi dsgI I bias re c s to tfe tendencx to behese,


alt lea nog, an ouhoinc that one is mild hai e
foreseen it also called the I knezi-it-aii ahng
eax r

tp. 2b

2. Critical thinkng is are ut reaso ring that exam


russ ass mph i is, d scerns nidden x alues, evalu
ate ci idcnm, and assesses concuusions (p. 24i
3. A theory is an explanation using an integrated et
ot in p es t r it on antics and predicts behas
uo inc cots p 24
4.

\ hypothesis is a testable prediction, otten im


plied he a theory; testing the hr pothesis helps sci
entists t) test the theory. (p D5)

Lx iph Th order to test his theory ot why people


contorm, Solomon Asch formulated the testable
hypothesis that an mdii idnai would he more
hkely to go along v ith the majority opinion of a
largc group than is ill that of a smaller group.
5. A operational definition is a precise statement
of the procedures (operations) nsed to define
research uriahlos (p 25)
6

Replication is the prc cess of repeating an experi


unent, otten with ditterent participants and in dif
terent eutuanons, to. seC whether the basic finding
generalizes to other people and circumstances. (p
)

7. The case study is an ohserx atuon technique in


tudied in great depth, often
n hich one person is 5

with the inteuhou of revealing universal princi


ples (p 26)
8. The surrey is a te.huique tor ascertaining the
self-reported attitudes or behar iors of a represen
tab e. random sample of people p. 2

false consensus effect is the tendency to


9, 1
or erestimate the cntcnt to n hich others share our
hA lets ,nd hehar ior.. up. 251
10

\ oopulatior

ins sts c ( 11 the members )f a


.28
ucd

(higher) it is, the more ice cream is sold lf there is


a negative correlation hetri ceo air temperature
and sales of cocoa. the cooler (lower) it is, the

unore cocoa is sold.


14. A scatterplot is a depiction of the relationship
henr eeuu two aniahies hr uneons of a graphed
cluster ot dots. (p. 311
15. Illusory correlation is the perception of a rela
tionship is here none exists. (p. 33)
16. .\n experiment A a research method in which a
researcher directlx manipulates one or nrore fac
tors (independent raniables) in order to observe

their effect on some behar ion or mental process


(the depend curt variable); experiments therefore
make it possible to establish cacuse-effect relation

ships. tp. 3o)


17. A double-blind procedure is an experimental
procedure in is hich neither the experimenter nor
the research participants are aware of which con
dition is in eftect. It is used to prevent experi

menters and parhcipants expectations from


intluencmg tire results of an experiment. (p. 37)
18. Ihe placebo effect occurs when the resu Its of an
experinrent are caused by a parhcipants expecta
tions about what is really going on. (p. 37)

19. The experimental condition of an experiment is


one in which participants are exposed to the inde
pendent variable being studied. cp. 37)
Example; In the study of the effects ot a new

drug on reaction time, participants in the experi


mental condition would actuaih receive the
drug being tested.
20. The control condition of an experiment is one in
huch the tre atment of interest, tin independent
xi ithheid so that comparison to the
experinrental condition can he made. p. 37u

is

variable, is

II, A random sample n.e that rs renre.entatir e


tiecaasc ci err member of the populatuon ha. an
eq at .h i cc c being inch ded p 28)

Ic 1 is control condition for r experiment


testing IF t efle ts ot a new drug on rc actuon time
xreuld he a group ot parhcipants giren a placebo
hnactir e drug or .-ugar piiiiinstead of the drug
being tested.

r ung and
ob
r
he 3
3
o
4
12 \atrahst,c oo3ervatuon c

21. Random assignment is the procedure of assign

npfc

reLcrding hehax ior in natnralh occurring situa


0 n v. ithout tm ung to manipulate and control

thc situ t in p 29
th xt
in snrc
dat on u
13 C
rr toeturer and Au.
tx, o not, e

it
ot

to whic r
hon well

ither faLtr predt R the other The rot ntiation

is

irrg participants to the experinrental and control


conditions hr chance in order to minimize preex
isting differences betrveen those assigned to the
different groups. (p. 371

38
2

Chapter 1 Thinking Critically With Psychological Science

[hr independent variable of an experiment is the


ioctor being manipulated and tested h the in e
tigator. p. 381
Era a 3
1L In the studi of the etfects of a neis drug
cu r action tunc the drug is the independent
variable.

23. i be dependent variable of an experiment is the


facrer being measured by the mx estigator.
(p. 3S
I a : In the study ot the effects of a nexx drug
on rca non ume, the participants reacuon time is
the dependent variable.
24. 1 he mode is the most frequently occurring score
in a distribution; it is the simplest measure of cen
tral t ndency to determine, p 41)
25 1 hc mean is the arithmetic ax erage. the measure
ot central tendency computed by adding the
.score in a distribution and dii iding by the num
ber ot scores (p. 41)
26. The median another measure of central tenden
cx, is the score that falls at the 50th percentile,
cutting a distribution in half, (p. 31)
I vaniole: When the mean of a distribution is
affected hr a tew extreme scores, the median
i the more appropriate measure of central ten
dency
27. The range is a measure of variation computed as
the difference between the highest and lowest
scores m a distribution. fp. 42)
28
he standard deviation is a computed measure of
nx much scores in a distribution deviate around

FOCUS ON FOC4BULARYAND LAVGUAGE


Pi I
to niucdu tluir cccii aees, millions turn to
psx chologv. In order to alleviate or fix (rcrncdic)
tr ir miseri, anxiety grief, pain, and sutfering
pcoplc seek help from psx.cholog
i w h)
gx is in quotes because Mx ers rs ants to
on that not cx err thing you thrnk Ot as p.r
chok gu is part ot cientiiic psvchoiogvo
.

d for Psychological Sciencc


helps Oiii?iOt sense from nonsense.
means to separate out and was originallx
used to describe the separation of chaft (dust, etc.)
r ri t
grains of wheat. The scientific method
ort out or separate I ainnema), good ideas from
hoc) ene
I)

ene people think psi chologv merck ,c


,ii
7
at pc c he alrcadx know and clrcs is it am ii
)c c c criticize ps ci ologv, saving that it
Urt . a,, C) cC rmon wnsc or xvha,

the inca i. B
misc
L
c
ci
c cc
the dkrrihutmen, it S ,, mccc
ccc in .saie of
x a notion than the cci ccc. p 3.2
29. Statistical sigr ifica
rcsul s h s hc

Ii

)tL

ages for hr c saml

xc

lsc

eEc

difference rarhem P an wa;h io


chance fat tow, I cN it siamsil
help rcsearc[ e s d
gencr h c fri
r

Ic ix

mh

ii

,
30. Culture i tIm c nc
hax
tudes. and traditi,.n sharoct hr
people arid rranurcttcd n. n

tilo

C
Ia

,tt

is

cIIe or

-cncat;mrc

the ncxi (p. 1

Cross-Check
ACROSS
1. median
7 theory
9. mode
14. case stud,

DOWs
tt

4. na

ist
c1

6. critical ttx,nccirmg
8 hi
glm

mean

19. mllusc
20. sun cx
21. scatterptot

10

d,
12,
13.
17

22. random

Ich 3

IrT.cie-ms
cor ac
co

ohm ious h cxc


3
plainly, the critic suggc es
information into the spw aha, cc

uiarx of the 1
dcmp
i
nc
makcs it xc
tIc
this rtci n is
intu t ins [out r

(thex can icc .2

0:

Rip ,h2Iha

ear.

frc

xxitt
ott

a
ai1,

eric
a

outc

Pa
aakm

1/

mac

Exams

Em

I.[

)
x

th

Pscrin t,c,
1

ike.

itis

arc icr t.x


sk
tl
dc in the cc an-c cf tIe i ccc
tirst hoot an aa, thcn d
ci F
arrow C in the .n itt r cc iw
appear to bc cccx
\1
cur
u
to illustrat hc xx
e u
all i1i i p/a mo/c;. 1 ,.ai 1 u t
arc shrexxd Ic!O( and
m, s,

predict

ciOc

1
J,iYi.t

i,

15. range
16.

hut

3m

hat r

,r.

ci

ii

i
t

fi miii

Ic,

4,

ai
t
4

;,z

1
Ii

X ocabuiars and Linguage

Focus on

adorn remount 105 e has e opposite


iirst one sucgosts that is hen couples
1
be
tn aniras.
*
e ess Pkir U think
t:f
e
arc p
P
a.x enther are
cc
,t
ai
of
hr
atoitc
tegethen Flit second saving maxes the paint that
being eparaLd lactic, inreaes the teehngs of
fAir).
fOt
U
i.t F
san
lovtth ci
P r pie ho e tr d tha the rest ts of a studi sup
port the tint txprt ssion (eat or 4t ciit ci n;idi see
torn non sens Pt Opie tom that the
Lii as
rd
s
s ot t
is
p ss on Es c iakrs
10 i also sa this is oft iouslv true.
tic itt. i. ncr
there is cicarlr a problem here; reh ing on omrnon
sen e t i lea it npost condo ons

expressions

-;

or

hag. 21

died- cic,,it.
haed n. mont

tni P i in tel us that ft ni//a Ito


2 hi expression and others are

sual tnserx atlons hut

are often

e, s it rue ti at the better von


ixrcr e Icr nat
ct/ia
so
ifwl, be n ore likeh it is that
neo e 121
Lnr w
von xviii dislike th
0 person Liar e nircaipti? in fact.
research sho r s t at the opposite is probably true.
(f 0 n xt ia h i d again viii c npnasize the fact
that our common ense anti intuition do not aixi an
pros ide us with reliable ci idence.
meins to stop
I
cc inc
dra
P g
gr g t class irid to Ii xc v )ar r ne rc m red from
th class fist,
Us

Lack/ask, origi
add sPa iOn am
rightness or to be
n
c do icmr i
dud ,f,,dnfcr us 2/cHaos Ott forecasts that are usu
ailv n rong. As \lr er notes rhoc xi ho made them
ti ose v ho r red endcd tr be r x erconfident about
fore dl a tuur Along irith hind
th i a i r
siout bras, fun ns erconfideice often leads us to
overestimate our intuit;ons.
Pa 22

alsi cc s hrst a/aid /iczdcd


idc
2
Ice! ,ndt. here me, ns to he practical,
it, j 1,,
unsonipruinIinc. 1. ltd. or ursxvaved hr senti
m t A sr itt n I ho s heir gy, is guided
she aF ut
sir It
a
e tr
h
rata,c a 2 /1*.
1

Tb abeliefinsumcthing
ucs
son
at rd p

e
r at he r her o t (hId or lift after Li ath,
ho s
ton exatneitu aaniI ho ann end hr science and
tcs lot e s i! nh pio td it dispros d; it a
it
tic ass U trust and
C,
I
prst

L!/

ca,f,Jo,co alone
nbc

It

ros

1,
t

rime qnaiits

This comes
n
U
ii
2
cc t55 I IV ra tst ir
a
if ihe dt sseni ir,,,!,it;:,g; fs Irs tog

0,

it (nltzng). I iken we, many quetiens, or tat it nh.ex


a-. can
appear to make little sense Li -o:: t;c
be tested usir g t it sd ntitic itt d

Tn itn a a bight alert sni


Pae 2.:... aunt
ect. Some he it\ C tiiat
1
roto ding a tgurc or an eh
humans has e auras v nth nI, t iost w itf xt a sea
fa d
i it
sory abihhcs sa set F c nn ia
2 ods
proposed a snnple test of this cloies. ho. rn
!

who w alleged to have this niagisai pen Ot i,;,ei


has taken [hr tes

cc I ti4
uen role gctes
I c 23 More often, 0
The use
idnts to the nacuiai,i of fornotten clatms.
ot scienttir inqtsits can get ti I ot n d spose tO
g /n
(ic/n fain) nr n sensi it conrrp s C u ni
to the large stack oi pde ftncu in. u or rdicu Otis I
,

claims no longer remembered.

\n sta
Page 23 In the anemia of romp tin id s
at
ccl
i
etit ns
d
sport
ies,
gar
is an area where
an
area
tint
in
suggesthg
is
take piace. Msers
katie
idoas
ecu
contest
xx
bet
a
is
(arena) where there
ptting ideis), ske ptca testrn, ca hci dis mc thc
truth.
.

thee so UOu/i Ac ,iar-c r,p tdcac, This


Page 23;
means that we has e tt gis e up m x rid ot our
fs
aLl the
ideas if they are shcxsn to hr a r
has e
liunnhle
(s.c.,
aamsc ret then a Tb e have to he
hurnilitvv
,

it

raly

39

j//

P
s ea 1
x a
ght
a nat is a/ POtts
Page 23.
phrase used as a maxim or puidi ig princip em c as
from the fact that for most of the tinst half mO thr
tirentietli century psi chologi osed aniniai- in its
H e i
research (especialix n thr s udi of I i u
became a sr mhol ot this research, and its hehar ion
or performance in cxpetiinents dem.onstnated th,o
truth. If thr truth as st oxen hr the no is c tnanx to
) te
n ire i
the predict o i or hyrotl tss,
hi,unlale about it anti Irs another it as

Psc 24 Tb e all x ion atnre tbo gb o /


h
is
n
ih
/ li
on pn
5
list
,e en
al cads ho tie
amid to sonic extent dereitnints, vhct n
t ugi
and actoalls see n dis or nr Ie chute P s
t
t
r Ci 5
tu rift
n hat v e can see.

;sit eta
H
r spot ses ( h
itise neactio s
tluiroc determd ii g r hether i ontl smor
silnplv on a suhjoctir opinion
01
51 ietO toiL

dote (a sIt IS
s ide it
i

cc;

.,

ii

fljs

At

re

sE ed
on csPa c
nnaii st 4ntd-i

cc.,

to

itt

itt

Ia

yi

pr ( tba sLientifiL
a J nqitr have ir deed disc rediif
am anpu tar presumptions.

a d

ir

t.

,a

Mi

a!

oh

toe

If
aCe

onaCRalloi sos
shoir o er and cver again.
Op

ap

oa r helps u -itt reahtv


,
r tin a) attitude can
m rahat is not and take
1
real ft

it

in

at

i(a

Ian

an, a Inn,
u

and
Ibis is

at

ip

acc.Iitcd 1:
Idea that hid
rcatae tan he arcurately and reL
I
F
a
rt t and ompkte in

aa

r
1
nt nemo tes

a n

I
c

it

P a

c impa

atitr a ni est ihhshed dear per

ii

a y Wilt I cchologicaI SCent

id

limitst ot our helief,

mi nor scnse.

licscri;tion
a ,iLn
and tar tote
F
I
arc aftc i or ear helmed
ted p,,nlasil hr the sometimes
in- Pti -orrate u-- of ta t/StlLS and numbers. X\ e are
r o
a I
ag encd (-P at) by the strange
,

1
-

--

at

A- n-n hotogat Cordon Ailport ii934, p.

Ian
tvotni

0)

Za,-3i bi ot [dramatic] tact, we rush


a
s
a
a ib it tliimblcis

1 a tame wh ch nts our tIn top ot the


r-nm and
used while sen ing to push
t u ire di in no n tIc m iterial and a tub is a vera
p
r
r
I F poif is sating that
\i
,-eo
10,
rrforrnator, (a fI,iitjh,cfal)
-te it P to o-A \ cr1
asoniptions Kc;ien/Ii:a
a ta I)
i-ti

01

a
n-ui

-r
i_ti

IH
a mm ran pled people, dran n
a- of
a atm pror tde a remarkablu
rae rprnions ot a nation. A ,,1r
it
r
a
d te ptures
ii.
ma. it i al\c am mcnt in time. it
a a
na a Ar ;at rr-retiiaaa
n
to air
is z q -ii tl o the
I)
t
of t
s tic
-

--

--

its

Muer note

Ito

scm

war. all of the aho e

rr

kIy

hot orost people pick Ill lEt PH. 1 ,ken in ant ,eno-,
of fire playing cards ie.g a hndge or poker Iiand n
a game of card ) is )nst a lrkeh s r c tf r I nd
--

Iage IF: ait baints


hut aa;dc
In this cot

1
text, WoK and cold do not reter to temperature.
Here being Irot (or hau ing P tar
i can don p
ii eli arid domg n eli tOO N a tI
F
iii a 1
streaK I tax ing a run ot poor 1
u5
n and tteak
-J he crucial point, htm ever.
that orrr ntoition
about sequences of ci er t (- eak r
cal pa
terns) otten deceh s us ii c r
1 r cot seq m nec
often are trot rairat n t thins rh-x shmrdd he, and
thus, they dont apcar to be reaiiu rtndnu IF hen
we think were doing mci ( o P
e
-e
often not, we are mereh roti
or ret mterp clii
certanr sequences t,taki found n anu random
-

--

data.
Experinwnta P on
Papa 30: Lets Rerun. Recap is an ah-btex manna of in
pitulat, ii hich means to r peat ir
or m brie l
snmmmrize Myets ,umrm mm
rp
t
ft
ps

taut point u each

setiln of ne hapter.

tatfstfca1 Reasoning
Pap at I Of thu
a alP u utl hr ii

i:

a-

I a--,

Xinuh
innhrg
r pt tn
a toa dat and no ihc

tisti
guess I tIc Pg mc tr
r
nnf-I, and these grimes d -iu
it or, eat tim P a
nature of things ithemtte p a
-J
if- i ,-Oid CLa
r
seqoentit an dceei c it
I
oh
I
1
h
urea gcneied
tin mao r r ci
t

tnat Pa

a
Li-i

t
ds

I
-I

LI

01

0
a

s s ii hat the tuft tS/r


i
it I
iF hen Inviting at an arrar of data
-t- a at ama sort
e h- height and
r
s P
c
lit icult
ill
(I
a 1 i IL, ips \Ist. Statistical
ill tviCtlr 0 oetfir w,
t ann the stat
1
p -l
at air nh
th ont led

1
i

-i---

-I

a
faangnp ibcnit
r d
t
c
t
usnalh has tire nnprint u 1 th tae I a rn-a j
c go
0
son on it---- eg.. the president or the qoeen----is called
I aid (II) and tat ot er s Jo s dh Ito
it. hr the

Corn

Page H: It omeone flp -1 a a a m run


n ricO )t
the follon i H sequent t s
c d
t
I m i
nould he most likels: 11111K II r I I 111 II cm
Ill IHHI till Photo
- a aa mean rhi on ing or to-
5
ing the conr into the air a id of rotA rg v hich sid

i a,

C,
sod,

tnakc It ee might ii t see


tines naed tattsti da
Front ot us.

olate, such as lii patent or t pea cot


:auiu!ei t and. n hen apeated
I bci entnallt be b lie I ta bt
a
r
arc u i/ I
Cu
/
-

if

0
-o

ther

ma

3
,
1
p

came

-ii

tit eau

re the

thu

Or

0
o
tam C-h
a

ol rmpi.

th

t
tr

Ii

at

Focus on Vocabulary and tanguage

c inc I bntish pu Ic, I P most people er err


n nru iak less than the mean. Incomes are not
noin;ai;x d-tributed then do nor follow a hell
s t ed rr e r hen j tted ; a frequency distribu
ncasr e c entral tcndenct tha r
te t
tither the medim
ic me (nthr mdc a;eragc)
in the middle) or the mode dde most tre
uP
ucentlv ocurnng scorer in \lvers example, halt
a nut for P percent ot all the ntcnev
ft per

is

scete

r tr

ccu;tr

(1IHI

in

zkr)inthis

r r c t en .ca disttihutoi therefore, most pt ople


earn heion -at erage xmges.
it standard deviation] better aipe
i
P
r i titer s on are packed together or dispersed,
nformation ron; caP score Dabte
bcc
I Al. I be iriost onituonlv used statistic tor measur
ing (pu4ip I how much scores ditter trout one
another itheir variation) is the standard deviation
n ths formula, each store is compared to
(5)
rhc mca thc r suIt is art index of hon spread out
(d,ct cJ) the scores are. A relativeh small SD indi
cates that niost of the scores are eloe to the a; erage;
a relati; eh large SD indicates that they are much
tore a table

us use

Data are IIoIsi/. Dift rences between


Pt c 4
groups rc,y siritplv he due to random (:/Iancc; ;aria
tiens (Sit tnat:it) in those particular samples. When
d ta hat c a great deal of variability, they are said to
n hrch may hunt our ability to generalive
bc n
no u I c n to the larger population. In order to
determine it difterenes are reliable, we should he
sure that (a) samplcs arc ranciont and mepresentatn e,
(b coms in tfe sampie are similar to each other

41

number ofh
Rn c Ion satiability), and (c) a largeif these
principles

jects or obser; ations are included,


are followed, we can confidently make inferences

about the differences between groups.


Irequentlzj Asked Questions Ibout Psychology
t(ai$L 1:1. in this context, plitIiye in means
PaCe 45:
to mo; e ahead quiclcix with tire discussion. (Simi
lark, when yori dire into a 5w mming pooi [plunge
.

in] you dc so quickly.) Before going on with the dis


cussion of psr chotog; fp rIiIgiIlg it), Myers address
es some important issues and questions.
Page

Jo understand how a combustion engine

4cr

works you w ould do better to study a lawn mowers


engine than a Mw ccdes A Mrredes is a very complex
luxurs ear, and a lawn moaer (a machine for cutting
grass in the gardeni has a vert simple engine. To
underlying both
the principles
under$and
machines it is easier to stud; the simpler one. Like
wise, when try ing to understand the nervous svs
tent. it is better to strtdt a simple one (e.g., a sea
.

slug) than a complex one Ia hunran).


most universities today screen research
48:
Lthies corn
proposals throagh an etni anntif fee.
tn/I fees (groups of people concerned with moral
hehat ior and acceptable standards of conduct) sub
ject research proposals to rigorous tests (screen thetn)
to ensure that they are fair and reasonable and that
they do not harm the particrpants welt-being.

Page

also lot the facts. Our values


what we believe is right and true) can influence
(eolei) our oPen atious, interpretations, and conclu
sions (the tacts).
Pap 48: Values

can

Neuroscience
and Behavior

CHAPTER OVERVIEW
Chapter 2 is concerned with the functions of the brain
and its component neural systems, which provide the
basis for all human behavior, Under the direchon of
the brain, the nervous and endocrine systems coordi
nate a variety of volunta rv and involuntary behaviors
and serve as the bodys mechanisms for communica
hon with the external environment.
The brain consists of the brainstem, the thalamus,
the cerebellum, the hmbic system, and the cerebral
cortex. Knowledge of the workings of the brain
has increased with advances in neuroscientific
methods. Studies of split-brain patients have also
ghen researchers a great deal of informahon about
the specialized functions of the brains right and left
hemispheres.
Many students find the technical material in this
chapter difficult to master. Not only are there many
terms tor you to remember, but you must also know
the organizahon and funchon of the various dhrisions
of the nervous system. Learning this material will
require a great deal of rehearsal. Working the chapter
review several times, drawing and labeling brain dia
grams, and mentally reciting, terms arc: all useful tech
niques br rehearsing this type of ma teriai.
NOTE: Answer guidelines for ad Chapter 2 ruestions
nrce Rh

bpcnn rn

objective by answering the fill-in and essay-type


questions that follow it. As you proceed, evaluate
your performance by consulhng the answers begin
ning on page 59. Do not contmue with the next sec
tion until you understand each answer. If you need
to, review or reread the section in the textbook before
continuing.

Introduction (Pp. 5354)


David Myers at times uses idioms that are onfamiliar to some readers. If you do not know
the meaning of any of the following words,
phrases, or expressions hr the context in which
they appear in the text, refer to page 68 for an
explanation: to sheet a basketball; an if f:tated the
ory; a wrong-headed theory.

Objective 1: Explain why psychologists are con


cerned with human biology, and describe the ill-fated
phrenology theory.
1. In the most basic sense, every idea, mood, memo
ry:, and behavior that an individual has. ever expe
rienced is a

phenomenon.

2. Th,e theory that hnkd our naental abilities to


bumps on the s; kuh was
3. Researcher::; wbo study the links: between biology

CHAPTER REVIEW

and behavior are called

First, s kim each section, noting lacadings and boldface


items. After you ha,v:e read the section, review each

43

hapks2 Neuroqdence and Behavior

Neural CommunicatIon

6. Idet tify lit w


grammed beloti:

(pp.54 61)

1k ou do not kntnt the meaning of any of the


o ow ng words, phrases, or expressions in
the context in ishich the appear in the text.
refer to pages
for an explanation: happy
i i r building- Hocks a slui h 2 miles
ei i.uv to. . . a brwknetk 200 or more mtks
.if 1w, !itc nanliok cocerc liip;niig open: bt-1es:

a i a I icc pusliin.,
4 a ncurors atcekrator
!zk pushing 11% brake: (ba 1o we .I4i iguish
gc ilk touch, from a It hug; protoplaii;ic kiss
runner s hit rhcy trigger unpleaca it fin

o
,,

z .fte;effets Aqonists excite.

Antaviiists

c.
d

a.

s,hlit: onie LIwmzcaI can 4itlier through ff

b.

It thU barrier

7. Ihinet alnrp se
Objecthe 2: Explain hoii dewing each person as a
b op chosocial system helps us understand human
behaior and discuss why researchers study other
miu is m e irch of clues to human neural processes.
1. We are each a

ia

bt

4
1
ar.s

., :ctticl:

aat tracli cwi


8. The fluid

interior or a

i.$Thg .wn
fit

a, fits

t
)
charged ions, whie the f Gd utside I .i a
po%tL h agtivI
thargdn.. It ft a
t ,
a
it
tj

system, corn

cy

poscdof

thatarepartsof

larger

, which are parts of an

en larger

because the eli

Id

2. viess mg each person m this way allows psy chol


oghts to stud) behavior and mental processes
from multiple lei els, noting how

and
systems

kn action PC tential cuir st r


the axon opt is 1 ge es id

et

(positiseh negatneh tha:,xd .t,yI.. jirJ


causmgtha part t i es
t
it

lit

-r.

is ork and interact


Objtctive 3: Describe the parts of a neuron, and
npiain how its impulses are generated.
3. ( ur od

mural s stern is built from billiins of


ntrivs.dils or

4. T

10. Durmgtter%tit pa
potential, Cal-ed dv

-it Ia

(.1

ten1ons of a neuron that re en. e meages


frem ether neurons are the
1 t.

charged

Enn%

11. Iiordtr

tr

c,ut-,tIt
r

tIit

inter sits cal cd thc

tion tc- other neurons is the

1ncreairga .tim1kt-

,whid
ntlin. peed thy neurons impui-4%

1 .e txtension of a neuron that transmits informa-

insulated hi a 1atr of fatty cellc called the

.-..

bi;n.

some of these extensions are

ib.

th

neural impulses nterl%;tl 1


allcd ir
W%pufle

x
t

a je

.!
C)

t Vitflfl

45

\eural Communication

influences mor

12. TIn stienath at a stimulus

do areu I

thcsp

tc

ennt,

emotion

learning, attention and


witch be

mood. hunger, sleep, and mousal:


i hel ) c
5
tvhi
Obiectn e 4. Desct he hen nor. a ceils
13.

mc

communicate.

co oisiscclleda
gap is called the
the
and
ins
V(

d scot en a a- ma e
n ii r ass an rs that ons c y inforrnm

14 Th -F
tim ar,oss ,he gaps hetr ten naurois are called
These chemicals untock tim
cc eptor tes all nn g eDt trica Ely
cha toe s
Ito enter the
chargto atoms t
nt uror

av

x s ndh g neuron in a process

called
sc u ice ot cacuor that ccur when a
urpu;se is penerateo and transmitted from one

Outln ti
neurat
neuron

di

ness and arousal,

k nrC
0

an mlnhtton neuron ansmttter u hoe unuersup


d rw iu
ph is hnked to sewn es te a
a hich A mt on ed in
and
,

mer tory.
17. A neurotransmtter that
ontraction s

is

impt atam

ifl iii

uscle

18. \aturaih occurring opiatelike nourotransnitter


1
that arc r resent in th b am r i e
Vt hen the brain is rlooded
witf drugs sueT as

ean
it mar top p:odncing H t

15. \curotrannntters influence neurons either by


their
c
readiness to fire, haness neurotransmitters are
reabsc

to another.

neurotransmittt rs.

Objective 6: Explain how drugs and other chenbcais


affect nenrotransmi sic n, nd des nbc tF e c )ntr st
ing effects of agc nists aad a taon ts
19. Drugs that produce their effects h, minbci-dng
neurotransr itters e e tiled
Drugs that block the efttcts of nerirotranmitters
by ocup ing tf eir
are called
u

hdeceriar

an

temporart high he mtnti ktng th tndotphin,


pr du sFaral
thepoison
tr of the neurctrancmh
sis hr blocking hhe actix 1
\ I

ter

,ia

20. the molecul tr shape of sn e drug mevenc

g through the
pass
n
them from 1

hr h-J ho
o t u tv nted

Obcc

ir

Ar, ad aH no the
)rp ii
ii
he

hehar

16. \na-,n,, the

,i

itters affect

tO cm of metc ichnii no and

an transntitters that researcheis


I

at ich

Tices

an i

icr ea s

21. [ne tremor ot


duett edeat il r r Ia
rotransnutter
this conditi u e i t be he ad t g
over ther mase h takini,

d -c--e
d
Pooh-ic
n

)h

ii

The Nervous System

pp

ot

tO 0

I nO)

d phrases,
h if

0 H

dn

or expressions

icc

tan

aft

if Mhiaa

I
IV

ii

Object xc

I a

bit

en

ns

dix

V nuts c us

stetr pr

it

Duct nbc and exdlan the seoeen


lion that octit rn the hoUr a- ,P
trc nted nd he nas s,

at

phx

c ot

cal

C.c

incrpi ml is cOn

ttx hodx torm

Objective 9: (ci trast thc rip tts I


t
xxavs xc ith the n inpltxitx of n 1
ura xetx cdx
10.

\utornatk repones

IRa h
1 mx n -hai ord trnpnse the
x
ytctn the
hnk the bra rn and -pina i cord to the
1
S
ho
list it ctphr
Oit mies, and glands form

ti

tt

5tinrnh tailed

,dln

II
2

Oct

15100 or the a u too em

1, di

ad lix cxxx Ous stc u s txx o rna jot


xl
r ti
t pes t nc urons that
cn tion thn ngh the sx stern.
tug

autonenc

tU

1 a nn
I, amn

cnan
(_

that

it

a aaes

9. The

r in the text, rcfer

I r

in tire

e the

nc iv ins V stern

in aea ung if any of the

rnv

ac

h V

nd B havar

ft
Sininin

pathxx avs such as them

nit inc

ed hr tf e

response and in the

ref es.

nt x ou
a, tis r.

sy stern

motor axon are bundled into electri

ii dx

4, t
u rr ;ti a
U xg m the central ners 005
ten t. -i hed Im els in

lix

os cx cteIr sen0 instructions to


dx -t-,alx meansot
xi a

eat

P civ jerks his or her hand ama tron an unexpected

Vt-

or is. Iturtutons that


rnere-, mmun,cation xx ithin the central
r a
in
x
led

ix

ci son reflex

lx hot burner on a stoc e.

Beginning cc ith the ctx iii t


it
trace the course U a spin I it f e m a

11, To pcrforrn corn lcx

the brain cluster into xcork

ncu

gliup

taiitd

r is

Objentvc
I i

xl: 1 iexai

n;bh thon of the ccii her


I
xi dx
run ti ns.

ti

ct

Ut

r
a t

dx

ix

it

pmmia0V00xsicin

urti

the Rotetal

iii

The Endocrine System

lp

01-11

tee

e
ii

u hr e rns s nest t t
a It ot intert al otans are

it ou xr tkn x
a in n
ny It
t I xxx g irds ph st
pi
o
in
xc
context hr xx hi ii the acorn iI the LxI, rtcr
tc pagc 0 1 t at ex ana in kit:)
I
C ti
i5
I
11
t
c/a;eaa:f/::-ar:<:.a1tn: r,UIc. a

Objective 10: Destrihu tht t ati t at It tic


endocrine vtern and i V intera dx m cx tn the en
system,

1, lht
1

t,t

Cr

Ca

rl5

hr the

a lied

dx
tIte

rU

in

tt

if

47

The Brain

I hic s stem tr msmits information through cheni


i xl n cisc ige s a lied
(faster islower)
a a iruch
raw than the nerx oiLs system, and its effects last
cr tme a shorter
0
(a lon
tinie).

injuries or disea5es.

The Brain (pp 67 92)


If x ou do not knoix the meaning of any of the
ing words, phrases or expressions in the
a infect m xx h ch thex appear n thc text, refer
to pages 7f0 72 for an exptanation: tee dee in oar
wad act nzi oir(Orap/iors ciloe on 1/ic alessagos
nid a, o dror a 1 (hr Izntln of bill ns of not
e6ed to
w
1
ran; the zgtt side of t
Snxanatii;Ko;
a aindo tate the anal
d proude
in h hi s
a wf ff1fO1/if
;.ato it Otto; J hi- p. ,/tOY a
oflmi

fl-H

Jfza
t

o rile

HL

;it;

000

at

0)1 [0?? 0

.1 ohm t

4. \ techiuque that produces clearer images of the


tields and radio waves is
brain by
using

know ix

magnetic

as

5. By taking pictures less than a second

apart,

detects blood rushnig to the part of the

the

cortex

thought to control the hodih activity being


studied. Using this technique, researchers found

that atrmmtx increases mn the


people expereimac cot (ha ting

11:0 Ii1Ot Ii,i,t,i-. 00

Cal)?

00

Li liii) that he hti


lhrr nadarr

(1)! .iaOlfOt(

dtt,, 1.1,1-?-!
H

Briefly explain the purpose ot the PIE] scan.

a;t;t ni.:i:,.;

hr
in
f
,a Ia tIn hiac of Ca had
0;a,:oto
e,oek; fnntai Lho i apt arod
id. pod a 0
I i Vi rut, p rkz a
i id

3. The technique depic ting the level of activity ot


brain areas by measuring the brains consump
tion of glucose is called the

when

n4lxn
c ileC ioettz6

:0, OOia 0;

epa;

is a recording of the elec


2. the
trical at thitx of the xx hole brain.

i anon towo;

the brain mx olve


of patients with brain

and

l\ rite a paragraph describing the teedhack system


th t links th. ners ous md endocrine systems.

Lag

dngcr the

3, I cmmt itli nt a] gland is thc


uhich, under the control of
ar id]acerti n a ea called the
helps regulate
and the release of hormones
b other e xdocrine glands

to

1. Researchers sometimes studi brain function by


or by selectively
producir
destroying h am cells. The oldest technique for
studi

I a r )mc it
g ands rekast

hr

Objective 11: l)cncrihe several techniques for study


ing the brain.

,.,

;inf

Objective 12: Describe the components of the brainstem and summarize the functions of the hrahxstem,
thai mmus, ard cerebellum.

6. 1 he oldest and innermost region of the hrahm is


the

Chapter 2 Neuroscience and Behavior

48

7. At the base of the brainstern, where the spinal


cord enters the skull, lies the
which controls

techniques, have been used to treat violent


humans. This treatment is ontro ersial and

Just abor e this part i the


which helps coordinate rno ements.

(widely/seldom) used toda

8. Nerves from each side of the brain cross over to


conncLt n ith the bod opposite side in the

16. Below the thalamus is the

which regulates bodily maintenance behaviors


such as

is

contained inside the brainstem and plays an


important role in controlling
Electrically stimulating this area will produce an
animal, Lesioning this area
will cause an animal to lapse into a
10. At the top of the brainstem sits the
,which serves as the brains
sensory switchboard, receiving information from
all the senses except
and
routing it to the regions dealing with those sens
es, These egg-shaped structures also receive
replies from the higher regions. which they direct
to the

different regions of the


15. Amvgdala lesions, produced by

and

9. The

14. Aggression or fear will result from stimulation of

and
fhis area also regulates
behavior by secreting
that enable it to control the
gland. Olds and Mimer discovered that this
region also contains
centers,
which animals will work hard to hax e stimulated.
17. Some researchers believe that alcoholism, drug
abuse, binge eating, and other
disorders may stem from a
genetic
in the natural brain systems for pleasure and
well-being.

and the
Objective 14: Define cerebral coitex, and explain its
importance to the human brain,

11. At the rear of the brainstem lies the

It influences one type of


and
memorx, hut its major function is coordination of
\ olu ntarv m ovenren t and
control.

18. The most complex functions of human behavior

are linked to the most developed part of the


brain, the
This thin layer of interconnected neural cells is
the bodyc ultimate control and

12. The lower brain functions occur without


effort, indicating that our
brains proc css most information
(iflidc. utide of our awareness.
Objecthe 13: Describe the structures and functions of
the limbic s stem, and explain how one of these
-tructure. controls the pi tu ita rv gland.
13. l3etween the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres
is the
system, One
Luniponent of this s\ stein that processes memory
i the

center.
Objective 15: Identify the four lobes of the erebral

cortex.
19. The non-neural cells that support, protect, and

nourish cortical neurons are called


exidenee suggests that these cells may also play a
role in
and

The Brain
the cortexes flower mammals, the

20. ( rm red

human cortex has a


s rio ther tic)

rc rinkled) surface. I his

c 1

thebrain

a.

C.

b.

d.

Objective 16: Summarize some of the findings on the


functIons of the mutor cortex and the sensory cortex,
and disc u s the imp rtan e of the association areas.
22. Electrical stun ulatmcn of one side ot the
LOl tex, an
rcgar

hack

attIc

of

arch-shaped

the

lobe, rib prod nec mci ement

on

the opposite

side of the buds [he more precise the control

in

area of

27. BraIn inluries may produce an impairment in lan


Studies of
guage use called
people with such impairments hat e show n that
is
ins olved in producing speech
is involved in understanding
speech, and the
is involved in recoding

greater) amount of cortical space occupied.


Research tindings from studies nt oh ing
hich

Objective 17: Describe the fix e brain areas that would


be mi olred if you read this sentence aloud,

(smaller

needed the

some aspects of personality. In the

lobe, these areas enable


mathematical and spatial reasoning, and an area
lobe enables ns to
of the
recognize faces,

overall surface area of our brains.


e fou

the human cortex is of this


lobe
type. Such areas in the
in
and
are mi olx ed in judging and plannhrg.
ot

it creases decreases) the

21. 1 stt

recorcfim1

49

printed words into auditors form.

28. Although the nrinds subsystems are localized in


particular brain regions. the brain acts as a

electrodes are niplanted in this

animals brains, raise hopes that people


na one dabeable

whoae

to control machinesdrecth with their

Objective

18: Discuss the brains plashcitv following

injury or illness,

29, The quality of the brain that makes it possible for


undanraged brain areas to take over the funchons

23.

parietal I ihes lies t re

runt of tf

\t th

of damaged regions is knoxi n as


This quality is especially

cortex, which, when stimu


ated

apparent in the brains of

hcit a ser ation of

24. Ihe mare sensirn e a hods region, the greater the

(young children/adolescents adults),

30. Although most severed neurons


I

chdt

in response to efamage. \exr

t nnaf:un n reL en ed mu the

23. \ isoam

lobes

hreas andm turn

ii, n don recDr e sensory


r
cc roserle tbut, rather inte
r u atm
rate au c.1 :ILerprcf in)rnaatun recei ed by other
s

hr

idence seiggestN that adult mice and humans

brain cells in two older brain regions; research

lobes.
26. [rca- a ti

cS

lean eann li generate new

Irs

-elui

iv II will not rege erite neu al tissue can

ar Kim n as
pp

xi

alsc rer eak tire exitence of master


cells in the des eloping fetal

brain that can der elop into any type ut brain cell.

50

Chapter 2 Neuroscience and

Behavior

Objective 19: Describe split-brain research, and


cxplai r how it helps us understand the functions of
and ight hemipheres.
31. Because damage to it will impair language and
understanding, the
hemi
s rcie came to be knonn as the
hemisphere

flashed ii the
herr spire mm I ae
and r ion a cut a I
36. Deal peoy

m hr
nia

me

hi

ed

!itt

ii

dI

t a

tl

amahamc

maii i,

Objective 20 l)iscuss t
a La
I

iliof limp

m a

B Ba

org mi/at
37. In alt

cuiture ot the mmoma,

a-t or tmc iom in

populotio- i
I gio
handcd,(
a
(play do not plax
h3,B,tss has
roa
handedness ha hi uOimuia B 0m aiiB
ear

a split-brain patient, only the


hemisphere will be ai are of
an unseen object held in the left hand. In this
aasc. the person would not be able to
the object. When different
mm ords are shown in the left and right visual
feIds, it the patient fi\ates on a point on the cen
t rr linc between the fields, the patient will be able
to say only the word shown on the

us hr

sphen to proic s sg i I

32, In treating several patients with severe epileps\


Cl iLd Bugen separated the twu Ieinispheres
of the brain by cutting the
When this structure is se
r d the result is referred to as a
33.

in

nearest

38. l\ idi age, the

pen eO
Oc
1

cit a

dc
C a iC

contmomcrsi l C

p1

rat

em

(up)

younger age than then r a


ldentifm scm c ii h a I
more Iikelr to ham e m vne

lent 1 Cl.

I xplarn why a split-brain patient would be able to


rcad aloud the word pencil flashed to his or her right
visual field, but would be unable to identify a pencil
0 touch uing only the left hand,

PROGRESS TEST

IlultipleUzozce Questions
34, X\ Hen the two mmdc of a split brain are at
I
t a
hemisphere tries to

hat

doent understand, 4 he
hemisphere often acts on
p k t I his phenomenon demonstrates that
mind
an / Lan not control our behax ior.

tmnanze mm

it

35 1 sea rchc rs studying undii ided brains


(ham e ham e not) found em i
denia 01 hemispheric speciahzalion. which is also
cd
I or evanrple, pictures
am cit gnizd more rapidlm uhen them arc

Circle yo m an m e
cheJr tim
m a t

to F

em , ii,LTtO P a
t
r
isnnomueataoti 1

your anmm

mmlrm ut
poe

s ot

ans s

e I

ii

at

J in
1 can
ana Bra
B

,n

ml,

1. fire axon
Ia em c I fat
irussi in,

ot e
5
trir uaau

Ii s
i

tiSsUt,

a. the giia
b. the mmcm ,bath
c atyl
Ii

d, an end mphir

II

rc
at

mu,,,i Pm

It

Progress Test 1

2. 1 Ieartaeat di,csiin a, and ntf er scit-ic gulating


hndih finlctions are gos erned ha the:
a ( Iunt is nrs nus

a.

I,.

or

c. a

mpa.aetic

nit \ tein.
ci, s nat fle

in

stem.

ncts ssstcm

ds nit n uf the au.nnnmic new


iii

3. A -tronu timnias can iiictea-e the


a. raced a tl inipuise the ie iron fires,
aoulsc th r air nfres
i
t e
ins tier turn a fins
e. i u nbc ra
d. threshold that mu-t he reached hetnre the

neuron frer
4.

f h din a ittid ass a ni hc attribut


he r am
able to the tact that:
a. under the intluer e 01 herr in the brain ceases
xrdu twa endcrgf s.
b. under the nf1uene nt hernn thc brarn ceases
prnd uchon ot aH neu rntransiuitters
1 her in withdrawal the brains prnduw
c d nm
a rota a isn atters
is greath
r a of
increased.

ci. herntn destrecs endnrph:u receptors in the


hr in
5. The hratn research technique tnat invuh es mnnb

to ring rho brains u-cige of glucose


jar

bb

tn

is

called tin

)tic

lfG.
\lRl.

e.
ci.

a. If T scat
b. tAll-il.
st

it

ts

ar

farfcd

tins

Jo

a. 7u..rwen ii dii
in
st

,nsrh A n h charged tour


ide
I h A is

ni unDo onti ti I center for


can-ti i rhA re iatieu A nr:narih attributed
st
in
re n
1 hr
in.
h am
hit a tc a,
a, , 1
d. cerehei!un.
b. rot,t,r turoatioa

7, 1 iriuh tacit

nenrnu
h. interneurnn

rr ntot

neur a

neuron
ci. intemeurnn
tie rirnu

,aecttnra

irt rut

so asnrr

sic
inn

sr l-nfl

on

nec ron

rs
oe
svl usua a
9. Damage tn
lose the ahilita to conaprehond [aaguanr.
a. the angular gs ms
b. Brocas a ea
c. Werr icke s area

d. frontal lobe association areas


tnntrt e I ha

10. Which nt If c fnllnas ing is typica I

the right hemisphere?


a. language

b. lea flied a niuntars muter ems


c. arithmetic reasnnt g
ci. perceptual tasks
ii. Dr. I-ternandez is studs ing neurntransnutttr ah

nnrmalitie- n dc pressr d iatic


a:
mnst likely describr he. self
a. persnnahta psschningist.
b. phrennlngist.
c. psychoanalyst.

a. She

ulc

ci. biological psychologist.

If c ax )fl
jst
a. drpnla wed, with mnsth negativeh chaiged
inns nutsade and pnsith eta charged inns
t side
It (Si wAy charged
t1 n
zed
b. d
iOJ c.uisdr and ;regath eli charged inns
inside
harged
run 1
c;at el.
it
I lb I

6 ha

8. Which is the correct scquen r in ie tr asia


nf a simple reflex?
aiuterneur in
a. sensnre reur n

neuron
c. sensors

sIc

51

12. Iho increasi g roar picx ts c

mi nais eiaavor

accompanied ha a a):
a. increase in the size of the hrainstem,
b. deereae in the ratio or hrahi to hoda i5r giat.
c. increase r the ze n thc ron al h a
the nit tat nt assr ath ate
d. mrrcase
13. \ ciuntaaa rnrr errents,
art
I
pe ii red

uri us s. rA

i,

a. stufathe Icuc snrssss

art.

b. -atuati aera no -a stem


e. parasamf athot c ne nu
ass s
ac
ci. an mr

a st in

ta iH gent rate action potcatiab nnr


often when it
a. rear Am beD t s tI esfr d.
b. mcci; es an eacitaturs input.
c. ret cisc naore excitators than trAhiro
t apu a
a itt
rc
at
ci sstnul d

14. A neuron

CF

IS.

ft h
o

lit

cc

the
11

rmt sequence in the trausmssion


rd

b. fher are more cicancut in women thor

id

c. Most compi
tis s t cl rc
(If One or tile other emiJN ore
d. ilust c000pie\ aeti ities emerge
gr fled dcliii x 0 I iti cii

c.

,tmt

lb

aon

ttl

dde

rd 8th vior

it

Ii 1)111
siflcps
ecU hodi
s\napse
dendrite a eH boHr
V
\ 10
m}fl ipse

ssttinrrs

produed hi

endocrint

iii

men.
h
tron 1
r

e rote

19. Cortical areas that are 1101 Fi :nlarix unr ered


n th seusoil motor, or iarguaee turet-em ale:
,

t. a mitt rs,

I i,
a
H
L
an
u er
a.

b
18.

h 10

d.

injuri
,

eti/imes

a person has ongoing


Mcst Ii e1 thc dam

C.

reticu tar tormaton.

cerebellum,

1 h nkhq C I I tOhl: Based on research, which of


to muon On seems true about the specialized
11

In

ot

ri

1K

a
b.
c.
d.
20. In

11

thd nm
o s,

called projcc on a c
called association rta
located mostly in the ar;etai iob
iota ted mosth in tht tt mpur Ult be
the brain

strengtben

lear

certain

rig
ecu
ciraectton

en

in

ccli murk

nc

groups called:
a. action potent al.
b. uenral networks.

dcndrite-.

d.

I r I Id hemispheres
C incut i r men than in

i,[t 11

or nones

,It

\L,u H c at h stractrre ol tec unique u jIb its corrw


rio
1 ritita 01 d scriprion
,,

Stoic

hi

Junctions or Descriptions

1. o potIaL,nu

4. t\H4[
5 tern-Ha; ;rnat;on
H
6
ha nu

8.

L(i1i calosuni

riO

I
IL no

thU 1

Ia
Ha

a. amplified recording of bran n ax em


b. ted nique that uses ra I
ix
e
ad
fields to image brain i,at it
C. series as sensori snnchholru
d. contains reward centers
e. trssne destruction

f. technique that uses

ache nat

fields to mhow brain frintlirin


g. helps coutrc l ai usal

Ii. H ksthc cerebra c i p


i. influences rage and tear
j. regulates hteatbng earl hr
k. c iblc Co rdir t H

s
IC

beat

Ii

in c;ue it

Progress Test 2

PROGRESS TEST 2
Progress Test 2 should be completed during a final
chapter rev;ew Answer the following questions after
von thoroughly understand the correct answers for
the section reviews and Progress Test 1.
Mu1tipie.Choce Questions
1. The visual cortex is located in the:
e. frontal lobe,
a. occipital lobe.
d. parietal lobe.
h. temporal lobe.
2. Which of the following is typically controlled by
the left hemisphere?
a. spahal reasoning
b. word recognition
c, the left side of the body
d. perceptual skills
3. When Sandy scalded her toe in a tub of hot water,
the pain message was carried to her spinal cord
nervous system.
by the
c. parasympathetic
a. somatic
d. central
b. sympathetic
4. Which of the following are/is governed by the
simplest neural patinvaxs?
a, emotions
in physiological drives, such as hunger
c. reflexe,
d. movenrents, such as; walking
5. Melissa has just completed running a marathon.
She is so elated that ste feels little fatigue or dis
comfort. Her lack of pain is probably the result of
the release of:
C. uopanune.
a. ACh.
d. norepinephrine.
b. endorphins.
6. Parkinsons disease involves:
a. the death of nerve cells that nroduce a- vital
ne urotransinitter.
in impaired function in the right hemisphere
on iv.
c. impaired funchon in the left hemisphere only.
d. excess production of the neurotransmitters
ciopamme and acetylcholine.
7. The technique that uses magnetic fields and radio
waves to produce computer images of structures
within the brain is called:
c. a PET scan.
a, the PEG.
d. MRl,
b. a lesion,

53

8. The mvelin s-heath that is on some neurons:


a. increases the speed ot neural transmission.
in slows neural transmission.
c. regulates the release of neurotransmitters.
d. does a. and c.
9. During an achon potential, the electrical state of
the axon becomes:
a. polarized, as positively charged ions are
admitted.
b. polarized, as negatively charg-ed ions are
admitted.
c. depolarized, as positively charged ions are
admitted.
d. depolarized, as-;- negativeiv charged ions are

admitted.
10. The neurotransmtter acetvlcholine (ACh) is most

likely- to be found:
a. at the junchon between sensory neurons and
muscle fibers.
b. at the junction between motor neurons- and

muscle fibers,
c. at junctions between interneurons.
d. in all of the above locations.

11. The gland that regulates body growth is the:


c. hypothalamus.
a. adrenal.
d. pituitary.
b. thyroid.
12. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are
gland.
are released by the

a.
b.
c.
d.

that

neurotransmitters; pituitary
honnones; pituitary
neurotransmitters; thyroid
hormones; adrenal

13. jessica experienced difficulty keeping her balance


after receiving a blow to- the back of her head. It i
likely that she injured her:
e. hypothalamus.
a. medulla,
d. cerebellum.
b. thalanrus.
14. Moruzzi and Magoun caused a cat to lapse into a
coma by severing neural connections between the

cortex and tI-me:


a. reticular formation.
b. hypothalamus.

e.

thalamus.

d.

cerebellum.

54

Chapter 2 Neuroscience and Behavior

15. Research has found that the amount of represen


tation in the motor cortex reflects the:
a. size of the body parts.
b. degree of precise control required by each of
the parts.
c. sensitivity of the body region.
d. area of the occipital lobe being stimulated by
the environment.
16. The effect of a drug that is an agonist is to:
a. cause the brain to stop producing certain
neurotransmitters.
b. mimic a particular neurotransmitter,
c. block a particular neurotransmitter.
d. disrupt a neurons all-or-none firing pattern.
17. The nerve fibers that enable communication
between the right and left cerebral hemispheres
and that have been severed in split-brain patients
Form a structure called the:
a. reticular formation. c. corpus callosum.
b. association areas.
d. parietal lobes.
18. Beginning at the front of the brain and moving
toward the back of the head, then down the skull
and back around to the front, which of the follow
ing is the correct order of the cortical regions?
a. occipital lobe; temporal lobe; parietal lobe;
frontal lobe

b. temporal lobe; frontal lobe; parietal lobe;


occipital lobe
c. frontal lobe; occipital lobe; temporal lobe;
parietal lobe
d. frontal lobe; parietal lobe; occipital lobe; tem
poral lobe
19. Following a nail gun wound to his head, Jack

became more uninhibited, irritable, dishonest,


and profane. It is likely that his personality
change was the result of injury to his:
a. parietal lobe.
c. occipital lobe.
b. temporal lobe,
d. frontal lobe.
20. Three-year-old Marco suffered damage to the
speech area of the brains left hemisphere when
he fell from a swing. Research suggests that:
a. he may never speak again.
b. his motor abilities may improve so that he can
easil use sign language.
c. his right hemisphere may take over much of
the language function,
d. his earlier experience with speech may enable
him to continue speaking.

Matching Items

Match each structure or term with its corresponding


function or description.
Structures or Terms

1. right hemisphere
2. brainstern
3. glial cells
4, aphasia
5. plasticity
6. Brocas area
7, Wernickes area
8. limbic system
9. association areas
10. left hemisphere
11, angular gyrus

Functions or Descriptions

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.

j.
k.

controls speech production


specializes in rationalizing reactions
translates writing into speech
specializes in spatial relations
brain cells that provide nutrients and insulating
mvelin
language disorder
oldest part of the brain
regulates emotion
the brains capacity for modification
responsible for language corn prehension
brain areas involved in higher mental functions

Psychology Applied

In the diagrams to the right, the numbers refer to


brain locations that have been damaged. Match each
location with its probable effect on behavior,
Beharioral Effect

Location

1.
2.

3,
4,
6.

7,
8.
9.

vision disorder
insensitivity to touch
motor paralysis
hearing problem
lack of coordination
abnormal hunger
split brain
sleep/arousal
disorder
i. altered personality

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

PSYCHOLOGY APPUED
Answer these questions the day before an exam as a
final check on xour understanding of the chapters
terms and concepts.
Multiple-Choice Questions
1. A biological psychologist would he more likely to
ctudv:
a. how you learn to express emotions.
b. how to help people overcome emotional dis
orders
c. life-span changes in the expression of emo
tion.
d. the chemical changes that accompany emo
tions.
2. The part of the human brain that is most like that
of a fish is the:
a. cortex,
b. limbic system.
C, brainstem,
d. right hemisphere.

3. You are able to pull your hand quickly away


from hot water before pain is felt because:
a. movement of the hand is a reflex that involves
intervention of the spinal cord only,
b. movement of the hand does not require inter
vention by the central nervous system,
c. the brain reacts quickly to prevent severe
injury,
d. the autonomic division of the peripheral ner
vous system intervenes to speed contraction
of the muscles of the hand,
4. In order to pinpoint the location ot a tumor, a
neurosurgeon electrically stimulated parts of the
patients sensory cortex. if the patient was con
1 which of the follow
scious during the procedure
ing was probably experienced?
a. hearing faint sounds
b. seeing random visual patterns
c. movement of the arms or legs
d. a sense of having the skin touched

p.

I.

set

9.

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58

Chapter 2 euroscience and Behavior

24. flU llflt. scrks


25. endocrine system
26. hormones

41.
42.
43.
44.
45
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53
54.
55.
56.

27 aduialglards
pitutangaid
lesion
electroencephalogram iFFGi
P1.1 p&l c i emiss on t mow aply scan
MRI n4reticr s nan e maiig)
IMRJ (functional MRIi

28
29.
30.
31.
32
33.
34.

branstem

35
36
37.
38.
39.
40.

medulla
reticulart i iatioi
thalanuis
cerebellum
limbic cystcsi
amygdala

hypothalamus
cerebral Corte\
glial cells
fron lobcs
parietal lobi.
occipital tubes
temporal lobe
noto cortex
stnsc n oitcx
association area
aphasia
Broca s area
WerWckes area
plasticity
corpus callosum
split bra n

Cross-Check

As) ov lamed in the Prolopue,


reiieis up and overlear ung of
material are imporlant to the
learning process. Afteri OU
ha. e written the definitions of
theke. tcrnsir this chapter
you should comrletc thc cross
vord punle to encure that ,i ou
can reverse the process.
retogni.ze the term, gi4en the
dcfi iibrn

..L.

L.

3 The division of thc nen ous


si ttr tha o, castle
CIa
IlL.
ial
dtc
bcdt sen.e receptors.
nuflJe%. aid gland-,.
6 lot ted or tie-.idesor*
br
it
bcsc tal
I-ic
itt
res hic
ffj1 .flfljtifl

II

j
1.

-i fl

1-

I-.

1
j_...

L.
-

----I

!1I
I
.

IZ

:
.

:-

...

._.

,
-.

ACROSS

reter

11

[1

Is

troni

the cars.
.
lauted at tw hack ot the
fror allobc thepar of the
cork. that cc lirc.I 4olun
tan ..flemQflt
9. 1 x cited joI behind the forehead tlic.e Lobes are
in ci td ir ptikiv.; and mLIde univ. tncnt, and
1
juarrIrt
i.
is

12. Gland, that produce the honnone% epinephrine


id no cplnephtint

59

\nswers

ca cd it t xc I rain tern, this :tructurt controls


breathing and heartbeat.
hc thin outer ckX eriug of the cerebral henrt
)hc c
6. lunD tn bctxvec tht ixon tip of the sending new
ron and th dendrite or cell bodx ot the recen ing

14.

ft

25, Lxtcr xi

a tl t

et

nds rnpnlses to

other xerx ccci Is or to in Iscies or biands.

ANSWERS

neuor,

1 ed twrding )f thc xi ax es of electrical


17. \
ctix itx ot the brain.
19. Destruction of tissue,
20. 1 x h ique that t sts inagne tic tields and radio
i n dn c computer generated irnages of
xx c
hrotn ctructurcs
22. Located at the hack and base of the brain, these
boa )nt i x the x isual cortex, which recen es
r fo natic r lrc rn the e es.
t the limbic sx stern mx oh ed in regula
The
part t
23.
thr
enrotions of feat and rage.
finn ot

6.

at d b tn eon tht front il and occipital lobes,


t
u
se obc a ontarn the sc nsorv cortex

DOWN
1, I anbi system structure that regnlates hunger
hirs and both emperature and contains the so
calicd reward centers of the brarn.
2. 1 arge band of neural fibers that links the right
rd

3.

4.

5.
8.

lx mispheres

ochninue that rxeasures the lox cia of actix itu of


ixirterent areas of the brain hx tracing their corn
sumptiun or a radinactix o forni of glucose
\c nral impulse gcnerated by the mon ement of
ositn civ charged atoms in and out of channels
in tire axons iuemhrane.
\eurotransnnttc r that triggers muscle contrac
ons
brnxple, autornabi. inborn response to a ensorx

tmu1us.
10. )ough rut shapcd neural stern that plays an
r po tan role x thc regulation of cmotion and

basic Dlix iniugicai dni es.


11. \auaai auarehke uouretransmitterc itnked to
u ntr in Op asia
he pc rig a ra cm ous sy stew that
x
3,
0
tb
tirrols
bands and the muscles ot tntcinal

r.
I

cx ui at con nur ctnnsxs


ix
o
xds that ac 1
ete hotmones
us
tug
f
gL
s
m,
bloodstream.
iah the
0- brain and pinal ord coliectix el are the
r C rams st stcm.
.

2t. in in pant ient lar guage as a result of damage


n anx of sot era] ortical areas.
4, br rum an than ortical neurons these cells
nipr
xc ft tii ci
I
.ehn.
m
r
tr
nsulahng
and
Jc raft
Cf

Chapter Review
Introduc icr
1. bin ugira
2. pincnoiocx

3 ho gic

Neural Coinniunit ution


I

ha si tF wot

l;

h c

5 axon un hr

htatf

gic

2. hit

3 ft nxs; sx stem
so r I -r ultural

it x 5 tm,
qt

3. neurt ils

4, dendritcs
6. a.
b.
c.
d.

dendrites

cell hoda
axon

rnvcl n Ixath

7. action potential, axon

8. negatn ch postivcli: r tin pon that selechve


lx pcrnac ale
positix
clx; depolarized
9.
10, refrniory per d; a isitx ft
11. cx tab rx inhibit rr, I resf ) d; xi ill not; all-ormu no
12 does not

( ap)

c
xi apt c
13. sir ps
Sb errin 0-on
14 nenrotransmitters has
15, cx itng rI

Sr

(harles

akc

\ neural tnipnisc a gencrarcd hi cxc ita to; x cignaic


minu inoib,rorr sc-nek oa,edru a certain thresh
ft
iy
thc dend ites
0ft
air
I
ol
ct r ill ra smit
to
dx
I
Pc
c rOn I
ted in a au oi-nc tash;t do n the length ot the
ftn. rca Los the end of
n
axon. hOe Or 5
s
It i c orarsmit
r
a
n
c
txc at
left or gap
ptic
r
a
tht
tot
aset
mc
ar
r
ft
between two neurons. \curot;ansnuer molecules
bird to rcccpom tes or the 0- ndmite of ma irhboring
a nhrbitomx
c I tc
r
a
nouror s n
gcnerate its
is
nx
o
that
tend
nt
urn
or
influentc
own neural inputs.

16

dt

air

m
I

r.

att

i,

di

17. acctx !rhnlu, AC h.

)tc

it

in

tar

it

ga nma

60

Chapter 2 Neuzuscience and Beha br

18. c
19.

ph

oroir

g sts
u re

cc ptc r

norpnine
stes

ntagonsts

opates;

ste uhich brain areas are most active as a person per


formN various tasks. This provides additional infor
mation
on
the specialized functions of various

20. blood-brain bai ncr


21. ibrkire-on

dop,inhno; -dopa

egions of

c a

Jlsj

em

4. MRI

xous sini

I, r

3. P1-I scan
B} depicting the brains consumption of radioactively
labeled glucose. the P1 I scan allows researchers to

the brain.

(magnetic resonance imaging)

2. con;ral, nerirhrai

5, functional MRI; anterior cingulate cortex; urges

3.nt,vts

6. brainstem

4. s

at;

7. medulla; breathing; heartbeat pons

near r

8. brainstem
6. a

9 rcticular formation; arousal alert (awake); coma

Otic

7. autmomft

10. thala m us; smell; medulla; cerebellum

8.

si

nipathehc

11. cerebellum;

9,

H mnr

ho tic

in

nverha I learning; balance

12. conscious; outside

In v pit ti Ii i n f tIe autonomr nerrous


svslo i ocow
am orisc d in responsc to an emer
gencr. Tho pin Diologicol changes that occur include

accelerated heartbeat, elevated blood sugar, dilation


ot artedes Hit jig of digestion and increased per

spira o

to ct I the H ft hcn the emergency is


O c
) a r ipa neti
nc rx ous s stem produces
ho on s to I ssical r a ions.
10. rofiexeD; srinal cord; knee-jerk; pain

13. limbrc; hippoc ampus


14. ann gdala
15. psychosurgery; seldom
16. by pothalamus; hunger. thirst, body temperature

(or sex); hormones; pituitary, reward

From scosori receptors in the skin the message trar


els iii sonsor nourons to ar interncuron in the
pin I c d,
I m tu n ictixtes a motor neuron,
Ibis r
t u
auso hc nusclos n the hand to
contrc and tf porscr lorks his or her hand away

17. addichve; reward deficiency syndrome


18. cerebral cortex; information-processing
19. glial cells; learning; thinking

fron to.e h,at,


11. mmnra riru,ori,s

Ito
I.

ii

due s

2. ,c(rcai.

3,

to; r
ton

i;cc hunt

vv;

rnnncs sio to

a longer

noiopinophrino

ot:a, ,os; grcv th


P
ii
ra
luc
socr ti r
it
I
es it cr
to
i ,n
nd c
t h c
,ar
oleasc hornioi c that infltm
COt C hh
toa lb
t itt pthaiamris rnonttors these
H nenistri and th,ereh3 adjuts its
e ha n- in
inputs
H .e ptwtart.

h 3
I,

a,

2. ft

-,

i-s

;m ,a

Ohse

:cphhararri

Pitt

20. more wrinkled; increases

21. a.
b.

frontal lobe
parietal lobe

c.
d.

occipital lobe
temporal lobe
22. motor: frontal; greater; neural prosthetics; para
lvzed: thoughts (or brains)

23. sensors; touch


24. sensorx cortex
25. occipital; temporal
26. association areas; tnree-tourths; frontal; parietal;
temporal
97,

aphasia; Bro as arca lVermcke s arca; angular


rr s
28. unifrcd uhcic
29. plasticity; young children
30.

ii

ill not; reorganize; can; stem

31. left; dominant (major)


32. corpus mHosum; split brain
33. right; namc; right
l lo n ord tCii,
a hen flashed to a split-brain pa
tent ripht visual field would project only to the
oppo-.ite, or left, hemisphere of the patients brain,

fl..,wel-s

Because the left hemisphere contains the language


control center of the brain, the patient would he able
to read the word aloud. 1 he left hand is controlled by
the right hemisphere of the brain. Because the right
hemisphere would not be ai are of the a ord. it
would not he able to guide the left hand in identity
ing a pencil by touch,
34. left; right; unconscious; can
35. have; lateraliiation; right; left

36. lett
37. right; play; primate
38. decreases; left
I eft-handers are more likely to har e e\perienced pre
mature or stressful births. They also have more
headaches and accidents, use more tobacco and alco
hol, and suffer more immune system problems.

Progress Test i
?s4ultipleCho ice Questions
1. b. is the answer, (p. 59)

a. Glial cells support and nourish nerve cells,


c. Acetvlcholine is a neurotransmitter that trig
gers muscle contraction.
d. Endorphins are opiatelike neurotransmitters
linked to pain control and to pleasure.
2. b. is the answer. The autonomic neri ous system
controls internal functioning, including heartbeat,
digestion, and glandular activity. (p. 62)
a. The functions mentioned are all automatic, not
voluntary, so this answer cannot he correct.
c This answer is incorrect because most organs
are affected by both dii isions of the autonomic
nervous system.
d. The somatic neri ous system transmits sensory
input to the central neri ous sstem and enables
roluntar control of skeletal muscles
3. c. is the answer. Stimulus strength can affect unIv
the number of times a neuron tires or the number
of neurons that fire, (p. 56)
a., b., & d. These anwer are incorrect because
firing is an all-or-none response, so intensity
remains the same regardless of stimulus strength.
Nor can stimulus strength change the neuronal
threshold or the rmpulse peed.
4. a. is the ann er. Endorphin.. are neurotransmit
ters that function as natural painkillers lhen the
hod has a cuppii of artificial painkillers suJi as
heroin, endorphin production stops. (p. 93

61

b. The production of neurotransmitter other


than endorphins does not cease.
c. \eurotransmitter production does not increase
during vi ithdrawal,
d. Heroin makes use of the same reLeptor sitC a..
endorphins.
5. a, is the ansuer. The P[ I scan mersu es gluc )sc
consumption in different areas of thc hi am ft
determine their levels of actix rt\ (p. COl
b. [he IMRI wmpares \IRI scans taken less than
a second apart to rev eal brain anatoni r d I n
tion
c. The EEC is a measure ci electrical activity m
the brain,
d. MRI uses magnetic tields and r id o vi ax cv to
produce computer-generated images of soft tis
sues of the body.
6. d. is the answer. (pp 99 96)
7. a. is the answer. (p. 2)
b. Ihe reticular formation is linked to arousal,
c. 11w brainstem gox ems the mechanism of basic
survival heartbeat and breathing, for example-and has many other roles.
d. 1 he cerebellum coordinates in oveni en t cc tpu t
and balance,
8. c. is the ansu em. In a simple reflex, a sensory neu
ron carries the message that a sensory receptor
has been stimulated to an interneuron in the
spinal cord. The interneuron responds b activat
ing motor neurons that a ill enable the appropri
ate response. (p. o3l
9. c. is the answer. Wernickes area is mi oh ed in
comprehension, and people xx ith aphasa vi ho
have damage to \ernickHs area are unable to
understand what is said to them. (p. l)
a. The angular gyrus translates printc d vi ord
into speech sounds; damage vi culd result ii thc
inability to read aloud.
b. Broas area is invoked in the phv ic pro Ice
tion of speech; damag vi ould xx vu i v ti e inabil
ity to speak fluently
d. The cortex.. asscsiation areas are in Hi ea m
among other things, pro essing I rep ige
damage to these areas wouldn I spc if a r I eel
comprehension.
10. d. is the answer. (p.

a. In most persons, Ianguagc is prmarilv i left


hemisphere function.
b. Learned mci ements are unrelated to hr-mispheric specialization.
v
ft
c. Arithmetic reasonuig is c r em 1
sphere function.

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a reriorransmirfer mx oh ed

\Ch

a,

)i.

nt

I The fhaianitts rd ix s
appapri tI lIt c of
c.th hxxofahrt i
lotion of haiL dot a anti

in IUSCm

a eu itt ns 1ff r I xrhed in


onnii fhiei tinnps. motor confiol.
i
idren I I rir na
p ii
p
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raced to xei rr raseol a
I xp

i1r

i.

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:npn

ocia

sr
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itt

t.

is
Jot
aiousal na 1u noOcttIOI,
01
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p Ii
scparxfitxl fir
p o
c
cc
s
e
h. c. & II. \
11
es
a,
a
arOnai lOt IxrpotJaiana
xc
i
to
d
tI rst sex iai be xx
a
hi
a
y,
ft damns s a n so a ax I.

It)

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n

is

ii rs

Jr am

that pia d cice

ot bra] n rrsrie

cc

auses the
p.

dopamine. i

an

rhe
a

cnsr

cit

an

pcdi flex of

nifri

i nr ttcrs

a, n.

Ole an-

ix

ot

tin

er (p Oi

CN tile insv.er.

(pp.

ft

lit

fr

fix

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to

a. & c Seaorx

iS

neunlns
us te

a e
t
n

and inferneurons do
tber

not

trm tar repntate body

[he

II. d. ft the astx Ct

secrtronr regulate toe


gtaxd (p 66
)thc
m
r
h ii i(
le c
by the anto
irenal
are
stimniared
land
a. Inc
and
cpimphrine
iease
oar it r r us x
rex ft anu ome of

ifs

st0n

ft

ill

b. hr

tin
ii

i.

12. d.

1a
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if

is tilt

or

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re

or

11

to

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band poirices a hornume that


it
r in 0
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c
rftio

ft -hiiian, n aniefe- (be pitr:farx hut


t
clx gaf
i
aOclxer. Al
or

it

xx

fix tot rdinatir

CO

pr p Fur
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c

itO

as

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r

i
x oirintaix

aoren. tnt

nih

or pm phrira
aa gl ids (p
c

nxoxedin

niust nat

mox e

in

I(n

ott

ml

tO

.:

oOioa1i,

:In I

at

ii,

ai

ft

of

it

16 b,istheaxcx
P1
if Or r :0
a. Abuse of rertain dmgs, stP
have lxi ft d
c. Thrs descrhes he Aft 0 i th o1.
a a so.
d. Drug, do not hace this arm.
cf

),

rr
c
e If
p
17. c s the an
iift.
and Art
I
e5
h
1

idxing
,iuurai
of
hand
ctx
oun
fiic,
xc
A
isp1
cc
hen
rebral
o
,
t I
sum i it ffccr txp

the ansxxer Tin, frontal fthe o iii lit is at


c

r i
thc brnr hst huh I
(1
ift
1
f Jr r
ore:prtal lobe jt ot ted 5
head and just boon the farefa p.r. ext ft bIt
s
r 1
n f
00 iprtd ib
the temporai iota. i p 701
19 d is he ans cci I ft xor r ed n t as
I xlv .1 r
PInt c ( agc, tWIa .0 hi to
diane such changes n prrsooalf p N
r
p f
a. ft nxi e t) he x r 1
font tnns nix x in foe cci ur x a
rA tout,]
h. Dana;e to the temp ra 1
hriarir
c. (lccipi(aI damoge ni

18. d.

o arrxtterthat
t or tI colltr action m uluee fibers when
tJO
tinriided hr motor neurons. Ibis function
I

inn

&d ilescref rtefi starr


c or

p Ic

ar

c & d. \iveiin sheaths are not mx Olt ed in regu


o rtuxt n nittrs
r Im
ft ,f

9.

is

13. h. is the ansxxer. pn. A

b. A As )0 d sIr fit ii of trsue


F e Pt I or is a xi at 1is lax )t brain attn i
ti rfxat detects thr niox enxent ot a radroactix e
terms a ta,k.
or of lu is as Feb ainp
S

ft

f1LJ)

elextruef at dx lxx

braijIs

hellunr

ncnve (p
x
P
t

7. d

h h

am

dica

In
,tc.
fir tortex
is ft

of

is

20. c

tt

ixxer

Iatr Jung (toni


1
V
I,

dp
,

It,

3 e p 3:
4, f p. 6
Brain Damage D p
1. a
2h
3c

6.

ps

10,

11.

in pp 67 ft

3e
f

64

hapter - Neurosdente

md Delia

or

Psychology Applied
%Iultiple-Choke Questions

1. d. is the ansis er. BiclogKal ps chologists studs


the links huts cci biolog (chemical changts in
is \. npk a .1 eh ikr (uroti. is n ii..
cxaraplt (p. 4,
a., b. & c. perimental. clinical, and dt elop
ci al psvcl )k gsts s 01. lii e mon cc ncc wd
ith thc learnin& ot cmi. tional cxpres.lons, tht
treatment of emotional di.orders. and li.te-.pan
ha ies 1 (1 orc is respath eli
2. c. is the ais1t er. lhe hi a
nstem is the oldest and
1
most primitive regior of the brain. It is found in
cwcr se tebrat s sun s fish as ssell as r lu
mans and other mammals. The structuies menhoned in the other choices are asscwiated with
ages cf bra ie )lu)nbeyondthatseer inthc
fish. (p. 7ffi
3. a is the answer. Since this reflex is an automatic
rcsp nsc a d uwol s cnly tie spinal cord the
hand is jerked assay before the brain has even
received the information that causes the sensation
(n pall. j) 6
b. The spinal cord, is hich organizes simple reflex
e. ,uch a this one, is part of the central nervous
system.
c. The brain is not in. oh ed in directing cpinal
refle.es.
d. 11w auton jni mn ous system controls the
glancb. and the muscles of the internal organs; it
does not influence the skeletal muscles control
1 igt fai
4. d. i
5 the answer Stimulation of the serison cortex
tlicit a ense of touch, as the eperiments of
Icnfic ddcmcnst ted p 78
a.., b., & c. [leaning, seeing, or movement might
be extctcd ii the temporal, occipital and motor
bs
..teu.

t.

YtOtLists

tn

t&Cw

1..

5. c

tic is r. k Ods and \lil er disc ser d,


d a
iula r f ien ti msso
higho. rcirfnrcin es cit becau-.e it : the location
th.c i nia\ r j.. d ccnters The then hran
,ior
c
mcd mc not asocated with
ressard cente! r- )
a j% e si r. Ihe cit iand c )ntrohled bi the
r ght iemisphere wo ild be able ts ident
the
tork, tht pkturc of sshkh i% fla%hcd to the right
nste.
p 4-8 .e
is

7. a. st& ins er p.
)
56
b. Because sOC has reached her threshold, shc wili
prohabh fire.
c Inc tn tory pcricd is a resting period
Because Jon has reccis ed a 1
arge number of na
tatory messages she is ill not he at rest.
d. c
sIw: snota em
8. b. is the answer. Simple rcflees such as this one.
ire gos erntd 1,) aui. ity in the autenomic ncr
.

)Lr

2
i.,

a. The occipital lobes process sensory message.


trom the eyes; they p1a no role in the refleids c
esponscdthc puilstohgit
c. The lett temporal lobe specializes in processing
language.
d. 11w ci. el cl urn speciaLes n coordrnatl%
mos ement.
9. b. is the answer (p. SB)
a., c., & d. the ft hunisphere docs not spedalize
in picture recognition. And blood clots can form
anywhere in the brain.
10. a. is thi. answer. In fact. handedness is one of only
a few traits that identical tis ins are not especialh
likely to share. (pp. 89-90)
Ii. a. is the answer. The right visual field projects
directly to the verbal left hemisphere. (p. 85)
b. & c Ihi left hand is controlled by the right
hemisphere, which, in this situation, ss ould be
unaware of the word since the picture ha been
flashed o tie left hemisphere.
12. c. is the answer. (p. 70)
d. Reproduction is only one of the basic curs is al
functio is thc brain regulates
13. b. is the answer. (pp. 58. 74)
a. By triggering release of dopamine such a drug
would prot ably nhan Malcolm s cnjc s ment of
the pkasures of jife.
c. & d. 4Ch is the rcurotransmitter at synapses
tne_ i t mc inrs,iJ r...sclc fiwrs
14. b. is the insier. The hippocanipus ot the iimtie..
s ttrn
ins ol ed in prckessin ir emon. Thc
i d a
tic lr bi svsten nfue es
and .nger. p 72.
a. The brainstem tortrols vil functions such a
eathin ai heartbeat it is ot diiectly ii
volved in either emotion or memory.
c. & d. These ansi. er. ae incorrect because the
linibic system is a i oldcr brain structurt thar the
orte. lt ins oh ement in emotions and memors
F. therefore more bask than that ct the cortet.

65

Answers

15 h
a

is

tne answer ip. 4)


he d I its time implies the theory had

as

ai i

1
later mscarth clearly showed it d

not, Aoi cover phrenology air accepted as an


a t t F r o hrain organi ation bt nnns
eithts.
5
c Ph en nogx said nothin; about the similarities
-amal rans.
5
a d
him

16. a.

is

the ancner tp.

1
0
t

b t & d. Pc tyl n 1 it and ioparnine a c fast


attimig neoretransrnitters released at sx napses. not
P th hloodstn am
17. b. is ths arsner. Svnrpahhetis. arousal produces

eral ettets including acm lera ted heartbeat


I cc si e persphation ( 62)
of the reticular formation increases
ntinuiation
a.

sO

al A as but would not necessarily accelerate


heat meat or aslse cxci ssive perspiration.

c. Am onal of the parasvmpathetis. ncr x Ous x stem


h a etfeets o posrte to those stated
a s
medication mx crc affecting hi arnr gdaia.
die
If
d.
x air brothe nright experience emotions such as
angs or tear at illogical times

18 d ms the answer. lhe thalamuc relay sensory


a

sages Irom th cx es. ears and tither receptor

the appropriate projection areas ot the cortex.


Rca ring the thalamos, theoretically, could
ho s ths etfe ts stated in this question. (p. 72)
a., b., & c. ihese brain structures are not directh
h

i mx 5 r ed in main processes related t


or perception.

sensation

1) a s ths ansxxer Hormones of the pituitary gland


regulate hosix gron th. p. 66
b & d Bee ruse they are not endocrine glands,
c halamos and medulla are not influenced hi
ix rrrnone.
c It e die na I glands produce hora ones that
pria de encrgx dnrmg emergencies: thex are not
inaPved in rcgnlatnxg hods grim th.
b Ie r
ex a 1
t
t r or
s ht n, me
e roe
2
mummies tl e pretisioo with mm hieh \ aou parts of
litcd nthctro ii
i
b r
d
tc
,

uvQv short

ih a at
nus x

ruse tc stress N 0 gutated hr the nor


n A th si teotlee ii apprs ides the

resp

Key Terms
fl riting Definit:ons
1. Biological psychology Is the studx of the links
hetmmeen bislog amA behavior. p. 4
the his e building
2. ftc neuron s ox r cc
3
hlo k of the nerm mu sntemri
si m e ti i Pat branch
3 lh dendri es
mng cxtenson,s ttmat a ,,tmx e riessanes from other
n rr sills md co d n t imp mdc tc mm ard the cell
,

t(oi It
e axon
4 1 5
t
l
l
1

cx
e snO
Pes toiL-nm
b t
p ie
tos r P tv ot oem.
c i
c. hi te np iral lobes a intain the prmniarx projet
mc s t r hea ng ar d, in the left side, ire
t 0
hcsi am ivsd in largoige me
ain the prmmnarr prsiiee
t
d. The oai pital lohe-. con
s f rmsr
t i
I

he hr p0stressed stucent careii al o1te\ aetn ates 1


thalamus tngge A h e r Ic se ot hornon that in
tu us n sin it s iotonom
turn s h ate inn s
P ners on sx steri and the encoei me svstenx. the
r r tr s v nrtarx hodi
\
intior
.t, nd digeN
5
nearthe
ii eaton
lx respones so a
hon. tim s ado a inc si sEn m contains p1 rnds that
[yr is
a r i h rgnlate
h
t
s(rt
the ton, ton at buds area ris,
6 A
[ypothalamns
h a p i s P mt a
the student ptue.rx g.anu ii mild seeate a hon
inone xx hicti in turn tagger the release of epinerh
t e 1 nnones from
I F
rine, )r ni pt ii
the adrena glands. these hornionas a ould help the
r laP ng nutrients
a
studs t hi iv Eu flO
a as d lea ands t r ens rgr
tie
ax aik his o mi
stores the body ten late in eflu0 a ith stress, As
paths tie dix isbn of
e
thist In in s a
tern. d adr s tight-or-flight
the antOnat1
nelud no in reased heart rate
response Oct nO
es mt and the uppression of
hrcathing ar I F 05
dinestion. Atte the exant date has pacod. the stu
do is b dx a di itt r p tt a ston its normal,
the parar rnpathehe [ranh of the
prostres- state
autonommhc cx -ts ax s mr Id slot the todents heartbeat
ould no
5
5
mas
1
r
ec .
ng
1
is aW
arLd
longer he suppressed. perhaps taomg rite student to
ted hums[ r

a ox me i

t,

nion

sends

oscoor

gland ma
s oe hmat
o 1
m
F at
spox d
mis
lmelpc
id
sr-.
segncna5
neural Oil. 1w ip
6 t m action p Re mrial a a 0 mm I ir pr a ger crated
rn-m cnn-nit ut p. ;ihm slm eharped atom in
mbraue p
i
tl
ia
aid n

5.

si

-t

m let ii
r
F sFlo s he s I
me nmro to
tl., mat l s .x dat. a.
t
1
P t n gei cot and to A ii it ide. t

66

(Ii, Or

run scier cc ai d Bchas or

s ma an tt ju ict n betncen the axon tip ci


ihc- sending neui on and the dendrite or cell body

tc rr en ng ne rr. I ne tiny gap at tnis junc


on sc Ic tIc sv a t c gap or daft. (p. 371

8.

9. \eurotransmitters ace chenncal that are re


ci

itt

ps inn so

it

lrorn nearer H
10.

opiatehke neurotrans
asked to pam rontroi and to pleasure. (p.
u

natur

Loiotf

ii

Uti5 1?

pa n.

12. lhc nenous system if the speedt. electrochemi


cal cii on cation susteri conftsting of all thc
nervc ceils in tne peripneral and ctintral nun on
cr,rurrn (p. 611
13. 1 hc central rervous system (CNS) consists of the
brait and spinal ord; it is located at the can tar, or
I ite nal ut ot hc f ody. (n 61)
14, The peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes
the sen sort md motor neurons that connect the
c i t i
err ous si stem to the bc an s sense recep
tors, muscles, and glands; it is at the pcrip/icnit of
the boor reiath to the hrahm and spinal cord. (p
(1)

23, A reflex is a simple automatic, inborn response


to a sensory stimulus; it is go\ erned hr a s cry
simple neural parh.s ai
tu3;

rt f
str n

AS that c mnntct the central nervous

itIm nmu-cics, glands, and sense organs.

25. Ihe endocrine system, the hods s slower


cimenmical communication system, consists of

glands that secrete hormones into the blood


stream. (p. uS)
26, Hormones are chemical messengers mostly those
manufactured hi the endocrine glands, that are
produced iii one tissue and circulate through the

27.

28,

29

10. 9

16. Sensory ncuro s cart information from thc


sen* receptors to tIre central nervous system for
fruc ss
a 6
IA Interneurons are the neurons of the rentral ncr
S Otis svstcn ttia* (IiPK the senany and motor neii
is H ie a n ann f sc sot
nputs and
n1;tr ollipu:. 7, Cd
I

Vot

r n

is a
tcrniac
a
11 n to. a tiot .01 i in: :catrat H
to a -J-s cod 6
a,ds, (p. 62;
1
-

ix

it

ti sx tern

iris sy ten 15 h dii ,oi of tin


pat ipflciu tiers uus -istem that ei1,Oies m oluntary
c nix
tcel tl nus Its al5c) mhed tlmc
t 6
r
s ole P
is
a m. tp. 621

20. fin autonomic nerrous system is time division of

o i mc
cr ms s stcm tha controls tie
dod- ard the ntu-c!e of internal orpans and
t rc u m Cs ntcrna tot tic tar i; i ie uiatcs
ft 00
is cna
x
alp
t

24, Neural networks are i ntc non nec ted neu i al cells,
the specific connections of which are strength
ened as learning occurs. (p. 64)

15. Nenes are bundles of neural axons, whiclm are


5,

Ihe parasympathetic nervous system is the divi


sic n of the autonomic neri ous system that calms
the bodi, consers big its energi. ip. iCl

I ido p ins

c.

22

61

neuron. (r

I he sympathetic nervous system is the division


of the a ntonomic nervous system that arouses tIme
body, mobilizing its enangv in stressful situations.
(p. 62)

ronif lcurzl

\cuty lcFoiine ACh) is a ncurotiansniitter that


c m jes e ni
a d me not ard also riggers
Hil ucic
on traction, ip 5)
r utter

21

30.

bloodstream to their target tissues, on which they


have specific effects. (p. 65)
The adrenal glands produce epinephrine and
norepinephrine, hormones that prepare the body
to deal with emergencies cur stress. (p. 66)
The pituitary gland, under the inflnence of the
hypothalamus, regulates growth and controls
other endocrine glands; sonmetinmes called the
master gland. (p. 66)
A lesion is destruction of tissue; studying the
consequences of lesions in different regions of the
brain both surgic ally produced in animals and
naturally occurringhelps researclmers to deter
nmine the normal functions of these regions. (p.
68)
An electroencephalogram (EEC) is aim amplified
recording of the wax es ot electrical actix its of the
brain. I ncephnlo conies fronm a (irE ek word mean
ing related to the hrahm p. 6t;

31

1 mc PET (positron emission tomography) scan


nmeasures the lex cl of actis its of difteront areas

ct the brain hs tracing hcir consunmption of a


ad oactixc torm if glucose the hr i m s fuel. p
32, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) uses nmag
nthc fields and radio waxes to produce
computer-generated ilnagcis that show brain
structures more clearly (p. 71)
33. In a fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imag
ing), \lRi scans taken lcss than a second apart are

c rp ted tu

cil blc in hi

unarm amatomnx and fonction.

a d ticrtfore

p. 001

67

Ansers

34. The brainstem, the oldest and innermost region

of the brain, is an extension of the spinal cord and


is the central core of the brain; its structures direct
automatic survi\ al functions. (p. 71)
35. Located in the brainstem, the medulla controls
breathing and heartbeat, (p. 71)
36. Also part ot the brainstem, the reticular forma
tion is a nen e network that plays an important
role in controlling arousal, (p. 71
37. Located atop the bramstem, the thalamus routcs
incoming messages to the appropriate cortical
centers and transmits replies to the medulla and
cerebellum. (p. 72)
38. 1 he cerebellum processes sensory input and
coordinates movement output and balance. (p.
72)
39. A doughnutshaped neural system, the limbic
system is associated a ith emotions such as fear
and aggression and basic physiological drives, (p.
72)
Memori, aid: Its name comes from the Latin word
Iinthin, meaning border; the limbic system is at
the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres.
40. The amygdala is part of the limbic system and
influences the emotions of fear and aggression.
(p.72)
41. Also part of the limbic system. the hypothalamus
regulates hunger, thirst, bodl temperature, and
sex; helps go em the endocrine system via the
pituitary gland; and contains the socalled reward
centers of the brain. (p. 73)
42. f he cerebral cortex is a thin intricate coi ering of
interconnected neural cells atop the cerebral
hemispheres. The seat of information processing,
the corte\ is responsible for those complex tune
tions that make us distinctively human, p. 74)
Mcniorit iiid: Cortci in Latin means hark, As
bark cm er a tree, the cerebral cortex is the hark
of the biain.
43. More numerous than cortical neurons, the glial
cells ot tin brain guide neural connections, prm
vide nutrients and insulating mvelin, and help
remo e excess ions and neui otransmitters. (p. 73;
44. Located at the front ot the brain, just behind the
forehead, the frontal lobes are in olved in speak
ing and muscle morements and in making plans
and judgments. (p. 76
45. Situated between the frontal and occipital lobes.
the parietal lobes contain the sensory cortex. (p.
76)

46. 1 ocated at the back and base of the brain the

occipital lobes contain thc x isual cortex r Inch


recei\ e information from the eves, w. 7fn
47. Located on the sides of the bra i, the t mporal
lobes contain the auditory areas. which mceis e
information from the ears. (p. Th)
\hmerii ,iid: The temporal lobes are located near
the 1 epics.
48. Located at the hack ot the frontal lobe the motor
cortex controls roluntarv morcmcnt y 7
49. The sensory cortex is located at the Pont ot the

50.

51.

52.

53.

54.

parietal lobes, just behind the motoi u rh x. It a


isters and processes beds touch and nt\ mcnt
sensations. (p. 8)
1 ocated throughout the cortex, association areas
of the brain are irn oh ed in higher mcntal func
tions, such a learning, remembering, and
abstract thinking (p 79)
Aicmorii aid: Among their other fumtions, associa
tion areas of the cortex are in oh cai in ntegrat
ing. or aseciatiiig, intormation from difterent
areas of the brain
Aphasia is an impairment of language as a result
of damage to anr of sexeial cortical arms in ud
ing Brocas area and IVernickes area. p
Brocas area, located in the left trontal loin s
involved in controlling the motor ability to m
duce speech. (p. 81)
Wernickes area, located in the left temporal lobe.
is irnoh ed in language comprchcnsion and
e\pression. (p. 81)
Plasticity is the brain s capacits f it modification,
as evidenced by brain reorganii.ition tolicm tug
damage (especially in children). p 82

55. The corpus callosum is the large hand of neural

fibers that links the right and Icft rcbi I hwn


spheres. Without this hand Oi fleix e NOCIs. tflC
two ho mispheres c mid not inter t
56. Split brain is a condition in hJ rh en
e
rections hctrwen the t s ccrri a I in
esult
hi
l
he:
rd
er
(the orpus aiiosum are
ing in : split brain p 84)
-

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1 ;1i,i t, &akc. iii rs is making
ne ilk
ccii pa ic n h tt cal flit. ci ed of a nearon firing
nd the tfv t a ,pe din:; up a ar isntv atelerat
t Sc) If i doi% h pphmg
I n.
cit Ic &t
flpi) He alo liken$ ecitatorv
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Thk
the bike
slathengjpaty
F
t
or
t i thot islit do not
icna\
inhihit
i
a; z I. an
b p:

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thoe

ot

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I.,

ap e

..I tk

tIscso4uthawiparty
is o loiit. then tnt parti (sJlkI

jfl

(1

nui

1 .tt,on a
Inj,

bzg

itl how ise


irs it iOf 1 C icried
ai art tit lit migi itude ot a stunulu, front
;
a h;ti str ntmbracc
pi
It t k
IP J:, 1le airwir i thu thc intn.iti ot the ,tim
lui. it of ti tar hr md frquencv of
ul
%tron tmialus (I i lins) does not
nturi a. fin ig.
uiiat ( g vs a more puceiftd or tister impulse
than a itcak sti nulu (antIL ac : rather it tngcrs
more tetron-. to fire ant to the mc e often.
. these mar-unions A .ieurons-- polo
were mother of natures marvels.
1i;,i 1is
flit ILaeren e er i to th h U th the xon trmi
oPe rtrnn is epsated from the recen ing
tal
aled the tr.aftc gap.
i
sp
. a
..c
Prt toplasn i, he material that tonstuutts all living
t 1 fli 1 01 ttc 4tnctll%lShkLflii t t
d to a kiss hetn eon tells ipwtorlami ki*L The
t en ,erder ant receier , iia
i k
i
t.limaak illd nc.rotratnmttters The cells doit
4( t .ial t it -it u
c it! mcnage across he s naptic
a

baotr t

ir

liii, etetstothcteel
ri irr hi Ii
of cnotciaI in II being or euphoria (kgb) flil
t Yin ig ow t w i -u.k a running or jogging
tie rsiit f me tic ut of rid dite sui
ai
t.
tjAuii
tn
a
tiiIvd 1
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iip

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11

ti

ltr,, t
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teurorainuttvr

tnu

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tchw.1

F It

Litij)JClc..i!,

141
e ii
pr idu. ig a mot ifs t q)I )f
i.

L
tin
J
c.,..
or it m preient Ic. 3 tn
3
r
11,7
Ii
t
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A
-ito
transmirtei if )r ct mph. . o
i.il
it
a t( 1,
the vnar Cs tis(s au

!fl.
if
r1
ci en duth:
%iQfl
u
cc
lit
(
ohtrlnnc cntc
.r
clei
.
1
t
trt;n.
;e
tran-nuttet (for c?nlrI.
it
u
iCffrrh.cs ii
ci it mai LcUi the ettptit itts 01. Ii

such as

ft a 1 t h tcpstak
na be gaa deal cut pain

)T)I

lIne

,,

iiihbit. \n
ik ti totn
5
tit. ..f.ur carnple, b

tt

ft

stanc.ts (chtm.kcl)

;t.c a

r
1

ti, Ii i, L

-a

c-at or

smoothb(-Jzit) lruc. lLi( 1 i trr


the brain then tran-tor-. this ia. a ... j;i
a
dopaniire(w ch.a t r s c I
i
obtain
1
1
*
cm
,
s
irkinsor
P
p
ci), allowing mans
better cru Ic. crtr 1
The Nervous System
Page c2 Lice an

,tli.t

.117.

it

N.

-cr ii

Liii. at im mu c Ce-i. U
tonsciou-,ly 0 ci -ici
I c E err i ii t tu
km automaticalh tat. c. nt c
e :Ictv i : cc
1
fltc-i
p1
ia
h
internal organ-. mu
ri
1,;z
(irmi
.li
ia
automatic
r )t i
er t Zc
u,li
tce
c.nsuo
ever,
he
ten-i Cdii, hois
K
r
v
ti
rddet) nthes
Li er flvin the plant.
1,

.1
ic C
Pgc6IIcnsofta c s f
i
.
.urnr-,
i,cating u ith thousand-.. ot etluet
V

i i c iida a
aid
1
ib1.
Ii
er The cisnupiexuti or the Ltutr
it
a
I
it rak
shid lJo
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1:
..,.:,j,a
,,
te
irg, teeiin, and o.na-i ior
hi
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ii
ertutr
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ecept. hi iSi.hipa!)5Ci t c
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tc b t trinlv tins n nttl
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br.uizu,, sirn,i& nlca c u F. u

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,i

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th tn.

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k .. st nt?
ni ii rcult wIlt ti
-
:
Pagc 1) But -nitne litniacaL- ..ar -i
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n
iv.
1
ThE
[blocdhimlba ii
s .r
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1
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69

b.
-

4, V.

70

Chapter 2 Neuroscience and Behaxior

dv it \\hen the patelia tendon ot a bent knee is


stnick toe u h sic leg retlexivelv straightens out (tIre
kiter-lark tspottsei. [Iris automatic reaction is a func
tion eta si pe pmal reflex pathuav s( it does not
require mediation hr the brain itt Iaia/tss tint [h\ ci
todvcia Id it
Tkt cd Being human takes a Jot o nero, Ma ers is
usmg ho n r tc n ake a po nt here, Ihc exprcsson
it takes a lot of ners e means to he s err bras e or
couragecus (another expression it takes a lot of
guts, mean. the same fbi g! Thus, ishen Mxers
states that being human takes a lot of ner\ e, the lit
eral n cann g in this contcxt s that hun ans are
made up of mans nrans nerr es the humor is
dens ed rum the double meaning)
fk ek: \eurons cluster into minor gO)iiJu called
neural 0
orks. Myers pohrts out that the brain
works much like a compoter makmng mans simuha
neous computations. this is accomplished b neural
4 01 ks which are c ustets of interconnected neu
netv
rons to rA onips). Neurons work with nearhs
neurons or nuch thc same reason people live in
clt1es it is easier tor brief, quick interactions,
The Endocrine System
Page 65: [he endocrine system and ncrs ous system
I are thereforc kindred svstenrs, these two systems are
s err cinular and has e a close relationship (Idndrrd
5JL/5tCOt ), I hc h )rmones of the endocrine ss stem are
chemically equivalent to neurotransmitters, hut
operate at a much slower speed. Messages n the
ners ous system rum e very rapidh (then zip along
as fast as nrail conspared to endocrine system
messages s hich nmos c relatis eh slou l (then trudge
along like regular or snail mail).
Po[e 67: Conduchng ano eoordmatmg this uhole
elotto itedr,d ercitestra is that tnae,tr is e call the
bra s \I e s 5 c nipan g U tuncho ung of the
neurutranismttters and hormones to a large group of
misieman (hero ii a
I sin)
h se more
merits an] actions arc doected h to,e conduchr or
itastor te v m hr Hamn

Page ed. [1 e k reman aol er a

nest 11110 ii1 organ is


Im on grr bed ait,I ;nappot I a to w ganm Oifteil at ;rt1imrJ
oIrto1a[1I1N. A cartograpirer is sonreone who pre
pares o nmakes maps. Ms cr5 is suggesting that the
brain (rite kimacm a :t;tJois I iiiast aina:it, a1gat I is
gohrg to he graph ally depk ted (a mped) by a new
s ouncrer group of oemocientists (a ness generation
-

ot neural eat togr.ipIeis)


Page 8: X\ e can -110am
the nressages of indis idual
ire urons and am es,t,r i a t
ta bane of hilhons of
neurons. T\ ith (odan s tecimomogical tools it is posh
ble to unohtrusis eli view tin
on (-ii00J at] l single
nenr e cells (i euroos) as well as cos ertls listen to
(oicatmrtl1) an) ihe back-and-forth communication
(mkatt r) of millions and muilhomrs of cells,
Page oS.., the right side of the body is malted to the
brains left side and m Ic a, c m I his nreans tlrat the
tuuctrons of one srde of the hods are controlled by
(malted to) the opposite side of the brain lire night
side of the hods is rontrolled by the left hemisphere.
and tire converse, or opposite, is also true bier
ocr a): the left side of the body is controlled by the
brains right heirsisphere.

6 Navr ac iaw ode tin hr


t gire us a
,
0
Sapernranbtke ahilirn to see inside the living hrain,
Modern technological means of r iewhrg the brain
fae a aiitdamas iota tbt ttabti, such as the PET scan,
NIRI, and fMRl provide us rsith a greater than nor
mal (Saparrnaelka) ability to look inside the cortex
without destroying tissue. (heft : Superman is a
comic-book TV and morie character with x-ray
vision which allows irim to see through solid mat
ter.)
Page 6: Such -iapsbats of tire brains changing aetimr
ride new ursights into how the brain diaid x tts
labor, Nrc MITT technique allows pictures (s,asbats)
tim prc

to he taken of different brain areas at work (the


hr mn dt idi its JaI
shile a person is carry mog out
s arieu- mental tak-,
r)

lire B am
ikr ok
as b at a.mr beads What this means is
hat
u ubjee is s foe that the essence of your
being, your nund, resides in your brain, which is
i msdc o r head I he brai m in our head allou s us to
uI ctiou pss hologmea!lv as u eh 0
s phs sicalls [In
dad ,S It 0
tc b
d
0
,

Itts ultra os ttt.7 olaf Itt t tarn


[It. hrtn jars
,hr, (0 the braiasteni moor
icr es fr in h 1
eft s de I the beds connect to thc
right side of tire brain a is] tirose from tlre right conrect t) tt c left sdc of ft brain I his strange
trarerse of ners c from one ide to the other
or-- bbig is hich accus in the poirs, is tine er the
mans nrars els or astonishing findings (srmrp ins)
about the brain.
Par

s:irr:is.

:i.tr)

Think of the thalaruus as heiag to ensorn


input what I emit 1tnttd s 1
5
E;
r,tbm-. London 0
rcis ertlc t ir gur tc pit 1tH
,

I ocus on \ ocahu Ian and Language

coantrx lust 35 Chicago is the huh or relay center for


ir ines flyina to ditfercnt parts of the United
ma a
State. \h ers usc this as an analogy for the thaim

71

lagm ....r:nmctmp;iap tOm ills that nausic lox ers


30 sd axe p a c lUte ii p tc nxnsic gemxer
enjoy
ates a ,sccral a p lea mmat Ic cnsatmc ns (s,i e-tnmg!nmg

mm, xx Hch recen es mesagec from sensori neurons

litre/sI xvhktx aepear Ic ins mdx e the sanxe reward

thenr n or relays them to higher brain


a I c
area ot alNo reccn es some ot the higher brain s
poses and directn them to the medu]ia and the
3
ie
t un)

syste a
tasting

the /ceif,;ttc!hraecd limbic system ThC


r ix thc shape ot a ring (dongt n it s/i hod)
c
and has three components: the hippocampus, xx hich
\ ed ;n forming (/01/amy dana?) new memories
t
N lix o
t e ar iygdaia, xx hic h mtluences aggression and tear
and the hypothalamus, which regulates hunger,
thirst hodx temperature, and sexrmalitv.

Pace hr. In a sense, axe /c ixax c cam /;; hi, /ack of inr
to xc iS al ortea tor
i
nmd II r etc cc xc
occipital lobed .xhmch proc c cses a sual mnformnation
and is located at th.e rear m f th hran, So, ut a xxax
ith th c e but also
t ast d re
seci ip
inyoh es spe xal ,zed am c a at th.e hack at the brain.

P up hr

P d 3: In a fexx cases mx oh ing patients xx ho suk


lured brain abnormalities, it [pcuc/masurycnij
tj of i though sometimes with devastat
ing dde effectn on the patients everxdaa function
ma, J\yt I: xargom a refers to destruction (tesioning) ot
brah tissue to achieve some psychological
h alt
change in a patient, smh as making a a iolent patient
carn nd relaxed (mx dot dig fits at iage). Because there
xx e als other sex crc changes (side fferts), this
dr istic procedure is alnxost nex er used todax.
:
thcv m ide I na\nificc nt mistake Olds
/
and ixliiner accidentamh discovered (stmmomt/ed mijumm) a
biain area that prox ides a pleasrirahie reward and
c a a nt m to find other similar areas n hich they
caied p/ca:iia toolers, Myers calls thU a splendid
an J aectacutar c rror ua magnificent ,mzistmke When
strmutatc these areas by pressing
ra s a e a tot d
a bar w lever tdai I thea seem to prefer this to any
1 and will continue at a vera rapid rate
oti er th it
I
I a I 3 t U until thea are too tncd to go on (until
do a 3, op Oer: c i;art:a1m.
opened human skull, exposing thc
Oh a an xx ould sec a e ink ci organ, shaped seIne
r
cc u mit Ttxc huma a
0
it K m Or
n )ln xl a ml 11 urfac e, anc thc
h ia a a
cdt atm ii to ma dma mcied into In a halves or hewn
c
j t ki a a alobeot tfeedhcpa box
m in the add of a xc a argc
:1 cm
citm mat,
1
hr

I a

,iis,\mmq(or
a
r
a i hi Id K nursemaid and takmn can at the
ti,
1 lc ch ld needs Glial cells perform
ti I hem
s
r as ha mok ng aftcr the ncecl of neu
nm
a
hikc child remy cannot feed or insu late
huh.
xx

,,mc (il Ilnu


r u
(t
ml
plax a ad it I ant ng and
a U ox

icccls

m
rc
in
re

;,,

cl

tia,b, p

ad pleasant-

cx

st xx

,d. I m goint is that actn itec such as lis


x and engage
canp
e
tening to nusic are rd nix eli m

muhpl

cac

xhol a nost xxide


a m i/mi 10 pcian
spread i
areas
association
the
Ilesearclx
mta
coat v ma i;acm,
specific
have
xnt
d
thc
at
of thc 1 r in sb nx I
funet on hut rather arc in olx ed n mans ditferent
Itgc

cxc c p p
sth ad that a c

mdii

operations cued as mnterni etiog. imaregrating. and act


ormatiot pie e s hr by the ensora areas.
ing c
ii u ado 1(1
I he mncrirrect notim n I I Pcdcft tixat
I
carla
beanse
arisen
haxc
1w max
pch Ca/ m ca
,,

b ut if

ni sure

resea hc rs a e

tunetion of the

associaticin areas, Remnenher, xx e misc all ot our I

brain a thc time D in xgc to the mssociation areas


would re ul

ci

in

sc

dctiem

Poe, Si; 11 ith hif truntal lobes a/tre1, Cages immaia/


c ni d conrcc d ran us behaxior.
tO if c
PNnea ciage s tron.al la.hes were sex erelo damaged
(roptm lj xyhc ix the tanaping iron shot througlx his

head \ a esil h k

tt srarrxalmnhibi

as

my

tions xx Inch caused Ixnx to a cer anas rrmnx his pre


a ons laonet xx p s I e I si I U r oral conxpass).
P.mpc ,03; I cOat a,,, xc, m;

a, r p1 a

m;,

;mmciaictHm
e 113 cI the
c
1
1

; ,c;!;,,m,,mms,

c
5
1

aiapi
m
i,j /ic
m a ,,i 1/ me a
a
a
a
divers
r,
i,
;l
a
1 ned, Im,
3
inmportaixt
ic
it
ni
a Ic a xc hr
i ir km
a hole
ccc mcxc d
(neat dt x
nxost
like
hat,
xpdrIIx
e,
am Oti part (( INcinas
taaal
s
t

v
no
i
dx xrs
u c ax aic xrs
,

,,

In a xc
.rg m ai, paeiit even
m dv i
d
tc 1
People haxi nad thehr cindi. cam asnnx ccx ered
ar r ) c a r I
r c
dci tie sci ore Despite
opcra in hi pa cix nx xac d U loko
s xci. a ix Im

Pad 5-p Pa in

rxam

3c

ama that

cit hmt

In

had

crs

/
,

itf,,ctm

t ixc,:da,
0
en h

a
tm

h
m, ,c c_a

Id,

it m

o//tt;mme

tuac cn g
tad xa x cud

72

(ha ter

Nairoscience and Behavior

not he able to detw t anything onusnal if on were


hat Thg a casual conversation with a split-brain
pattcn

ld 83: \\ hen the iwo minds are at odds the loft


1
iet cp r dots
;, a stics to
a ;uh
_oadioiw :t does not nnderctand. In split-brain
patients, r :ntormation or commands are detit ered
o t
t
ho tort
hi h does not tare Ian
then the left hemisphere. w hich can talk,
tot Id not be an are of wh rt w is requested. So if the
ateit a rc tt tic c rmand to do something
io.g. hr alL or Janj, the left hemisphere it ii go
thrt ugh hi kinds ci c ntc rtions t a I U yinnastics)
to c can sc re r lausihie stori that accounts for the
response it rahonahzt s and constrncts theories to
c &ncurbehivi r).

Ikir 53. X\ hen u their worst, they distort a pntccI


lap 3rd
ntr a ran ltick-5hapcd st
Some
poop are cit wamed others right-brained.
A
;nyt: is a snaLk tooci, a piece of thinh rolled bread
dongh sha d 1 k a i open knot, k unique and
unusual set of fiodhigs t,nLehshared) gets trans
fonned throuch the prmess of oversimplification
id dis, r an at s inothing totally different
sirapn [r em traight] stand. Thus, pubtic
myths, sud as
arc
C kttiinjna,l
ethers
iv
d
7
eloi nd get more ittention than
gJ
the scientitic tats.

Page 88: 1 rom simply looking at the two henu


spheres, ii hich anjknr alike to the arkcd Ct/C, ii ho
would suppose that they contribute so uniquely to I
the hanna;n a
1 the nhale? Myers points out that
research is ith split-brain people and normal people
shows that we have unified brains with ditteront
parts that have specialized functions. Thus, if xo
observe the two hemispheres w ithont optical aids
(ezt i tie naiad cut) thor mar seem to ho the same
(aennrr alike); hower or, their differential functioning
combinos to produce an integrated unit (the harmonu
of the a heLl,
Page 89
sont/qaates
Loft-handed pooplo, espe
cially those involved in sports such as boxing or
baseball, are called sonthpaas. Stanlor Coren found
that the percentage of loft-handors (seuthpares) in the
population declines with ago. Ihis finding is still
somewhat mysterious.

ire:

Page Cl; Yet what is unknown still d


earft what is
7
known, This moans that all that has been discovered
so far is very, very small (dararjSd) compared to what
vet remains to he discovered.

(a

i7eic

3\

Nature, Nurture, and


Human Diversity

CHAPTER OVERVIEW

Introduction (pp. 996)

Chapter 3 is concerned with the ways in which our


biological heritage, or nature, interacts with our indi
vidual experiences, or nurture, to shape who we are.
After a brief explanation of basic terminology, the
chapter explores the fields of behavior genetics,
which studies twins and adopted children to weigh
genetic and environmental influences on behaviors,
and molecular genetics, which focuses on the specific
genes that influence behavior. The next section dis
cusses psychologys use of evolutionary principles to
answer universal questions about human behavior.
The next two sections of the chapter shift the
spotlight to focus on environmental influences on
behavior. The impact of parents, the prenatal environ
ment, early experience, peers, and culture on the
development of the brain and behavior are each dis
cussed in depth. The final section of the chapter
explores how genes and environment interact to
shape both the biological and social aspects of our
gender. In the end, the message is clear: our genes
and our experience together form who we are.

Objective 1: Give examples of differences and of sim


ilaritie, within the human famiti.

NOTE: Answer guidelines for all Chapter 3 questions


begin on page 87.

CHAPTER REVIEW
First, skim each section, noting headings and boldface
items. After you have read the section, review each
objective by answering the fill-in and essay-type
questions that follow it. As you proceed, evaluate
your performance by consulting the answers begin
ning on page 87. Do not continue with the next Sec
tion until you understand each answer. If you need
to, review or reread the section in the textbook before
continuing.

1. Our differences as humans include our


,and

and
backgrounds.
2. Our similarities as human beings include our
common
our shared
ability to use

architecture. our
, and our

behaviors.
in psychology deals with
question
3. A fundamental
the extent to which we are shaped hx our heredi
ty, called our

life history, called our

Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual


Differences (pp. 96107)
David Myers at times uses idioms that are un
familiar to some readers. if von do not know
the meaning of the following words, phrases,
or expressions in the context in which they
appear in the text, refer to pages 9394 for an
explanation: To disentangle the threads of neredity
and environment, behavior ceneticists often use two
sets of tweezers; blue-collar families; stories of star
It]
ci
;
Tn
1 1j
a
0
t 1
house while Dad has a straight flush ; yen; i/ic area
of fu Id i moie the edt fiti leiigt or width
sleuth; Blueprints: Iwoedc4ed smoG.

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76

ChapterS \atur Nurtu e, and Human Diversity

Objective 12: ldcntifr sc inc gcnder drffercnces lix sex


uattv.
6. Ihe charactc istics by xx h ch per e
tm dchr e ama
p
and
ik cc astitutc
thcse
clrarac tCftstiL C ohJect to
mnliuences.

aIR1

7. Corny ared
eqnalx

fen les, ma e are


c

iequallx more; less) liked to initiate sexual


is an

amy Ic of a

ditfcrer cc
8. \len oax e a

1 lower;
higher

threhold for ercers hag a wonaans triendlitress


as a sexrral c ne-on This helps cxplain mens
rcate exo 1
Objective 13: Decrihe cx oiutionarv explanattons tor
gender differences mn sexoalitx
9, 1 hc
exptamratron of gender
ditfercnces in attitudes ton ard sex is based on
differences in the optimal strategy by xx hih
xxonren and men pass on their
&ccordmg tc t xis mcxx, males and fernalcs
(are; are not) selected for dif
ferent patterns or sexuality
10, Grosscrrltnral research rex mIs that nxen jxmdge
wor ren as nor a tt actix e if tlrey have a
appearance whereas women
judge men xx ho appear
nd

s oreattrac xc

Objective 14: numnanac the criricisrn of exolutlrr


aix e pai at:oos of horn an behaviors and desr iho
the cx in xi irs y sa ci- onist rmpc ases tt thce
c

ii

11. C rtr

5 -x t
o th
oiu
n
marx axplanaton of the gen
der se oalita difference argue that it otten xx erG
s

tori

sc

12. 4nthei ritcur


fl

iou

d c

14 t c lotr ar
sycholog sts coantcr thc criticisms
hr notr rn that the sexes, has mg faced sinrilar
adaptix e prohiems, are more
tahke dittertr U than they are
alike lmfterc
i hcy alsc xote ti at cx olutionarx
mncip es ottcr testa h
.

ik v to engage in casual
mrnpulmve sex, and thca are
actix ty. fh

13. Gender oil feicnces ir mate prefercnces are


largest in cultures characterized by greater gem
ncr
(eqaahtv rnerjuatita i.

d backxx aid) to pro


xplxntion.
.

that neader dtferences in ccx

4,,-

410

nih

truc

cc.

Parents and Peers

pp li4R1lN)

It i-on do not k xow the r xc aning of ana of the


foiloxx ing xvords, phrases, or expressions in the
context in xvhich they appear in tile text, reter
ro page 05 for an explanation: 41 stc tIme excess
connect aims a still am call pathways 4
maetmgh m
Jr nsf s ufflc f mm Gt
nsa pelt m molds
,iame mars ala fOXc r llmimtmf( ama 5
9m amm into a
chiidc iiti,

ObjectIve 15: Describe son e of the conditions that


can affect dcx eiopment before birth.
1. Environmental influences begin during thc pen
od f
des elopment.
2. Lx en identical txx ins mar differ in this respect,
because thea man or mar not share the same
3. Compared with same placenta identkal twins,
hi ins xx ho des elop xx th diftcrent placentas are

less similar in their

traits.

Objective 16 Des nbc h xxv expc icnce ca i rnoddv


toe nan.

4. Ra-enzwrag 1
od Krecia discox ered that rab raiseu
tr ma a young age in e rirhcd ens irt nments had
ta kc
tr e cort
t an ann xals n cnd ir rsoiatr n.
Describe the effects of
dcx elopment.

st

nsorx stimulation on neural

77

Cultural Intluences
3. Fptrwnce hapes the brain by pre.berving atiCOflneCtiofl% arid 4110Wo -%1
U.
to1nttiOfls
in.. uflust d
re%ults
1 lV proct%%. called
%
by
LnUS
dconnec.tkns
ii w
,

em gener itvn to the ned dettnn the group!..


2. One .an%.:nark c.f Ii inua culture 1% the presen a
t hich b derived
ion ot
is e

Obectvc 17.1

inwh, cs1ouldbecarc1u1

about attributing chikirens succes..es and failure, to


iflacuct.
1 TF j
6. [he idea that parent.. %hape their thildrens
to res me im
and
7 P n .1 influer e sonic area c f th ....hil
drea. Iii 5, such as theil

can

J%s

soaut

t
d on

to fulure generations.

Objc.cth e ...0 I rsr to on c


dith..

n s mat culturts

ii

3. All iltt.ral gro....p% titl 40 their on n rules br


cwtttcc bthanol, caicd
c in.. CS ht butler i inc that peo
1
4. Ont SLit ra
pie maintain around thcij l?odk, called
Identity ceveial cuitural ditlcrencv. in personal .pace.
r s ii p cc life
exprs

thc enii
r ta su h
ronment cbling. shate at home account, tor Inc
percent ot their differ
th i
Ci. C.

at e 18 LvaI mat th importance of peer ir flu


entc ..i dci ekpnit mit.
havca
9 F L i ic s silpartly
elop.
dci
children
how
effect
on
pe..sedul
cifect by
a a it ult ,f
iii I. kitis i. k out o hers with similar attitude,
and interest.
10 \lro p.. parcItseanmnfucncc thc
that shapes the peei group
tatJidithllar stalls
U ii
effect.

Objecfvezl I rd
sne p0, anm t at

i hy hmrqc intht uiran


nu it I in. ulture chane oi ci

time.

5. CuLh:rec ch ingc
slowl iap i,
Mar ..ancs l4 a.t n ulturn iai be ndn
6. 4
ien hi the Jixi et t ts trrn.. of

lb.. rcd ?

-ni Ii utitur..

Cu ural nfluences py 119 1?j

tr .je!jttiP,r

d n K is hciic mr o in ofthe
in,.. isnids, pP rq%, or epre ski 1. I 1 flit
h th, apptar in the tet, retir
..c.ntt fl
raicqlanatmw. 1
6
r c
.dtara %rfljrg: i:.., n ,C.I% tig c ,j4
. ..cII1J: J7flJ ;ftz%1;.

..

ttP .t t

thansz.-s is much
I n tenac.c
d
iUrpiq
.l.

Objective 19: Di.c- tht. ur- ii al henetm% of tulture.


1

Iii. -nduni...: teb-v or.


ci OP .1 r L.p f eo It.

,ind tx..
id trar nutted Ire ii
.ittitiijes

Objecthe 22:

Itc.s,t

turo em..

B. C
sr

ft
ft
i
1
.. 1.4? it c

uali

rnanh imii id
P ti,tcul
n r cron I identit.

n .

pt

ri
1 cts
tf

alueper

b c

and indi idual

:1

c
o..ut ir

Ja

luns

78

C p

Natu c

u tu c and flu nan Diverstv

2. (ompared to the average man, an average


woman has more
less
,

9,1

a La

rso

and is a few inches


Women are more likely

eo n

ad

than men to suffer from

Esampits ot such rut

it

cu nl

10 V

ci

of

and

and

f op
a alec fur dew thea sutfer store
i

cult arcs

and

3. (ompa red to w o nen men arc niore likely to


commit
and to suffer
Thea are also more likely to
be diagnosed with

eeiawd dtseae.

Objc we _3
di;fers

iii ICdi\

11. C re

and

iosl Wscr a ntsplaemorc

eninnasis on
re s

e
0 so e racy s that child rcanng
idealist and olerUvjw cultuce

leinotiona I

close

de cndcn

ft he childrcn many
Asian and ftfrcau parcnts focus on culth ating

Objective 26: Summarize the cender gap in aggres

stow
4. Aggression is defined as

hehar ior that is


to hurt someone.

(inc tional c1 seness ndependeuce

12 ( aaildc n

roliecuatst ultures grow up uitta a


Nir iug sen o
u

or

3. Throuhout the world men are more likely than

women to engage in
,and

Objectse 24: 1 sc he some n ass tI at humans are


sunila dcsptt tlw t turl d Iferences.
13 in en C Pt

er

b tar en groups are


csmailer larger, than person-

st

cifftcenrcs v,itlin groups

te-neisen

Gender Develooment tue 126434)


a

a
c

at \

o
it
It ix
n
U ar of ie
a d-, phrase e e\presslons in the
xci Ci Ccv ippu sit
tex,rcter
,a n

;41,,rc c,,C

Cc

Ohjedir e 23: aeruirx

to c Cli cc
1.

\;noxp a nr
1 ir

t hi

Ci e N i

hiCk inCa) and psa chc


letv ax ial sand ft naPs.

a rt
ession

Objective 27: Describe some gender differences in


social power.
7. Compared to women, men are perceired as being
more
and
As leaders, thea tend to he
more
v bile women are
mc
,

8. Compared to u en xc omen are uerceix ed as being


more
,
, and

setTle

9, Ihesc perceired differences occur


(throughout the n orid UnIx in

how naanvj
-

6. The aggression gender gap pertains to


rather than

Fox

ur

rertaus r oltures.

Reflections on Nature and Nurture


Objec mc 28: Discuss 0
cndcr difterences in connect
edness w the add t to tend and befriend,
\ co d rgto( a

10

coice icd

Objective 30: Discuss the relahxe importance of envi


ronment on the developmcnt of gender roles, and
describe hvo theories of gender trping.

lcd igai isomer aremorc

r r ci

17. Oui expectations about the way men and ivomen


behax e dcfine our culture s

r Dug

tIc

s d ffcreme s iotic able in hors hildren

IL
t

cci

tIe
12. B

nd t c ntinues throughout
t vcars. (,irls ptay in groups that
md e

id id

musc tt ey arc r iorc

xx t ile men are likelr to usc

tui n to c thc rs or
ci oping with

especially

Obj cclxx e 29: 1 xpain ho a biological sex is deters


mined and describe the role of sex hormones in bio
logi a d xc lopmen ar d gender differences
hc hr cut third pair ot chromosomes deter
mmes the developing person s
Ihe uc tI ci a ma s contributes am)
chrnmnsnme When the father
u
ri
its
c
a r
chromosome,
thc ti stcs be
i m produ ing the hormone
0
In about the
wlmtx eek this I- orn onc initiates the dcx elop
in at fcxter u ir ale cx organs.
eta B fc
ces

d
r
err

16. Sex
nBc
e

lc ifa s r h were exposed to


m dun i rcr atal etc xclopmcnt
p c r ng gei itais
m a
es cncc the tcrd to act
was
ns

mu so ins
t

ti

(are are not)


Idened by the

for instance in
sociehes there tends to be
.

nunimal dir ision of labor b, sex, hr contrast, in


societies, women remain
close to home is hue nmen roam freely, herding
cattle or sheep.

men tend and befriend for example, the

1% (

rigidli fixed hr cr tAn trulL as


fact that they x an across

women

cor x ersation 0
13. hr

18. Gender roles

and or ci

)ys g rps

ar I kel to use cm ersation to

14.

79

that
In adulthood, part of
Ia 5 mini
oh an area mx olved hi
u m y is thicker in ix omen.
lobc a key
ntro

pi

stF kcrir

19. Our mdix idual sense of being male or temale is


called our
I he degree to which we
exhibit traditionally male or female traits and
interests is called
-

20. According to
theory, children learn
behar
gender-linked
iors bt observing others and
being rewarded or punished. When their families
discourage traditional gender-typing, children
(do do not) organize them
selves into boy worlds and girl worlds.
21. Another theory called
theort, combines

theory with
According to
this theory chddnc m learn how their
x hat t mean s to be in ale or female and adjust
their beha ion accordngly.

Reflections on Nature and Nurture (pp. 1W 137)


If x ou do not know the meaning or any of the
following w ords, phrases or expressions in the
context in which they appear in the text, refer
to page 115 for an explanation ccen the day;

I gg es the a ad.

Chapter 3 Nature, Nurture, and Human Dhersity

Objcctix e 31: Describe the biopsvchosoual approach


) exelopment.

sc

b
c

1. A
hnernes more and more irrelevant to poxi er and

ci.

etfctts

hut ire are also a

ix

is

it

a
[fiN.

-t;

incnts

6. Through

natut ai s

likelx to he past
are those

3lultipie-Clzoice Questions
( hale x our answers to the following questions and
chin k them with the answers beginning on page 89. If
your ansix er is incorrect, read the explanation tor
nw it is incorrect and then consult the appropriate
p igc s of the text (in parentheses folloxi ing the correct
I

I r Ross belier es that principles ot natural selen


I on help explain n hv infants come to tear
trangers about the time they become mobile. Dr.
Ross is niost likely a(n):
a. behavior geneticist.
b. molecular geneticist.
c. cx ol LI tionary psychologist.

C rnpcralnents.

h. per.onaiites.
a. religious beliefs.
d. emotional reactivity

b.

sun

4. If a fraternal txvin becomes schizophrenic, the


bPs hhood of the other twin developing serious
n ental illness is much lower thai vith identisal
lxx iis I his suggests that

i a

is

Ci

ta

ha

mate

taxi-

ar

at

tier

I Ic
bs n a

ii test

8. txu
sri

fcrc

mx
Iron

-\,ri

draxxi:
xxlh
a.

Pu

eputanti
I
hixe ci I Ilt
in
lb
xi ut-i

1. r

scan
:

Lafim

--

-cc

nurrunat

c. .iendr
ci. a\uitn4

-rcx

Ci

ii

tatti

cx

iacscuzr
:rnfl

10. Lnlhsc
gie

It

rt1at- S-au.

separate
a.

frIar

b. d
c.

ci

Inn

ai

C putt

a,

1,. 1
c.
ci.

b. xeutht I aril
3. ci. Pie, had cultures:
a. pit e prioriti to the goals of their groups.
b. talne the maintenance of social harmony.
c. tinter -ocial interdependence.
ci. are haracterized hr all ot the above.

tag

sex

feC ann

Dc Ii
Ia

a
.-u c-

1n
1

ci.

b. Wor
lx
c Mer

2. \ pair of adopted children or identical twins

a.

d. molecular biologist.

ruared in the same home are most likely to have


sirifi I a r:

i-L,t Nantrha

1
rtfllcla_j
a
4

ci.

,a

:1

cx

e
9
t

ci

7. \tc
der a
aM

r).

ax

called

PROGRESS TEST

-.

..

c. adopten thuor a
t a ms cx
ci. identir

3. Tin principle that xx e should prefer the simplest

n
hcn
u
1

-ii,i

a. trait rnai tW
b. ictenthJ cxx

is

competing explanations for a phenomenon

.i

cci

5.l)tthsin

2. \\ e are the prod oct of both

of

Nc

cc

stat us gender roles are

tenl that

xi

in

coin erging.divergingL

ax-

i\ :tcx

lit

nil
at:!

1
a

au. I r

Progress rest 1

11

x crament refers to a persons characteristic:


motinal reactivity and intensity.
a
b attitude5.
c. hehax jars,
d. role-related :raib.

12. XV hen cx a! u tionarr psvchologi%ts ue the word


tirness, thee are specifically referring to:
a.
an an ma
ahihtr to adapt to changing envi
ronrnc n
b. th
5 nix ersitx of a pecieJ gene pool.
c. the tctal number of members of the species
Lurrentix ahx e.

d. our ahi!itx to urvix e and reproduce.


13, In a. hr pothetical world where all schools are ot
unrnrm gualitx all tamilies equallx lox ing. and
all neighbornoods equally health\, the heritabili
,

81

16. Gender refers to:


a. the biological md social definition of male

and female.
h. the biological definition of male and female,
c. ones sense of being male or female.
d. the extent to which one exhibits traditionally
male or female traits.
17. Ihe fertilized egg will dcx elop into a boy it, at
conception:
a. the sperm contributes an \ chromosoIne.
b. the sperm contributes a i chromosome.
c. the egg contributes an \ chromosome.
d. the egg contribute a I chromosome.
18. Which theorx states that gender becomes a lens
through which children x len their e\per iences?

a. social learning theorm

lx ot person-to-person differences xould be:


a lrge.
c, zero
b. s all.
d. unpredictable.

b. sociocultural theory
c. cognitive theory
d. gender schema theory

14 1 xc s i xtield that studies the specific genes that


r II ence behax br is:
a. bchax ior genetics
ar genetics
1
b noV u
c. exo utic na psychology.
1 svchosocial genetics.
d bio

19. the hormone testosterone:


a. is found only in females,
b. determines the sex of the developing person.
c. stimulates growth of the female sex organs.
d. stimulates growth of the male sex organs.

15, Whic i xf It c following most accurately expresses


he extcnt of parental influence on personality?
a It is more extensive than most people believe,
b
V xx eaker tcdav than in the past.
is more limited than popular 5} chology
supposes.
d. It is almost ronxpietelv unpredictable.

20. Research studies ham e found that mx hen infant


rats and premature human babies are regula rim
touched or massaged, they:
a. gain xxeight more rapidly
b, develop faster neurologically.
c. have more agreeable temperaments.
d. doa. andh.

XIatchi;zg Items

Match each tenu n oh its corresponding definition or

dcnsnption.
T

Functions or Descriptions

1. \ chranesume
heritarcl:tx

3. trcttnnh
S

5. D\i\
6. identical

7.
8.
9.
0.
11

\ chromoccinre
gender row
gender identitx
gendt r-tr cing
enx iron ment

a.
b.
c.
d.
C.

1.
g.
h.
i.

j.

the biochemical units of heredin


tx ins that dcx elop tram a single egg
ones personal ene at being female or male
a set ot expected hehax mrs for malts and females
txvins that develop from separate eggs
x ariation among individuals due to genes
nongenetic influences
the sex chromosome tound in both xx omen and
in en
the acquisition of a tr idition, I gender role

a complex n olcculc cor trir mg tIe genetic infor


ination that nakes up he hrc iv so mxxx
k. the sc chrow oson c found o fly i i n c n

d Hurian Dii units

Nat

EST 2

PRO

a ha

1.

; P

cinestionc after

correct ansrver for

c. thor nnderestinaate r oltutal


se\ nal itv
d. of all ot the ahos e wason

ien aad Pronruss 2est i.

r Cr

;ndrnrad Ode

onna!\

tin

hag

\mi ci rOe eiIon

naocr

Fhit

onipleted during a final

I ct 2 tond Ia

roar-

Choice Qziatio;ic
v has a total o:

hnrnnn I

ct ott! r

)sc a

a.

re

b.
d.
3

do clapnaent ha san

oat

tens

;1;-)san

Tic On a ci

a.

ocoorne is

nce
[hat

n ra a

makes up

rent or

bust defIned

as:

genetic

iOOlcr n Ic satatning

D\ \

ni It tc
s

ton

the chromosomes.

in
h

for

u tior
ii

makm

an

OCr,

its a r
0
tr
fl(d h a sit n a <sun a
n
,nn d tar inant genes acting together.
t.
prcca Ia tue.
ci.
b

5,

\p,i it

ns

as

random errors

in

rcpli a

h tiadI
n I nah

In

a -Its

5 o
an rn-i F-

at m ng
em
sls

I a s me attitndcs
o woaklr gun lrr
F a
;an

are strongia genden

,otlticrc on

idcnIn ii

8. Sts oral ,tud e In lon,Inst

run otr

or dttfcrc
7. 1 volutionary explanatioi
t carisr
in scruahtr has e been eritin
a. they otter atten tIn naa cxolaoauons,
h. standards of atrraetn eoe \ art a itO lion and
place.

tn i

hart fonnd tht these H


Fe Jiff
a. has & little in com no
std
or s ironments i a i a I
to
K hasc mant ,aad r i
mcdnal hist rios to t s a t
a
era ditfe c
c. have similar pcrson lit
likes dishkes, and hte I Ic
d. are no more sinailai than ar fraternal tar iO
reared apart.
5 shon that the personahtit of
9. Adoption stndic
adopted children:
a. closely match those ot tnoir adophi e parents
b. bear more simIlarrtc to trre;r hniogitai pan
ants.
ents than to their adopts
c. rlosclv match those of th I ological child c
of their adoptive par n
r 1 rr ar
d. closely match those h t a
0
the same home a h th t
y
logically relatcd
10. Of the folloaring, paonts rc
ence their childrens:
a. temperament.
b. persnnahtar
c. faith.
d. emotional reattta ti

11. Chronaostrnc are ctnapach r


of
a. ON \ alhd genr
b DNAc 1 dneoirtr
c. cats al d \\
r
d DNA alcd
12. Whcr lhc cttt ot mc c
moot) dcpcr ds on anothr
hr a
say thorc is atn)
a. norna
K positir & correlation
c. oem tire t irrela bOil
d. tiatorattion

t kcla to

sacti

iO

cgnr on

a, in
It rath

ct

t tattot

Progress Test 2

13. Conirared to children raised in Western societies,


those raised in communai societies, such as Japan

Jima
grow up with a stronger integrahon of the
sc i c of family into their self-concepts.
b cx u t grcater shxness toward strangers.
c. cxliii it grcater concern for lovaltr and social
harmonr.
d. have all of thc ahox c characteristics.
or

83

19. Genetically female children often play n niascu


line xvax s if they were e\posed to excess
during prenatal dcx elopr xc it.
a. estrogen

1,, DN
c. testostc tone
d. oxygen

14. fhc eIci hen chit t in peer influence refers to the


tcndcncx of children and s outh to:
a. naturally separate into same-sex plavgroups.

20. Providing a child xx ith a timulatin educational


environment during early childhood is likely to:
a. ensure tle formation of a strong attachment
xx itli parents.
b. fostc r the dcx elopment ot a calm easx going

b. establish large, fluid circles of friends.


c seek out friends with similar interests and attn
tudc s.
d. choose triends their parents like.

temperan cut.
c. prexcut ncural conncctons from degenerat
ing.
d. do all of the ahox e

13. Which ot the following C net true regarding cul


tural divcrsity?
a. Culture influences emotional expressiveness.
b. Culture influences personal space.
c. Culture does not have a strong influence on
how strictly social roles are defined.
d. Al ultures evoke their own norms.

16. Women and men are most likely to be attracted to


strongly gender-typed mates in cultures charac
terized by:
a. gender inequality.
b. gender equality.
c. tiexihie gender roles.
d. tew norms.

tndicate whether each statement is true or false by


placing I or F in the blank next to the item.

1,

ditterences in mate preferences


x ary xx idelv from one culture to
another.
2. lhe most emohoually reactix e new
horns tend to he the niost restrained
-

monthoids.
3. Research on txx ins shoxxs a substantial
genetic influence on a ttitu des toxxard
organized religion and many other

17. \n cx olutionary psy chologfst would be most


r terested in studs ing:
a whx nost parents are so passionately des oted
to their children.
h. hereditary intluence on shin color.
C. xx lix
certain diseases are more
enong certain age groups.
d. genetic ditterencec in persona] itv.

TrueFalse Items

coin mun

18 C hildren
c ire raised by parents who discour
ira t ia bender typ nty
a ir Ic s ikely hi display bender-typed behax
iors t xemselx Cs.

b. often become confused and des elop an


ambguouc gender identity.
c. ocx ertheless organize tliemnselx es into girl
xx orld% and hom worlds,
d. xiispiix extsix clx masculine and tern mine
r,.iits .u- adults,

issues.
4. As environments become less similar,
heredity as a source of differences
becomes more important.
5, Compared to identical tw us reared in
different families, fraternal txx ins recall
their earls tamxlv life more di ffercnth.
6. Parents ha cc a strt niger ,nti ounce than
di peers on xx heftier a outh starts
0 km
7. \atme setects hchax icr tcadcnies that
i rease thc
c lihood c i nding one s
gcnes mt f c uture.
8. People t on ndix idna 5 u tu es say
xx hat they feel am d xx I at they prtsume
ithers feel.
9. Parental influence on personality is
more limnitcu than popular psy ioiugr

supposes.
10. \orth Finery ns prefer inure pcrsoiuit

sparc than cc Ltin

incikcns,

Jurt re and tiuman Diversity

ii

11. 1 Lng am expoaare to language


efoi edolewence, a person xviii never
ma-er am language.

OGY PPUED

SY

n ha c ax before an exam as a
un undemtanding ot the chapters

tI;ott;;K Ciek c (ur 4ions

s ate the b aoL of hereditx the

in
a

2.

to

ohs

c-

usiiain

Li

;x\

h ritabili x of a trait is approxi


at me s that
ins ale for 50 percent of the
x Dual and the eni ironment is
in
spelincle to the ret.
* tn naitK appearenre in a person will reflect
p1 oxtmateiv equal genetic contributions
hoD .arent-.
an in t e trait within a group of
tIn v
c
cent ca i bc attributed to genes.
It I
x arc err ct
d
h

tf

11 a

*p

,,

onna; ng dn on rates among identical


twins. Dr. Alexander has concluded
on on cax a roe, Dr. Alexander is most

lotior

psxch ia st.
ae mei,t
Ic-i

d
0:

K-

:-t

tog up to the mme home environ-

brother iomn has e personah


t a -h other an Ks o people
lx no a t c population. Lhv is

arid in
ii

i ii

200

mb
Because Karen and

ra
o or a mdcntmr a x ins, it is not surpris
s
a dmterent personalities.
a P
macb n toe most impurtart factor in person
It K, n had a .m.ter, the two of them
a I- pm ob mhix he mu lx more alike.
x ol t c ndivrdual genes and
r c
a c aunts for the em
I:
a in the same farih
r c
nIl

S I am a rat xx hose cortex is lighter and thinner than


nay litter mates, What happened to me?
a. \ ou were born prematurely
b. A ou suffer from fetal alcohol syndrome
c. You were raised in an enriched ens ironment.
d. A on xvere raised in a depris ed ens ironment,
6. (Dad, who grew rip
IDeA to encourage

in

the Knited 5mates, is

more

in his tutorc children


than Asian born Hidiyaki, who is more likely to

ui his future chil lien


encourage
independenec
a. obedience;
b. independence; emotional closeness
c. emotional elosenens; obedience
d. lox altv; emotional closeness

d. their case is unusual; children in the same


family usually has e similar personalities.

r. hmthr nt

7. One of the best way s to distinguish how nauch


genetic and ens ironmental factors atfe K beha x mor
is to compare children who has e:
a. the same genes and environments.
b. different genes and ens irLmnents,
c. similar genes and environments.
d. the anae genes hut different environnaents.
8. My sibling and I devetoped from a single fertil
iied egg. Who aie we?

a.
b.
c.
d.

opposite sex identical twms


same sex identical txvins.
opposite-sex trateriaa I tw i las.
sa me-sex fraternal tsv i tas.

9. A psychologist working from tlae exolutionary


perspective is

likely to suggest that people a e

biologically predisposed to
a. protcet their offspring.
b. fear laeight-.
c. be anracted to tertmleappeom hag menaher
th,e opposite sex,
d. do all ot the -hes
10, Ihe bcritability
genet ally

fa traitw

hrg

meig

mdix aduals ax ho p w up in

enx ronnac ia 5

a.
b.
c.
d.

It

ot

dissimilar; dissiaaaiiar
elissimnilai; -inailar
similar; simtlar
sinailar; dissinailar

Psychology Applied

Ii.

d with neinomtr
a. ue cons ersatjon to communicate solutions.
b. emphahie freedom and selt-reiance.
c taikrnie acniy
o
ftf i o c
d
(OT4

12. Cf the relath clx few genetic differences among


ho in am
are ditreren es among popula [ion
roups
I

ftit It

b. esst an lhrercent
c approx imatt h 25 pecent
ci. approximately 40 to Sit percent

85

By mating aggressix e and unaggressive foxes,


the researchers created a mutant species.
ci. By selecting and mating the tamest males and
temales, the researchers have produced affec
tionate unaggressivc offspring.
c.

17. Compared to men. women are more likely to:


a. be concerned with their partners physical
attracth eness.
b. initiate sexual actix dv.
c. cite liking one another as a justification for
ha; ing sex in a new relationship.
d. he less accepting of casual sex.

13. Re pi nd f to t it argumi nt that gender differ


ences arc often hr-products of a culture s social
and famih structures, an cx olutionary psvcholo
gist is not likeh to point to:
a ur great human capacity for learning
b t it r doncx of cultural arguments to rein
fort e traditional gender inequalities.
c. the intaiiibilitx ot hindsight explanations.
ci. all oi the ahox e.

18. When his son cries because another child has


taken his fax onto toy, Brandon admonishes him
by saving, Big boys dont cry. Evidently,
Brandon is an advocate of
in accounting for
the des elopment of gender-linked behaviors.
a. gender schema theory
b. gender identity theory
c. gender-typing theory
ci. social learning theory

xi hose twin has Alzhoimors disease has


risk of sharing the disease if they are iden
tical ru ins than it they are fraternal txx ins.
a. ies
b iho t the same
c inuc greater
ci. It is a iprodictahie.

19. The fact that after age 2, language forces children


to begin organizing their worlds on the basis of
gender is most consistent with which theory of
hon gender-linked behaviors develop?
a. gender schema theory
b. gender idenhty theory
c. gender-typing theory
ci. social learning theorr

14,

c sa

IS. \\h:ch of the tohoss mg is an example of an inter

c cn?
Swir imcrs sw m tastost during competition
aparnct other swimmers.
b. SwImmers with certain personality traits
s5 hn fastest during competition while those
ith
or or on lv traits sxs im fastest dur
sin
ug
al
c. & thc a crgo dahx temperature increases.
salm nt ice cream detrease
As
d.
the ii eragt da
x temperature increases,
0
ale f ew
li
ctac
a

16. A ,w lx ot the fo Ion ing Inciff act urateh summa


rizm the thxdhxgs or the 40-sear fo\-hrooding
tuds dec ihod in the text?
a
lId dx s aunt t hi domesticated.
b
Sur alt he rttest seems to operate only
c hx u at their natural hahtab.
1
htn, , l;no

20, fhree y ear-old Jack is inhibited and shy. As an


adult, Jack is likely to be
a. cautious and unassertix e.
b. spontaneous and fearless.
c. socially assertive.
ci. Who knows? I his aspect of personality is not
x c ry stablc ox er the life span

86

Chapter 3 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

Essay Question

Lakias new boyfriend has been pressuring her to


become more sexually intimate than she wants to at
this early stage in their relationship. Strongly genden
typed and macho in attitude, Jerome is becoming
increasingly frustrated with Lakias hesitation, while
Lakia is starting to wonder if a longterm relationship
with this type of man is what she really wants. In
light of your understanding of the evolutionary
expianahon of gender differences in sexuality,
explain why the tension between Lakia and Jerome

would be considered understandable.

KEY TERMS
Writing Definitions
Using your own words, on a piece of paper write a

brief dehnition or explanation of each of the follow


ing terms.
1. environment

2. behavior genetics
3. chromosomes
I
St.

flk
L-NtX

5. genes
6. genome

7. identical twins.
8. fraternal nvins
9. temperament
10. heritability
11. interaction

12. molecular genetics


13. evoluhonary psychology
14. natural Nelecdon
15. mutation

16. gender
17. culture

18. nornr
19. personal space
20. individualism

21. collectivism
22. aggression
23, X chromosome
24. is chromosome
25. testosterc,ne
26. role

27. gender role


28. gender identit.

29. gender-typing
30. social learning theory
31. gender schema tneorv

Ansl4 en

87

Cross-Ciiet k
s ,on lewned in the Prologue,
rex V
a V ix er earning of
matc rial arc m portant to the ]earn
jog mroce, Atter r ou hax e written
the definirons or the ker terms in
this c ap tr s( sh iu d complete
the (ross rd puizle to ensure that
iOu can rer erse the process
reLogni/e the term. given the
dour tior

.JhJ

Ii

-1
12

ACROSS
6. Parents xx hose personahties

7.

9.

10,
11,

12.

13.

14.

15.
16
19.
20.

1
b n it h des ance to their
1-cl
hildrcn s pcrsooalities.
CompLex molecule containing
14:
the genetic information that
is
r ak s ap the chromosc mes.
I I
+
is
Set of expected behaviors for
L
those n ho eccups a particular
soeiai poston.
[NT
\n ur derstood rule for expect
and cec pted hehax ior
The hrologiral and social char
H
acteristics hr which people
detine male and female.
.1
he enduring hehar iors, ideas,
thtudes, at d traditions shared
8. Ones personal sense of being female or male.
by a large gronp of people.
17. Another word for heredity.
Environmental intluences on hchax ior.
18. Segments of [)\\capable ot synthesizing
tow rd ng t the cx olutionars perspective,
proteins.
voircn are draxsn to healths hooking men who
are also
ANSWERS
Behax br geneticists often compare the traits of
a f opted ch Idren to those of their
parents.
Chapter Review
Sc u Cc t a or eti dix ersits
1 he p oportion of x ariahon among mdix iduals
Introduction
that ran he attributed to genes.
1. persenalitim. intere-ts; cultural; tamiiv
Thrradiike stiucture msdo up iargeh ot D\A
2. biological heritagc; brain, language s )cral
ii
I

3. nature; nurture
DOW\

he sndx o
n tatix c power and i mib of
n t
n
sir r mcn al h f onus on
iha
r.
2. uhtieid or pveho1ogr that uos prtnciple of nat
01 a I scitctieo to explore human trait and hohav
1.

Bcliarior Genetics: Predicting Individual l)iffcrcnccs


1. behax ior geneticists
2. nongenotic

3. chromosomo-; 46; 23; DhJ\


4. genes

icr I

tO nc achird pendsonanother

actor
4. Am imnuenc t
c bnrincncc,
1
kt e thrti. h
dx ehlorer ergamzo their

(f

ii orlcr ale

5. genome gent complexes


6. twin; adoption
7. iden tic al; frarcrna. mort
8, morc

Ni

)fn

un
ac

ut,.

i urian Di nsa

leust genetic influences are


and nterets

if

1 \lt)I

hut

it

I
11

12.

epi

13.

eH!duif,
icc:

lull

d,ws

He iniewe: unnredictahie; ease:


cc a \t ci precli dile hi feeding and

ni it

1I
1

10. culture; parentsgroup

16.
ci

21.
a

pri

n ft cHar

gtniu

inn Hal

1, culture

rient

2. inno\ abon, lai Lgua

rafern,iI :dentccal

n5es

iuI
I

Eon linen
\atzrc
.1

\lost North Americans, the BrItish and cand:


afir
in
nasrans prefcr mon pusa a spa
I
fir
i
r
urn
I
ii
Americans, \rahs, tnt ft c
1
crc
life
pacc
o
and
e
ewes n expressn enc s
ate misundersfandunas. ::i esuinpic, penpie ts rh
northern Furopean roots nrar nerceis e people ironI
\1edferranean cultures as warm ann aarnung hut
irth
is m
w th
ineflrcient, while Mc diterrar
Id
a
c
o
em I uropeans as fficrcn bu
y

LI mdcrstaadzug human

PctjcIzr

0gm

0.

!l(tiO4ists

cci

5,

5. slowh

c run

,i,fidi

maCn warn: anapt ens ronment,; fitness;


rti:. tat: sinie

lo-i

alt

5t11

9.

551

rt eric

ct,,,,i,.

sft:!

10
Ii

a: : chatnitant. hold atiluent

hut

6. technology
7. faster; gene

pool

strol)
ur
mdc p d -nce
8. mdividnahsm;
W
ala
c
achesement; I inch t
Fnrope
9. collectivism; interdependeocr fra,f:nn larmw
nx; Africa; Asia

aria

a
8,

chdrearociz

4. personal cpace

23

4,

to

3. norms

wa-s

-i

manners. relinious

Cultural Influences
ci,

18
20,

erso a

7. political attitudes:
beliefs
pi rsonahty 10
9. peers; selection

In

5. ni ural; degenerati prunn ci pubc s


6. Freudian. pin hiafrs; pat dioiugs

1,

logically. I hronghoet life, cusors nmu iation attn


ales and strengfhen% parficuiau neutal connections,
while other connections is eaken cc ith disuse, in this
I th
r ii fu
way our experiences shap I c s er
in
c
neural pathu i s that (cc
\

10. indh iduialsf lone! nes. tr

II.

on

ideper d nec; c

ser

12 lair 1k self

13

13.

en!

ci,-: a

14.

1: ;u

mailer

dfttie-us

Gerzder Dctelop;ne;zt
Inc

Pa

1, 46, 4S

2. fat muscle si
dicordem c

c5

3. suicide;
4,
I

sin

ti-

ii
ii

un
I

r nst
ii

rft

fin

atisin,

alcohohsm;

in peracfn fs, 1
nt:sct

-it,
-i

tc

fit

1 era
P

rhul

mdc

It

rr

it-f

color b-tin In 5s
-Hf dis 0 IC

Answers
6. phy sical; x erbal
/

dor i iant; foneful; independent; directive (or


autocratic); democratic

9. throughout the world


IL plv smaller competitixe
12. interdependent; explore relationships; communi
13.

ate

solutions

support; stress

14 sex X I testosteronc; sex enth


15, m

t imboxish

16. hormones; frontal; x erhal; parietal; space


17. gender roles
18, are uot: cultures; time; nomadic; agricultural

19. gender identity gender typing


20 5OC ial learmng, do
21. gender

schema;

social

learning;

cognition;

schema,
Reflections on

ggression does

7. d. is the answer. Such gender diferenccs charac


terize both heterosexual and homosexual people.
(p. 110)

10 Co ncctions

6. d. is the answer. (p. 108)


c. Natural selection favors traits that send one s
genes into the future, such as survix lug longer
and reproducing more often.
not necessa nh promote either.

8. deterentiai; nurturant; affiliative

89

8. b. is the answer.
Omen can mncubate only oils
infant at a time. (p. lit)
c. & d. [he text does not suggest that there is a
gender difterence in the strength of the sex drix e.
9. b.istheanswer (p.IIl)
a. According to this perspectix e, women prefer
mates with the potential for longternr nurturing
mx estment in their joint oftspning.
c. While nien are draxx n to women whose waists
are roughly a third narrower than their hips, the
text does not suggest that xx omen equate muscu
larity with fertrlity.
d. Excitement xx as not mentioned as a criterion
for matmg.

Nature

and Nurture

1. brute strength corn erging


2. nature; nurture; open
3. (,iccarns razorr

Progress Test a.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. c. i the answer. (p. IOH
a., b., & d. Whereas cx olutionarv psychologists
attempt to explain unix ersal human tendencies,
thesc researchers mx estigate genetic differences

mon., mix iduals


2. c. is the ansxxe Research has not shoxsn a strong
n,rental intl uence on personality, temperament,
or emot]onal rcactlx it\ (p. liii
3 d. 1st
insxxcr (p. 122
4 b,r t cn xc p.
8)
9
a. & c. Alt ough a
identical twin is xt
increaed risk, the relationship is far from perfect.
\ientai disorders, like all psx chological traits, are
influenced hx bath nature and nurture.
d. It is not at all implied by the evidence from
w n Indies.
5 d. is c ansxxcr (p. 99
a., b., & c. In rder to pinpoint the influence of
lie ft tue hr o ta tors Igenes and environment), it
n ;)eeecar\ 0 hold tme of the tar tors constant.

10. b. is the answer. (pp. 97 iS)


c. & d. [here are no such things as placental or
nonplacental twins. All twins hax e a placenta

during prenatal dcx elopment.


11. a. is the answer. (p. 102)
12. d. is the answer. (p. 10i
a. Survival ability is only one aspect of trtness.

1. & c. Neither of these is related to fitness.


13. a. is the answer. (pp. 102 103)
b., c., & d. Ihis hrpothetical world is one in
which there is no enxironnxental x aria tion,
Therefore, ann individual differences are prm
dictabh due to genes.
14. b. is the ansxxer. (p. 103)
a. l3ehaxior geneticists use twin and adophon
studies to explore the rclatix e pow ci and limits o
nature and nurture on hehac ior.
c. Ex olutionarx psychologists tudn how natural
selection (ax ored hehas orai tendencies that tom
tributcd hi the s rx ha a id pread of ) r an cs
tors gcncs.
d. Although this sounds mtr guing, I crc is c
such held.
15. c. is the answer. tpp. lIhi lEt
16. a. is the anxx er. (p. 110
c. this defines gender identity.
d. this defines gender-tI pins.
17. h. i
5 the ansxxct, fp. 1291
a. in this case, a female xx mld dcx lop.

uhaper i \ature, \urture, and Human Diversity

90

I
I ha
I !t

O\

Ii omio1ae
i

g
the

1
o
ru,

ncr.

a
es

0. &

c.

r c i
thc principat male
t
s p sent i both 1cr raic s and males.
creriIined or tOt ex chromosomes.

0.
hte

t.

a 130

icr

crc

am ng theo, gender
mitat on and reinforce

;tL- tneorr rocmes on gender-typing.

he

9 d

r r )ute ond an X chrome


of the child is determined hr
the sperm contributes.

Jseoe

of

testosterone, female se\

cltsl

isis

la)

4.

1
in

I 1.

12
8,

El
1 i2
k(

s Test 2
(ho

Tultij

inse,

fs

10

ONO

(tin J

.-

,1

Ots

6)

ci.

ton D\A.

d
i

Quest ions

ci p. Q6;
of the human body contains
-h
d
b
r ire
1 i arsuer. (p. 9N
0.
a. I i,ctcnes arc chemical messengers produced
fcc id tine pIand,
s
segincuts of DNA which are
I. C
c
if 1
k
t

-,

9. c (p. 132)
10. i(p 132)
11. g(p.96)

C)

b. i_lip. Di;

Lip

ogr

Pus

Jti_

iuti_ Plug

c cod

fo sy nthesizing

cr
c

Ic

b
ci

110
s

cc bun hnked to thc

tics

&

re ar

d. hic 6

ar

n re

a tcpting ot casual

sex

v 1 2 113

0.

10)
-a
& d.iC.;ct it-in a raised in difrerent end
nc ei a rated dentica) twins often
nnior iiciudmg likes, dislikes,
h o

and life-stx I s I his mdicates thc s gmhcant hen


tahilit; of manr traits.
9. b. is the answer. (pp. 100i0H
a., c,, & d. The personalities of adopted children
do not mncl resemble those of the r adoptn e
parents (therefore, not a.) or other children rca ed
in the same home 1there)ore. not c. or d. i
10. c. is the answer, (pp. 101, liE)
a. & d. femperament, which retcrs to a persons
emotional reacth ity, is letermi

red pnmarilr by

genes.

b. Genes limit parents influence on their chil


drens personalities.
IL a. is the ansiser. (p. 96)
b. Neurotransmitters are the cherna als mi oh ed
in sx naptir transmission in the neri ous sr stein
d. Enzymes are chemicals that facilitate various
chemical reactions throughout the hodi hut are
not mx ols ed in heredits.
12. d. is the answer. IP 105)
5 a cultum alli deternimned set ot
a. A norm i
for a particular role, such as a
behaviors
expected
role.
gender
b. & c. When two factors are correlated, it means
either that increases in one factor are accompa
niecl by increases in the other (posili; e correla
tion) or that increases in one factor are accontpa
nied by decreases in the other (negath e correla
tion).
13. d. is the answer. (p 122)
14. c. is the answer. (p. 118)

15. c. is the answer. (pp. 110-12I)


16. a.isthcansxser.(p 131)
b. In snch cultures gender differences in mate
preferences tend to be much smaller.
c. Although fiexihihtr in gender roles was not
discussed per se, it C likely that greater fiexihiliti
gender
i
xi ould equate with greater equalits
rule-,
d. All cultures des elop norms.
17. a. is the ansv,er. Ihis is an example of a trait that
contnhntes to suivis al or the human speties ntl
the perpetu t on of Ones genes (p 11)1
b., c., & d. Ihcse traits and issu s rould hkch be
of greater intcrest to a behavior genetic ist, sn i_ e
they concern the influence ot specific genes on
hehax mr.
18. c. is the ansiser. (p. 132)
b. & d. There is no es idence that Icing raised in a
gendei neutral home confuses children er fos
ter a backlash of excessir e gendc r ts pine
19 c. is th ansuer. (p. 110;

Answers

20. c. is the answer. p. ila)


a. Although early experiences are a factor in the
development of attachment (discussed in a later
chapter) djcational stimulation is probabh less
importa t tI an warmth and nurturance
b. tecac c te r pera nent apptars to be a strongly
c iettt tra t it is unlikely ft at earft educational
cxperienees would aftect its nature
Truefalse Items

1. t (p. iiU
2. F p. t02}
3. 302 iU(.

10Th
5. J
6. F (p. IN)
7. [(p. 108)

&E(p 122

F(pflO3)

9. 1 (p. fib)
10. F (p. 120)
11. 2 (p.IlS(

Psychology Applied
Multiple-Choice Questions
1. a. is the answer. Ip. 96
h. D\.\ js a molecule.

c. & d. Genes are segments of ID?kA.


2. c. is the ansn er. Heritabnitv is a measure of the
extent to which a traits sariation within a group
peoy Ic can he attributed to heredity. (p 102)
a. & b. lIc ritability is not a measure of how much
of an ir dix iduals hehax ior is inherited, nor of the
n lative eontrrbuton of genes from that persons
mother and father. Furthermore, the heritability
or any trait depends on the context, or environ
ment, in which that trait is being studied.
3. b. is the answer. (pp. %, 9798)
a. Evolutionary psychologists study the evolution
)t hehavic r ushig the principles of natural selec
tion.
c. Molecular geneticists search for the specific
pcnes tI at inf uence hchasiors in his example,
the resear her

merely comparing twins,

d. \\ hn knows?
4. c. i_theansner (pp. 9s, 102)
a. Although heredity does influence certain traits,
scie;: a )utConnnes5 an,d emotional instahilits, it
the Interaction ,if heredin and experience that
ltiniotely r ds peisor alitv
b I her s r
ngle a st important factor in
ers
ii
t
Mc
en cr tc r the samc reason tw o
r
sisters ) brot cr often hare dissimilar personal
diec, a sistcr n 1 brother may be x err much alike.
d. Karen an lohns case is not at all unusual.
5. d. is the anse er. ion, i14tiTh
a. & b. [remetu cc birth and tetal alcohol an
oronie (discussed ;n. a later chapter) usuallx do
not bar t t(u etfe t a the dis eloping, hnin.

91

c. If the question had stated I has e a heavier and


thicker cortex, this answer would be correct.
6. b. is the answer. Although parental xalues differ
from one time and place to another, studies
reveal that Western parents toda want their chil
dren to think for themselx es, while Asian and
African parents place greater value on emotional
closeness. (p. 124)
d. Both of these values are more typical of Asian
than Ecestern cultures.
7. d. is the answer. To separate the influences of
heredits and experience on behavior, one of the
two must he held constant. (pp. 902100)
a., b., & c, these situations would not allow one
to separate the contributions of heredity and
environment.

8. b. is the answer. (pp. 121 122)


a. Because ther are genetically the same, identical
twins are always of the same sex.
c. & d. Fraternal twins develop from two fertil
ized eggs.
9. d. is the answer. (pp. 108109, 111)
10. b. is the answer. Because their environments are
largely the same, differences in the traits of such
individuals are likely to be due to genehc differ

ences. (p. 103)


c. & d. if two individuals are genetically similar,

any differences in their behaviors and traits are


likely to he due to environmental factors.
ii. d. is the answer. (p. 129)
12. b. is the answer. Actually, only 3 percent are dif
ferences among population groups. (p. 108)

13. a. istheanswer. (p. 113)


b. & c. In fact, these are typical criticisms of cx o
lutionary psychologx.
14. c. is the answer. (p. 98)
15. b. is the answer. (p. 105)
a. An interaction requires at least two variables;

in this example there is only one lcompetiton).


c. I his is an example of a negative correlation.
d. This is an example of a positive correlation.
16. d, is the answer. p.108
17. d. is the answer. (p. 110)
a., b., & c. These are typical male attitudes and
behax iors.
18. d. is the answer. F ollowing social learning theory,
Brandon is using s erbal punishment to discour
age what he belier e to he an inappropriate

gender-linked behavior in his son. (ia. fl2)


a. Gender schema theory maintains that children
admust their hehas ion- to match their cultural con-

Chapter 3 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

of tender. In this example, we have onis the


tathers behavior on which to base our answer
b. & c. No such theories were discussed.
9. a. is the answer. Many aspects of language in
ludmg masculine and feminine pronouns, proide children n ith schemas through n Inch ther
cgin organizing their worlds on the basis of gcn
dr (p. 132)
20. a. is the answer. p. 103)
h., c., & d. Temperament is one ot the most $able
pewonaIit traits.
tpt

I ssav Question

Fr o ationarv psy chologists would not be surprised


br the tension between l,akia and Jerome and nould
sCC it a a reflection ot womens more relational and
owns more recreational approach to sex, Since eggs
art. expensive, compared with sperm. women prefer
mates nith the potential for long-term investment in
their joint offspring According to this perspetire,
thi rr ay be n by I akia is not in a hurry to become
sevuall intimate with Jerome. Men on the other
hand, are selected for pairing wideh but not neces
arilr n iselv in order to maximize the spreading of
their genes. This is especially true of men like Jerome,
who have traditional masculine attitudes,

Key Terms
Writing Definitions

1. in hehax ior genetics, environment refers to every


nongenetic, or external, influence on our traits
and behaviors. (p. 96)
2. Behavior genetics is the study of genetic and
cm ironmental influences on behavior. (p. 96)
3 Chromosomes are threadlike structures made of
molecules, which contain the genes. In on
eption, the 23 chromosomes in the egg are
uairt-d w]th the 23 chromosomes in the sperm. (p.
4. D\A deoxrribonucieic acidi is a complex mole
ontaining the genc tic information that

k up hc chromosomes. (p 96
Genes are the biochemkal units of hcredity that
make up the chromosomes; ther are segments of
the DNA molecules capable of cnthesizing a
protein. (p Q6)
6. \ genome is the complete set of genetic instruc
to rs for making an organism. tp. 96)
7. Identical twins deelop from a srngk tertihzed
i t splits in tu o and therefore arc gc netical
l d ntacal. (p 97)
,.

8. Fraternal hr in,
lertilized by (lit it

more genctiv1ii.
9 Tempra nent
a
i
erno
10. Heritabl t is
inclivdu l- n a I

It

p 0

crt
0

ii!1[L

to
P
th. t a-

0 0

tactorCurritJ1,L

intcliiginco at ahoai
ca
U
11, An interaction
3k ti)
oc
br (so I rs ca-s i
he
tor (s c
(p
a
Ixai
B ao
dc
erniicnr nth I
ifiunced iCtUt30a-t v
a- an interaction c UUO
hereditr
12. Molecular genetics i ii U -ia i 0
seeks to id nIHy
speuri I or ir
ogy
13. tivolutionary ps c
lution o hehax ior a- tL
pie, of natural a-lw ti
14. Natural selection a- ta- ca hat
that ttat, that c 3t1LtI
i
I 00
survir a re the
suca-edir er
15 Mutations arc
that arc hc a-u

Iar

at. a
00

specka- (p. Ihs


16. Gender a-Hers to the moon i
1
teristics hr u hit h p,a- 7c
0
(p 110)

OU

17. F culture a IF

tudes
people

Ira

the ncha pr 110)

18. Norms c cadc a-u


ru1t 01 ntUcOt a na

19 Persora
I
a-I
roun

pace
Ia-

20. Individualism

lam

cr group a
term, t Pcr,3t3a- lit
identti -0101 p ha
tO a-a-

o\

21. Collecti

It

003
to r

a-Ott

Focus on Vocabulary and Language

22 Aggression is phi sical or x erbal behavior intend


ed ft aurt someone. (p. 127)
23. In X chromosome is the sex chromosome found
in both men and women, Females inherit an \
chrcmosnine H on each parent. p. 12i
24. 1 he \ chromosome is the sex chronaoome found
end in men. Males inherit an X chromosome
trem their mothers and a 3 chromosome from
their fathers, P i2;
25. Testosterone s the principal male sex hormone.
Outing nrenatal de\ elooment, testosterone
stimuIate- the des einpment of the external male
sex &rgans. (p. 13)1)
26. A role i
5 a cluster or prescribed behaviors expect
ed ot those vho occupi a particular social posi
non. (p. thU
27. \ gender role is a set of expected behaviors for
males and females. (p. 131)
28. Gender identity ft ones peronal sense of being
in Ic or female. (p 132)
29. Gender-typing is the acquisition of a traditional
ten ininc or masculine gender rote (p. 1 32)
30, \ccc rding to social learning theory people learn
ml balm r (such a gender role) b observ
i r, and imitating and by be ng rewarded or pun
shed p. 1 2)
31 \ccord r g to gender schema theory, children
at qurrc a cultural concept ot xi hat it means to be
lena c or male and adjust their behaxior accordin lv
132)

F locus ON VOCABULARY AND LAVGUAGE


Belier ior Genetics: Predicting Individual
Differences
tan thread of heredity and
e.s irnnrrenr. heha ior geneticists often use tree wts

ni acer-. tsr as stndes and adoption studies XIs ers


i- uwsg cn anaierrr ace: to separate out ct:-cetanvie
in, diltvent H ;ng tin cads) that are tightis inter
on can use a small pacers ftmc:er-.
zn iaed
Sssmiarl, in an atttmrst to disc over and eparate out
igert) the differential effects of the environ
ireet and genes (tf lit ad that arc cnfaaglcd hehas ior
enetic ists use tsr o approaches (tce -es
trcee:crd:
t i s studies and adoption studies,
lo

,in;(w

hla char Faailics


this phrase refers to a
is based on the txpe if work people do.
mannal workc -s w re blue (denim)
i in! at we
) H )ntr ist to office
r F c v ore white shirts
ag ms etc
,

sc
r
-

93

Cross-Check
ACROSS
6.
7.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
19.
20.

DOW N

1. behavior genetics

acloptis e
D\\
role
norm
gender
culture
nurture
affluent
biological
mutation
heritability
chromosome

2.
3.
4.
5.
8.
17.
18,

evolutionars
interaction
ens ironment
gender schema
gender icldntlt\
nature
genes

(nhite-celin markers). The identical

twins (both

named Jim) were adopted by similar working-class


(him iccellar) families.

Page 700: The stories ot tartting ntimi nniiarmtt, do


not impress Bouchards critics, who remind us that
the plural ot anecdote is not data, Bouchards
ins estigation into the similarities bern ceo separated
twins suggests that genes intluente mans hehas iors,
such as career choices h\-xiatching habits, and food
like and dishkes tstarrhng -tcrlecj, I he critics point
out that any two strangers of the a me sex and age
xi ould probably have mans coincidental things in
common if thes xs crc to spend hours cornpa ring
their behaviors and life histories. Furthermore, sto
ries hi, or about, mdix iduals (siarlc aint dates) do not
constitute scientific data, even if there are many of
them (f/ic pleral of an cdetc is i )t daft)
Pagt 101 (aiarg i
Mom m v M to
i ig a tall !taase
0
a
O
1
c Dad ha
ts a
trw 5
ht in I yr t is t cm Jur iom
random half of each of their ards his p 1 hand mart

a id Human Div rity

)
a

irakesesseof
with tied games
tul foist and a
c ids (tint) that
n ani Dad tart
i nm
ingcads
cx
cntc thc roff
si
bc
v me nmg
I

Sr

b tdepcndnor
in hart a ymm for
Ft kcntegc G F a
I d rcbp toughened
c ptation to tnt tion
em
I ide
v ap ily is a common
ie i t uJn of hnman
or pit! if. Vie
I ott Ii cat) homeer
refc oces tend to be
) it anous foods is
f omeonc doesnt
tt
h s feet wifl become
d iptation. If a persc n
o
hi i-et n ill bt ten
l
I r it) this is also the
i cia sr
Horrerer it is
c th difference betas een
v ad e i Ie;fot tradition
s

o
F

c
r

ci

t c
r

kr

ras

iris to ranchmg

nd s

iris

nsed to

me ett e r c or pcrsonaht is
e it ens ironment is like
I t,d silo t the rrsolt
arc of a spice snch as a
I
determmn H by mul
lb Otis ioush
ou
I
itiou bcthlcngth
j La. c nc stir sic are
r As Mycrs notes
r at dde en cs
ot g nctc
f
t c

dctcctrc [us
r nra and solve
c

so daiccu

I c ge its responsible
c bat c
r
V

genes and erirmrr r nc I ii r


acti ig as master pta is
to the same result mnstea I r
environments
I hos p epk
(identical twin bi t v t i d
up is ith similar but t
dc i

Ic

S
I

Itt

it

F
c

F g

I3ut as
s s
Flu
rd mamsing bot i iope r
prrblems. M\crs i u
t
cp
ruth tiso cutting cdcc
the fact that progress has hi a cI
tire (hopeful possibil t ts r
i
ethical issues an I lit cut F be

d
t
a

I volutionary Psychology Undrrstan Ii


\Iature

cc

Hi

in

1
ic i i
5
Pogc IOh mm Ii ctrip 0
Ft
pe rate need of nionev ( i i
)
Ii
rd
researchers setec hr et i c d
y
friendliest foxe fror r c a h it 30 r c
r
r
f
40year penmod. the picscnt enccd ) to c
or
to r
tionate docile and eager to I isc
funds for the finaucialli 0 it te
I
institute they are being niarkccr i
u c e 5
Page 108. But the tight geneti a
i
ose
res r
humans Just is a dog
a strap or cord I cod g nes g en It I ci
the faints rigid a fixed oath rn of
it arc
many animals In humar s hor r en
ci mc
ci
mnftuentiab thus the usoa]s s r r
straints (tight gee It met Ii) o a. alt
cc
mined way (0
Os )
op t
Pmy 110 (Diem
among mates us lb tradi or
(Heck & others 199 licre a
ences in sexual r aluc s
reflected in dffcrcn
u
Mates ( sp ci 1Ii h
ft natcs tend I a
II
andncnchaantj
mc ttc
i
it

cittie

gric

cut

I
r

die

Au
it

I
i

mc

it

rc
I

Ii,

F
I(Mc as
e
ccii ng warn respor cc
wilt typically mount rp et a
friendly female s bch r or e
tiontoharecex(ms
a r
base stor nthat c a r
attribute a a ornar s t r d

na

irs

Focus on Vocabulary and Language

95

that o ii normal desires (natural yearnings) help per


patuac mr genes. In our cvolutionarv past (ancestral
!ii-teia females accomplished this best by being
select is e in their choice of mate yairiizg 1
riseh) and
men hr mm e promiscuous behavior (parzng rulcy).
\lver p0mb out hon r er, that ens ironmental tac
to s, such as cultural expectations, can alter or shape
row sc i I hehas ior is expressed b both males and
femaie (c.ui is ad i/ic genders).

randomlx interspersed (shuffled) and then passed oi


(dealt) to the plas ers, a man and a woman lute rmmis
gle their genes is/:mtti/e /be:r gene dee/ui amid conceive
offspring (deal a l/ti-termnit,g band to their e/mi/d-tolsi.
The child h then expoed to numerous ens ironmuen
tal factors beyond parental control that limit hors
much the parents i ifluence the child s des elopmcnt
(children a met Ic rmless blo s mitt/pt a hm / rental tin
t am e i.

age ilL Fhe (n omen) prefer tick-u round lzds veer


like/ti e A. X\ omen tend to preter males who are
r ore like s to be supporth e of their children (their
ffsr ) and si ho are also more willing to make a
laNting cc ntrihution to their protection (stickuround
Jacl) rather than males n ho indicate little or no ivili
ingness to make such a co-parenting commitment
ikeh, LULl).

Page lie: And society reintorces such parentblaming: Believing that parents shape their children
as a potter i melds clay, people readily praise parents
for their childrens x irtues and blame them to their
childrens rices. My ers suggests that hecause some
factors that affect development are under the paremits control and others are trot, it is not appropriate
to he judgmental. We should he slower to praise
parents for their childrens achier emeim ts (childrens
virtues) and sloss er y et to be critical when the
children do not perform up to our expectations (ehil
drens sicesi. Children are nor smmpls formed by
their parents child-rearing abilities (as a pet/er mne//s
clzu) hut rather are influenced by many tactors
beyond their control.

I ige Ill: \s mobile gene machines, we are designed


to prefer whater er worked for our ancestors in their
ens ironments, I r olutionarv psx chologists believe
that behas iorai tendencies that increase tire proha
biliti ut getting ones genes into the future have
been semected for over the course of evolution.
ltnmanc is ho actis ely seek out mates and success
tuhy procreate ( nobde gene mauhnes) are passing on
inherited tendencies to behave in certain ways (enr
:n[nrai imet11;1d) because these behaviors were
adaptive for our ancestors.

Parents and Peers


iaqe lb. Durng early childhoodwhmle the excess
connect ons are still en all
to be en call means
to he reeds and available for use. Thus, during the
early childhood years while there are many neural
connechons reads for use (still on eu//l, an enriched
id stimulating cur ironment is extremely important
or intellectual perceptual, and social des elopment
As \hers puts it . use it or lose it,
,

lid Hlmniler to e/e;nmm through a forest, less


tram eled paths gradualh disappear, and peAt/mr
tin mc hroade red. This analogs suggestc that
ur 1 s 01 Ci t goes on throughout life, \eural
c r ned s (p / i am c) t rat are frequently used ( 0/
a n path I are wdened and more clearly defined,
is hmle tho5e c tnmnection that are seldom used (in dL
,:.,m heunre ss eakened and may eyentuallr disap
pear.

I : h procreation, a woman and a man shnfflc


cc
an I di al i liFe:fi nnm hand to their
hikl-to-Lt
I le idea here i that just as cards are
r

lage /18: If the upors of a toxh climate are seephmg into


a childs life, that chmate not just the childneeds
retbrnmimmg. Myers i5 suggesting that when problem
behaviors arise it is impcmrtant to look at the whole
contest that is influencing the child rather than juct
focusing on the s oungster. 11 the ens ironment (whole
school or neighborhood) is unhealthy and dangerous (a
fork c/inmate) and is sloss ry leaking (seeping) into a
childs life, then it is imnportant to change freiinnm;
these ens ironmental influences instead of simply
trsing to change the chid.

Cnltnral Influences
Page 119 We come equipped is ith a huge eereira
hard drire re,ein te reeeiee nma;ei mn:m/:/teN a mt/tmtr,/
setaame. Myers b eomparmng our capacity to learn
and adapt through cultural tranmthsion mc that ol a
computer s ope atng syUtem ( ebra ma
irm
whi h, like
I non s cap hh ct ca sin r
large amounts ot uforniatu
tIm u I piot mmn g
(yigabn/e a
1 cIt/tat a? ita
me yeui/ ;naebnm.ru. Everm
t
PNe IA): Yet, norms amL,i-e i
society lia its oss ii rules and regulations about
accepted and appropriate mode of conduct socal
norms), and these standards differ iron culture tc
culture. I hc se p o c riph is mar mm cmii mc s set r
unjust or seuelem. but because they am e knosm u aid

\fiuic, Nurture, and Human Diersitv

nrttr

I b

I K

ot
a c

eagle

ther s

ri e the function ot
guLlet f/ic saeiiii

-on -,rnothtv (t
;eii
t

roh de, their differing


Sc
Ic from difterent
i
a
i
p
ction
ran
he confusing
ii
ttCK
Hr
ow
rsonai pacc the distance we like to
c- or d lwrw aries; someone xx ho
w or d tic onstantly retreating
sac
no
5
who needs to he close
m
ntortahle cent ersation.
i
S

a n ix
a

it

i-Cu

1,
ii

iI

t
1

lhjs means to he distant


al interactions. \orth
cd f ir i b gger personal spare
son other cultures So when
tr
a iriiwed ripen na:udeM. the natural
ba S axx an, which man gix e the
a being aloof and unfriendly
O

c.radn Dere1opne;it
;erdcr dtturences snifrce ear/u, in
M r s ar d ternales differ in their
hi
ng H ,d a c ta/ness), a disparity that
at
I
S
ci, a am a x ornig age (sti iees ear/n). Xhen
or
tend to engage in competitive group
1 ci
c
0 S a itS r much close, confidential, or atfec
rls ti picallv are more intimate
e

o
pla in smaller groups, fre
er at
it
h
a
,cth one trend. and the are less competi
a an.. ilOI so tpornx e and empathic.
P

sr

N cf cinoso we includes a single gene


r
C S triggering the testes to
n
ran cc the principal male hormone,
I at
IN e aS get an \ chromosome from
a sr s
0...
soJ itriscr an ix oull he a girl; or a Y
a a
r I 5 1)0 fthers I bus the I thro
x a
and a single
lc
1w nitiat ng the proress (it
nit
in
c
ihat tix atus I: 5nir) the produc
n n a no thu tcste
I

N tomboy is a girl who


-S
nes. When a femalc
r
ri
ga
I
gi .n a t
0 to ninth testosterone tthe
diane: Ow Sex eli ping rhild xviii act
a

aar
I

more aggressh ely and behax c in wax s more ti prcal


of boys tshe xx ill act in a rainoeii-a war
Page tni. Thrtx vear ago.. it was standard for men
to nitiatc dates drir e the ca / and irk p th H ck
and for x omen to dccorate the home buy and care
tot the childrens clothes, and select the wedding
gifts. (Sender roles are a cultures e\puctations ror
male and female behax iow. hut these behaviors
change ox er time and across uitu res, and x ary from
gcneration to gcneration. I radihonally (a va cc a
;lioa pnn tire .30 mar- ace), males asked females to go
out (infiated /ats) and paid tor the meal and enter
and xx omen looked
tamment (pit kn/.n the C/let k
after domestic concerns including pnreharng and
looking after the children s clothes and choosuxg
presents for those who were getting married (a ed
ding gittco
.

Page 1.31 NV ith the [lick of an c/n en, the number of


U.S. college women hoping to be fuli-hme home
makers plun,gcd drnrng the late 1960s and early
l970s. Ox er time, gender roles bar e changed. Within
a relatively briet period of time (wit/i t/e flick of an
aaren), the number of women engaged in the tradi
tional female role tfulltime homemakerl declined
rapidly (p/tinged) and the number of xx omen in the
work force increased substantially, especially in tra
ditional male fields such as medicine, tarn, and engi
neering.
Reflections on Nature and Nurture

Galileos theory that thu


Page l.ie: teen f/ic dan
Earth revoixed around the Suit, and not the other
way around (vice xersa), xvas cxentuafly accepted (it
Ivan the day). Firs explanation xvas a coherent account
(it Swig together) of the xx ax the solar system actually
works.
...

Pig 1 Se. it hagg/es the mind the entire unix crse


Oh/c r un ) H tihamx tr ,,,irfl
P t it
Ikhen comcthng is starrhng, une\pected. or
hard to Low prebend, x e say that it /x,/c- the
mind. The idea that the entire unix eru arose from
a singul irits ( ppcd it a a lag/i eint approx
mitclx 14 billio x years ago s ne su h mini b g
gling idea that leaxc s even scientists full f re or
ence and xx onder t then n acesiriu St.

______

Through
the Life Span
Developing

CHAPTER OVERVIEW
Developmental psychologists study the life cycle,
from conception to death, examining how we develop
physically, mentally, and socially. Chapter 4 covers
physical, cognitive, and social development over the
life span and introduces two major issues in develop
mental psychology: (1) whether development is best
described as gradual and continuous or as a discoin
tinuous sequence of stages and (2) whether the indh
viduals personality remains stable or changc.s over
the life span. The issue of the relative impact of genes
and experience on behavior is the subject of Chapter
Although there are not too many terms to learn in
this chapter, there are a number of important research
findings to remember. Pay particular attention to the
stage theories of Piaget, Kohlberg, and Erikson, as
well as to the discussion regarding intellectual stabili
tx dunnp du
t1
1
Xnting iretulix prepared
answers to the sectIon preview items should be espe
cially helpful in mastering the material in this chap
ter,
NDTE Answer guidelines fur all Chapter 4 questions
beg in on rage 115.

Introduction (p.

139)

David Myers at times uses idioms that are


unfamiliar to some readers, If you do not know
the meaning of the following expression in the
context in which it appears in the text, refer to
page 124 for an explanation:
foitrneti through
Iitefroni womb to tomb.

Objective 1: State the three areas of change that


developmental psychologists study, and identify the
three major issues in developmental psychology.
1. Scientists who study physical, cognitive, and.
social changes throughout the life cycle are called
2. One of the major issues in developmental psv
choiogv concerns the relative importance of genes

and experience in determining behavior; this is


called the
/
issue.
3. A second developmental issue,

CHAPTER REVIEW
First, skim this section, noting headings and boldface
items. After von have read the section, review each
ohjecth e by completing the sentences and answering
the questions that tollow it, As you proceed. evaluate
your performance by consulting the answers begin
ning on page 115. Do not continue with the next sec
tion until you understand each answer. If you need
to, review or reread the section in the textbook before
continuing.

gradual or abrupt.
4. A third controversial issue concerns the consis
tency of personality and whether development is
characterized more by
over time or by change.

97

98

Chapter 4 Developing Through the Life Span

Prenatal Development and the Newborn


(pp. 1 i -144)

)
Objectiv
and xpiai hon sear
infant sern nd ej

cr r

Objective 2: Describe the union of sperm and egg at


I cepti n
1. Conception begins when a womans
releases a mature

9,

Anmrhan

surtace
3. 1 he egg and sperm
become one.

all other sperm

p.

he
br

er

in t
in

beIicv
from the man that
I h len
reac.h the egg release digestix e
s
that eat an av the eggs protective cm ering. 3
eggs
the
egg
the
penetrates
SOC fl as one sperm

iii

nicn
Fn e some
horn sci s r c
4
u
al
tacilitatc s

fuse and

Objective 3: Define ypote, ernbruo and fetus, and


xplain hon teratogens can affect de eloprnent.
4. Ferfihized human eggs are called
During the first week, the
cc ils in this cluster begin to specialize in structure
and function, that is, the begin to
The outer part of the fertil
nail,
ized egg attaches to the
forming the
.

[-rom about 2 until 8 weeks of age the developing


human, formed from the inner cells of the fertil
ized egg, is called a(n)

I) mug the final stage of prenatal development,


the developing human is called a(n)
ith nutrients, a range of harmful sub
can pass
st. ccs km wn as
h the placenta.
ic n

10. (Ciose-Lp To sta

menta rcs a
form of learr

p cc

which involi e
nip nit

rcpclted

sI

proc clu e

can di rimi he

ii

noderate consumption ot akohol during prep


n

(usually does not

aft ct can affect) the fetal brain, If a mothet


5 at risk for the birth
drinks heai iti, her baby i
dttet and mental retardation that
acc npan

Infancy and Childhood


it

-.

o do no kror inc

thin
on

x in

to pam I 2-t- Pin

an

Ii
L

Inr.t
11

Li

sF,

,L

tic

ijt

Lii

Infancy and Childhood

Objective 5 l)ecribc some developmental changes


in a child brain, d explain n hv matur ition
ac unts t
ra i o u simila itles

99

10, Memories of the preschool years are ery few

because infants

memories do

not easily translate into their later

1. the dcxelouingb am
m ci undur nroducc neuron,. with the number
peaking at
tuhat
At
birth the human i rx ous system
V

age?c

is hs not) fully mature


2 Betu ecr

and

years of ge the brain is deveh

onineV most ranidix in the


lobes, u hich unable

Objective 8: State Piagets understanding of how tue

mind develops, and discuss the importance of ascimi


lation and accommodation in this process.
11. the first researcher to shon that the thought
processes of adults and hildren are very
V

dii terent was


12. To

organize

and interpret his or her experiences,

the developing child constructs cognitive

3 After puberty, a process of

concepts called
and

shuts do i n some neural connections

13. The interpretation of new experiences in terms of

strengthens othc rs
4. Biological

existing ideas is called


gron

th orocesses that enable orderly

change in behar ior are called

infants
,

pass

development at aitterent rates, but the basic


V

o stages is fi\ed I hey sit


before they
6. (henes p]av
-

(rnafor minor)
V

Ic e

01

dr

t n r pid develop-

stage children experience the


world through their motor and sensori interac
with objects. This stage occurs between
tions

16. The awareness that things continue to exist us en

nhcn the are remus ed thom s iess is called


an areness begins to des elop at about

a
,

etect

15. In Piagets first stage of development, the

enccVha

associated

and knoxvin is

Oevciopnient.

7 Lnti] th necessars nuscu


ar and neural matura
1
o

activities

infancy and nearly age

oie ifl motor

or

14. The term for all the mental

and n alk before


V

Objective 9: Outline Piagets four main stages of cog


nitive development, and comment on how childrens
thinking changes during these four stages.

with thin ki iig, remembering, communicating,

the mIlestones Of

adaptation of existmg ideas to fit new experiences


is called

Objectie 6: )utli L four events in the motor devel


opmcnt seouence from birth to toddlerhood, and
es aluate the effects )f maturation and experience on
that sequence.
.

I he

months of age.

ocOavIor.

17. Developmental researchers have found that

Objective Explain s ht is e has e few mernorie of


e rienc s during ur irst three sears of life,
8

)ur arli st mci ones ge ierall do not occur


betorc age
V

flN

000

nVI

neon

ca

1
[ICc

Piaget and his followers


(os erestimated
V

ii nderestim a ted)

young

childrens competence. For instance, babies have


an understanding of
,as
kinn A vnn

demonstrated.

01

ukthc IfeSpat

o P.get dunng the preschool years


t
children are
r3 1 .a,.
tage
tI

Th.

rJ.r.,

itL

tscfisibstmce
n the aape ot ts con

I.

c .n

en iv
.:a r t .r.. i-.i ailed
4 r: .it prest toolers
.r t lOt et
ne tot det eloped
iiac
in ri

20.

4 3 c h. e ditfitulb pcrcen ing


c Li t.lr:s tn
thmts it till c!ttliei persin. point of VILIW. ills
.i.c

n
.

ab
th

rc

ii

otakc.anothcrsper
hi -acqumng a

Betss cciii and 4, children


tfl $hers rna5 hold
.

cone

a iedi

v
nd
h.ugh tan.rete

idre icsu t Ii
4
26 Piigetbclic.seit
nd a cm t
abilities neded o om
transformations and on,eri ation hi trout
it%irs of ace. t this tuv
they enter the
stac.
27 In Piaget s final stage. mc.
stage. TCctst)flflJ expand-.
from the purely concrete to encompass
thinking liaget behuied
this.,
F a
bq
ntocntc.
mostchildren

c n hat self produced

22. K o. Ur i llic disorder characteneed bi deftand


ie:t
mipa cd
md
n
is
This disorder is related to
4l of Dr.in areas that erahle
to others. I he high tunction
ordc. stallel
-tth
ft
23

25. Russian psi chohgist


noted that h age
child ii s
op hint lOLId
t
andinsteidrc oi
ret
nt
.%l
parc.
itords, thei ptti dt actr ding to this then. -4
upon .i1ikb hi chnI can
build higher-in 4 thrnkiv

Objective 10: Discuss ps. thnlogi.ts current ites s on


Piagets theory of cognitive development

Fxplam bnefh how cntercnry a cant


Piaget s theory.

tntn dicon propoce. that autism


trenw
-pi. %nz
%jfl,
to this thton. grls tend ti be
ii!
3
i&t
rebcftithanbovsat
lrs.&s
d
,ms )undc tand
rc ft
ins,. I..,

at. \

Ia.s

;, Ln

24.

-t

-.

In

hndin2s, re%earthers have


atth biliti loper
icrc.
t , thinx
and to tke another s
Jvvtlops
atiptI cracluaIl dunng

Objectivell Define

ia:

28. Soon after


emer..,es .tltl

become mobile. a

ntit

rear, .alhd

cmerge
29.

tisfa

er c

a,

id en

wv

Infancy and Childhood

Objective 12: Discuss the etfects of nourishment,


body contact, and tamiliarib on infant social
a ttarhment.

101

Discuss the impact of responsire parenting on infant


attachment,

30. 1 he dex elopment of a -trong emotional bond


hetxxeen infant and parent is called
31. 1-larlon s studic s of monke s hai e shon n that
motller-infant attachment does not depend on the
nunher prox iding nourishment as much as it
does n her prox iding the comfort of
Another
kex to attachment is
32. human attachment

mi olves one person provid

mg another with a
uhen distressed and a
which to explore,
33. In some animals, attachment will occur only during a restricted time called a
Konrad I oreni disc ox ered that young birds
n ould follon almost any object if it were the first
mm Ing thing they observed. fhis phenomenon is
called
34, 1 luman infants
(do/do not)
hex c a precise critical period for becoming
attached.
Objective 13: Contrast secure and insecure attachment, and disuiss the roles of parents and infants in
the development of attachment and an infants feel
ings of basic trust.
35. Placed n a research setting called the
,children
ci tix o patterns of attadinent:

aft x hment or
attachmei t,
( ontrast the espoase of secured and insecureli
attm led nfan ts to trange situations.

36. \ fathers love and acceptance for hi-j children are


(comparable to/less impor
tant than) a mothers lo e in predicting their
childrens health and xx eli being.
37. Separation anxiety peaks in intants around

months, then
(gradually declines/remains
constant for about a ear). This is true of children
(in North America through
out the world).
38. According to Frikson, securely attached infants
approach life with a sense of

Objective 14: Assess the impact ot parental neglect.


family disruption, and day care on attachment pat
terns and development.

39. 1 larlon found that x hen monket s reared in so


cial isolation are placcd with othcr monkeys, thc
reacted with either tear or
30. Most abused children
(do do not later become abusive parents.
41, Although mo t child n who ,
g indcr
adx ersiti are
and become
normal adults, card abuse and excesix expo
sure to
ma} alter the development of the brain chemical
-

I p p Ihrougl the Life Span

42,

as no

is
i,L5i)t

in

a morn poiti e and stable em P

olost infants

a no tacos cri mom disruptions in

int,,t

lii cr noise
(dx
105 1101) constitute a
der eiopment. I liglu

..a a

care

Pc

rOOssN 01

49. Studies have shown that there tends to he a corrm


lation betu eon high self-estc m on the part of the
str Ic of parent
child and the
mg. This mag he because this parenti ig sty Ic
gives cluldi en the greatest sc nse ot

sarm, supportive

in an enr ironment that is


and
vl a i uportant than time
mcmg a child s derelop
lit

adniN

with their children is the appioach taken hr


pa rents.

Ot

er their ih es.

P xpiain wiir the correlation betu cen autnorttat;r e


parenting and social competence Ions not necessarily
ret cal causc and effect

Ohectmxe 15; race the onset and development of


ic 5 scit-non pt,

c I a I mm ement of childhood is
,which
clopic ofa
raost
age
children hr
n

45. \
hr

i
cc

i s sc P image goner ally becomes stable

and
s en the ages of
is hen hildren begin to describe
is I ger der group memberS

I lop
a!
cc m ml Lb uacteristics of children who have
a in sit Sc %et;nlage.

oh!

Adolescence

(pp 16T 175)

If you do not know the meanbig of ant of the


following words, phrases, or expressions in
the context in which they appear in the text,
refer to pages 126 127 for an explanation; jsiws
dicidends out of si/nc intellectual szonmzf charac
ter the psychological muscles for no itrolliag
impulses monzl ladd p tliro a a switch folk
cheap slack; psunhocociol task knde fheii
IL/noon!: emotional ties uati pareotc locseu; gop
!noipoing.

Objective 17: Define adoles cute.


1. Adolescence

is

defined as the transition period


and

hctsveen

C5
hfrw e 16; 1
r

c.

Nc tUrn parentlng Uvies, and

for the link between


leo npctence.

q an
p a

so ru

and expect obedience

2. The storm and stress s ion ot adoinsce ice is


)ne )f tI

redited tc

\merican psvchologi ts to dc scrbe do


16

!y

,,

Cc tas denaands ot their children

Ito I c t childrens desires are

d to

parents
S

c xc

Objective 18: Identits the naor pbs ical changes


during adolescence.

arc nt;.ig.
4T

first

iag

d irds after disc ussion

3. Adolescence begins ss ith the hnre


sexual maturits knoi

ii

)t

dot eloping
A

as

d
ri
i
tr o gear aeriol if 1

hy

begins in girls at al )ut tile gc of

ide

Icfri ut

Adolescence
and in boy s at ab )ut the age of
[his growth spurt is marked
by thc dc c lop r nt ol the reproduc tir e organs
and extc mal geni aha, or
characteristics, as nell ashy
the duveiopnnnt of trai P such as pubic hair and
enlarged hrcats mu fenvales and facial hair in
nxales It c e nc regroductn e tr mits are known as
charac

is

10. Piagets final stage of cognitive dcv elopment is

the stage ot
Ihe adolcsce tin this stigc
is capable of thio king logically ab( nt
a xx eli as concrete proposi
tions, Ehis enables them to detect
in

others reasoning and to

spot by pocrisv
Objective 20: Discuss moral dcx elopmcnt troir th
perspectives ot moral thinking, moral feeling, and
moral action.

,tic.

4. The first menstrual p.criod

103

called

In box s, the first ejaculation


11. The theorist xx ho proposed that nx1rai thought

is called
5, Ihe
pubertal m ing

(tim ng sequence) of
is mc rc predic table than their
(timing sequence)

6. hios. who mature


(earix ,Iat tend to he more popular, self
assured, and independent; they also are at
increased risk for
Tor girls

(early/late) matura
tion can he stressful, especiahix when their bodies
are out of sync with their
This reminds us that
and
interact
7. The adolescent hra m undergoes a selective
of unused connections Also,
teens occasinna (impulsiveness and risky
behax iers may he due. in part. to the fact that
dcx ci

progresses through stages is


lhese stage arc divided
into three basic levels.
and
12. Tn the preconventional stages or moralitx, charac
teristic of children, the emphasis is 00 obeying
rules in order to avoid
or gain
13. C onv entional morality usualh emerges by earh
The emphasis is on gaining
social
or upholding the social
14. Indh iduals vsho base moral judgments on their

own perceptions of basic ethical principles arc


said by Kohlberg to employ
-

moralitx.

Summarize the criticisms of Kohihergs theorx of


moral dcx elopment.

in t r biains

ss b hnxd that of thc


Objective 19: i 5.rnhe rhc Lhangt- n reasoning abili
ties that Pagrt tailed tornal onerations.
8. dolesccr
then

is

rc s

dcxc

cpmg

abiht to reason gives

xc of

ness and

axvare
judgment

9. [.Ini mug tat ark tecn cars, reasoning is often


thtii e\furitnr Os

a ad ilescents otten feel


unque.

15. The idea that moral teelings pre edc mor i


soning is expressed in the

rc

explanation of morahtx
Research studies rising
npp u t the idc a that nir,ra l

1.1

t..

t,

-I,

a-

t,,

p.

--

a-.

..

-,-,-

p.

pp.

,,

-v

ft

p..

4.

{
C

.z

.1,J

it

4,

C,

CI.

4.

.z

Zt

P
,,

a-

;z.

ci

j
j

:s

.3

.4

.;

00

0.

>.

c,

-=

a-

ri
-

4,

Ca

:!_%
p.,,..

x..

--S

,,.

7r

fr

-:

yr

aa

C,

it

5ri

wO
7w,

C....

,.

c
4

Z.

3;

.._

.d

i
C.

a-

(r

a-

yz

F,

,,

:
C.

Sz--z

I;

C
t

e
a

a-

t..

Ft

.2.

t7

2tS

IS

J;4

SC

3
Z

=.

-F

-t

,q

17

3t2

( L

C.

p.

4dulthoud

Adulthood
f
tolic

pp.

2)

)t

tire

ni%ofawcfthe
i oid
rises
c pressio is in the
.t ii t Ithh t.e appear in tlic- teL refer
to P2C- l:- 12s ror an ep1tnation: lflncOflLc7P - .!LLil !.: :tiJCiil
:ra:: eserh
.,,
1
:
;: :;t ct .ql.gl!L; .:1:.i ;eopli
41 iou
s..
It -sec
U.t.
i os

..1
t.
may?

Lw

((

I ci H,n

I Dunn

j-e

dulthoo
i

IC
ii(

iOlIkl

1,

h affiv

.ji.

hear

nut

QiLsi UI

fptoplesircuts

e kytarsfor
1
the

a S
i)a

ow

6. 1 orldii ide. 1mw cptclanc

kca a

Objective 25 ldentih the major ph %ical change-. that


t : m:ddle adulthood.
OtiU

andLevondin2iV4rn
lkoirenc Li

r iso kIt
u rsinCar

During

iqor
r

erh and middle adulthood, phi sical


c stodc i ith
ti

1 ht

tilt

s, ii

of

dep

r.ze

bin).

ncr

ii

Wit

..

t.

U t

.c.

iii

trio]
c

dst

i,thet

c1 \u

use sIc

.ti: L o

i. ti.mpl. t.t

cs

Ci Cs pupI
(shrinks enlarges) anti t- iCii% Lr
Its
(r
1
result, thca nurt
a
is
i reasc

nt

cr
Ii
1
.1(C

9. Although older adult arc

lecs) su.teptib!e to Ilk .tP.C?tefll, U

meats, the) ,u. fter from short-teur

asflu

tin

ai.,

cn

no

,ouner

the menstrual .s 1e. knois n a.


occurs us ithi.n a few rear. of
Thi- biological charge
1ev
tuels t E honnnt
5
p cicdu

ce..,ition

8. With age, tht

bali s

7. 4ccording to one ci oIUit,fl21V the


age and uiear out het3usi- .flt a.
our
bi rahin? our nui
are

imore,

ut

itch T

Irum 4w war-. in 19) to

urts agair t cne tF


later life.
and
Because

Objective 26: C npare lilt xpc. tim


twentiett tad
La
3 s%CY i
cusshaig i
si a
ing trequ an I
naiL
ilde

103

adul s

tO. Aing

(101%-

etheL (in) neural

pla..e.inA

ped.. h

,ird .Z -4 s c z..

oF

lo. of
Jilts

1c
on

er

kt

intreacco

5,

iltlvjgF
1
rn

mciiL

r1

.p.

itfl

fl

nt,l

ulit

12. The mental ert-:ii thdt ?o. -.jjjt%

d. epcrierte a more gradual

ci.f

dl

quialeiit C)

iring

ntthe

idsj. ed feat
ife.

daiage Li) the hrair n


13. lhcirreic. sit cdisr
brain dten

I tl
t

i q

lhdisea.e abetniiilcdc
flPsITC)fl-

c.;t

U
1
that tMek

- rjj

ntt:r

11
(F

.5

it.

ii

Chapter 4 Developni, Ihrough the Life Span

106

Objectixe 27: Assess the impact of aging on recall


and recognition in adulthood.

19. The acLumulation of stored information that


comes xi ith education and e\perience is called

intelligence, which tends to

14. Studies ot deseiopmental haiwes in learning and


icmorv shoxi that during adulthood there is a
del nc in the abilitx to
(recall recognize) uexx information but not in the

with agc.
20. The ability to reason abstrattly is referred to as
intelligence, which tends to
with age.

(retail, recognize)

ahilitx to

cut intormation. One factor that influences


incmorx in the elderli is the

Objective 29: Explain why the path ot adult dcx elop


ment need not he tihtiv linked to ones chronolocical
age.
-

or material,
b,
-

memory remains

\dults

stiong when ox ents help trigger recall,


16. Cognitix e abilities among 70-vear-olds are

(less/more) varied than

among 20-y ear -olds.


Objective 28: Summarize the contributions of crosssectional and longitudinal studies to our understand
on adult intelhin ot the normal etfects of aainc
0
0
gence.

17. A research study in which people of various ages


are Lompared with one another is called a
-

studr. This kind of study found ox idence of intellectual

during adulthood.

21. Contrary to oouular oninion job and marital dis


during the torties, thus
satisfaction do not surne
C,
suggestmg that a mtdufe
need not occur.

22. The term used to reter to the culturally preferred


timing for leaxing home, getting a job marrying,
and so on is the
23. Today, the tuning ot such life events is becoming
(nrore : less) predictable.
..

More important titan age are


and chance encounters.
Objective 30: Discuss the importance of lox e, mar
riage, and children in adulthood, and comment on
the contribution of ones work to feelings of selfsatisfaction.

18. A research study in which the same people are


retested ox er a period of years is called a
study This kind of study

24. According to Erikson, the two basic tasks of

h)und ox idence of intellectual


during adulthood.
Explain u hr tudiec of intellectual decline and agthg
ielded contlicrinu results.

and

adulthood are achieving


.

heaithx adult

is

\ccording to Freud, the

one xx he can
anl

25. Human societies have nearh ahi avs included a


bond Marriage
relatixcly
bonds uc usual
after age

at ng

hen coup e rnar


and are

Rcc

a r
a

Obj

(ocp s it
orc

dno c isIt

keh

it

tics

ii

sic d

in

ia )c

35

ift

md
oul

36

eyort

well bemns

c c t r I s
arc alonc
t

ci

pcr

mar

cm r c

Wa

4 thr
isct

C)

1W

37

u Wol

aosorbtmeana n rgv

ith hc ma iagc itself


m mcmcascs decreases). lhis is

Reflections n

ouldc r n )st of the burden


2

r m s

If

ics the hmtdrc a sleaxmghomc

idu

e tat

n
a

r
r hc
cm

tmcrcase
riar

Issues

anon

I 5atlsfac tic n

st dic a I vonmen who ar oi arc not


dI

c I

nd II t a a oman s satisfaction

c c d on hi
m
3

c iv
0

of her

c r Ic hfesrot

Objectivi
a ersns t
dent K

1 )es rib trends ir peoplcs tile satisfac


ifesfar
a

St S

peopk h pmc ally


,t camny sensc )f

a
slact

2.

ac

rcp

t 1 c 5

fc

urye

tic r eehngs

it

flfl(

in

Hid the
ma a m rcpamctar,

10

d by
e

Ith c d to a udli
rc

cmi a
1

1
c

1?

if

cr

Rest art

w F ethc a cloth or ix ire mother xx as present


ix attered less than the presence or absence of

a tx shows
cd

thu somt t a

tat

ta e than otheis,

irLtant,,

d att chment m monkevc is based on im

suh as social

pnrtirg

PROGRESS TEST

7, 11 her pw chologicts discus maturation, thet are


referung to staces of growth that are rzet intlu

anestions and
tn
Pucj icir ansec
;tith
5 axsnes Luninniap on Dane 115.
L0
1 ec i em
C
P a ow anat er N OLUiFctt cead the e\p nation for
ii
ct ann then insult the appropriate
pa at c I tnt text tn p arenti sec ol [owing the corret

encuci tax
a. conen ation.
b. nature.

tuihox

tu

XlititziaIi -(1,01cc ()uectio;i

c.

nurture.

d. continuitx

8. thu dcx elopnxentai theorist who suggested that


secureD attached children develop an attitude of
basic trust is:
a. iiaget.
c. \ vgotskr.
d. brikson.
b. F tarlow.
9, Tleseawh tindings on infant motor dcx elopment

kan coo,hnac I

i. Dr

hon

nih

psx i

o]

dcx elopnicntal

ax.i ii

a.

are consistent with the idea that:


a. ognitwe dcx elopment lags significantix be
hind motor skills development.
b. maturation of physical skills is relatively unaf
fected bx experience.
c in the absence of relex ant earlier learning
experiences, the emergence of motor skills

She P most h[seix

ciwn4cs as people pet 0


D
n

niemora

b. ttignitixe

2. lix Pragot s s
pence, th

cr mental

tional intelh
the

oper
a

1LerDo1Ld1ng of

xx ill be slowed,

pri rat pie


a

d
t

cn

b dc a

inert

r p

perman ice

5w

cha at ristic of

10,

rage

he:
a. wnsor

S r

b. preoper
c.

roncrete 0

d. tomal optia

r
development do

4. 1 taring xx huh stat

chi,dieo atcifuire oh
c
1
cens,onut
a.
tno:
0
b rtcnt ra

i xaence.

nncrc: onerational
a raw epeiational

5, T:xe rot.eiu f[t\ uwur x,he,


_nttstcL.J
a.
h. ,L
o mcci e ]COel
1

c,
d.

xhrrx

,xlnrx m ikt
tc.N

-Pox
a.

.e

maer

DL his

or her

goer

-ePic ,,t

6. PLc F a

twJ,n

ew

in

monkers

a
it

Pt

to: ort

Ii,

0C.

it

1 n rnL
t w

si

we

1
0
I t
t

single niost
ittatlxinent.
utacn
I

x w the

in humans the process of maturation may be


significantly altered by cultural tactors,

\ccordmg to hrikson the central psychologi


cal chaflengc s pertaining to adolescence, young
adulthood, and middle age, respectix clv, are:
a identity formation intimacy; generatixitv.
b. intimacy; identity formation; generativity.
c. generatix iDa intimacy; identity formation,
d. intimacy genera dx ity; identity formation,

Ii, In preconxentmunal morality, the person:


a. ohex s out of a sense ot social duty.
b. eontorms to gain social approx al.
c. hey to ax oid puuhhment or to gain concrete
rexx ards.
d. toiL a s the d P tates ot h, or her onsuence.
12. lkhic[i of the tolion ing is torret t
a. bar ix maturation places both hors and girls at
a distinct social adx antage.
h. bard maturing girls are more popular and
elf-assured than girl who mature ate.
c. Farix maturation places both boys and girD at
a ditint social diadx antage.
d. I arlt ma turing hot s are inure popular and
s f ass rt d than hut s xx ho mature late

Progress Test 1

13. \ per ons general ahiht to think abstractly is


called
i itelhgtncc. This ability general
with
ige
ly
flnid increases
a.
b. fluid, decreases
c, crr ,talhzed: decreases
d. crx staiized: 1ncrease
14. Amor g the hallmarks of growing up are a boVs
first ej i ation and a girl s first menstrual pen
od x huh Iso is talk d:
a. pube ty.
c. nrenarclre
h. nrenopause
d. generativits
15. An elderly pci son ii ho can look hack on life with
satisfattion and reminisce with a sense of comple
tion has attained I nksons stage of:
a. gcnc raPs its
c. isolation.
b. intimacy.
d. integrity.
16. Accordmg to Piaget. the ability to think logically

about ahstratt propoitions is indicative of the


stage ot:
a. preopera tional thought
b. contrete operations.
c, Ioi mal operations
d, fluid nitellgcnce
17. Fhe cognitive ability that has been shown to
decline during adulthood is the ability to:
a. recall new mformation.
b.

recognize ness information

c. Icarn mcaninfful new material,


d. usc ludgnrent in dealing with dads life prob
lems
18. Which of the toilowing statements concerning the
elf etts of aging is true?
a. Aging almost ines itahis leads to dementia if

the ndhldua I yes long cnough.


iii
\g r
r is susccptibdrts to short-term
r cit si F a tiel
c Sinn art i
ases in life satisfa tion arc
asseiatd x in iging.
d. The eging prose-s 5
an he seitlantr attected
b.

bx the indit ide-ls actwts patterns.

19. t ongit ad ral tet


a. conprrp pcofddferentages
b. studs tI e r rc f c pk at different times.
c. usual r ins oh c r larger sample than do cross
sectional tesh
d. unia!ir i1\ oh a sinalici sample than do
sicttitiS,Ei ,.ts

109

20. The average age at is inch puberty beg us


in boys; in girls, it is
a. 14; 13
c. 11; 10
b. l3;ll
d. lO,9

is

21. After puberty. the self-concept usualls becomes:


a. more positIve in boys,
h. nrore positive in girls.
c. more positive in both boy s and girls.
d. more negatu e in both box c and g 4s
22. Adolescence is marked by the onset of:
a. an identity crisis.

b. parent-child conflict.
c. the concrete operational stage.
d. puberty.
23. Of the folloss mg, which is a possible cause of
dementia

a.
b.
c.
d.

stroke
brain tumor
alcoholism
All of the above are possible causes.

24. I he end of menstruation is called


a. menarche.
b. menopause.
c. the midlife crisis.
d. generativitv.
25. The popular idea that terminally ill and hereas ed
people go through predictable stages, such as
denial, anger, and so forth
a. is widely supported by research
b. more accurately describes gricring in some
cultures than others.
c. is true of women hut not nren
d. is not supported by research studies.
True-False Items
Indicate whether each stater rent is t uc or als

placing I or I in the blank rext

ti

re tc

by

ii.

hildrtn later bee-tnc ihu


1. Most abused 5
sir c parents.

2. At birth, the brain and ncrr (.1 iS s5sttfli


ot a healths child arc tulh dcr doped.
3. Ihe sequence nr irhich Is Idren dcselop
motor skills s aries frosa out c
turc to
another.
4. Recent research chorys that vourg chil
dren are more capable
der elopmcnt
is more coptinuous than Pi,get he-

irer cd.

10

In,

Inc roces

an

6.

LifS

Vin,

is mui F

same throu
,h Ut flit is odd.
1
impa
t of as tare on child d sd
Ihe
even
t it i. high qualiti. i-a
opmtnt,

ibecause:
borriadi
will pass into tin.
sal bs tile mot
h ood%twam.
b. uud;con is an inhcited pciscnalitv trait.
drug- t-.ecl bs the niither create genetic
..
detect-. ifl her hioino-.one-,.
d. the tetu-- tiood h... not vet des eloped a re-.i,.
tan. e to dru,rs

4. cF c
a. dws

nl.ain-. ccntho er-4a1

7. During aduitho xi agu onls moder.icts


..orrelatt--. it it-h Deople-. trak.
8. Intelligence detme-. throughout aa:t
flOod.
i 1L)st adults hav
9. Bs the a,ze Oi
isis
a
i
ientd
tc shy lit Mi
nnpar
C
e ceusc
deiL C
un u ii
-

I St-s

c ssw on
ire simpls r

heimet ds i
o
i icd s er-.ior

maL aging.

PROGRESS TEST 2
Progre*. Tc-.t 2 chould lx- completed during a final
chapter rcvew. Answer the folloss irig 4LLP%t otis after
sou thoroughly understand the correct answers ror
le-.tl.
, lesiess%andPr-y
the
-

pr rxiety cksel

ic

clrtn i
1m d.
ti

te

o after:
aon

cptocc

( ceptotob

ira

uiitntun c
I

VT
lit

rd

t.

otfa 1
(arailg
I

nt
c

niic

fUnK.

-t ntghout 1 ft

I e corrett ordt r I stages of prenatal


6. lVhic h
c1e elorneiit
a. ivqote tern.. embryo
b. 7vgote. emhn o, letu-.
c. embn o, s gote, tetus
d. enibr o retus, is gote
7. 1 he tern ;hc.: pcr:ad refers to:
a. par a 1 development.
n I hoursatter Fild s birth.
b
tion,ilsa e.
C t
p C
r
itt
t
d. r
f idbsHalois
)Wli
S
s-ed mc t
dilficults ma i
a. II y
F os ed extreme fear ci aggression
b. The
is hen tir-4 seeing other morSe>
c. ihes bossed abnorniai ph> %ical des elop

rice.

merit.

d. The female, were aLu.n c ,nothcis.


9. \1.-s-.t

t
1
PeOV

eruence-.. n t
s.

age

eailit--.t

a.
b.

menk.

ic- do not predate

C.

d.
I

10

a
torn
r )toL, r
ormal 01. C
c 1
,imotn,, pit a
,i.al. totinal Ft
6
tiCI di. tflc rc te Op. a jot) 11
C. fl aperatii ma I. .en.o. not-i:, t oncreti. opc.o
ti. n-il. tul mal t)tt rat:vnai
1 .peia
t(flfltJ
iiotr
1
d. i. rt.L.rcitii)na; .CilM. r
t.al,cn...rctt ap-at id!

-.

ilast.

I ten lute rprc F

4.

i I ala

more likely to tc cs
2. 1k or Jiagc t pcopk isthat
a. the child-. mind J% a miniature mod&I of the
adult..
b. children think about the sicrld in ,tdicallv
diftt rent was from adults.
c. tLt child mind de claps throutth a %t.rie% of

stur

-t

8. Wi
fl

Iteas us hhen he
-4.01:
uchildhoc

r r
hoa ,itothe 4
t is at heighL
1 onai.

5. A dnA
isa
a
b e
b
a

In

b.
C.

r
Di.

lcir ii
ni n urr u
I. ren an ard

Ji,.,I

15

ittlt .tfl)flfl
1

et.un

& nlidcntlv.
1 )thtff-. Oil tilt

fttu

d.

It
SiLl

.sb tIflW.

l1i

Prersss Ies

a
015

dilco 1 as?
a. lrikoi;
h fHaccat
In

ii

it

19. Lndcrl ing A hcimc

C.

tni to p mt too tat orabe a picture ot

iwo croup

it

I iod It
tIre 1
itc tan

c.

Nbc

1. cis would moral rca

t
a
s
if
rights aertam

hiim

cxistence of fundamental

in Fr
ons
con,
on dcr eloping

pna

20

\pc

curs1

calltd

rnc,st V

srt

a.
b.
c.
d.

iteilia

ox

e,
5
Port t
21. In terms ot irudei
a
illnesses
rs h age and sosaiatn it\
long-term ailment

a.

decre ises n

reas

b. increases decr a c
c,

increases rrcreasc

a ation in rho
a.
it
h. each indit iduals en neon
oi and
5
c. each individual hitori

out

d. ice!

IP, Prahi

0
a r
or Ii
n :sa iii
l
b. 1
sH

H.

-e0

c
I

i oH

to

ii

soPli

cccti

.il se

coat n.

nH

,c

soon

or t c km

a. terser lirar 1? per


hut nearir Jo none

hc-hrg
of

rthles

I Inc

est

reedinn.

a.tiserncnts In iieids such as


Iltin rile hr ormger adults in
e
c I
tlirtir
rshen
ii
dsp ak.
hi.

t.

alit

tt
s,ii

ting.

0 err iirp

b. the dirorc

wit

it

ox

n on

ri

nno

ci

H. a

ftber

f
(

ttt

a 1.

tI

i .an,

rN
c.

itt

fluid: decreases
fluid; increases
crvstaliiied cci
c
crystallized mcrca

23. Rese

Pus

tot 1rt a, ipause

a.

Ieicii.

d. all of the above.

itt

it

srtOiOflO

cantlx aftected b

mci
a. ictcntitv intrrnact
b.
nacv
r tit
d.

c.
d

22, Stage theories bat e been ritc ted bc


0
fail to onsider that do lognc I mar

dir iduals generally focus


during adolescence and
during r ciung adulthood.

d. decreases: oecrcac

a. pro our entional noraitr


h. 0001 enironal inoralrtr
c. go tconve tional ii oraltv
d.
e any r rahtr
F

age.

iaef rotors to

He

and so in,
d. age-related change n ones circle of friends.

(It

a. epmtphrioe.
b. iii epmept inc

the

r livi
or c cc tr A distribution ot us ork
su c t ne
hooc
pon b ities
:cai ages tor tarting a career manning,

it

dhea

n ileurom that podrr

ot people at dirierent

itclhg ncc
i
iha tho longitudina
tuds 1 inteilcctual change orer
1

b.

agcs ruth one

bin
-ntdivs th

a.

r IlsIlip

itfc

scald

Xf1

the distress ot the crnph esi s 1


d
1 rs atorPPp.
increased strain in thcir narPa
both a .nrd lx
grcater hap J
ness d Cc cJ
1
1010 1
iOI c

a.
b.
c.
d.

P.

11. [tie

coupic

Harlow
Kohlherg

pl

lit

18. \ttcr hcir

reasoncd aboot ethical

c.
d.

a.

1 dcvelop rrcnt ras

pecpl

Inc

112

Chapter 4 Dcveloping I irougl the Life Span

PSYCHOLOGY APPLtED
\nswer these questions the das before an exani as a
tinal check on our understanding of the hapters
terms and concepts
VIultzp1eChoice Questions
1. C ompared to u hen lu vs as younger, 4n ear old
Antonio is better able to empathize with his
friend% feelings. I his growlng ability to take
anothers perspectix e indirates that Antonio is
acquiring a:
c. temperament.
a. sclf concept
d. theory of mind.
b. schena.
2. Cah in, who i, trying to impress his psi chologv
protessor with his knowledge of intant motor
development, asks whi some infants learn to roll
ox er before ther lift their heads from a prone
position. while others develop these skills in the

opposite ordc r, What should C air ins professor


conclude from this question?
a. Calvin clearh understands that the sequence
ot motor dcx eiopment is not the same for all
infants.
b. Calvin doesnt knoxi what hes talking about.
Although some intants reach these develop
mental milestones ahead of others, the order

is the same for all infants.


c. (ah in needs to he reminded that rolling over
is an inherited reflex, not a learned skill.
d. Calvin understands an important principle:
motor development is unpredictable.
3. Deborah is a mathematician and Willie is a
philosopher. Considering their professions:
a. Deborah vs ill make her most significant career
accomplishments at an earlier age than Willie
iv ill.
b. Deborah u illi make her most cio-nificant career
accomplishments at a later age tnan Willie
c. Deborah v ill make her most significant career
c omphshments <t ab ut the same hme as
WI e
d thcrc is st not enough information for prc
oicting such accomplishments.
4, Based on the text discussion of maturation and
popuiaritv. who among the following is probahh
the most popular sixth grader?
ssita t ie i ost p s caili mature girl in the
a.
ass
r sti cc ualbrraurebcyn
b I ot
tie c1as

c. Rob, the tallest, most phvsicalh mature box in


the class
d. Cindy. who is average in physical develop
ment ann is on the school .aehatrng team
5, &s a child ohscrscs liquid s transfcrred from a
Ihe child s
tall, thin tube into a shc rt is de
asked if there is now less liqrnd in ordcr to deter
mine if she has mastered:
a. the schema for liquids.
b. the concept or object permanence.
c. the concept ot tonserx ation,
d. the ability to rcason abstractly,
6. 1 am 14 months old and fearful of strangers. I am
stage of cognitive development
in Piagets
c. concrete operational
a. sensorrmotor
ci. formal operational
b. preoperational
.

7. 1 ani
x ears old can use language, and hax e
trouble taking another persons perspectn e. I am
stage ot tognitix e dcv elopment.
in Piaget s
c. concrete operational
a. sensorimotor
ci. formal operational
b. preoperational

8. In
as
a.
b.
c.
d.

Piagets theory, conservation is to egocentrism


stage.
stage is to the
the
sensorimotor formal operational
formal operational; sensorimotor
preoperational; sensorimotot
concrete operational; preopera tional

9. Pour-rear-old larnail has a x ounger sister. When


asked if he has a sister. he is likely to answer
when asked if hic sister has a brother,
is
likely
to answer
Jamail
c yes; no
a. yes yes
d. no;yes
b. nono

10, In a 1998 mor ie, a toung girl finds that a gaggle

of geese follow her xvherex cr she goes hecaust


she was the first ohiect ther saxv after they xx ore
horn. This is an exanirie of:
c. c otentrisw.
a. conscrx ahon.
d. b is c trust
b. impr nting
11. Joshua ar d Ann Bishop hay c i 3-month old h
Atcording to Erikson, the Bishops sensitix e, lov
ing care of their child contributes to:
a. the childs sene of basic trust,
b. the child s secure attacninent
c. thc childs sense of tontrol
ci. a ardb oni
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psvcF osocial
thcnlt xx ith
I xx 3
c trIos

KEY TERMS
Lsing your own xxords, on a piece ot paper write a
brief c efinition or Ixplanatron c I each of tile tolloiw
my terms.
1. d veiopnxental psvchologx
2. zrgote

3. ecniivo
4, fctis
a, t ratogc

(a total alcohol svnrtrome (FASt


rooting roPes

8. habituation
9, maturation

051

SUN

liCE

10. schema

b. ,1att via x owns doom.


ntnxacv x rsos bolatiori,
in
d. aontxn x orsos rote co:oocion.
a
(p

ear

24

r& tixnshw

11. assimilation
12. accomnxodatix n

bctxxce x

elf

I
1
C iploxicit
C 5
r
n do i rotw n F a ret led that
a. a ymca a hI xx orb rend to he happier.
b. w anon xx h oa i h work toad to he happier.
paNt,
a a x today arc hoppie thn in Ox
gor to
the a xxr
xxhc
as r pe once in her
xx
h
a
1 pness
role
adictix C ot ha
mon
x ira
Li an th
0 01eeflrc or ahsenio ot a given role.

13. cognition

14. sensorirnotor stac


13. object permanente
16. preoperational stage

17. conservation
18. egocentrism

19. theory of mind


20. autism
21. concrete operational stage

csrzy

Qncction

22. formal operational stage

ixth ,adeDecrbc
,c
c i liP h to be cxperi
fr
a!
hi
and F tkson.
xh!her
n to ia get,
1
in
cx
1st t
s tin Nililo hohnx ix
ne poini xoa xx ant to
nak oak a- wxnae town. I hr-n xcrito the essay on a
Ct 2
S09 SLS dx
f
1
as 1

di

23. strar gci anxietr


24. attachment
23. critical period
26. imprinting

27. taste tin t


28. sd

29. xooleseonce
30. puhertx
31. lrinxar

e\ haracteniti

32. secondar sex characteristics


33, menawht
34.

dentitr

35. ntinxacx

36.

cnopa

37

in

cr dsac

knsw is

38. crr s se

iOfl

39. longitudn
40. crs stal itch in

study

41. fluid intelligence

d
1

42. ,oual clock


ig

cc

CrossCheck
As ton lcarr id r In 1 it loguc,
in I ncr in n of
rexiersi
materia a c u o mt to thc
learning ro css
tc r ron hax
xi nttcn tic dcfm tic ns t the key
terms inthisctitc ,)cushou d
complcte tIc rs x )rdpclz leto
ensure that ron an rex cisc thc
process iccognizc the tc rm
gix en the definition

I
TI

ACROSS
1. In Piaget s theov changing
an existing shema to mcorpo
rate neis intoimation
5. lype ot intelligencc that
relates to reasoning speedily
and abstiactly
7. Process oy is ii h certain ani
mats torn attachments during
a critical pen )d
10, I he des clot ing pcrson from 2
weeks thr )ugt 2 months aftcr
conception
12. Mental concepts or tramc
xi orks that organize nforma
tior
14. Ihe hrst m mstrual period
15. k study i m is hich thc same people are retested
ox er a period )f yr rs

Li

Ii
[

Li

II

H
H

n4

Li
-

Lb Lb

ANSWERS
Chapter Review
Introduction

Down
2. lype
r

tchgc e th t reflects accumulated

3. \ lidI ) ds d a anked b deficien as hi


co r n un i
o ial iteraction
4. lit
tc pi ting a ncss expc rience
c 1
it a
)t
n
ima
pnsor rom 9 weeks aftet con
5. 1 hr dci i
ci tion n iti b itt
oertic s s ich is number and vol
6. Pr r ip c F i
umencra
m tar t despite changes in appear
ancc.
8. A study r h i u iple of diffencnt ages arc
i F
e another,
coat c
9. 1 r / I
11 4
n mIt
i suatircethat
s
t
c Iccnta
13. t
a m
s n s t a tmulnsthitis
n
ci or rtc

1. des elopmental psychologists

2.

nature nurtnrc

3. conhnnitv stages
4, stabilits

Prenatal Decelopmcnt and the Newborn


1. osary, egg
2. sperm enzymes; blocks
3. nuclei
4. zygotes; differentiate; uterine placenta
5. embryo; fetus
6. teratogens
7. can affect, fetal at oh A in lrcn
8. roohng reflex
9. William lames mc oar c t

115

ri
s

ga

e
is

r
to
c

8b

Jot
1

1
10

3
33
4
3

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cr
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vc

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oc

I.

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ic 1 It

far 1 r s
9
10
ic a i
11
12 s i
13.
r Icr
14. ) 1 01
l3.s scir C
16
r re
1
dc
ad
8.
)
9
i
L
20

cc

a
c

at

ft

c
a

It.

36cc
3
3 ,a i.ia
38
r
9
40.)n

I
h

La

Ic.

aCte tranrn
lkciyt becuxe
its I ispnrts

c a

Kilt.

lOUttSs)nid

itt.

24
2

c.
c
It
iccc

CC

c.
I

ir

It
1

s
5

ct
stucc
ii ort)cc n

46
4
48
40

In
C

tcnpeicrcn

ii

0L

12
3

TI

4
c.

ott

iga
lion

wIlts

is. reasm,cnstii
c scci. clv atk bed

ac

r
cii

at

is c, r

CS)!

.d

idtl

nionh

i
ss

pc

d
da

SC

d Ii

1W

t e

il% 1

ic

cc

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I

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tel

Icc

lai
nrc

i
LI

at

22

ci
tactel
nc
ew
icdn ts
rs
is id i
u
licisoatcd
cc
01
itd nail arem I
t.
s
I
hedmi its Whc
SC

211

c
I

c.

dr

i s ompctencc
1 tI ird fac
(3)
11
W
a
C (CI or sOCiOC

H
r I

CprCit

s
0
1

ins

cs

20 mdi

I r

21

us

22

rtirr c

23.p

dl

24. d

25 1 re
26. aCd I
dir

rr

27

tdultloc I
6

I
I

err t
cit di

exua actn iti,


oi ironment

Sr tcni

1.

it

2 mnscular t n t
res
aid &
agi i Itt

4. men p ns
I

ii

it

ni nt )ral

pcrn t stotcr

sstcn its

post

6
,

itia

gent renrc dot r

8. shrinks I
I

9, mor

Ii

10, sb

r
cr
0

3
c

c
)

rgue rat the perception


a
in a the highest
rt c k ts a Western mid
c icd hat foi vomen
r t impersonal jus
a i
at cnslnps

rans

p
dc

18
d r

ID

)prcit

Itor

it ncr

14. recall

a,r

15. prc s cctn

Ia r

1 it

aso

ii

irl
ttp
inrcng
s ire r s al it
19. cry3

li/Cd r

20.

i s

(is

ra
sr
b gts
r att t

tn

13. 11

ng It

if

12. dcn cr t

ti in cvc

onal Stage

Ii

is

Becau
o
)nlvofdiffcr rt g

it

11. brar ccl

17. c s
on
18. 1)noitnd ral t I

al3

sc

is,trair

16. more

Ioxs

less

21 t
22

todd

118

Chapter 4 D veloping through the Lift Span

23. less, life cx ents


24. intimacy; generativits; lox e; work
25. monogamous; 20; well educated
26. twice; higher
27. 7Th happiness; sexual satistaction; health; income;
greater
28. decreases; empioved
29. increase
30. quatit,
31. identit; contidencc selt esteem
32. do do
33. a nvgdala decreastd
34. suddenh and hetorc its expected time on the
social (lock
35. do, do not
36. do not
37. integriti
Reflections on the Two Major Developmental Issues

1. Piaget; Kohlherg; Erikson


2. stages; brain; Piaget
3. do not
4. temperament

Progress Test a.
Multiple-Choice Questions
1. c. is the answer. I )ex elopinental psi chologists
study physical, cognitn e (memory, iii this exam
pie), and social change throughout the life span.
p. 13
a. Social psi chologists stridx: how people influ
ence and are influenced by others.
b. Cognitive psi chologistc dv study memory;
because Dr. Goodman i interested in life-span
han :cs in memori she is more liked a developinc ntal psi chologist.
d. Fxp r nental ps I be ists study phxsi log,
set So r percept it Ira n ng and other aspects
o bcinnr Orly d x iprr nt I psx chologists
I anges in behax ior ar d
f)c is in dcxelopric t
mcntal p roceses
2. a.istheanssxer.p. 153
b. Deduction, or deductixe reasening. is a formal
t1perationa I ability.
c. Piagets theors is not concerned with attach
ment.

d. *\ttaming object permanense is the hallmark ot


sensonm tor th; caibt.
3. b. i the ansxx er. l he nreop;erationai hild sees the

orld from his or her own x antage point. (p. 150)


a. As immature as egoc entrism is, it rep resents a
signifiLant cognitix e advanLe ox er the sensorimo
tot child, who knows the world onl through
senses and actions. Tx en simple self-awareness
takes a xx hUe to dcx elop.
C. & d. As children attain the operational stages.
they become nore able to see the xvorld through
the eves of others.
xi

4. a. is tue ansi er. lieforc ooject permanence is


attamed, out of sight is trulx out of mind.
(o 149
b., c., & d. Dcx elopments during the preopera
tional concrete operational, and formal opera
tional stages include the use of language, conser
vahon, and abstract reasoning, respechx clv.
5. b. is the ansxxer. The infant turns its head and
begins .-ucking when its cheek is stroked. (p. 142)
a., c., & d. These stimuli produce other reflexes in
the newborn.
6. b. is the answer. (p. 1 55)
a. \\hen gix en the choice betxx een a wire mother
with a bottle and a cuth mother xvithout, the
monkeys preferred the cloth mother.
c. The presence of other infants made no differ
ence.

d. Imprinting plays no role in the attachment of


higher primates.
7. c. is the answer, Through maturationan orderly
sequence of biological growth processes that are
relatu clx unaffected by experienceall humans
develop (p. 145)
a. Conserx atton is the cognitive awareness that
objects do not change with changes in shape.
b. The forces of nature vie those that direct
ma In ration.
d. lhe continuitx stages debate has to do with
whether dcx elopmtnt i a g-aduai and continu
ous pro sc or a discontinuous stagehike process
Ihose wh emphasiic n ura ion see dcx elop
me t as occurring in stigec ot cc ithuouslx

8. d. i the a xcr Lnks i p oposed that dexcl p


r er t occuis n a series c ta ,cs n the first c f
wlucf thc hild dcx c ops an attitude of either
basic trust or mistrust, (p. 158
a. Piagets theorx is concerned xx ith cognitn e
devc lopment.
b. I Tariow conducted research. (in attachment and
deprix anon.
x g.otskx fucu-ed on the intluenc e of social tac
c.
(ens on cogntix e dcx einpinei
9. h. xx the ,mnswer. lot, I 45) 46

119

is

10, a.
lh

tOe

an-sc er p. lEd)
an-suer At the precons entional level,
soixing enters o s self-interest, u hether
mold op ptir
oba nw r-sxards
It

tb
oral r

c.

in

it

ns cr Pse it w me a seems to be the


4
18. d, is the .
role: OPen changes :o acts it paitet o contribute
signitica is he proh ns pa d
5 a bump parr
ng(
lusu

a tea

is

tIe ansis er i3ov ci ho shocs early physical


ow to: atton arc general ii sti ringer and more
flieic than box s who mature late; these quah

lead
;reatcr populants and self
p. 6
wIt if sturation tends to be s xaalh
& c
ads a ntagcous tor hors hut not for ails.
m

ii

P. 1 arts niatnimp girls often suffer enxbarras


eut ,,rd are objects or teasing.
sth ax ncr p 184
ud flip ncetcrdstodc reasc irithage
& d. rvstaflized intelh cnee rcfers to the aeon
olarica of tact and general knon ledge that
takes lace during a persons life. Crx stallized
rellicaei ce generaih nor cas cc ith age.

ver (p 106)
fcrs to the c any adolescent period
rated groxi fir and sexual maN
i -h ac

s tl
ring

ration mu u, not to the frrst menstrual period.


B, \ienopause is the cessation ot menstruation,
slab tx picaliv ecsnrs n the early rifties.
enerai it , or the sensc
lii 1 r
an s tf c ory
ci host; priducti e, is the task
ng
r in
dull cd.
inidd
i; ci, o- flu cnaseo p. lOli
a, Cone abs its is assocatcd with middlo adult1.
in a
ssociare I 55 ith
5
I iso
Ti,c
5
xc
1

if

20b

d. F-I cl

ught
silt

crg b oie at I do riot in


sha t itikrs t
ii P r ,itn

n rs V abstract nasoning
c
scelllcnce t
is unrelated to Piagets theo

0, ,tiis; nov cs en. it

i-c

till

xs,r

I,

ii

opec

Fl

c-

2)
al
soar

loop
friaRs
r

-.

1
d,isthm.o C jOb
c
23. 1
24. PH- tl,essc.n 0
o is
a \ie sa w reP
r
dot
c he
I,
r o.c
ci (cncr s N r

xsc -r r usInc two


si
dl
r x
so
prod tiits
,cr sx

citiXiO 0 If-ic .tn 1rt,- 1

25. ci. is the

o,snr-. p.

Is

It

soil t

nbcnfy
xc
22drtf
p
0
a
doNc
ssot c
r ark dx
nti- ,.pp a rancor cixild coodut
1
a, & B. :so rr I orbsr, adole-.cence; nei
5
mm or man on ,c
P c
tIer a thc-,e tour xs o,-
h:
ci t a con
-i t
per
Porn
i
cias
c
e se

olpi otonai ti-ought and oncrute open

in

-nhecc to

i-ach-. thor
n

to rca
pro
c sew
c Iatc
s,,ei
21, c s the
.Io,iftafl.oi-s
out
itt
:or
ox
Cr
s ide ma a
Chic rolm adobo-., err- t.Nrtr1,.s rxplcaiis oxioi
f-i-i tncept. i p.
porato an ira,ue-p pos;tI; 0

1.

& B.

15

t, Ii

5,
c-I

N
0

0 0, r

19. b,stho .onma


a, tin- an-.rc end i-nh,- ,--.--se rus l isearch,
c. & d, 0,aroIe Lu 1. 0,1 d.s:;xnut-h nsc
in I
a
tu h
tic n

s ci.
.1 opc a onal I uchl
c in
a ath,rci. th:n king t- no ionger hnited to
R4
ri-h u-apo-.,tions p. 5

ihc

16

tic

i-

ii

clot

14

u lert

ii n
piec c char
1
p 1 ad n t
tI
steor s o r Ire of noral

a
0
e

13

tb,
r-.ni

n cat-.
1
tc 0 a

dci

Sal

B. Nitboswh tnt eidei P

apnaat

12. ci,

p hr

sn

1 reasoning iased on a sense of social


a
de;re to pam oc1al approval N associ
tb rho rofl\ enuonai los el ot moral des eu

& b. h
or

ii.

3, t

I-.

1,

11

lt- l)

ti,c

2
I

-.---

-h,

do ct 5,iI
r i-e -o
5

-0

S.

Progr S
1. ci.

-I-

,ciditsa
-,

120

Chaptet

a. it
Inc

Detelopingihrough the Lift span

cousor a

ti iOti I

in dot lops dun

on ci tage whore is stra gt


Cf
1 5 r-crm tcrst
e
gon
b. t
in
I eorr
n. nd bi
Pt r t
durino I e pooi. e itional s ,c. This rol
rho seor motor Iage doring xrhicn
-.0 anget .irxioo ttt,t kr
2.

its or
ci. I

4. N thu

an r i d arstand

thc

it

1. a.

Is
Ot

p 4

b. Adcr hon t.tlOt Cc nncrtcd; it roquirn O\o


-.ura I
an atiditr
thug.
o N u
my
at ti
hani n of bend
x d on tot
x or
s
cr changes
ddtc r
c
no
d. fbi urr or n scorroct f mause at o ago dots
0s1

u tO Ouou

3. c.

ni

I t1
hao ansrr or.
a., b., & ci, .r. LiiitU s emotional ronrporanrent
atta
ut, an
cidictic I r o not been linked

is

,.

b.i

ci.

I e ann or

xig

iatcro

sir

ii

aieyiw r

141

\ critiual

oriod I-. a restricted

nro a iring ririch an crganism

must

ho exposed

inllocnto-. or or orioncos for a particu


iar kind of earning to occur (p. 1 6i
a. Cr al peru d rotor to I r elopmcnt I pt or ds
i1t
b.
ar
h ri Ic bob or
ior,
or a
ono c t a the r r rollow
ing htrtl
c. Cnthai pet iod-. art not spc1Oca1lr as-ociatod
u lb the orooperath mat period.
to certain

8, c. o au an-.u or I iepriveu nonker


tIme
r ho
ii hef
p iir

were in
in th r

(
a.,
N
9. ci.

L
r t oPt

he

ri
-.

No

mr

at LNO

10. e.P.a
a. lr
it

in tai
b. P

tr io

NO tfl

for,
)n

tO

ot

a nk ot nour

ant p. 1

d cit

aniig tIn
ret a
N ml
he
ci
ne
or
t 1(0
ds to I
har

to If ir
s Non
r riM y
ar
once, tr
of in 1ff route.
acttrNto N setort.I,

It
)

a-.t,

C,5.i

tie cnswet

IF 83)

b. This rnmr er describes the longitudinal re

in
tkci h
w mothc
ato .o moan rim pJo enta and citron the child P
lONto

hioosirorm

devei opnrent.
c. Flar!oo N knorr n tor his studies of attachment
r infant n o her s.
12.

or

1L d is tin ar srscr. (p. 1 68)


a f.rikson is knori n ft r hit theory of psi chosocial
dot elopment.
b. Pia get is known for bls theory or cognitive

by

it

a.

round ings n ill often exhibit a range of emotional


[chaviors

4r,

to

tat,

n i,nnant(i,-r -or

search method.

c. & ci. Cross-sectona1 studie-. har e tended to


exaggerate the negath o ettects 01 aging on intel
lectual functioning; for this reason they mar not
be the most appropriate method for stuN ing life
an icr elopment.
13. c. is the ansvrer. Different societies and eras hare
somewhat different ideas about the age at which
major life or ents should ideally occur. (p. 187)
14. c. is the ansoer. (p.168)
a. Preconventinnal moralitx is based on avoiding
Fri ni slim ent anti obtaining rewards.
b. Conr entional morality is based on gaining the
appror al of others andy or on following the law
and social eonr enhon.
ci. I here P to such thing as generatir e morahty.
13. a. is the ansrrer. (p. 170)

b. According to Erikson, identity dcx elops before


intimacy.
e. & ci, The formation of basic trust is the task of
infancy.
16. ci. sthearsrrer. (p. 176)
a. Most o omen do not experience anxiety and

distre-.s toll owi rig menopause. moreover, the


o onians experience ycill depend largely on her
expectations and attitude.
b. Only 4 or S m lit postmenopausai Canadian
n I L S r omen and I in
postmenopausai
a nose ii rr en experience I ot t as aes.
P n
use s c used fy a tine i in cstrogen.
17. a. the ns er. A n athematici r s skills are hke
to reflect abtrat rea-.oning, or fluid mtelli
gencc. which decline with age. Ip. 1831
b. & ci. Philosophx and hterature are tields in
o hith mdix iduals otten do their most notable
o oP lator in life, aftor more experiential knno i
edy e ter stalhzed intelligence) has accumulated.
e. Scent fk achier ements generalli retleet fluid,
rather than crystallized intelligence.
18. d.is the ansocr (p. 188;
a., h.. & c. Mot couples tIn not fool a los-. cit pur

Answers

pose or marital strain folloxi ing the departure of


groxi n children.
19. d. is the annxer, Significantly, drugs that block
th act x i v of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
prodi. c klzhcimer c like symptoms. p. 180)
a. & b. Fpinephrine and norepinephrine are hon
inones prodin.ed hr glands of the endocrine sw

6.

teiii

in s a neurotransmitter and hence is


c Sero
produ d by in urons bnt it has not been impli
mers disease,
1
La ted ii .\lzhe
20. d. iS the ansxx tr. (p. I$41
a. & b 1 md intelligence, which decreases with
apt retcr ft the ability to reason abstractly
c. (ri stallized intelligence increases is ith age.
21. a. is the answer. cp ii
l
6
22. d. i the answci. tmPP 185-186)
23. d. is thc ansu er. (p. t8)

Psychology Applied
Multiple-Choice Questions
1. d. is the ansxser (p. 151)

2. B. is the answex. n. 145j


a. & d. \lthough the rate of motor development
x aries from child to child, the basic sequence is
unk ers P u d therefore, predictable
c. Rolling ox er and head lifting are both learned
3. a. i the anxver. Mathematical and philosophical
reasoning involve tinid and crystallized intelli
gcnce respectir ely Because fluid intelligence
generally declines is ith age while crystallized
intelligcnce increases it is likely that significant
mathematical acnimpihments will occur at an
earNer age than philosophical accomplishments.
(p. 185
4.

I c rs v tarl naturing boys tend to be


rr ore popular. .p. 166
a. harP maturinc gris mar temporarih sufter
enharranenr and he the obje ts of teasing.
b & d I e si ml hcrctts t carP ci late inatura
ho 1i
asc 1 n p vsicrl dcx clopment, not on
c( gnitix c skills.
C

5, c. is the ansxxer, lhis test is designed to deter


n inc it the ehhd understands that the quantitr ot
liquid c usc rx cd despite the shift to a contain
er that is different in shape. (p 150)
a. I hew arc pcnerai processe related to concept
huiding
b cah,ec t or nnaiu nec iS the concept that an object
c
ni
to c t c n whir not percened; n

7.

8.

10.

121

tIns case, the water is perceix ed thronghout the


experiment.
d. This experiment does not require abstract rea
soning, only the abiht to rcason logic alh about
the concrete,
a. is the answer. this child s age and stranger
anxiety clearly place him withm Piagets seusori
motor stage. (pp 14, 15)
B. is the answer, [his childs ase ibilits to usc
language, and egocentrism clearly place her xx idr
in Piagets preoperational stage. tp. 10)
d. is the answer. Consers ation is a hallmark of the
concrete operational stage; egocentrism is a hail
mark of the preoperational stage. (pp 1 dl 153)
c. is the answer. Being 4 rears old. jarnail xxould
he in Piagets preoperational stage Preopera
tional thinking is egocentric, which means Jamail
would find it difficult to put himself in his sis
ters shoes and perceive that sht has a brother
(p. 190)
b. is the answer. p. 196)
a. Conservation is the ability to realize that the

amount of an object does not changc cx en if its


shape changes.
c. Egocentrism is has ing difficultr percen ing

things from anothers perspective.


d. According to Erikson, basic trust is feeling that
the world is safe as a result of sensihxe losing
caregivers.
11. a. is the answer. Although loving parents will

also produce securely attached children,


Eriksons theory deals xx ith trust or mistrust ip
1 8)
c. Control is not a factor in this stage of Eriksons
theors.
12. d. is the answer, (p. 172)
a. rhis description of Cassandras f clings does

not suggest that her relah )uship wi I er p ireuts


is deteriorating. (assaudras sociil dcx elop neut,
like that oh most adolescents, ft coming under
increasing peer influence and dimInih.ing paren
tal mntlcience
in & c. Becausc (assandra fc irs rc nc m
there is no reason for icr to change I er eirclc oh
friends or tor her parents to seek cc)nn.ciinit.
13. c. is the answer. (p. 1 M;
a., in, & d. Piaget did not link cognibs e aM my tci
amount of schooling, gender, c r ditfcrc uces in
how boxs and girls are socializcd.
14. a. is the answer. ( hildren in x arious cultiire do
seem to progress throcgh Kohihcrgs pieon. ci
tional and cons cr tint al hi c c xx F
in I Ii s

Chaptet .o fleieioping Thiougi the ite Span

122

ral
pnit t of
of t dci
th orne spe
rea-oning ate icnn erai. p. 11*.
15. c. is the an%wer. Reasonig i. bj.tjjj tn fluid irtel
4)
lb.. cc.
a
cliii., i.e i dM ujr I old
ssta ted
b.
agc.
lb. c. Is the an. ci. Because .a erJ arla%in (&ccc
It ti
it
in
illi
c
i
fflu
no
s
nid ts
Ot
1
(SC
C
ii
sib to ru out t .at on or mc e of hese r tnet
than aging i. tile tJuse of the measured intellec
nail s npi tee ai d ii pftbi. tati e es
a
S
C
t :
t
11
C
3,
rest i cit
b. This rtters t. Ltnguuainal reeaitII.
17. d. the uisci. (pp. liii -1821
sc
ogi onr rio thepcr it
a &c Ix
m ceo ) rp till ho,i ii lecec ic
b. he ah,lit to ecall r. terIal. especiall; mean
ingless material, declines with age.
18. d. F, the a iswer Research ha, nut uno ewd a
K d t fo pcopeofanv ttculaagcLrnn
te [Olt r ata cErn s of s t ,fa tion C
hclrg. p. ISQ;
19. c. 1% the answer. Although some researcher%
cix thasiie con,i tent, uid others emphaswc
p e Li rtan, tFciaiiactitconistn
cli c pin. o 19
cy r rca c nc
stage
theorie. i. that developa. One crit.ctsm of
detined stage..
saarpn
occur
in
merit d. ts not
ndi idual. adult
that
b. k. searc i I as .huwx
if
thu rs
f
c
itbcprd.i
c
pro
ax,

d. octal and enu. tional .ti it


stjh!r trdt-.
20 b.

the

Esay Quection

tual Jetre.t.e. (p.


a

tis

22 c. k U anv
1 04)
fl. c. i. L!e .n1.a,er. (_ilijs cge and 4; uglt- to tonfi
a ..ics.t. rci.tonhip pIa !iint square! in this
tage
I ,eiat
S
U
I
of in
b. \utunnn er%.cs dou3t 1 Jie psvthostitial
tk n ttJdltrhcod.
Sic
thc sichoso
SLTS
0
d. Tdc titt
C
I
k
I
24 d. i t c rnsi r (p. 18)

icr

on

3r.. two it

bun

mis
,

the nost
set]

is

a. Pr tbti etitiorwi .t.o_ing i. iat 0 ui


.aniig a recird or
in:entnn jj
pt, hint

c?dc;nai

i t c. Li hoc c
C
xIs 7
\ithouh icr
tier,
ii
.
for
op
I a t
ge
%elf-focu%.ea,
nat
$jl!
-omen
flunking
rraoly
logical
abstrat,
becoming
of
is
.apabLc
Shtr. 1
reason
her
to
invaing
allow
Ii
thought 1 hi. is
se ic log i
B
cia
ii
h Uk aiv
ii
I
c)nsistcr.cie
et
4
to
c
es
thu nib i ,o
and
ideaL,
their
benieen
and
reasonin,.
otheractions. cheTi I and her parat mn 1w hai ing -onw
heited ,h bate. abtut non.
roba ii atth
i 1
ng o ollbcrg Sc 1
cc
ii
nc
ioi
v. Wien hc
r
on
thesiok
abided
i, tule. in
prohabi
I
flffl,cl. then
tVa
because
siznph
or
cii
social
ppru
gain
order to
that
\tm
jton%entiira1
nioreiih).
are iules
s
dii
ncreasrp
ni
lease
no
p
sic oIc She
cod )fehcsard r
rsor
l&bascc, n )f
aftnmatio i of peoples agreeirupon rights. Betause
-lie i a noinan, her moraiiti mai be more con.erned
with car mc ibout rclauonshLps
nko isy on.. k copn t
ng
\&.
a
ict s iii 1 use ona ar
s
ccci. i eght
tic1ar bjc,k. A- .n .ido.esent, Shci 1 s pi chooc al
tasic i. to dci ekp a strs of ,.eif h testing roics, then
integratin - them to torn a .:nglr :dt.iitih.. Frik-on
e sroi cnfu n.
dtl
at den
c

Key Terms

i.

C
tin
at
pri: tipe%.

1:
cdi.

)r r&us

au

a:

cai

d. lear o tter.. dtsapio a flflC it the ha%es


air a onk&
of nat mci
?
ci
e
2.b
a. I fast. i t the po, ft 1. tr Ic Oc erital i fl_i
lawn ,tL:L;fl- durirz adule,cenu.
(flCC on.
,i ci
d en. r.-.;i-.t ii tr t.i%rrn it .1 j
(j
rs f
ia
)fl
t C
ISS
)I/
id
4%

;ltitci

2.

Na c of
s
)evt omc lal pS hol
C
s
I
c
o
lift an (r 1W
scnal iansc thou out
TIa zygote (a term dtiived horn the Creek nerd
fur C:ilt . i. the ferrtiLvd egg. that i. the luster
liii)
t
ptt
n cdu ci
fc
.
er
, p

3. Fbi. embryo iii ue. t ILV .ig Pttl.dtJi 0Cg.fl.%I.


h 2 month ath j t..i
4
tr,)m :,14t.t ? W(t th,ni
epu. 4. r,
.

123

t.wtec

fetus i the ties eloping prenatal human from


etA a r corneption to birth. ip. 141)
Leralh, 0 o c) are any drug,
feratot S
U:,t
r %ub
cs that c ss the moth
d
nrr it deuloping
Fn
p.4
e
I etal alt h syndrome I AS) refers to the phi %i
C.iI i..d ttcrutie ibnornulitie% that heati drink
g Lw a urtgnant snun xn-iv taue in the devel

4. 1

(ft 1l2

hit, rooting refIn i the newhom\ tendenc,


utien hL% or I ci .Jtcek i. ,troked, to twit, nt toward
he flu
ii ry a
th and starch for the
I

I
0 C in
u at to studs infant
r1
niti
iatituation decreaing responsive
s to a
i i at. that t
eatcdh presented. (p.
14
9. Maturation refer. t the biological growth pro
tesce. that enable orderis changes in beham ior
and art relati d uninthenced hi experience or
ot.mer en; iroiLniental tack rs p. 143i
ihity tc i a k depends on a certain
iii1
1
id r i,. i maturation icr this
c
t
Icr
oth is phsical1y
mdvt
k attic
Iknghashttlec.tfect.
0 Ii Iiag
theon of cgnitivt dci elopment,
chemas t. mental t oncept or tramen orks that
.)rizani?e end mte-rpret information. p 147)
11. Tn ILaget.. theon, assimilation refers to inter
ri .ting new eperitnce in terms of an exi.ting
cchtm.
IS)
Iia c
r accommodation ckrc to
tic
t
fri st ratirc.crporitenew
orir
en
Ft s milated p 148)
ognitlc r
s to all
racntal pro csses aso
cats-cl t it1 .1 Living, trio.. iag, 1
emembtnng. and
tn: (p. 13t
..

17. Conservation i th., pi;ncrl, ni.


a number. o1umt ha ii a.
deptc lange% in
bum
acqiir c
i trig
1

t r, ri

icr iH i-t

sis.

1 ,t

1
p
18 InT a.c sf1 on e 0
cultv t a pit operat
erinct a.othcr

sm
huIrt

se..p:. I

anti ce.ttr%m indicate%

ws,t
1! C

f..i

.i,

tS.
k. .r%
t
operitio ; child u
ec tcntert.d i I
19. Our ide.is at-out our cntr an1 .1+,. thvi:t,s
feelmg% md ptrceptit is mud -a, J,
r Va
:

In

.,

might p tdct unst


151
p
20.Autismi
and in rkdb I
14)t lb)1

ut thec

esu
114 a.

iiittidttiOii dr I I

21. [hiring

mmmd

un
it

tlmt concrete operational stige. atn..,

about age.

j%
11
( t: 7 tj) 1! ..flkt4. 5,,; 1 t1j
Iogicalh about corn ree et nt r.. t)jt..t ip.
13)
22. In Piagct% theoi, th formal ope ionil stap
norma1l x ins ab
lii t
12 [
ii
c hep
1
peop
tF
it
tepts(
1
Mu,
Jo hc
Entilt
stt
iemembcu that ope
a ce i
t asbor
hidrtn. .e i.ick tie
niations. P1operdtionl 5,
ability to perform traa-roumath.s n
thi% dci elopmtntdl Wlltsto
(k .et- oj eru
tional cFildren can lFeratt n u.n :1 cr
ob)ett. F rival ups-rat aai iJ
n i
logicl t a i formati
ibstia
ts
23 Stranger anxiety
at
infaits sntot s
ii
A
)
(p. In
it i pci
24. Attachment us an vim
t c. d
.nn. -.honn in ou,
( r
loscnes t a carti., e ant) .h. j, .:.

Irom

,,,

..,

,,,

14. In Iii:c r

t iePi ft ..gn tit c %tages the sensori


motor %tage a.S from iTh to about age 2.
i. ti
m ze ll.flt, it: knots lccgc at the
oil I h
hit i
id thur
t actis
5
p
I
ecp r rct
i dnc PS It rig tac
ii
YCflt5 at things
C)! .ttt
(IXNti%[
tpcnteis I p 149)
lb. It I:, ::r- con. tl. preoperational stage la.t
m ar.rt 2 ts. Li or icars of age. Dunng this
ti:.,.
I,t:,Li gc derelnpmenr i
rapid hut the
I,:ci
.u tec to undert .nd the merits! opera
-

b(

fr

j.,

,j

ic

,i1_ i

epauation. (p FR
25. .

critical

birth a r
to cc
I
etc )
1

period
4,

atu n
in

1
ShilL

peruc

26. Imprinting s flit


mak r t taclin
I ,.,
riU
periodt
n tile. p
r. 1.
27. Accordin: to Fnksor basi trust ;
the isofid is puedktahlc r, tm ,e.:t. c i
m.:t
tept fl it mnf.mt forn
l Y fle?
.

rcpon-i c

,rt,.i, II,,.

Chapter 4 Developing Through the life Span

124

28. Self-concept is a percons sense of identity and


personal worth. ua. In i
29. Adolescence refers to the life stage from puberty
to independent adulthood denoted phbslcally by
a gross th spurt and maturation of primary and
secondar; ex rharacteristics, cognitiveh by the
onset of tormal operational thought, and socially
by the torniation of identity, (p. 164)
30. Puberty is the card adc tcscent period of se\ual
maturation during which a person bet omes cap
able of reproduction. (p 165)
31. The primary sex characteristics are the hodi
structures (OX aries, testts, anti external genitalia)
that enable reproduction. (p. 1tri
32. the secondary sex characteristics are the nonre
productis e sexual characteristics, for example
female breasts, male voice quality, and hod hair
p. 165)
33. Menarche is the tirst menstrual period. (p. 1b6)
34, In Friksons theory, establishing an identity, or
ones sense of self, is the primary task of adoles
cence (p. 171)
35. Tn Eriksons theory, intimacy, or the ability to
establish close, loving relationships, is the prima
rv task or late adolescence and early adulthood.
(p. 172)
36. Menopause is the cessation of menstruation and
typicalh occurs in the earls fifties. It also refers to
the biological and psychological changes experi
enced during a womans years of declining ability
to reproduce. Ip 176)

37. Alzheimers disease is a progressive and irre


s ersihie brain disorder caused hi deterioration of

neurons that produce aets lcholine. It is charac


terized by a gradual loss of memory, reasoning,
language and finalls phvskal functioning. (p.
I 80i
38. in a cross-sectional study. people of difterent
ages are compared with one another. ip. i83i
39. In a longitudinal study the same people are test
ed and retested oxcr a period of sears. (p 183)
40. Crystallized intelligence refers to those aspects
of intellectual ability, scich as ; ocahulary and
general knowledge. that reflect a con ula ted
learning. Crv,talhzed intelligence tends to in

ith age p 184)


41. Fluid intelligence refers to a persons ability to
reason speedily and ahstracth. fluid intelligence
tends to de..line with age. (p. 1841
crease

ii

32. The social clock refers to the culturally preferred


social events, such as leak ing home,
timing
having children and retiring. (p. 187)
of

marrying,

Cross-Check
ACROSS
1. accommodation
5. fluid

DOW\
2. crystallized
3. autism

4. assimilation
5. fetus
6. Lonservation

7. imprinting
embryo
schema

10.
12.
14.
15.

menarche
longitudinal

8. cross-sectional
9. zygote
11. teratogen

13. habituation

FOCUS ON VOCIBULARYAND L4\GUAGE


e 101,1 non through lifefrom ronmi to
tcmwhen how and ishy do ixe dci elop? In the
process I bccom ra nfl ire ire and as sic traicl
conception 0 death
hr i g
i
i/
6 ifc
hj sic chankc and mature pl ysicaik
(or 6 (
psx chologdoih, and ociaIix. (Another humorous
expression describing the life span or lite cycle is
from sperln. to ix orm.
Edge 139: As

Infancq and Childhood


Shis describes a child uho is
foddEr
Pa 144:
c
0
beginning to learn to xx alk and xx ho walks with
short, tines en ctpL,
.

tu

1 Ia: \ter birth the neural networks that cx en


k, ai emembcr had
na
en I cd i

a cild 4nzrfh pmtrf. Myers points out that xx lien s ou

were born, you had all the brain cells that you wilt
ever have. l3ut after birth there i a x cry rapid dcx el
I ye A son; n the umher of con
opmcnt (a
nections bctssecn neu us
Pay 1a6. Ir ing to access memories of those hrst
tour i ears :s (lOt fni.g is 1,7,1; Li, OIicit r,; om,m(ftd (I
a .;nnf 0 nt(o3 -m,uu;:. I hic
;n an :,; no; o
reterence is to the sminilarits between. the brain and a
computer. If computer sotare used f r creating a
n fisd) on an earlier
document x,ac prrra med
then it xvill not he eass to
read the doumnent on a n.ewer yerion. Earls
preschool memorie max not have been erased, hut
because thex ss crc programmed on a different, or
ear icr yst r (fin A Ii, thex ire Ii rd to a ccss or
wcrsftrn El m I
rctncsr I c

x ersion

of

computer

125

Fcca% on ocabu1an and L dngua;c

147

tru?

11w, word r eons to be


liL a tv tha
1 dx.o not
cc rt Ti i o )Intles ( s I
according to
pet. i C v, to tn t teach a child isho s m the
-.pcnt iii stage of de elopnient how to use
aL.rract Logic to .olve a complex problem (formal
3

OJxr.iionai reaoning.

11)

insc

c.

vit

L I

w of

tests Piagct would show an


*
lijv
dth. I
1
a

4
lit. to tearc icdfor the t When
, t t
objec permancr cc he %howc d the
c,aiid an aft atth e toi and thin a ered it i ith hi.
h round hat h ippa1 lii ye;e ifl! it). Ven
.ung babes dl) not earth for the hidden to
i kn the nt .ee it. the dont appear to think
s c,ht iso tof iii;iM
Ut it(
bout

Then ichfedthc ncr theiifants


ictimc
I a .1 t 14 take staring lo i,e when
-ow ii a ; ong nunjxr of oblect.%. In tIm. eperi
rncnt tith 3-month-old infants, Karen lVvnn
.hon d that the%e cn- young children were capable
onuiptal thinking She did this by nea.uring
i r.. ict
ime to expected and unexpected out
)
an mp ssiblc outt.om, mian s stared
a
btzkt)anlthcvalsodemon
ited a r
tal cap it> br detecting changes or
tt -n1ces .n the trequenc 01 evenS ithu flae a
1
cn
,,r, 3 ,
I

etc

,fl,%f

t-il oidt-.
i.i:

hi

tr
ii.

Cn

.1 .:- L.,2%.r.-. tWJ

hiId.
tier

...lii

let
5
tF n tr de elop n
.J te-c .b-Lt--. appear.

-eCu CC ID

(I

..c

I%L).

an

:-.,r,r t.
!.
-o.,, tin i.

it
t
.

J
un 1
iir
f 1.1%.! .iarl T iaget s

a.

thccn fla
Ut. :flttt - r%lal. hs ing both -.upportcr% and tnt.
(c...-. a Jftral r-.earth --.upport% the ba.ic --.tages
r p. .ed
s nIL n.k-. but mot re.earchers
th d -wlo mcnt i-. morc continu )u than
tO
(hctlwcmocconcptuilabil
nods hi his th on su.estcd

tre

i leh
4 mik%tone is an
it ..a-it: ante or tniportante. (Originall, a
ri j.t:Ii(
.a a IJflt stout ht the roadside

,l,

I,

r i.rn -.p. jfk tm


a,..! .7!
trait utilize
k-dc--

tbr t:,tt
I,

;in: fit

.-

t
,
4
J

at

to te

e hcr

415

hrtten sos

itt

1k)

t,

L,_

.,

de-.ihl

f:

lv
U

It

ii

re

qt
1
ltu: the -f
a -.ott tern
cloth Thu% ihen t fc%tt.a tia .rtrac:ion pith-.! lie
Ira in; p ;j .tt ,he- 31t1c1a n- thin ti ho %upplied
i
1
more

tood tMm-t the


er(o t tts
ferrcdtck
ba.
r isl
rchiin
lilt.?

, -it tni

lws
r
t

bent

our

WI-

xk

-,

in. ,.un..
4.-t.lnn-: i

-.:iz

arter

vrin: oo-e

bia

ft

t-,

lt- :1
ii

)Sc
C

csng

in

1.

Pa.- !n !-ttr I it.- (.,

t---o It
)t i

called

--.

ph.tt

Ihint:.,.

2[

t.,._

l 1
t
i
e

ii

it?
S.

it

hut
ril
I
and at citni it
tarn.-i u- hletd% o tti-t
old -.avnt, ten.--Ii. Frr
1-I at fliiflt.
tenti
i ffher
-orr

1,

i)I

her put

, \%

I-

-.

-.

--

%t.

ii-

lathe

-id .ttg

pt

tJCtt (,-

t
IT

dr

n- u-td ;- 7tit _-af


I fit--

1-

ii

-tli

7-

._te

sF

%f-ifl I
-

t,

ti

re..yr

utgcWkti

ft

ci,

di
) 11cc
set
obje
the ec.heli- 1
imprinting.

;.ri

( F

plc
sinus.

--

normally :t u-c.- n. -

ic

-,

d
c ed

Pazt .1 t [he tirst rl:,i ;r.., -Na t


I:scI ,iet. Jurir: f-hi- lIc.U% %Ij( rth

duck!

ion or the te Joh moth


ipnst.
tthcc pc

L;: When Little Red Riding Hood realizes her


is real!
volt, she swiftli re he. her
i dii n
aD t
ct-ca u c s rntenuons and races aiva
zadu 1, egin to understind that
c pe
ha c n ental capacities, ntcntions,
! -ta1or,. fetling%. etc Lhildi:n finn; -i tiitou ot
,n, Thi-. is illu--.trated s hen the vounsz girl in the
t.wd t-n. -.tor taIled Lttle Red Rzdin Hood reog
.l-.t f: hi hid volt (diguied a% her grandr ba

hej Ft
tentions U ard ha rnd he
I
iv

01

n kpe
hecc
liad -..lprszih!e .---rnpi...
iliiild. : tha t
Rig

what

lii

Lh

Pr

thu

It

. ft
t
1

of

to

-itt!

!-

tint

T- il,.j

-t .:,

lit

Ps-fl
.Lb,

tnt

cc

;taadc

-c

nothuns
innant. Rather, os idencc
iahli c iris
she ay inter
v are
t

est

di nun

lTit C

inn

55 130

iS

S.

ft

cso

ott If brain
Icaic
eipt! ic3cOs that occur rary in doS chip
t tot I on brain tunottonu un
moot can in sin n e
c i npr5Unons tt at
m taraoi at iN 5
it n 1
trans
si (
15
or
luja
S
1(3
I
t
S
t
lycss\
1
(l
used hidrer
1
sIc
i ulso
tcssi e tenns aId- adults,
0
t sdy ag
5
ss ha he

in a simple nachon of tic- mirror proce


ri, nsuon- t stirha laha I r 1-, on cf ldrctn s
d
the n ror n
trc
tim
ii c
b
1 1
t
in r I xrlopnot i
if
nrc t
tim icr nut r image i hr cIt and
cli Id rca
not atiorS.: Llntd reoars hers ti a clot er tcohnicjue
t
ann nitbout the childs
[-nob-truss eta I
it-,: h-i

av aroness dIes ponds ruehed S. aonb somc red


e chld nose I efore al cxvi S.
in)
uf
i
r r,l clidrenhave the
c
If tI c n ill I & surpuscd at thc red spc I
c r cept c
and toush riteii noc. I his actualls happens around
Id to Ia month of age. ansi seirconcept begins to
gina Irons dc-ian
-

early teen cars, bcmg stronger and more athlc tic


cads to nc re self assurance, greater popularih, and
greatcr lode cnde cc t t eys ci u/ends).

ii

1,-

time (caIii izat:t tnt/on), it ss ill be much less stressful


nr bovs than tor girls. In general, for boos in their

S no parctls pal
ac/al When I
son
0
fir
nntu y sto/es),
pr
in
Tics
ing
uldue
h.
c
at some parents use strict
3 S ariahItT
1
is in L
punshtnunt sta:/r:nyl; (hj
cuntrii and pLn
to

it

S.

-1

11

tans

OtOtls

LilliA

p1 Stems and, issues svith


n) nO c) s I others
1 v santardriake
odo v

cli
d
t
denL
5
&
tlnsc pan ntrR
0
in a-nd 0

1;

litut

trt

tare a

rpa

in

Is
3u

ia
-

--:t: :n,:,/an,

tariOri

Is
s

Myers denhfics

r /as

c a a:

h-
t
c

in

I drctutr

incins

ut th

/
c an
n,;-

1
mcd

ouch

rIse ,nc:t_ 01 -trittus parent.ny str Ii .


0 P0iin ,,,t t: The s- idenu is correIatt -nal amad
H
sIr ea in an i
rect. Thus, flu rc nay be
O
I cd
it
th
cc s
g sone
r mci. ugen
It
re it
0
trust
d ts a r ith t m their
d r [i
-: -:

-!

-t-o,
t

14

,-i

in

-idolast C!iiO
1

P
t

in

su

iCy: if a oung girls hods is out t Inzc with her


owa emotional maturits and her friends pit sisal
dot clopnient ann experiences, she mas begin associ
ati ig with lder adolescents or ma sntter teasing or
scxua hirass nent Sync is an abbrexiation of syn
u in i in, uhch means to occur at the same time. So
it a girLs biological development is not proceeding
at the sante rate ccitt OfsiiticJ with her emotional and
social developmenh she may start fraternizing (essa
101 n) st ih and imitating the behavior of older

girls I hus early maturahon can be a problem for


gills especially h tlic people around them react in
an Inappropriate or suggestive mamier to their
physical development (sexua/ /lanissine,It) or make
tun of them (tease tl1eni.

Pngc leT: Gradually, though, most achieve the intel


lectut I nrnnnt that Piaget called formal opera Iions. Fhe
P rmnl operational stage is the highest let cliii Piagets
theory of cognitive development (otelleefnal sum
tnitu Most adolescents reach this stage and are capa
ble of logical and abstract reasoning. For example,
mant think about (pont/er) and discuss (debnte) such

issues as good and cx il, truth and justice, and other


abstract tc pics about human nature.
Page InS: P crucial task of childhood and adoles
cence is discerning right front wrong and developlog c/zanct r_t!!e cache/ego a/ in i,e/oc for centre/i/ny
11111 aRes, (hancte refers to the total qualihes a per

son possesses including attitudes, beliefs, interests,


achons, and a philosophy of life. By developing char
adolescents learn to has e the intellectual
strength tpsyeholeyical muse/es) to refrain front acting
immoraih t antro//t ig /mpu/se i. Kohiherg proposed
a oitros cmsiol stage theory mt moral des clopmcnt
5 cf has re Ic Ols prccor nt or a convention
a i d S. ste ir s cut onal,
-

lb-in Rohihcrg s claim xsa that thei let els


from a tfl454 /adt/rr Ihiguro 4 22:- in Kohihcrs x iexv
hi(dren has u to go through each of the three stage
pr cons entional, cons entional, and postcons-en
tic nat in successic n much as a person climbs a lad
der ne rung at a time, frc m bottom to top. The
loss est rung on this moral ladder invoh es self-interest
hment; the highest rung.
5
and as odance oi puni
hiS. often des eiop during and attor adolescence,
is oncerncd with pemsonal etinral print iplcs and
hctfccr has
c(rtic c II dth
aj

biases
i
idcr
ge
aId
c

Focus on Vocabulary and Ianguage

gage 1e9
tinaw a SiLitLJl
this means to pull a
lex en Peoplac moral reasoning and judgments are
affec ted b asic emotional reactions (gut level feel
rgsL This phenomenon is e\ ident in the situation
requiring a choice hem een tis o unpleasant aherna
Ui e (a i0en:ca c Either pulling a lei er (throaiiii a
sevt. in or pushinm a person onto the tracks results in
the people hein saved and one person ding. hut
the latkr choke causes much more emotional ton
rlict tk i
i s un
z arees h it up
Page 170. Our moral thinking and feeling sureh
affect our moral talk. But sometimes tilt is cheap and
emotions are t1eting. The expression talk jc lmeai
means that it is ea-v to say i ou beliei e something or
to say that on are ,oing to do something; it costs
you nothing just to speak about it (talk is cheap).
lion ci er action, or actualh carry ing out the correct
behax ior is also mx oh ed in moralitr,
Page 170.
vmihococial task
According to
Erikson, each stage of life involves a dilemma (crisis)
that has to be resoix ed before xx e can move on to the
next stage. fhese tasks involi e interactions between
ourseli es, Our surroundings, and other people; thus,
they are social in nature, The psychosocial assign
ment (psgchosoual t k) ot adolescence involves role
confusion os, foroung in identity. (this is sometimes
called an identity crisis),
Pae 171: Erikson noticed that some adolescents

f0re

I their identits early, simply hs taking on their par


ents values and expectations. Forge literally meanc
to form or shape by heating and hammering metal.
Frikson obserx ed that some young people form
(forge) their identities early, while others never quite
appear to acquire a strong feeling of who they are
bie., ther dont Uid thenncl1cs).
Pue 17k

As people mature in young adulthood,


hczr cimt,cute tier a:
5 parc;;ts :mesel, During their
cork fix enties mans still lean kin i1u mii their parents.
Tni time r i d bLtn ec
IS and the mid-tn enties is
r tin s c illcd t xc r crgr g idulthood stage
I) ring t i criod,
ig adults have less need for
bce emxxot, paI mtevt ith parents ca U mel tics
at in nun h- : : ne srtheles maui still reix on
then parents for Hnan ia I and ocia I support bt!u
mi
5
a :mevtm,
1
:7:

P
n pg
th year spnt nisp ag from
cO d to du t k ad les ence. the time period (gap)
bctween t u u d of childhood and the beginning of
adulthood mx oh es maui social and biological
changes the pcrron
tmnsrormed nuc[ct d from
ne ti pt of etitx a JuIch to sonu timimmu quit dtlr
crt bum ,,riv!t

127

Adulthood
1 : I he abox e statements all false are
among the misconceptions about aging exploded by
recent research on the worlds most rapidly growing

Page

population group. Li explode misconceptions


means to dispel or get rid of erroneous beliefs
that hax e no foundation in fact. The false statements
tnnsconteptwns) listed in the text have all been

refuted b the results of new experiments and mx es


tigations.
Page 1 S: In later life, the stairs get steeper, the print
gets smaller, and people seem to numlie more. This

is not meant to he taken literally, Mr ers i


5 pointing
out that as we become older, our sensory and per
ceptual abilities change so that our reaction tinie and
our ability to see and hear decline, Thus, the stairs
appear steeper, the print seems smaller, and people
do not appear to be speaking clearh (they mumble).
Page 179: Aging levies a tax on the brain by slowing
our neural processing. Myers is pointing out that
aging is accompanied by a decrease in some percep
tual and cognitix e abilities. Just as von have less
nionev after taxes have been assessed (levied) on
your income, there ire some losses in the brains
ability to function optimally due to the aging
process.
Page 1St): We are more likely to rust from disuse than
to wear out from ocerse. Use it or ioe it is sound

advice. When adults remain active physically, sexu


ally, and mentally (they use it), they are less likely
to become inactive later in life (/ose it ). if we follow
sedentary life-styles, xx e will be like unused pieces
of metal machinery that suffer from rust; on the
other hand, keeping actixe will not do us any harm
(zee wont wear cut fnii overzuse): instead, rye may
benefit both mentails and phvsicallx.
Page iS 3: According to this more optimistic view,
the myth that intelligene sharpix declines with age
P laud to r f, fhc alce idea ( i itch that our intellectu

al abilitics decrease as x r get older has been


destroyed or buried (lund to st) h reccnt longitudi
nal research. lhi research tests the same group of
people ox er rnanr years ,mnd max give more accu
rate reuIts than testing mawr eroups of people
(each group haring a difterent age angel at one
period in time (cross-sectional research . Hon cx er,
both rcsarch methods hare their own problems
bpitfalic).

Page 184.
hold thku ,e,z
Older adults compare
fax orabli xx tIc xounger aduit. them held Pue: oen
,

on tests that O5C tih


ia:r, kunxviedgc. abulits

tlx1ng ato

general x ocahu

Integrate

information.

banter 4 Developing I hrough the let e Span

anti good judgment. As Mr ers notes, crystallized


intelligence accumulated knowledge and x erhal
is ft r d to ii crease u ith age xi here as fluid
igc ice ab I tsr to re won r xpidlx and abstra t s
0Ft
t
to
c
) te rds to dec rcase durn
,

,hh0Od

ft,t
::

4
iaii

I I
iv
itl StIr

tnidtnhii k of tJc hoot,u


note- anthropologist Helen Fisher il 90.
0,?! 1
tii,I!?iF

it

i-fiei

r en orc person and ancther Sn h s


r age partner, md this atfihatior is char
7 [1 nctJa) of human beings.

ad Might to-hinting hto together in a trial


ainagc minimize divorce risk floes premarital
boat or or a trial marriage (tcst In zig IiJc
S ncreasc the probabiliti of a successful later
iage a id reduce the likelihood of divorcc (nniti
r
,h:i ri-Id The research suggests it does not
I host u ho tue together before marriage are more
bkeh to get divorced than those who dont. t These
ings rc correlational and cant be used to make
I
a I rfer nces)
hgt

Ifs. Some couples fight hut also shower one


,;nothe with attection. Other couples never raise
their t oices set also seldom praise one another or
\h or notes that some couples have maui
) n confhc s hot also treat each other with warmth

r I a c (s it or onc another with affection 1 u Me oth


u ho eldom argue toudl (iio or raise their vOr es)
1Iai tail to he openly complimentary (praise one
,:uthe,) 01 to tend erh embrace or cuddle up togeth
er (ocher Although both styles can work, the best
pr die tor of marital success is a raho of at least i to I
o sit v interactions (smiling touching compti
i
bog id laughing) to negative interachons (sar
asn,. critic-m, putdowns. and insults L

vter
bet me It
cxcmttr icr
aid got
range of tot iag c

-ft

it

nkelv wh
n he s,,
5

reters to the monogamous attachmen

tin te

i,tga h,i

in

enootna, reiht

a -a:

canoe

In

I? flcctzo:s
1-i

0,
So

:t-

,1,,.

01

0-21

,.

tOieI(i.tO

ous trte tIm


frorisec I
buttirflx
ing tl,rougt

Pt

ron

hoot

dexeiopruentai ft\tI:,-t nEi-throughout the Ide sim


to a slomm c ntinuon dpo
I ro
or dc me
gramn ed t
ff

mar dot elop

1
F

moot--. I
wm a
1
1og 194: \
into a 40-r ear-old huh it
2
0
off mean, to avoid m --L ,p
tIns
m
per in mmh bohr m
n
u Ii
Sor ie trai
p
-I
-I
hr
ble over r
a
z
it
)ti a
xx ith age

(4(niinn- 41

it

1,1

t
.

ii

in t

C.

Sensation

CHAPTER OVERVIEW
Sensation refers to the process by which we detect
phvs ical enerfv from the environment and encode it
as neural signals. This chapter describes the senses of
vi son, hearing, taste, touch, smell, kinesthesis, and
the vestibular sense. It also presents research findings
from studies of subiin ma! stimulation.
in this chapter there are many terms to learn and
several theories von must understand. Many of the
terms are related to the structure of the eve, ear, and
other sensory receptors Doing the chapter review
several hmes, labelhrg the diagrams, and rehearsing
the material frequently will help you to memorize
these structures and their functions. The theories
discussed include the signal detection, Young
Fielmholtz three-color and opponent-process theories
of color vision, and the frequency and place theories
of pitch. As von study these theories, concentrate on
understanding the strengths and weaknesses (if any)
of each.
NOTE: Answer guidelines for all Chapter 5 questions
beam on paze 145.

Introduction (pp.

197198)

David Myers at times uses idioms that are un


familiar to some readers. if von do not know
the meaning of the following expression in the
context in which it appears in the text, refer to
in a mirror s/u
page 154 for an explanation:
is again 5:tralj7ed
.

Objective 1: Contrast sensation and perception, and


explain the difference between bottom-up and topdown processing.
1. The process by which we detect physical energy
from the environment and encode it as neural
The process by
signals is
which sensahons are selected, organized. and
interpreted is
2. Sensory analysis, which starts at the entry level
and works up, is called
Perceptual analysis, which works from our expe
rience and expectations, is called

CHAPTER REVIEW
First, skim each sechon, nohng headings and boldface
i.tems. After you have read the sechon, review each
ohjectn e hr answtnng the till-in and essay-type
queshons that follow it. As you proceed, evaluate
your performance by consulting the answers begin
ning on page 145. Do not contmue with the next sec
tion until on u.nderstand each answer. if you need
to. review or reread the s:ection ho the textbook before
conunu.ing.

3. The perceptual disorder in which a person has


lost the ability to recognize familiar faces is

129

e Basic Principles
r

inyof the
s ns ir the
t xt Ti Icr
g Al
ft ft
I
c

x
i

it

Ii

1 1

n a hi te md differ
v ethc ms e e rn sensc
h Id and be influ

8. the principle t rat the 1ff re ice t ieskn d is ot a


constant amount but c r ii p p ti) is
known as
11 prp)t) dcpcnc
onthe
Objectixe 3: 1)eccrib cnst r ad
explain hors we benefit tic w b g
changing stimuli

t c n the physical
r I ur nsmchologieal

md
ot

9. After eonstmt exp ur tc ar unc ang rp 5 n iu


Ks the receptor cells of mr senses begin to firc
less m igorously this phc nome n m
riled
10. Ihis phenomenon illustrate that sc

ation

designed to focus m
changes in thc enm ironment
Lxplain why sensor adaptatior is b mcli al

tr

ati nnuessaryfora

he oncept that
r rot onk on the
ut a
on m person
r

at exposnrc to
t

their claims are

e m ur ens wy
inc
sltx the
1) 5 t cn 5s the
an arc ness
e ngc or

s r tc lb
rs
g
t

mnh of our

i distinguish
mc tir c s call A the

Vision (pp. 204 215)


If p on do not knon the meaning )f ar v of the
following words phrases, or wpressions in thc
context in which the appear in t re text refer
to pages 154455 for an explanation bli Isp I
Rods haoc 110 such In time ID
4 C ra bum sight
Coin like ill aspects of ci mu
ft ft a
of
our brains.

Objective 4: Define i
i
I pc
of energy oni v snal ycterr mi e t n
messages our brain ca i te F

if

mc fc
m u

1, Stimulus enerx is on c rted t


mess gesti mugitbe
process of sensory
2. I he m isible spectrum of ugh s a small o rtion mf
the larger spec truni of
radiation.
3, the distan efroii nil I
s called

pc k
a

Vision

detc rn ines the waves color, or


4. 1 he amount ot energy in light waves, or
determined by a waves
or height, influences the
ot a light.
Objectii e 5: Describe the major structures of the eye,
and xpai how they guide an incoming ray of light
toward the eyes receptor cells.

131

cells. The axons


network of
of ganglion cells converge to form the

11. Where this nerx e leax cc the eye, there are no


receptors; thus thc area is called the

5. light enters the eye through the


,then passes through a
small opening called the
the size of this opening is controlled by the
.olored

12. Most cones are clustered around the retinas


point of central focus called the
xx hereas the rods are con
centrated in more
regions of the retina. Many cones hax e their own
cells to communicate with
the cisual cortex.

6. By changing its curvature, the


can focus the image of an
the lightobject onto the
sensitive inner surface of the eye.

(rods/cones) of the
13. It is the
permit
the
perception
of color, whereas
that
eve
(rods cones) enable black
and white x ision.

7. Ihe process b which the lens changes shape to


focus images is called
C laritv, or sharpness, of vision is called

14. Lnlike cones, in dim light the rods are


(sensitive / insensitive).
Adapting to a darkened room will take the retina
minutes.
approximately

8. In nearsightedness, light rays from


(nearby/distant) objects
(in front of/in
corn erge
retina,
rather
than
on
it, and
hack of) the
(nearby/distant) objects
are seen more clearly than
(nearby/distant) objects. In
farsightedness, light rays from
(nearby/distant) objects converge
in tront of in back of) the retina, and
(nearbx /dictant) objetc are
en r c rc clearli than
car
dictant) objects.
Objective 6: ( ontrast the two types of receptor cells
n t e r tina, and describe the retina s reaction to
light.
9. 1 he retinas receptor cells are the
and
10. I he neural signals produced in the rods and
o es actix ate tin neighboring
cells, xx hich then actix ate a

Objective 7: Discuss the different levels of processing


that occur as information travels from the retina to
the brains cortex.

15. Visual information percolates through progres


six ely more
levels. In the
brain, it is routed by the
to
higher-level brain areas. Hubel and Wiesel dis
covered that certain neurons in the
of the brain respond only to
cpecific faturec of xx hat ic viewed. They called
thece neurons
16. Feature detectors pass their information to
higher lex @1 brain cells in the brain, including an
cortex, which
area in the
responds to specific x isual scenes. Research has
shown that in monkey brains such cells specialize
in responding to a specific

identified nerve cells that


t dcprndingonhowa
a given image.

ii
i

ii

I
cesszti and discuss its
processing

ts rcmarkahle speed in visual


si g ser eral subdivisions of
(simultaneous
v s p o edure called
may
ro havc suffered a stroke
aspec t of v ision, Other brain
Ic na demonstrate
by responding to a stimulus
r i
lr peiceixed
i

&

c
p

theory. \ccording to this theory, aft r visual


information leaves the receptors it s analyzed n
terms of pairs of opposing colors.
yr rsus
and also
Summariz the tvso stages of color processing

r u d parts of the brain has e


r
stimuli, FFC recordings reveal
ur ii
, lasting
f i second and creating
iv as c s Other senses process
r

a ter) speed and intricacy.

I r w the YoungJlelmholtz and


s thc ries help us understand color
r

cr

to be rcd in color because it


tI c long wax elengths of red

pc opk is color deficient, this


ausc he defect is genetically

Objective 10: l-xplain the importance of color cow


stancy.
24. The experience of color depends on the
in which an object is seen
25. In an unvarying context, a familiar object will be
perceived as has ing consistent color, er en as the
light changes This phenomenon is called
26. We see color as a result of our brains computa
tions of the light

by any

object relative to its

pcs of color
st stror gh to
& t

r d om to
li g IighiL as Young
vine paints sshichis

Hearing (p

224

If you do not knon h


5 mean n if any of the
folloivin vyords phrass or expressions ir the
c onft xt in ix hish they app& a in thc text mdc i
to pane 155 for an exp1anation s z ii m I f m I
sounds an ob ions be m 4; iccolo p du s much
hortcr,Jiistu son id vu cs tian d s a tubi a
1ids f a v t t z chat honks cc I von ira I
uI;ii sa
Ha c
c
; ittzisiri
.

Hearing

Objectir e 11 Desribc tht pressurc xx ares we experienc e as cund


1, 1 hc st iulns for hc aring, or
is s und was es, created by
the omy icssioi ar d expansion ot
2. Ihe an f htuec of
eu

sound ware dctermines the

3, 1 h p tch of a sound is derived from the


ofitswaxe
4. Sound cncrgx is measured in units called
The absolute threshold for
hearing is arbitrarily defincd as
such units

133

9. (Close-Up) On tasks requiring alert performance,


people in noisy ens ironments work
(more / less) efficiently.
People xx ho live in nois environments suffer dc
-related disor
sated ratcs of
ders such as
and
\oise is especially stressful when

it

is

Oi

Objective 13: (ontrast place and lrequencs theories,


and explain hon they help us to understand pitch
perception.
10, One theory of pitch perception proposes that dif

Objective 12: Describe the three regions of the ear,


and outline the series of cx ents that triggers the dec
trical impulses sent to the brain
5

1 hc eai is dir ided into threc main parts: the


ear, tlic
car, and the
ear
lhc outer ear channels sound naves ton ard the
a tight membrane that then
r ibrates.

7. The middle car transmits the r ibrations through a


iston riaue or rhree small bones ihe
,and
8. In the inner ear a coiled tube called the
contains the receptor cells
fc r hc a r g II c n nning vibrations cause the
to
b
h f u d hat ill tiw tubc which causes
PT 5 n 0
f c shred wth
I his
r cxc ert rigg rs ripu ses in adjacent nerre
fibc rs t
t rc tc form thc auditon nerve,
xx h ch c irries t it neural messagcs (via the
) to the
lobc s udit rr c rtex. Ihc brain interprets loud
os
r h
c f I air c us a
fl
I
a

ons

ferent pitches activate different places on the


cochleas basilar membrane; this is the
theory This theory has diP
ficulty accounting for how we hear
-pitched sonnds, which do
not has e such localized ettects.
11. A second theory proposes that neural impulses,
sent to the brain at the same trequencv as the
sound war e allow the perception of different
theory.
nitches. This is the
This theors tails to acconnt for the perception of
-pitched sounds, because
individual neurons cannot fire faster than
times per second,
12. 1 or the higher pitches, cells ma alternate their
tiring to match the sound s frequency according
principle.
to the
Objectise 14: Desrib how xc

pnpoin

ceands

13. 1\e lix atc a sound by sensng difterenc s in the


and
xx ith xx hnh it reaches iur ears
14. \sound that comes from directly ahead will be
(easier harder) to locate
than a sound that comes from off to one side
15. As xx ith x isual informahon, thc brain uses
as
spec ialrzc d nc urah teams work on different audi
tc n tasks sin u tar cc u ly

(hapttr 5 Sensation

131

) j t ye 15: (ontrast the tn o tpes of hearing loss,

Other mport

(scribe some of their causes.


it r
do rot
folioxx ing xx

ax

ou

6 Prohlenw in the mechanical conduction of sound


us through the outer
middle ear may cause

aui

Sc

0.-j,

,iUx

or

coanttxt

nu

topagcs i

3
l. I )anagu to the cochlea hair cell receptoN or
thuir associated auditory nun es can canu

hearing loss. It may he

(Ui/Ic

caued hr diseae, hut more often it results


the biological changes linked with
and prolonged exposure
ar-sphtting noise or music.

3),

n:o

03,

trom

to

1, tI3

cc

IS. sientists han e discovered xx ays to


hair cell

regeneration.

Objective 17. [3 c
Objective 16: Describe how cochlear implants func
nd explain xx hv Deaf culture adx
t
object
tit uscdcxices,
ocates

1. Ihese

4t

It

ta-j

sensc

19

Sn

electronic device that restores hearing among


deafened people is a

ri

t chl

\dx ocates of
object to thc use of these
npla its on
before the)
h xc learned to
thebasi
r their argument is that deafness is not a
*

--

2. lhc
intluc c
selhpre

Sign language
(isiis notj a
complete language.
with, xx ithoutl its own grammar. xx ntax, and
semantics. Those who learn only sign language
OuIna
not

-i
La;Lun000

Inane

Objective IS: tte

.-

do

not

eem

conanLtmcnt

op)e

xx

bannel

in

ho bee

ot

seem

xxith sngt
their other sensory abdities.

to)

compensate

ome

;-

10

tUt ;U

5 to tnig

4. P.dn

3. Peoplubsi; n-t.. (;
be unan ale of 0 co;

of sensation

one

the hiopsvchooDi an

hearing;

22. 15

00

some( r c

hax dtficultx later learning to read and


People xvhc lose
channel

n rIte.

ti D t )iot
a Ii ao r ii

tire

than
21

to

..

30

-o
4

0
ne

deaf. or xx ho bc another

semation,

otten

5. .\

e\perience

s0,,,(j/

of

cr;ed to
1
;e

in

ithei ahiliti
ctp)

yn

Deaf children raised in a h usc


language is used cxprcss f gi c
and f 1 mr rc

ild

I,

rho

-s

Other Important Senses


6. Painproducirg brain artis its may he triggered

135

12. Taste receptors reproduce themselves every


As

wtth or u ithout
we age. the number of taste buds
(is is not)
7. Ehe pa:n vsrem
energy.
one
of
physical
txpe
triggered hr
specilic
It e hod
(does does not)
arc spcci ilizcd ret opt w elk for pain.

8. Mtlzark rd Wa barr pu posed a theory of pain


called the
(boors, is hich proposes that
in
then 1- a neuroo41cai

(increases / decreases remains


nr
taste sensi (iv its
unchan gedj and o
(increases / decreases remains
I
aste
is also affected b
unchanged).
and by
use.

that blocks pain signals or lets them through. It


mar ho openc d by a (is ation of
(small large) nen e tibers
and s losed br ac ivation of

small, large) tibers or

th

information from

the

9. Individual clirterences in perceiving pain are an


influences on
examp!t ot
pain. Such influences demonstrate that pain is not
phenomenon. as
merely a
nioposed centuries ago bx
Rather, pair is created br thc
I ist some pa n contro) techniques used in the I amaze
metho I of prepared childbirth and in other health

13. When (he sense of smell is blocked, as when is e


have a cold, foods do not taste the same; this
illustrates the principle of
The
a
effect occnrs sshen we
speaker saving one syllable while
another.
Objective 20: Describe the sense of smell, and explain
why specific odors so easily trigger memories.
14. Like taste, smell, or

is a

sense. Unlike light, an odor


(can/cannot) be separated
into more elemental odors.
15. 1 he abihh to identify scents peaks in
and
declines thereafter.

carc situations.

16. The attractiveness of smells depends on


associations.
-

17. Odors are able to evoke memories and feelings


because there is a direct link between the brain
area that gets information from the nose and the
centers associated
ancient
is ith memory and emotion.
Ob active 19: cs nbc the 5 ns of taste, and explain
1
thc r incipin ot c non tnterac Lion.

Objective 21: Distinguish betu ecu kinesthcsi and


the x estihular sense.

10, 1 b.c ha.ic taste:

18. The svtem for sensing the position and nior e


ment of body parts is called
The receptors tor this onse
ace located in the
,and
of the both.

sensotlont

am

anti

11, Ia tc,wh
in ed y
,p

,n .1 sidc

a meats taste called

sense, is

e2 ( orn rc
)f

itt

onthe
Lath contai a
that arhec tood chcmic ais.

tonoie

19. 1 he sense that monitors the position and mor e


is (no
mont of the head (and thus (ho hods

Sensaiio

pf a tor this seas at

ocated in the
and
of the

if

7. The receptor 0
f the eve that func tions hest in dun
light is the:
a. foxea,
c. bipolar tell,
h. cone
d. rod,

PROGRESS TEST i
tIr

I.

1ff; Ic

(Force Orecstiorrs

ansu er 0 the foilowmg questions and


1 unsiters beenning on page 14o.
wan: :ta :h
c: ai wt, read the espianation for
rrnct,nd tiara ionsult the appropriate
nw 0
w-r or 0
at ,in gaiei,rht-ses to]lot ug the correct
trele r

hicn r I thc following is true

a.

i lie ,hse]ute threshold for any stimulus is a


constant
H e absolute thu shold 0 any stimulus raries
uti hat.
bsohtc thrc shold i dc fined as the mini
nount of
ml iticn necessara for a
ted ) perc cut of the time.
to he d
I h tl
ii d is ch hard as the mnb
i
t
t n u ah in necessary for a
he or ct 0 60 percent ot the time.
ness

15

a he me na
-

nd tron in s hich the


i Ic

Li o thin.

ii aiuiil ncignt

era :cighr
nc c,
is o h wi foi prediction.

d 4 i
4.

retnsivenes

4 wlna,,ios
c t:aen

is

9. Frequency is to pitch a
a.
b.
c.
d.

called:

wax elength, loudness


amplitude; loudness
ax ax elength mtensitx
amplitude rntcnsitx

10. Our experience of pain ax hen as c are injured

depends on
a. our biological make up and tIe ype of injura
we have sustained
b. how well medical personnel deal n ith o ax
our phs siology, experiences and attention,
and oui surrounding cuiture
b. what our cultural allows us to express in

terms of feelings of pain.


11. The place theora ot pitch perception cannot ae
count for hoct we hear
a. low-pitched sounds.
b. middle-pitched sound
C, high-pitched sound.
d. chords three or more pitchcs snatrltaneoas

aceompa
12. The hearing losses that occur :ntn age are
eially pronounced for:
a. low-pitched sounds
b. middle-pitched ounn,
C. high-pitched sc unds,
d. chords.

en h
4 Icc
.
1
aa t,,iiin,
r-\ intcr tuin

e ot tOt pupjl is contri I ed


C

ira

is to

C.

Il or ran pist notice the difference bohr ceo 10nd 1 i mann neghts
hich ot the following
ni H con cli Itcrentiate from a 100-porind
faa.
a.

8. The Young-Helmholt7 theora proposes that


a, there are three different Li pc- of color
sensitia e cones.
b. retinal cells are excited ha one color and inhib
ited hr its compiementars color.
C. there are four dtfferent tipes ot cones.
d. rod, not cone, a isbn accounts foi our ahiitr
to detect fine a isual detail,

injurt.

gc taIls hehind the tma


rage f Ils n front of thc n tin i
3

6. The process by xl ich thc lens changes its cnn ature is:
a. accommodation
c, teature detection.
b. sensory adaptation
d, transdu ticira.

a the:

pu

Progress Test 1
13. \ccording to the gate-control theory, a way to
allex iate chronic pain would be to stimulate the
nerve fibers that
the
a. small; open
b. small close

c.
ci.

large; open
large; close

14. Ihe transduction of light energy into nerve im


pulses takes place in the:
c. lens.
ci. optic nerve.
15. 1 he brain breaks ision into separate dimensions
such as color, depth, movement, and form, and
works on each aspect simultaneoush, this is
Lalled.
a. feature detection.
b. pardilel proiessing.
c. accommodation.
d. opponent processing.
16. Kinesthesis involves:
a. the bones of the middle ear.
b. information from the muscles, tendons, and
joints.
c membranes within the cochlea.
d. the both s sense of balance.

17. One light may appear reddish and another green


ish if they differ in:
a. was elength.
c. opponent processes.
b. amplitude.
d. brightness.
18. Which of the follon ing explains u hy a rose ap
pears equally red in bright and dim light?
a. the Young-Helmholtz theor
b. the opponent process theory
c. featuru detection
ci, color constancy
19. Which ot the following is an example of sensory
adaptation?
a. finding the cold water of a swimming pool
warmer after you ha e been in it for a while
b. de eloping an increased sensitivity to salt the
more you use it in foods
c. becoming very irritated at the continuing
sound of a dripping faucet
ci. All of the above are examples.
20. Most color-deficient people is ill probably:
a. lack functioning red- or green-sensitive cones.
b. see the world in only black and white.
c. also suffer from poor vision.
ci, have above-average vision to compensate for
the deficit.

Matching Items

Match each of the structures n ith its function or


description.
Structures or Conditions

1.
2.
3,
4,
5,
6.
7,
8.
9,
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

iris

pupil
rods
cones
middle ear
inner car
large ners e fiber
small nerve fiber
scmi ircular canals
sensors in joints
acuity
farsightedness
neorsightedness

137

Functions or Descriptions

a.
b.
c,
ci.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.

j.
k.
1.
in,
n.

amplifies sounds
closes pain gate
vestibular sense
controls pupil
accommodation
eyeball is too short
opens pam gate
admits light
eyeball is too long
vision in dim light
transduction of sound
sharpness of vision
kinesthesis
color vision

aion

TTi

P0

I in mpleted during a final


r ci I follow ing questions after
stand the Lorrec t answ ers for
I Progrws lest I.
)

10. Hubel md Wiescl discos ered fc ature detettors in

1 115

iii

c.
d.

110

one of the basic

umami
bland

t k n senses, the only one that


rs
c. pressure.
d. pain.

hid sensory information is con


ur I cnergy is,
dmpaios c. signal detection.
I
d. transduction.
n
is fo task we located in the:
d
c. foiea.
d. cortex.

ains receptors for:


I k it sthesis.
a d the s estibular sense.
in the vestibular sense.
i re thc i , and the vestibular sense.
pponc nt-process theory:
I rc t pc of color-sensitive cones.
f o or sision begins in the cortex.
cd ni color rision are stimulat
s s as elength and inhibited by

cdby
ft ear.

un
Id c r because of

xhlc
t feel oursell
r scsclcsed?
S

9. 1 he trequency theory of hearing is better than


place thec ry at explaining our sensahon of:
a. the low esi pitches.
b. pitchcs of intermediate range.
c. thc highest pitches
d. ill of thc abos e

is

iggling your

the usual
a. insca
b. optic nerve.

C.

d.

iris
cortcx

it, Webers law states that:


a. the absolute threshold foi any stimulus is a
constant.
b. thc jnd for any stimulus is a constant,
c. the mbsolute threshold for any stimulus is a
constant proportion
d. the ;nd for any stimulus is a constant propor
tion
ii I he principle that one sense may influence an
other is:
a. transduction
c. Weber s law.
b. sensory adaptation. d. sensory interaction.
13. Which of the following is the correct order of the
structures through which light passes aher enter
ing the eyc
2
a. lens, pupil, cornea, retina
b. pupil, cornea, lens, retina
c. pupil, lens, cornea, retina
d. cornca, pupil, lens, retina
14. In the opponent-process theory the three pairs of
processes are:
a. red-green, blue-s chow black white,
b. redblue, green yellow, black white
c. red-yellow blue green, black is hite
d. dependent upon the indn idual
cxperic ncr
iS. Wasccn thisto
bright ess
a. hut intensity
b. intc msitsr hut
c. frcquencv amphtudc
d. hrighne; 1
ue

as

-,

to

Psychology Applied
16. Concermng the evidence for subliminal stimula
tion, which of the tollowiug is the best answer?
a. I he brain processes some intormation without
our awareness.
b. Stimuli too weak to cross our thresholds for
aix areness mat trigger a response in our seuse
receptors.
c. Because the absolute threshold is a statisti
cJ ax erage. we are able to detect weaker stim
uli sonic or the time.
d. Fl o ti e above are true
17, t
Whic (t tue tollowiug is the most accurate de
scription 0 how we process color?
a. I hroubhout the x isual sy stem, color process
iug is dh ided into separate red, green, aud
bluc vstems.
b. Red green, blue-yellow, and black-white op
ponent processes operate throughout the visu
al srstern.
c. Color processing occurs in two stages: f I) a
three-color si stem in the retina and (2) oppo
nent-process cells en route to the visual cortex.
d. Color processing occurs in two stages: fl) an
opponent-process vstem in the retina and (2)
a truce-color s stem en route to the visual
cortex.
18, IA hich of the tolloxi ing is the most accurate
explanation of how we discriminate pitch?
a. I or all audible frequencies, pitch is coded
according to the place of maximum vibration
on the cochleas basilar membrane.
b. For all audible frequencies, the rate of neural
actn itv in the auditory nerve matches the fre
quency of the sound wax e.
c. For x cry high frequencies. pitch i coded ac
cording to place of vibration on the basilar
membrane; for lower pitches, the rate of neur
al autix tv in the auditory nerve matches the
ound 5 trequencx
d. It r xciv high frequcncies the rate ot neural
t i i i the auditory acrve matches the fre
u c of ie bound w arc tor loiver frequen
c c p t w coded acc irding in the place of
t or n thc baslar ncmbrane.
19. On r a I i tf at rour ability to detect fine x isual
dcta s s greatest xx hen scenes are tocused on the
fox ea c f sour retina is that:
a. there are niore feature detectors in the fovea
than in the peripheral regions of the retina.
b. con. in the fox a are nearer to the optic nerve
than thow tn peripheral regions of the retina.

139

c. many rods, which are clustered in the tovea,


have individual bipolar cells to relay their
information to the cortex.
d. mans cones, which are clustered in the fovea,
have individual bipolar cells to relay their in
formation to the cortex.
20. Given normal sensory ability, a person standing
atop a mountam on a dark, clear night can see a
candle flame atop a mountain 30 miles axvav. this
is a description ot visions:
absolute threshold.
a. difterence threshold. c.
b. jnd.
d. signal detection.

PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED
Answer these questions the day before an exam as a
final check on your understanding of the chapters
terms and concepts.
Multiple-Choice Questions
1. In shopping for a new stereo, you discover that

you cannot difterentiate between the sounds of


models X and Y. The difference hetxveen X and Y
is below your:
c. receptor threshold.
a. absolute threshold.
b. signal detection.
d. difference threshold.
2. In order to maximi/e your sensitivity to fine visu
al detail you should:
a. stare off to one side of the object you are
attempting to see.
b. close one eye.
c. decrease the intensity of the light falling upon
the object.
d. stare directh at the object.
3. The phantom limb sensation indicates that:
a. pa in is a purely senorv phenomenon.
b. the central nervous system plas s only a minor
role in the experience of pain
c. pain invoh es the brain c interpretation of
neural act x itv
d, all ot the abox e are true.

140

Chapter 5 Sensation

4. 55 bile competing in the Olympic trials, marathon


er kirsten OBrien sutfered a stress fracture in her
Icit icc Ihat she did not experience significant
gab
ft I the race was over is probabl attribut

tc the fact that during the race.


c am gatc in her spinal cord rxas closed by
I r nation coming from her brain
h. ht boda s prod uction of endorphins de
reaed
5
c an increase in the actix itx of small pain fibers
closed the pain gate.

10, Dr. lnrnkcosteba ca


ster n tiupotafl a
5
cann )t traiwciu
und.
tcd I

ah
a.

d
I

br
11.

a
eo

no,

0,

*Oei.

is

hr
cc t hat-arc
5
hagh.gh-ni5.hoct-ris\c.

-H.

prohcn iO\ ri so.

a. his cadrt, a.
h. Oft areato C titO
00so or do teHa a
c. the 0
ci.
in ths
nit.

d. a decease in the adivitv ot large pain tihers


closed the pain gate.

Xh ci of the following is an
intc

example of sensrx

12. PrI

ict on

a. finding that despite its delicious aroma a


en I looking meal tastes an tul
b. tindi rg that food tastes bland when ron have
a bad cold
finding it difficult to maintain your balance
c.
n hen you have an ear infection
d. All of the above are examples.
6

In

comparing

waii

the human eve to a

d he located in the

pupil
b. lci S

a.

7. xensation

is to

a. recognizing

camera,

cornea.

d.

retina

an

ci

ii.

c. Cones bare
cain
brightness than ;m
1
d. All ot the ho; tie ix

do,

-at

othc r inmals
expect Ia thc

the him

at cc

at

13. Assunnng that flu


inn

vi

am

or i

a ris I con
b.
ostlv rods

interpreting

an ectual nunhc c nis


d. more bipoler cc-- finn
during thu oar
c.

stimulus
h. detectcng a stimulus; recognizing a stinnilus
c. inte prehng a stimulus; detecting a stimulus
d. seeing, hearing

nit

are 1

ie ion of tin ic

as perception is to

stimulus:

b. C nc

crcs:

c.

)ft
(

14. As the hx;tbafl g


I e\ ir noti
eci iii
5
tinguisi ig th
Ibsis e usc

a a dl in thc thalamus that is exulted hr red


and nI ibited by green I am a(n)
a. feat rc detector,
c. bipolar cell,
h. cone
d. opponent-process cell.

9. 55 hich to the lollowing correr tlx hsts the order of


srrcicnirt through n hich .ound tra els after en
5. og to- ear.
a. an
canal, cardrum, middic c r cochlea
ix auditors canal, middk ar ochle i
h.
e rd un niddle ear cochlea auditory canal
d.
J ca eardrum, middle ear and tory cana

tsar

- a

-a

I:

tat;

I-

ii

1 e
c.

-cvi tigat
t

a.-

b.

ac
yr

-cy
1

y
hi oi

it

-:

it

--

ride

t nc

Cair

ninotso,

raIl ml

d.

ix

ft

thu
highc

After rtc,rtn:

c.

e
c

v
1;

a. r
b.

15,

ti c

Psychology Applied
16

17.

y Mrs. Martuici finds that she must spice


I) d so x y or she cannot taste it, Unfor
r or so i ottn tinds her cooking inedible
I u atc
isc i is so spicy. What is the likelt explana
bc
icir t ste cnfferenccs
5
rc
i c h gher tastc thresholds than
a.
n
c big icr taste thresholds than isob Vet
icr
B ir g ctdcrh, Mrs. Martin / probably has
xx r tastc buds than hi r son
d U of t c abc so are likely explanations.
Id

c id mn g tt e tcxturc ol a piece of fabric,


i usu tl
uns his fingc rtips ox or the cloths
(
surfact Hc d es this bc cause
a. if thc clott wene hold motionless sensors
adaptati( r to its feel would quickly occur.
b the cnsc of touch does not adapt.
c a relatively small amount of brain tissue is
dcx otcd to processing touch from the finger
lip
d. f all thc abox e reasons.

while his
18 Supcrman s c i Os used
hn
aed
a. perception sensation
B. lop down processing; bottom-up processing
c. bottom up processing; top-down processing
d. sensors adaptation, subliminal perception
,

19 1 low does pain diffcr lroin other senses?


a. I has no special receptors
b. t has no slngic stimulus.
c. It is i xfluen cd by both ph sical and psychoI gical phenomcna.
d \il thc abox e xrc mc
20. Tar iko Fa ts 1W bitter taste ol her cough syrup.
V id of IF c F owing would she hnd most help
r ii o tic vrup bad tastc
r
In s

or

reel before taking

it up
rxoolh for sexeial
ir
xx s Ic. takuig dxc cough

s rup m I

b
ids

I ress
c r r os

go pu g

con, x syrup so that it misses her

141

Essay Question
dancer in a chorus line uses many sensory cues
when performing. Discuss three senses that dancers

rely on and explain wht each is important. (Use the


space below to list the points

on xx ant to make, and

organi/e them. I hen xx rite the essay on a separate


sheet of paperS)

ii n

he Lye

arn to dentit th p rts 01 thc eo dod


IoLm
10 tht ordur n r
r thex on
op
d j11i0 Iu hriti r \P 110 the

Key Terms
22. nearsightedness
23. farsightedness

Writing Definitions
Using your own words, on a piece of paper write a
brief definition or e-cpianation of each of the follow
ing term:-.
1. sensation
perception

3, bottom-up processing
4. top-down processing

psychophysics
6. absolute threshold
1.

signal detection theory

8. subliminal
9. priming
10. difference threshold
11. Webers law
12. sensory adaptation
13. transduction
14. wavelength and hue
15. intensity
16. pupil

17. iris
18. lens

19. accommodation
20. retina
21. acuity

24. rods and cones


2. optic nerve
26. blind spot
27. fovea
28. feature detectors
29. parallel processing

30. Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color)


theory
31. opponent-process theor

32. color constancy


33. audition
34. pitch and frequency
35. middle ear
36. cochlea
37. inner ear
38. place theory
39. frequency theory
40. conduction hearing loss
41. sensorineural hearing loss

42. cochlear implant


43. gate-control theory
44. sensory interaction
45, kinesthesis
46. vestihular sense

143

Jut

Sensat

II IL_J i

Ii

n the Prologue
md \erieat nmg ot
lie ipitant to the

oc rood
i

on

t 0

non

,s

\fter\ou

ettnmt1i ot

Ot

in this chapter
1piete the cross
to ensure that x on

an cm

pIOers

/c the
0 rOL 0

o
2

1
to

tinn. gim en the

point or

central

that close

a. tmbcr

p in
a e that rrrIe
mation to the brain,
I ot light and sound
ed ls the ampli
elgr esaics.
isurome rt for

21

H
31

i H

21

Ic cs bright ness and loudness, respectively.


1 p cit o atnes that results from damage in the
a eO.
ot tIme outer or middle ear.

22

\P

0 -eiUt

indow at the entrance to the ears

2.
30. Nom

pen 0mg

12r

29

the color seen after staring at its oppo


r tile.
1 dimension of light and sound that deter
c

2s.

6.

8.
9.

10,

n the eve through which


11.

rent p .tucth e membrane through which

ore.
0 ie m.

31.

that contains the rods and

18.
20.
23.
24.

,n i g th U the rate ot auditory nert e


the fretiuener of tones,

a itches

m 01 n
01 t r

to sene pitch,
151011 aused bi a shorter-than-normal

110

ii di

231

xpenence

that lie at the

im ne

Li
26

i cUe energr
C

25.
26.

f31
-down processing

is information processing

guided b higher-let el mental processes.


Sense of the position and movement of body
parts.
Ability of some brain-damaged patients to
respond to something that is not consciously per
ceived.
Studs of the relationship between the physical
characteristics of stimuli and our psychological
experience of them.
Perception of coior is stroilgir jntluenced hr the
oh Cc t S
Region ot the retina where the optk. nerve lear e
the eve.
Part of the cx e that changes shape to focus images
on the retina.
Sharpness ot x wmon.
Region of the ear that contains the hammer, ant ii.
and stirrup.
Region of the ear that contains the cochlea.
1 henry that the region of maximum s ibration
along the basilar mc mbrane is the basis of pitch
dtscrim nat or

27. Vi
uai rcpt n tha are
5
S

y Hubel and

r trated in the

Answers

ANSWERS

145

18. integration; gamma; similar


19. reflects (rejects); construction

Chapter Review

20. sex-linked

Introduction

21. Young-Helmholtz trichromatic; red; green; blue;


additive; subtractive

1. sensation; perception
2. bottom-np processing; top-down processing

22. opponent; afterimage

3. prosopagnosia

23. opponent-process; red; green; yellow; blue; black;


white

Sensing the World: Some Basic Principles


1. psychophysics
2. absolute threshoid; 50
3. signal detection; psychological
4. subliminal
5. conscions
6. prime; priming effect; automatically
7. difference threshold; jnst noticeable difference
8. Webers law; stimnlus
9. sensory adaptation
10. informahve
Althongh sensory adaptahon rednces onr sensihvity,
it enables ns to focns onr attention on informative
changes in the environment without being distracted
by the nninformative, constant stimniation that bom
bards onr senses.
Vision

In the first stage of color processing, the rehnas red,


green, and blue cones respond in varying degrees to
different color stimuli, as suggested by the three-color
theory. The resulting signals are then processed in the
thalamus by red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white
opponent-process cells, which are stimulated by one
wavelength and inhibited by its opponent.
24. context
25. color constancy
26. reflected; surrounding objects
Hearing
1. audifion; air molecules

2. loudness
3. frequency

4. decibels; 0
5. outer; middle; inner
6. eardrum
7. hammer; anvil; stirrup

1. neural; transdnction
2. electromagnetic
3. wavelength; hne
4. intensity; amplitude; brightness

8. cochlea; oval window; basilar membrane; hair


cells; thalamus; temportl; number
9. less; stress; high blood pressure; anxiety; feelings

of helplessness; unanticipated; uncontrollable

5. cornea; pupil; iris

10. place; low

6. lens; retina
7. accommodahon; acuity
8. distant; in front of; nearby; distant; nearby; in
back of; distant; nearby

11. frequency; high; 1000

9. rods; cones

12. volley
13. speed (fiming); loudness
14. harder
15. parallel processing

10. bipolar; ganghon; optic nerve; brain


11, blind spot

17. sensorineural; aging

12. fovea; peripheral; bipolar

18. stimulate

13. cones; rods

19. cochlear implant

16. conduchon hearing loss

14. sensihve; 20

20. Deaf culture; children; speak; disability

15. abstract; thala:mus; visual cortex; feature detectors


16. temporal; gaze; head angle; posture; body move
ment; perceives

21. is; with; have; seem to

17. simultaneously; parallel processing; blindsight

22. sensory compensation


23. self-esteem; accepted

Chapter 5 Sensation

14t

r 1;npoitant Senses

x
of

s nrc n armth; cold; pain; rariation,


don n somatosensory cortex
h p ralgesia
braiw expectations

tc
Fri

it

docs not
)nti( I gate, spinal cord, small, large

I micah taste buds pore

I
P

ck or tsr o
hol

decreases

decreases, smoking,

ensorv interaction; McGurk; see hearing


14 o taction, chemical; cannot
V cans adulthood
t3

If Icarned
17

nbi

18 knmcsthesis, muscles; tendons; joints


19 rest bular sense; semicircular canals, sestibular
sa(s

Progress Test

Wi tmp1c( hoPe Questions


i

be
th c

9 s cud physical; Rene Descartes brain


I I aria c method of prepared childbirth combines
scvc ral am control techniques, including distraction
I p 1 rcathnig and muscle relaxation and countcn
t mulation through gentle masage Similarly, for
mr r ictims distraction during paintul is ound care
m oe trc ated b immersion in a compntengenerated
I) is orld
10 swect sour; salty; bitter umami (meat)
IL

g it I

3 c 5
dill

rar c n limb tunitus


is r input

6
8

h n ret Pc chologica Lcto. can J


ect
1
mbs ute thrtshold for a stimulus (PF
)
I
a
c I Sc lutc threshold for detcct i g a tin ulus
r Is c t only on thc strength of the st it Pu
on ps chologic al factors u as c xperm
c cx cctatmons, motn ahon, and tatiguc thus
c tf reshold cannot be a constant.
c & d. I hc absolute threshold is dehned as the
i i num shmnlus that is detected 50 percent of
tetne

4 c. i t
a
cr
r r
b
in h F
d Scn
sensc
5. d. i t c
a lhc
on heic
b I hc r
a I co
c T ie or m
first t
cr ters
c
6. a,isth
b her r
rtt a
c
c. I cat r
ir
a cc
tur
d. lr
nsmrc r
me r
7. d. tb
a. tIe

tF c ansis c r In nearsightedness c b etts con


an
r f ntoftlc retma,onecaosc fth
m r t man normal u rd Ii r t tic r
it

1.
I
t

c
F
8. a.
pr
sc m
b In
fr e
c

Answers
ci, I hc YoungJ Ielmholtz thcorv concerns only
isbn not the detection of visual detail,
col
9. B. is ti c inswer Just as n a e frequenc} deter
n ines itch so nae ampLitude determines loud
21()
plitude is tne phvs cal basis ot loudness;
gth detcrmines frcquenc and thereby
c. & d. \aeclen ,th amplitude and intensity are
p1 isical isoects of light and sound Because the
quwt r is bast d on a relationship between a
phn sic propc t (trequenc) of a stimulus and
olog ca att ibute (pitch these answers
10. c
the i rsn ci lhc biopsychosocial approach
tells us that our experiencc ot pain depends on
biol igical ps cF ological and social-c ultural fac
tors ( 2ac)
11. a. is the ansner (p 219)
B. & c Although th. locahiation of Ion pitched
sOU ids along the basilar membrane is poor that
for sounds ol middle and especially, high pitch is
good. I herd ore place theor accounts nveH for
hil. h pitched sou ids and, together with fre
quer cn tI corn, can account for middle-pitched
sounds
ci. As long ac the notes of a chord are within the
range of rcsponsiveness of the basilar membrane,
c rord per cption can be accounted for by place
theory
12. c. is the ansin er p 220)
ci, (hord perception exLept for chords comprised
exclusivel of high-frequency notes shows no
agc dependc nt decline
13 ci. is the annner. the small fibers conduct most
rain signals the largc fibers conduct most other
sens ry sig ials from the skin The gate either
1k is s pa r signals to pass on to the brain or
I ks tnc n fro r pa s ng When the large fibers
te
deDed and other
t r ar c t
acc ctyain (p 227
a
in

d. I ic
r4

s a

tic
tc

tr c di mc tcr )f thc pupil.


o in oct its its shapc

to focus

arric s m rvc impulses trom


c ri
tI c s sual cortex.

15. b sthc nsucr (p 21(1


a I c aturc detcc tin n is the pr cess bn in hich ners e
c I

r t ic

n r spond tc spe.itic x isual fea

st u u suct as r use nent or shape.


oda io
(I p css by which the
c t
t r
oc is in ges on the

147

ci. The opponent-process theory suggests that


color vision depends on the response of brain
cells to red-green, y ellow-blue, and black-sn hire
opposing colors.
16. B. is the answer. Kinesthesis, or the sense of the

position and mon ement of body parts is based on


information from the muscles tendons and
joints (p. 233)
a. & c. I he ear plan s no role in kinesthesis.
ci, I quilibrium, or the sense of balance is not in
vols ed in kinesthesis but is rather, a companion
sense.
17. a. is the ansis er. Wan elength determines hue or
color. (pp. 204 209
B. & ci. The amplitude ot light determines its
brightness.
c. Opponent processes are neural sn stems in
volved in color vision, not properties of light.
18. ci. is the answer. Color constancy is the percep
tion that a familiar object has consistent color,
even if changing illumination alters the waw
lengths reflected by that object. (pp. 213 214)
a. & B. These theories explain how the visual sys
tem detects color; they do not explain why colors
do not seem to change when lighting does.
c. Feature detection explains how the brain recog
ni/es visual images by analy zing their distinctive
features of shape, mon ement, and angle.
19. a. is the answer. Sensory adaptation means a
diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimu
lus. nlv the adjustment to cold water inn olves a
decrease in sensitin ity; the other examples in
volve an increase. (p. 202)
20. a. is the answer. Thus, they has e difficulty dis
criminating these two colors. (p. 212)
B. Those who are color deficient are usually not
color blind in a literal sense, Instead, they are
unable to distinguish certain hues, such as red
from green.
c. I ailure to distinguish red and green is separ te
from, and does not usuall affect gereral is ra
abilitn,
ci, Color deficiency does not enhancc nision. \
deficit in one scnse often is compcnsate for b
overden elopment of another sensc for examy e
hearing in blind people

Matching Items
1. e (p. 205)
2. d (p. 205)
3. h (p 205)
j (p 206)
5. n (p 206)

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

a (p. 217)
k (p. 217)
B (p. 227)
g (p 227)
c ( 234

11. m (p. 233)


12. 1 (p. 206)
13. f (p. 206)
14.
p 26(

Cs

Pr

st

8. b. is the ansis en Kinesti esis the sense of me xc

ment of body parts. is ould er ible von to feel


your tots is igghng. tp. 23 P

.tIulto* .JJ:oit e Questions


.

d.

.1

tI

or Ktoat hors has e identitied repr snro out Ias e oeen unable to do
ttatho kn sensos. ip. a2ri

2. c

t.n

a. 2a4
sor: inapt itio i

3 d.

o ,no e

r
r to the process by
th I a s rcsg ond to specific
I
h as movement or
I

lete
sua
t

is a
a k n ss hich the observer
hothei a
,it ignal is present.

ft c non

ge

ft rs to the diminished
ith IC hanging stnnula

that r r cor

n ,oer. o 23t
t
4. a
h I he ,,rhIna tontans reCeptors for hearing,
c n
t
e tnt e, tontalns receptors for s ision (the
d ihe .trte\ s the onto ias er ot the brain, where
itt nnitun aetoton hs the receptors is pronsss er I he ncr eai contains the recepaditon rearing) and the s estibular
tot ki
sthesis are located in the
s

247, 234)

d joints

r e as ing the receptor cells,


ned in terms ot pairs of
o!os, nenrons stimulated by one
a
nan aie inh biteel hr the other. (p.
F

ss or

ma lion is a ra

.
r F
2
a. F o ;doa rh it there are three tspes of colori5
Cores
sonstn C
tue hass ot me roung
t P hub. P
5 thrt-e-olor theors.
nc to th,e opponent-process theory, and
1
h. A trd
.b
i in 01 it s of onior s Isbn, the proees of
.

Pun

Is

n.f in

iii sstri
di sti

55

Se se

ural hearing loss s

t
it

tissue as a reult
receptirs or the

i o kage be ause ef
st ites, sensorineural

n r t Moreos ci, ,ensori


,
P
es the inner ear, rather
arnn loss ins 0
P or r u middh oar
I atm in

thi rr hna,

ho

b i

mu

.C,

tti

0 eardrum impairs
t

the mechani

ih oduets sound ss as e; it could


i
0
a- nntiu:tIt a froanntt loss, not sen
in.lp]ims.

a. 2 he vestihular sense is conerned is ith mos e


ment and position, or halanet ot the is hole both.
not of its parts.
c. The skin, or tactile, sense are pressure. pain.
warmth. and cold; they has e nothing to do with
mos ement of hods parts.
d. Senso interaction the pr ni pIe that the scm

es influence each other do no play a role ir


this example is hih ins olve s ) fly the sense of
kinesthesis
the e r be t xplain
9. a. is the ansss er Freque n
the lossest pitches. Plate the r best xpla ns the
0 tu o
hrghet pitches and some combinatie n of th
theories probably accounts for our sensation sf
intermediate-range pitches. p 1
10. d. is the answer. Feature detectors are cortical
neurons and heme are iocated in the s isual ot
te\. (p. 2(3)
a. The fovea contains cones.
b. The optic nerve rontans neurons that reias
nerve impulsus trom the retna to higher centers
in the s isnal system.
c. The iris is simply a ring ot muse Ic tissue, svhich
controls the diameter of the pupil
ansss er Webers lass e oneerns difference
thresholds (jnd s), not absolute thresholds and
states that these are e n tant proportions of the
stimuli, not that thes remain constan (p. 202)
12. d. is the answer. (p. 230)
a. Transdnrtion is the protoss bs tvloeh stinnuns

11. d. is the

energy is converted into ners o impuises.


b. Sensors adaptation is dimrnished sensitisits to
unchanoino stimulation.
c. Webers lasv states that the jnd is a constant
proportion of a stimuIns.
13. d. i the ansss er. (p. hun)
14. a. is the ansss or. tp. 213
mines hue, r
15. a. is the ai ssser. aselengtn de

de ernnnes bri ht re s p 204 2 13


16. d. is the answer (Pp 2 1(
17. c. is the answer ( 2 1)
est e use cpara e
a. Ihis answer is mco
ape ite onh i r
green. and blue ss te rs
intensity

d
e

retina.

b. uris anssr er is inrorrect mause opponent


process sytoms operate on toute to the brain
after s isual proeesug in the reCeptors i
e oinpleted.
d. 3 his ansu er

is

ineorroot

because it ret ci ws thi

orrect order of tire tss, smast s

of nn ues inn

Answers
18. c, is the ansu er. (p. 219)
a. This answer describes how pitch is sensed in
the case of high-pitched, but not low-pitched,
sounds
b. Ihi, answer describes how pitch is sensed in
the case ot low-pitched, but not high-pitched,
sounds.
d. Ehic answer i incorrect because it reverses the
range of freiuencies.
19. d. is the answer. (p. 207)
a. Feature detectors are nerx e cells located in the
isual cortex, not in the fovea of the retina.
b. The proximity of rods and cones to the optic
nerve does not influence their ability to resolve
fine detail-.
c. Rods are concentrated in the peripheral regions
of the retina, not in the fovea; moreover, several
rods share a single bipolar cell.
20. c. is the answer. The absolute threshold is the
minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimu
lus. (p. 199)
a. & I,. The difference threshold, x hich is also
known as the jnd, is the minimum difference
between two stimuli that a person can detect, In
this example, there is only one stimulusthe
sight of the flame,
d, Signal detection is a research task, not a senso
ry phenomenon.

Psychology Applied
Multiple-Choice Questions
1. d, is the answer, (p. 201)
a. The absolute threshold refers to whether a sin
gle stimulus can be detected, not to whether two
stimuli can he differentiated,
b. Signal detection is a task in which one must
determine whether or not a faint stimulus is
preent.
c. \ receptor threshold is a minimum amount of
unergx that xviii elicit a neural impulse in a recep
tor LCII,
2. d. is the an six or. Greater censitix itx to fine x isual
detail is associated with the cones, which have
their own bipolar cells to relay information to the
cOItC\. The oncs are concentrated in the fovea,
the retinas point of central focus. For this reason,
staring directI at an object maximizes sensitivity
to fine detail. p. 207)
a. [f ou stare off to one side, the image falls onto
peripheral regions of the retina where rods are
conccntated and scnsitivity to tine xisual detail

149

b. Sensitix ity to detail is not directly influenced


by whether one or both eyes are stimulated,
e, Decreasing the intensity of light would only
impair the functioning of the cones, which are
sensitixe to usual detail but have a high thresh
old for light intensity.
3. c. is the answer. Since pain is felt in the limb that
does not exist, the pain is simply the brains
tmishnterpretation of neural activity .p. 227)
a. If pa in xx crc a purely sensorx phenomenon,
phantom limb pain would not occur, since the
receptors are no longer present.
b. Fhat pain is experienced when a limb is miss
ing indicates that the central nervous system,
especially the brain, is where pain is sensed.
4. a. is the answer. (p. 227)
b. Since endorphins relieve pain, a decrease in
their production would have made Kirsten more
likely to experience pain. Moreover, because en
dorphins are released in response to pain, their
production probably would have increased.
c. Neural activity in small fibers tends to open the
pain gate.
d. \n increase in large-fiber activity would tend to
close the pain gate.
5. d. is the answer. Each ot these is an example of
the interaction of two sensesvision and taste in
the case of a., taste and smell in the case of b., and
hearing and the vestibular sense in the case of c.
(p. 230)
6. d. is the answer. Just as light strikes the film of a
camera, visual images entering the eye are pro
jected onto the retina. (p. 206)
a. The pupil would be analogous to the aperture
of a camera, since both control the amount of
light permitted to enter.
b. The lens of the e e performs a tocusing func
tion similar to the lens of the camera.
c. The cornea uxould he analogous to a cameras
lens cap in that both protect delicate inner struc
tu res.
.

7. b. is the answer. p. 197


a. Both recognition and mterpretation are exam
Ples ot perception.
c. This ansux or would have been correct if the
question had read, Perception is to sensation as
isto
d. Sensation and perception are important pro
cesses in both hearing and seeing.
8. d. is the answer. (p. 213)
a. Feature detectors are located in the x isual cor
tex and respond to features such a mm eme it,
shape, and angle.
b, & c, (ones and bipolar cells are located in the

r n ither are excited b some


d
others.

it

r lh hair cells, which transduce


a r located on the basilar mem
d

n and bones of the middle ear


win I waves to the inner ear,
t rsduced.
cu a canals are mr olxed in the
s not hearing.

lleanng losses that result from


st in thc higher frequencies and
t the hair cells on the basilar
ft
whica, (p. 220)
) r nage to the eardrum, auditory
is f tb middle ear would probahh
ti ii hearing loss and reduced sensu
ds c f 11 frequencies.
c

r Rods and cones enable vision in


ht, respc ctix clv. If an animal is
3
i
x t m gI t it is likely to have more rods
ts ietinas, (p. 208)
e I link both cones and rods to gan
1 in ie is no reason to expect that a
am imal w ould have more bipolar
mammal actire both during the dar
Ii If a ivthing, because several rods
n cipolar cell, whereas many cones
, r
nocturnal animal (with a visual
i fiLustly of rods) might be ewi
Ic is c r bipolar cells than an animal
d
g the da (with a visual system con
1 ofcwics)
t

s er

208)
cues rather than the rods, that
t t wild is crc lower than the
r r sift thex would be able to
c
c detct tin colors of the

cor cannot account for the

,c s cc experienced as the c om
1
timulus, (
reen, not blue is
3
ople age they lose taste

buds and their taste thresholds increase. I oi this


reason Mrs. Martinez needs more concentrated
tastes than her son to lind food palatahlc. (p. 230)
a & b. I here is no cx idence that women and men
differ in their absolute thresholds for taste.
17. a. is thc answer (pp. 202 203)
in the sense c f touch (pressure) adapts verx
quickly.
c. On the contrary, the extreme sensitir ity of the
tingertips ic due to the relatir ely large amount of
cortical tissue that processes nc ural impulses
from the fingertips.
18.

c. is the answer. (p. 197)


19. d. is the ansuer (pp 226 227)
20. c. is the answer. Because of thc pon erful sensors
interaction between taste and smell eliminating
the odor ot thc cough sr rup hould make its taste
more pleasant. (p. 230)
a. If any thing, the contrasting tastes might make
the bitter syrup cx en less palatable
in If lamiko keeps the syrup in her mouth for
ser eral seconds, it will ensure that her taste pores
fully catch the stimulus, thus intensifying the
bitter taste.
ci. Its probably impossible to miss the tongue
completely
Fssay Question

the senses that are most important to dancers are


r ision, hearing, kinesthesis, and the x estibular sense.
Your answ er should refer to any three of these senses
and include, at minimum the following information.
Dancers rely on r ision to gauge their body poci
tion relative to other dancers as the perform specific
choreographed mox ements. Vision also helps dancers
assess the audiences reaction to their performance.
Whener er dance is set to music, hearing is mrecessar
so that the dancers can detect musical cues for certain
parts of thcir routines. hearing also helps the dancers
keep t seir mo c ments in time is th thc music.
Kmesthr tic rcceptors i dancers m scks, tcndons
and joints prc r ide thc ir brains is itt nformation
about thc p is tion and n o cmcnt ft Icdy part to
determinc ft thcir ands arms 1
es and hr ads arc in
the proper positions Receptc rs for the cstibular
sense located in the dancers inner cars send mes
saces to thur brains that help them maintair their
balance and determine the correctnecs of the position
and mm c ment of their bodies.

lal

tsr e

Summing Up
The Eye

1. Cornea Light enters the cx e through this trans


parent membrane. which protects the inner struc
tures from the cur ironmcnt.
2. his. lhe colored part or the cxc, the iris functions
like the aperture of a camera. controlling the size

3.

4.
5.

6.

of the pupil to .iptunlze thc amount of light that


enters th ore.
Pupil [hr edjustahl opening in the iris the
pupil a lows light ft enter
1 ens lhrs transparent structure behind the pupil
changes shape to ft cus im iges on the retina.
Rehna lhc hghhsensrth e inner surface of the
eye the retma contains the rods and cones, xx hich
transduce light energx into neural impulses.
Blind cpot, I he region ot the retina where the

optic nerve leaves the cx e, the blind spot contains


no rods or cones and so there is no vision here.
7. Optic nerx e. 7 his bundle of nerve fibers carries
neural impulses frotu the retina to the brain.
The Ear
1. Outer ear I learing begins as sound wax es enter

the auditory canal of the outer ear.


2. \uditory cinal. Sound xx ax es passing through
the auditorr anal arc brought to a point of focus
at the eardrirm,
3. Eardrum I vrng hefts een the outer and middle
ear, this mcmbrane x rbrates rn response to sound
wares
4. Middle ear. I ring betxx ecu the outer and inner
ear, this air-filled chamber contains the hammer,
anvil, and stirrup.
5. Hammer, ani i. and stirrup. These tiny hones ot
the middle ear conrentrate the eardrrims vibra
tions on the cochleas ox al xr indoxv.
6. Inner ear liii. region of the ear contains the
cocblc ind the stmicirrul ir cauals, xr hich piax

an in f t nt role in balar cc
7. (o hka 1 s fluid t lied riultichambered struc
s he ha r cc I
ors that transduce
t
ccp
tur c r
o
r nrpulses
so and avcs
th fund e of hbers arrics
8. Audit rv ncr
nerx ir pulsc from tf c im er ear to the brain
Key

Terms

2. Perception is the proces

orgaruze, and

b
interpret sc

xxi r
5

we seP
mtormation.

Lp. i7)
3. Bottom-up processing i analysis that hegi.xs
xx ith the sensory receptorc arid: cc m s up to ti
brains integration of sensorx iiuormattoi.

(p. l7
4. Top-down processing

fs

iuformatron proressir7

guided bx higher-level mental pnicesses. p i9

relationshu
5. Psychophysics is the stud
ot tin I
between the physical ch c r
of ti
and our psschological
c.
199)
(p
slit x
6. [he absolute threshold is th r u x
c ent of I
tion needed to detect a slur ulus a
tiuxe. (p. 199)
7. Signal detection theory cxprairi preciselc Iucx
and when xx e detect the presence r a faint stim u
lus (signal). Detection depends partix on cupe
rience, e\pectations, motivatmn arid aiertuess I p.
199)
8. A stimulus that is subliminal is one that is beioxx
the absolute threshold for conscxous axx ar enes,
(p. 20(1)
Memarij aid I imca is the I atu xx )rd for thresh
old. \ stimulus that is subliminal i one that s
cab (beloxx I the linrcri cr thrchc Id
9. Priming is the actix ation of an a si ra rub r
imperceptrble stimulus the elti ct of I uh
predispose a perception memor c r respot c
(p. 200)
10. The difference threshold raiso called the just
noticeable difference, or jnd), is the mininxum irt
ference hctxveen two stimrrti that a -uhjecr can
detect 50 percent of the time. rp. 201 i
11. Webers taw states that the just not:ceahie differ
5 a constant minimum
erxce hetxveen txvo stimuli i
proportion of the stimulus p 2i C
nt in xveix,ht is
t xaeprlc. If a ditterence of 10
that a per i
noticeable Webers law
c
I xx eights
could drscrmrate 10 ar I
50 and Sa pound werghts
12. Sensory adaptation I rs
nrc
Ox ity tI it i curs uh out
unc hanging stimulus. (p. 202
5I
13. In sensation transduction ie rs ti xc urn e
which receptor cells iii the eve ca skt and nose
conx ert stimulus energies into ne us.,) rnpuisc
(p. 2(14

Writing Definitions

1. Sensation is the proc s hx wh,ich we detect


phx sicri enerer from thi cur ironmeut and en
code it a.s nero a! signals (p i

15

Chapteri S

on

14. Waelength. which reteis to the distance from


tile peak of One eight jor %ound) iva. c to the next
ZiVe re to tht. percertual ep nences of hue or
enior, in .i.ion iand pitch ifl siund). (pp.
15. rh. intensits or

the .uvpiitu
btiglitnc.
anS it

oared
lie wait. and

.ij,hi .nd

termite. e.i hi
iene.ed as
09
mph

ecc, rc

xcced q
,l

k, .1

18.

19.

20.

1.

22.

23.

z
hepupl
d i tahlc ) C
nters.
through wh
(2L
S*
of muscle tissuc
The iris js a
i forms lie
colored pitt u the it that onttoi. the diametei
of the pupil. 4.. 203,
1 he lens is S transparent structure of the e e
bc hind the rupil that hange shapc tc, focus
;rnag on the retina. (p. 20)
Accommodation i the prote.% b vcli the lens
ut tile Cit chances shape to lot U rns objc.ts on
the retina. (p )5
he retina
it.
ght-senit e
rit Lw ered
nersi.
a
ott ci thatc a
c c.dand
isicu
ores 5 h(
it!
in
ori.c
e
I heq.i g_vc.p. )
1cuityrcfe bthcs rpnessofs sior
206)
Lrarnpit: I
i acuity is 20/ 1(,
e able to
see clearl at c distance of 20 fat a sual detail
that most people cannot see bes and d distance of
10 feet.
4iearsightedness s a condition in is hkh neat hi
object, are seen clearly hut distant objects are
blurred beta ..C light tan retitctint trom them
cons ci ge in front of the retina. p. 2Ch,
Farsightedness s a condttior in . rich distant
objects are
irh hut nc. r
are
lunedi
tras%relc
ic
them
k., th
wfc
oni
$
C.
Y
t
F
thor
i
tint
,f the
g fall
irk.
prors th it
Im rods inc c flies .rc iu
tcan.d i.x iht ito neura impulse... ..w rod. .ri.
tolftdntrdted in die. perphen or the retut.i. the
ce:w. :i, the t..sta. ihe rods h.ne poor sensitivit:
(ItttXt nlacx, nh!tc. .and giur runtnon veIl in
din: 11t4
tt: and in needed for c.erritral s i.ion.
1
lar n.e Pa. a-ikf sensin t& cnaie tolor
1
S e.ie.r ,ri.j un tic i ii.t jj. .i F
t ot rwht
hgln : ((

ter

16

25. Comprised of the axons 0! retinal ganglion cells,


the optic nerve carrie; neural impulses from the
at to the brain. p. 20n 2W,
26. rhe blind spot k the region or the retina where
the optic net sc lea. es the vs e. Bccauce these are
it. rod. or tore e. flj., ar ca, there i, Pc. sion
i .rc. p. 2.fl
F fosea is t
nit of cnrilfoci, It
it nson
(6
c )re.ar b
ftcusedon

$ leatui dct tos


tic SLc cortcxof
sttatsek ticlyrecoid
ti b in,a
ics
ecfic ii
1
t
t s, .uch ..s riovencnt,
ape ut anglc
tire detectors a c ci idently
the ha.i. Ot si..a1 infornation p. ocessing.
p. 2)9i
29. Parallel processing is information processing in
which .evcral aspects ol a .tiniulus, such as light
or sound, are protesed imultaneoush. ip. 2 10)
30. The Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color)
theor) maintain, hat the retina tontains red-,
reen-, and blue e sifis e color recepto s that in
noination c p )du c. the perc .t on of any
oo lhitleo
p1 r the rir t ta eof color
i

Ic oppotcntprocw.s theory ia tins that


ilc isiondperd ci p ir otcvo mgretinal
o esses (re Pt
yel ow-bhie a C wiute
black). This the
xc ams the second stage of
cohn processing. ip 131
32. Color constancy ; the perception that familiar
ot.jecb. ha e consistent color dt%pite charges in il
lwnmaticn that shift the is avelengths they reflect.
p. 211 211)
33. Audition rctcr% to the ense .4 hearing. ep 213)
34. The pitch or a .01..
is determined is its fre
quenci, that is
umber itt omp etc is aye
that
C i, hs
c
pointinasr
a
time.
rig,.
ecth a.
dtovac
31

by

cn

24.

t.

cc

riddle
anibc
urn C.nG
des
aniittz ti
rqr, i nil,
upj that cor Ha the
odrunvs 5 flrat4X it. tc e. 0 hic s
ii iii
In. ip ?17;
36. Ih cochlea is the .riled, b.mi. tluid-filcd tube
.4 tk innt i ear is h iv the transduction I. I sound
1 a5C into neur&l inepulses occur.. ip. 217k
37. The inner ear c.iltan. he semici,cular canals
.iPd flit. . ... l.ka is
. tne ci. epvrs that
1
;:Llu
3

dLlet

tro

l.t)

neura

irises.

Jr

38.

39.

40.

41.

42.

43.

I cause it 1 a contains the vestihulai sac, the


inner car pUn an important role in balance. as
211)
Wei as in auditiOn
1 he place theory of hearing states that is e hear
different pftdes because .oind was es of various
trequende ggei actis lb at difterent places n
tF -othici nsbr niembic e (p. 219)
Pactheoqriamtaiithat he;Luc
it
bra to alont, he cochlea 5 meniI r nr i
ifpitcidisasninaticr.
t reistl Ii
I ic frequency theor of canng presumes that
the rate. ox tmquenc. of ners e iinpukes in the
auditor acne matches the frequenci of a tone.
thu enabling U to sense its pitch. (p. 219)
Conduction hearing loss refers to the hearing loss
that results from damage in the mechanics of the
cu er or xriddk ear, iii ich impairs the
tn tomd ai toticcoc.hlea.(p 220)
Sensorlncural heanng loss (neroc Ie4ness) is
caused bi d niae to flit audItor)
heanng k
rcccptors of tic cochlea or to the auditon nen C
due to disease. aging, or prolonged exposure to
ear-splitting noise (p 220)
A cochlear implant Is an electronic device that
wnvert sounds into electrical signals that stimulate the audito i lien e. (p. 2Th
M tack and Walls gate-control theory maintains
n the spinal ord determines
that i ga
is ether pa r signals are permittcd to reach the
bram. Nc ural attn itv in small nerve fiber, opens
ti gates; act tr in large fibers or information
from the brain c1nes the gate. (p. 227)
Lnczk: The gate-control theory gained support
4 tion of
.s ith the dl%cos en of endorphin. Produ

brrn .
s rtn b.
.pinai gi
44. Sensory interaction the pru.JpI :ha tc. rv
may intiucnce another. (p. 23fl
:r&ci .Th.j
45. Kinesthesis s the sense a tnc posin
$
(
.)
iris
2
of
thc
di
meat of thc
sit i
u lit
bod r
46 Ihe sc isc
a c.
t
iidud ir thc or
vestibular sense. (p
these opiattlike chemi

mechanism for tiosing t

(ross.CI,eck

ACROSS
1. jid
7 large
2 optic
13 intensit
14. nanome er
15. hue
16. eardrum
17. afterimage
19. amplitude
21. conduction
22. os al
. pupil
audition
30. cornea

31. retina

DOWN
1. trequenci
2. larsghtcd
3. ci t , iagnetic
4.
t
d tei.t
5.
tht. r p
6. to
8. kints test,
9. blind$ght
10. psy choehv%!cs
11. context
18. blindi tit
20. 1 xis
23. u t
24. ix dc
25. mi
2h. place
27. rids

154

Chapter 5 Sensatioi

FOCUS ON VOCABULARY AN1) LAGU4GL


1
Page 198: Shoxi n her ox n fact. in a rr it ror she is
again slum pci!. Ibis person (F. H.) is suffering from

and cannot ret. ognize faces and ci en


fails i-he sta retch) to recognize her own face in the
mirror. What is interesting in this case is that she can
process incoming sensor\ information i, ikttml! up)
but is unable to make ani sense ot it tur Jucc;z). As
\lvers notes earlier, she has sensation iTsteme no jta
ccssiig i hut her perception (tao-duct praccssln) is
not workmg properly.
p1 cu; u.puniu

Sensing the 1. arid: Some Basic Principles


PLIc,tr 198: A frog could starve to death d,ec-ace in
motionless flies. fiut let one :uaii At and the frogs
bug duct tar cells snap aoaKe. Ehe frogs eyes and
brain are organized in such a way that onh fast
movmg (:aariu;ig), small, dark objects n ill cause
these specialized feature detector nerve cells ( bug
Iefec tars) to become active (snap aa eke) If the trog is
surrounded by flies that don t mox e (knee deep in
inatr hess flies), it will die of hunger completely
unan are of the food at its feet,

Page 199: Ihe shades on our senses are open )ust a


c ack, allots ing us only a restricted ass areness of this
ant sca of energr. Just as sunbhnds or curtains
(shade ) let only a little light in through any small
opening (a crack), our sensory system is onlt able to
detect a very small part of the large amount (cast seal
of the ph sical energy that exists in the n orld,
lage JhQ, Exhausted parents of a newborn xviii
notice the laneS st ahm per from the ci tdl
In sig

nal detection theory there is no single absolute


threshold for detecting) stimuli; it all depends on the
situation. Ehus, parents xv ho are sleeping soundly
are more likely to become aware of the quietest try
of distress the ctietet aJenneere from the infant in its
sinai] bed ic;adte than much louder but irreieyant
rioi e
Page 11th
ml en,c il,ssu,5
It has been sug
ge ted that some rock music recor ins has e hidden
or subiimnenal messages and that hebax ior tan he
!ntlncneed or manipulated hr them u e.. h:d.ice tea
C iamnc I as e been made that some ot thece
mesages are antireligious and promote des il wor
ship ldedhcai or ,itau I. As SIx ers makes clear,
there is not a shred cit cx idenee to support these
ideas.
.

...

2111.
hieckmers
P
A ha s
s II r rehandise that m
he
m
o proincte and
.

laims that arc m

is someone ix ho
dubi us alue
tages
n) ted
s ic itf

ic research, In fact, the as ailable cx idence suggests


that subliminal tapes do not hate the profound,
enduring effects on behavior claimed hr their mar
kete rs.
202:
it might take a F4000 pi tee leike iris a
40,0)i) Mercedes to ;s the ciebiaas of its potential
hut ems, R,;sc,t cn,tra,e- express surprise. So a 53000
increase in tne cost (orne lztke) ot a luxury car
Page

(Mercedes Benze which normnalh costs 5-10,000,


would he nohced by nterested bus ers I awe/h raise
theIr eiiebraas). Webems law states that a constant
roPortlon ot the original stimulus is needed in
order tom the differenee to be detected. and the pme
ise proportion xx ill change depending on the stimu
Iu.I bus, a S increase in the price of the car would
not he a just noticeable difference, or jnd, hut a 5
dollar increase (pi ice hike in the cost of a hamburger
and fries would exceed a jnd.
Page 202: ha e cry ale me that \1are looks, f/ic scene it
nre to go. In order to understand this sentence you

need to be familiar with the old nursery rhyme:


Mary had a little lamb, its fleece is as white as snow,
and eeery vherc that Mary mm eat the lanA was sure to go.
When a x oluntcer (Mary) is fitted with a special con
tact lens and miniature projector she sees the same
image no matter xx here her eyes look (eaerymehere
t/eot Mary looks tin scene is sarc to go). When an insage
is projected onto the rehna in this manner the scene
disappears bit by bit and then reappears and disap
pears again (in ineamngful units), This happens
because the image, which normally would he mox
ing hack and forth rapidly tqniterieegl as a result of
tiny eye mm ements, is non stahonarv with respect
to the retina and its receptors. As the receptors
fatigue the image disappears.
his io a
blind spot
You can use the sugges
Pue 21C:
tion in Figrire I0 of your text to demonstrate tnat
there are tsx o snsail parts en your visual field Cone in
the left and one in the right ix here r omi has e no
sight ihese tins area- ehhz,/ seat- are xv here the
optlc ners c cv its the eve.
.

P;e 2cC: Rod has e no such :;,i::ine [to the hranJ.


Cones, svhicb are inosth elu-tered in the fovea and
detect color and fine detail, have mann more mdi
i idual connections to the b-am
than the rods. Rods
xi hit gis e us our black and-white s ision, has e to
share bipolar cells and so do not has e as mans mdi
s idual connections (tot/Sees) to the hrain (in dim
light, hoxvcxc thu an be r dx ntage as sexeral
rods can I i r u
I th i ic dial faint erie
gx outp Icr t a srgle ipc am elI

bla

,iatav a tie answer to this question Is the


uu of isbn researrh. he reference here is to
the :neda-i al legend that the cup ti tzi/ Jesus Christ
0:

I Ito (

drank r in at tht I ast Suppcr and xi hklr was later


Ii his 0 )d xi hen he xx as ci ucitied, sum
sed
I v avc been br mght to England Ihe
nh for this sacrcd cnp (11kg C h/I sym
rest
m hoed i iritual r generation and eul ghteninent.
iindarlt attempting to anxx er the question about
han tim brain deals wtth multiple aspects ot a visual
cue at the mme tme. automatically and xx ithout
iesr (0 Vet !0c s( g). is in important
our en
that it macc ssful xx ill enlighten us
c r do
of isa i
u xc on r g ( Ii II a C i
3 t
a!

BitaduItt rerems to) the tact


etitiaignt
[hoc 2 Il
that onie people with neurological damage have
the ah,l,tv to see, to ome degree, xvitlxout an mom
sLious aim ireness ot the x isual expenenee. Thex are
hnd, t her can ,cc tb/in / ight) 1 his suggests that
t vo pxrallel processing systems operating,
F rc
r c us ioush guides our actions (the zom
a ft
ow tx itli n and one that gix es us our monscious per
.eptiOt%

lor, like all aspects of vision. resides not


0
Proc Pb: d
tu the ohiect hut hr the thozfc o cia bra/;n. \Ivers

tt a when mc x iexx a cc bred object (for exam


a )hc bailo in it ahsorbs all the xmas elengths
a e its vu (P e) and reflects tht vs avelengths of
ue ha V t us, Itie color we perceh e is a product
at our brain and evists unix n the percen ers mind
(it afar
c annul.
t
tes

lieu ring
kkc also arc remarkabh sensitive to tnnt
r ohxious F i for rum ancestors surxnal
or bc ing [inn / or detecting a t/O V
I Iowans are x civ good at de ectiug x cix

a
he,
,I u[

uercvi or
1
alongmud Crc mar Or jot:; iltr trec
a large, decp-toned,
short (high irtqoenct i. 0
iaras,xx hd
motf to 0 ito treuneucv
intrx
r tox ci tch rOan it cc
0 a Or
ci xtaxtr
50
i ncr
h-f
x
ads
/ a nab I
a sid

/
him ers

in

i(

/s

ret x c a mo

ad

iv

a tium, as xx P1 as a ;twd, ,e diitereut e tetweou


heat oh ound
F am It
tot ci I m C e
uditorx
a
ofa

amh

mccci es a be
the xi F t ea
sonn Ito tire ii

[ott

ioduces urah strrter, faster


than d es a 1 bi \lusical nxstrumer ts

A, a
ound
do

vol
a

ncrgv a d sou d xasts


F
rd
h c c
I burr

tO ict ear
t tom than

00

ten
hu
1

mm ho x of he

rotc

it

[hoc 2ir lOam fs xt Ox. when tiring to iict,iI a


ar x our tu o eam xxill
0
sound. too Ot: mit [a tI, st
mcccix e shighti c dxftercn; uerscbcs if hon a round is
Vecth xhead,
1 ear
i cni t
equid staut
i oal
no xve
t
o
iehid or
sonic
In
ix
hax c ix ubi
head, 3 that
[orE,
i uatioi
i icip- t
tlx
each ear receim e a iigh dirtertut message ithe
sound xx iIl be a httic iudom and -eucd a lithe soon
er Ox out cal and tlxe Irtaux uc- tO mOo uxahon to
ue ronud couuug tm ru,
detect xx hem t

0. 0

re xrai
olotu
x
r 1 Pro
ig
tdi
tsr o
nosh
1
a
ueix e
0 hmng is,,
ruetiruas he
, a!
0
irma
,Jit t ,usbis ix
1 hic
i itiotog
c-mt I

rt c

all

c
hea r
ea ch ugs.

cur

km d expoc

c r c u t e to cI anger in sc ur ds and mc
b,ittx to Jtteieutiate among thousands or

but on x oces

id

ui i
it
ear
s
d, ut
mccclx e sound
e (oate soonds
slightix cie haan x a Ptt car.
because our c its ,re hctn Ott hts cpai t and there
a

c a
al
imp.aat a.. re fore
acbo its

o aist

rat

I,

n; es ,ici -m:ii;. xxhich nOr clcariv bench


[ta t ou oiedetes5ors abi
itx irt urx no
t
he xx err beth uredat,r /:ntc and prex
otice
0 1 k x he the dity t
F
tics
st is I
v
I
1 i c x bc e
mc id ada
xxe tOt

0 god eMt sae to


,,,,a
rake :t dc:: tt ,t
tdictohIo
t c
thJ our xx eih
u,ar
loud aud uup
tariv 0 uve our hcaroic, Nc m a
0
bchg and ree
urban
if we
t mom I
e flits
en r,,,utcut
nos
us
i//
caix
xes
hase
h
ton

tfignre 2cr -sv


deafues (,nhic or
uschbx
0
r uwt
keh
0!
ci
c
t 5

155

ni

Clime, in,purtnnt
[1

St

5
x

u,

,i

tom

or
cst
lit u and ust

fttllt

It

to k

to

156

Chanter 5

Sensation

warmth, Sold, anti pain. Intimate relattons often


n\ oh a dsire or longinp as uornb to caress, kiss,
md cur
mhmine each cther (ciWPi)
a 2

if c a t a ound your stubbed lot


itry
i ulation dat will bItch
inc
in i
5 gs. It xc t hit your toe
gatnst a m
object
o toe), it reads hurts. If
b
ho ox er on massape t,l) the part around the sore
spot. 0 ow uit reel better hecause sthnulation
intel fetes i, ilL I i) ssi sonic ot the pain messages.
fIns soppen- ICr gatecontrol model, xhich ug
cc s that nmi stiniu latien nb/nod a ill activate
gate-c,o
in large it ural tihers and thus, will
lute r

S
in i n spt
is ntoly or the
t x
on \ y
i dom,, r yarodv of the dries from a
o-ttai IL Ti
enp in
lade, Ide rain in Spain
stats mainly to the plainS I he main point: reports
or repet,tix e strarn injurx the pu/ti in sp; ,Iin) were, in
me ase of groups ipot PaPa of ;\ustralian ker hoard
o erahors one to social and psi ehological intluences
in bs,n and n crc not the result of dam
aged ltgo i s or mustks in the hands or arms, as
usua I th ase.
\fter mplain ng heat-diffusion
p mip 5 i f nut rwolbt ig, he then joined 5evothe i otIto it a I ottere hts trooth otis, I he
exiession pot oniti tiit tier tihO lour moot/i Ls
means that r on should he xi ihing to hack or support
xorir worn or claim- with appropriate behax ior. So
ph, sicist Dat id II ilier was willing to support his
expianatton ot tirexr albing, which was based on sd
entitle tat in hi taking if t ecessary action, By actu
lv n ad r t stepping aerc ss the hot coals without
r hr
Lcd K pul his leet (fir walking)
It
ii
S
Ots 5
h s w cuLt te explanation) and
sl owee
claim
the mmd ox er matter
ro note
rt rong t tins ease,
A n eli-trained flu tsd mar ditraet needle
in n,,hccts hr hartin
0 n ith them and asking them
i,ok
na,no I or
an in in
I

n hum inertinc

nt

a: ,tr, n

t an

us

the needle. One


dmstrwtton. It on
rum being it ted in ith a

threogh

hypodermic needle hi needle-she patient), the nurse


mar talk to r on about unimportant matters (site
units with you) and request that yon do not watch the
procedure this type of dislraetion can reduce the
intensify of the pain.
Iapu 230 taste buds are certainly essenttal for taste,
hot hone is route to tas
e than ,Izet- the tongue. Ihe
t
common expression there is nore to this than treats
t/lt ct/a suggests that there is something extra going
on over and above the obvious or apparent. Myers
creates a rariation of this expression using a differ
ent sense (taste), The flavors we experience are a
function of more than just the taste buds in the
tongue they involve sensory interaction with the
sense of smell (olfaction). thus, the sense of taste I
involves more than simply responding to the chemi
cals that stimulate taste receptors in the tongue
(there is more to taste than meets the tongue).

Page 231: Each day, von inhale amid exhale nearh


20,000 breaths of life-sustaining air, bathing your
nostrils in a stream ot scentladen molecules. Smell
(olfaction) is a chemical sense and as substances
(flowers, feet, fish, fertilizer, etc.) release molecules,
they are tarried by the air we breathe (a sf ream of
scent laden molecoles) and wash ox er (bathe) receptors
in our

nasal cavities (nostrils).

Page 232 Words more readily portray the sound of


coffee brewing than its arotna. It is easier to talk
about and describe (portraii) the subtle aspects of
coffee brewing than to pnt into words the sensory
qualities involved in the smell (aroma) of coffee.
Oltaetion seems to he a more rimitive sense than
vision or audition.
Page 234, The biological gyroscopes for this sense of
eqoihbi into are in the inner ear. A gyroscope is a

mechanical dcx ice used as a stabilizer in navigation


and scientihe instruments. Likewise, we have bio
logical stabilizers that monitor the mm ement and
position 01 our bodies and provide us with a sense
ot ha lance tcaoddriomj. Ther are called the sent/c/r
n/ar c,,na/- and the rectihiiar -,e- and are located in
the i ttner ear.

Perception

Selective Attention (pp 2 -24fl!

CHAPTER OVERVIEW
Chapter 6 explores hon v c select organize and
interpret our sensatic xc into meaningtu pc rceptions.
I he chapter mt )duces a xx ide range of terminologx,
especialh in thc I erceptual Organization section.
Each of the txvo sections that toilow deals with an
important issue. The first issue h the role of experi
ence, as opposed to heredity, in perception, Make
sure von understand the results of studies of recox cry
from bhndnes sensori deprivation, adaptation to
distorted enx ironmentc, and perceptual set, Note also

the rolc of psych ilogists in human tactors design.


The second i,suc cons dered in the chapter is the
possible existcncc of t SP, or perception xx ithout sen
sation You should be able to discuss both the claims
made for pcp and the criticisms of these claims.

Dax id Myers at times uses idior i t ct i in


xx
familiar to sonic reader If you o r c
the meaning of any of the folloxvr g xx irds
phrases, or expressions n the contcx n xx hich
they appear in the text, reter to page lIn tor an
explanation: i/eli r ahic;lt:oia1 NLxaiig!u izJN; iCii
mien, drum a bia;ik sziimmteicd; Jkm[? CUt.

entor

Objective 1: Describe the interplax hc Ii c


and perception
1. Our tendency to focus at a xy momc

c r c oh a

it

limited aspect of all that xx e are capahlc ol experi


encing is called

NOW: Ansxxer guidelines


begin on page l6N.

for

all Chapter

(m

questions

cube.

figure called a

2. An example of this limted focus is th

CHAPTER REVIEW
n t og hcadrngs and boldfaca
e t
I ust skim a
react tIn section, rcxiew cach
items ktter
crmng thc ff1 in and essax tx pe
obje t xc bx a
quetionc thar to1lou t \c nu proceed, cx aluate
your pcrttrmince bx onsuitllC the anwer begin
ning on page inS Do not continue xx ith the next sec
tion until ou understand each answer. It you need
to, rex ion or reread the section in the textbook before
continuing.
fc
1, fhc phil s 1

Pus is mllrstrated using a

first

tkcablit

selecth el t i c nIx onc i c among


3. One e\anxpe ot our lack ot axx aronn

h ioc:i

ings around u A
xxhichafter a brict
ruption xx e fail to notic
ronment

lxx o forms f th c

hauge in

hat

pimo i
5

mx oRe x ision and hearmg espo

f that wc p ercc i c ohects through the


se ses, xx t I
iind,

inc on

I
d

prop ic

Another cwmiiple

is

mi

1 8

ap

6 Percepti

Perceotual IllusIons (pp. 240

yot do not kicns the meat ta t


n r .e
tnllowang isords. phrd%c%. or tpt ,
in
tnt context in is hkh they appear m th- text,
rt4ei to page 17 for an epLanaton
a it! iz?.1ti%i .&id;IiIk i.c t i,. w.:, ZL?N
t

!; d;

Objectii e 2: 1 xplain hon illusions help i. c to under


stand nw of the is av Ur organh/e stmuli ink
n.eaningrul ett eption%.

lions. 1k di ti
ception in tc r.
processing r
cut tu;;i.

t it)

ensation and per


pes of information
Ct lear

Objective 4: Fpldin the r3aregreunl relationship,


and identit prhipie et per.eptual grouping in
torn pen.eption.
3. flhen tcr tic t a s.eat. is e ee the central object,
or
a distinct tiorn sur
rounding stimuli, or tine

Identifi the mapur tuntribution- ot t estalt


gi to vu tinden..tandm or pert vption.

1. ilusions reseal the wa- vie nrps!I.


and
Our sensations
2 The tendeni of. kioa to dorm atc th

cholo

ther

flgs is referred to as

3 li (r estbctweenh
dc

rp r It
iatc.

Perceptual Organization

242 254)

oudc otknois it nai ,of nziv ftic


,low i words,ptri c orcc) siors the
ntcx nishtchtheape r r etext Kr
top ges l-17bforan J.era no-
t cti;nes Iwu ret they 1 c s
iai rio I
w:u utcd ti,.en; 10 traal uut
loati fiay %z1iag:; 45 we nin t
that
un ,rtui11q ta11c .nau .7yvnzs to o c caIiiiW
rpeiztt.rnf.
1
24 411! r fz;rc tii. a$l. ?!Ufll t.iL r.
I

ObjectIve 1: l)esriht Cf stdlt psvchotg.


tion ti our uidti$anding it perception..
I.

\s.

.srding to the
vit trd

ps tnknr.
.ct(lIj. rLto

to nganLe

contribu-

it hovl ot
clu-tc: jp[ ..,n.

..

form
2. Our teuicknc to percen onnpletru ol. cS sei.O rrah-is, ir
.

ccssing ot stintuli, a- is cli

rs
1
t.n

4.P

filet

it

COflflC CC it

Y C.

)tSO

tiutv,and
Cstaltrulesof

5. iheprinc pltictw )t annstimuli into


smooth, con w
s aft r is called
he principle that use till in
g.ips to create a oi p tte us hole object J%
The grouping of items that
other is the principle of
are clo,e to
the wouping of item that
look alike i. the ji ir:ple
The ter
cn; to Petteis C
4
uiiiftrtn r aftahe! wm as i -irele v.nit s the
pnnc.iplt

Objective : F.plaan k iniportancr nf depth percep


tion. arid discus thcor.ritution oF ual cliff
e-& arch to our undt rtar j: 1 or thk ability.
6. 1 tc .ihihts t s
despite th
our rct.r

at use wr

mu

L ci

toree dimension.
s ) i i presentations on
ii

estirrate

I
idW11 lexel ,cdth

(I

t(
d ptl

te-t

c
cs

nirinfints B

rha agO irfants


icr

13. \s an objc bctt r c


appears prog
xc

a c

16. Objects owe


nc arc r

sr ,(cstaftpcrception

17. \siscnovc

Sunir a c e c n
xr
cfdc

ci (

sin and Wilks studies

h nor

tditc

18. IraIe1 in

ay

19. Dimmcr cm h
Objectn c 6 Dcs nF c trio binocular cues for pen cii
ingdp i in nLinhn tiy hnlpthehra.nio
comput distantc
For gut tions 3 1) dcnt fy th
that
I fined
8. \r

Ieptt perceptron cue

Objective 8: State thc ba m a i


our pcrceptions of mit ) a B
perceptions can be dcc i r
20. In gencral rs c ar

nethatreqni csbcth ye

good notrerygo That


9. Ite

speed of me n

te tin diff rncc bet scen thc images

rccc rca b thc tsr

fooled hec ruse lar3t

es thc niarer the object


3D

snot
r

is

icrt i c on stta ni
thc nst ucti scrom
10

arc

21

id

Obje Ive
bir u
Fe
11

F
ear
d

ilownc )
I ci

r cue Iifti n fron


n 3n ula uc

is

22. Ihe illusion elm


adjacent -,tatmonan

in quick so

23 0
c

I
it

mu

xci

c sue

Objective 9 1 xp
)i st i

12. 1

ra ci
r

bc I is iresiac
tu

imagc spcr

ii

Ic

tic I rum
frghtncss

it

cd

24. Ibis
uce

tI t r

seen as

pro csscuaBe
I ic

14

ii

r anving images as

Ift roccu
r

13

I hc brain intenpnc F
phenomcn n

nsf) s nrardrrhenweniew
tic ic icr thc object

smaller object

s in

at I ns cut bt photographing each


ft 1 o c mcras Fhrs h rpter s fnnda

160

Chapter 6 p ception

Objective 10: Describe thc shape and size constam


cies, and cxplain hon our expcctations about pen
ccix eu siac a in distancc C mtrioutc to son c sisual
diuPons

Perceptual Interpretation (pp. 234 264)


It ou do not know the meaning ot any of the
following in ords phrases, or expressions in the
context in which then appear in the text refer
to page W6 for an explanation Ping Pong bill
ci ft Is Ii y thsoilc itll eocn dr:y to sec
js to bclinc
to beie e i to sec a rnonstcr in
Fcc (In ill Loc i \cssfrcin rhnf s bclnnd our
a Fat u i r airs ni tlit cuts of their hehol lets

25 Dot to shapc and ac c onstanc an iliar objc cts


do donct ppearto
change s iapc n sizc dcspite changes ir our

images of them
26. excra

lusions i icludi ig the

and
illu
sions are expla ir ed by the interpla beD cc n per
at d perceived
ccix c d
When distance cues are
remor ed, thcse illusions are
(diminished strengthenc d)
I xplain hon the size-distance relationship accounts
for the Moon illusion.

Objective 12: Dcscribc the contribution of restored


r isbn and senso v depnn ation research in our under
standing of thc nature-nurturc interplan in our pen
ceptions

1, Thc idc a mat knott ledge comes rrom inborn


is ays of )rganizing sensory experiences was pro
posed hr the philosopher
2. On the othc r side were philosophers who main
tained that we learn to perceive the world by
experiencing it. One philosopher of this school
was
3. Studies ot cases in which r isbn has been restored
to a pcrson who ivas blind from birth show that,
upon seeing tachlely familiar objects for the first
(can can
time the person
not) recognize them

27. People xi ho hare lived ti eir In cs in uncarpen


tered rural em ironments are
(more less s isceptible to thc Muller-I vet
illusicn

4. studies of c nern deprh ation demonstrate that


isual experic nces during
are crucial for perceptual development. Such
cxperic ncc s suggest that there is a
for

normal sensory and perceptual den elopment. For


th s reason human infants born w ith an opaque
typicalls
r s callcd
han orr ot xc s gery ig n ivay

Objective 11: Disc us lightness constancy and its sim


ncf,, ,irs
n
iIarit
28. Il c
sun

cs ar

irp

l t icss
0
i
cc
clabx t
idcpc ide t

und ng 0)1 ct

29. lhc amour t ci igi a i thjc t


its ,orrc und ss i, called

c ts rclatnc to

Oblective 13 Expia F ins be rcscai F oi distortu


ogglcs ncrc ses )u undcrstandir g of thc idptab I
y o perceptio
t ii glasses that shift or insert the
Ham rs
(will u ill not)
visual feld
adapt tc din distorted pcrception. I his is called

30 Iharls tc
c rst

Fu

at

wc sec cbjects as hat ing a


to rcicd ioblccts.

6.

Dir s
a p d

hi k
ad pt)t

iortrf cncs

161
a

ft t aggogglcsrelir tremoxcdrrost
brief per eptual
ca
as the pcrccptual sstcn s
c
on pc isat fo the shilted visual

16

isc ts

fainh
1
c iv 14 I fi fCi cptualsct andcx
I a
s s [aacdodonotperctnc
t

4)li,

Cull

kit

nfutr

i There Ext

crc

tor

1
ptrte

ta

Id
t

Xf

cne ace pcople acquire perc ptual

as reflected in children s
nx r s tdaftcrcnt ages lhWcxplainswlr w
r )r accuratch recognize
of I
au fa es than thc se people s actual faces
C

I cc reco,nataon is espccialh attuned to the


and
ar as of the
e s

Objectivel7 ft
ISP ani
re n
s
1 Ikrc
i

bjcc

e 13 I xplain why the same stimulus can


I lureni pc ption n different nntexi
i rubs is pcr en ed depends oia our per
ial chc nas and thc
hi iti experienccd

12

c lior

tio r

sa

i
V

Ia t
I SI

bh

also influenced by
about gender and the
c ntext ot our experiences

)nsat
t

P lh
cap I

o t xtota stimulus reatesa


op downbottom up)
p c ii a mar influences our perceptiou as wc
(topdon n bot
ou
up)sigralagainstit
t
)

tr

a cd
r 5
a aethe
Jiic fr

a a I bc
r
tIc

IC
I

as

1
r
16

tc

Ich naif
scrf en
n

rpsy
aiacs

c
or
tidy th mlcrt nc
aciplcs
the
gr
p1 Ip
n
dcs
C
p aces and as ork settings are

4
a

sv holog st
a

sc )f kn )wledgc, ted n k gr
rat otlcr
C tao
ra

cia

dc g

I
I
5

6
6

ot

r 6

Percepto

archers n 110 tried to reducc extcrnal distraw


is betnier. a sender an Ta receiser in an
I SP cspennlent. reported perfo mance let cIs that
(heat, did not beat) chance
s\J \leu tsent tucncs,

rcpl1catt the

results.

tounJ ecuallv high

B. relatir e motion.
c. linear perspechs e.
d.

6. Which of tile tollowing illustrates the principle of


visual capture?
a. We tend to form first impressions of other

let cu of ortorinaike1.

people on the basis


B.

PROGRESS TEST
TIiiltipI(hojt c

QIILstlo;ls

an-xer 0 toe roIIoc ing question and


tech thorn n ith the ansc uw beginning on page 169.
P r ow answer is ncorret read the explanation tot
o hr it o nicorrost and then consult the appropriate
pages ot the tc\t (in parcnthesw follow ing the correct
r O or).
S oor

historical moseinerit associated w th the


rcnt Tile whole may exceed the nm of its

a
c
d
2

r psvchoiogx.
i oral psx choogy
r
3
i r
ionrl pss hoo
C, sta t pc I ologs
i

point repre

C.

tile -acne stInnlus can tripger more than one

d.

ciitfcrcr

go

\ iOi mg

-cr110.

plo

sec

dtfferent things when

e0dft
ar di, sheet. each we recedes a
shith d.tr rco.i ;iage pros ichrg a cieptil 00

10

appearance.
is

automatic,

we

is

7. A person claiming to he able to read anothers


mind is claiming to has e the ESP ability of:
a. psychokinesis.
c. clairvoyance.
B. precognition.
d. telepathy.

8. Which philosopher maintained that knowledge


comes from mborn way s of organizing our senso
c. Gibson
d. Walk

9. Dr. Martin is using natural mapping to redesign


the instrument gauges of automobiles to be more

user friendly. Dr. Martin is evidently


a. psychophysicist.
B. cognitive psy chologist.
C. human tactors ps chologist.
d. experimental psychologist.

a(n):

10. The visual cliff tets an infants perceptual sensi


tivitv to which depth cue?

a. interposition
b. relative height

c. linear perspechve
d. texture gradient

f.ntcnil

4. \\ie

S As

of

processing

can par attention to a r isual image and any


other sensation at the same time.
c. We cannot simultaneously attend to a visual
image and another sensation.
a conflict between s isual infor
d. When there
mation and that from another sense, r ision
tends to dominate,

a. I orke

a. perceptton is largely innate.


simply a pont-tor
B. perception
sentation ot consaton,

B.

vIsual

B. Kant

II e hgnre-uround relationship has dcnronstra ted


that.

a,

Because

ry experiences?

ignrc tcnd to hr pcrc is d as whole complete


c c t c en if space or saps exist in the repre
crt tror thus demor strat ng the principle of:
mectedness,
c conhnuitt
b imilarity,
d losure

continuity.

Lon \eYgense

inear

pespcstne.

c. relatrs e n(11t)0
d. retinam arsparitv.

nior e. vies ed object- Last changing shapes


ow retinas, althongh is e dc i It perceive the
Is as chaoing. this l fart if thc phcnome

ox

toal

10

11. Kmttens and monkeys reared eeing only diffuse,


unpatterned light:
a. later had difficultr distinguishing color and
brightne-s.
b. later had difticultr perceiving, color and
brightness, hut or entuailv regained normal
sensitiviti,
c. later had ditficults peneiving the shape of
objects.
d. showed no impairment in perception, indicat
ing that neural feature detectors develop er en
in the absence of normal senorr experiences

es

Pr
12. Adults ss ho are horn blind hut later have their
vision restored:
a. are almost rinmediateh able to recognize

familiar obje ts.


b. typ c lly tail

c. are unahl t

ieco ,n zc familiar objects.


lion noving objects ix if their

tt
I

dies

d. has e escelknt cx ehand coordination.


13.

protes-.ing refers to how the phi s


ical haracterstics or stmujh mtluence their inten
pretat on.

c Paraps chological
d. Human factors

a. I opdoxx
Bottom u:

14. Which of the folioss ing is not a monocular depth

cue?
a. texture gradient
b. relatix e height

c. retinal dispariti
d. interposition

15. [he M iou illusion occurs in part because distance


cuts at the bob ion make the Moon seem

a. tarther an ay and therefore larger.


b. closer and theretore larger.
c. farther axvav and theretore smaller.
d. closer and therefore smaller.
16. Figure

to groo id as

is to

a. night iar

b. top bottom
c. cit ud; ski
d. sensation; peiception
17. fhe study ot perception is primarih concerned
xx ith hon WC

a.
b.
c.
d.

detect sights s )unds and other stimuli.


,cnse ens ir inmental stimuli
develop s nsits it} to illusions.
interpret ser sc ri stiniuh,

18. A inch or tie rnifns ng inf!ucnces perception?


1
a. biob gico

b.

mairiration

tS- tontast

c. c

cttitio

d.

hca

nit h

uh ore perccis ed
ct
m
a bi h 1

of teI na dreams that predi t


tuturo cx ents. f f J,riins to has e the pox er ot:
c. precognition.
a. teiopathx.
tiairxoxance,
d. pss chokiue-is.
b.

19. lack

20. Researchers who Ins esrigated tclepatb\ tound


that:
a. xvhen external ditraction- are educ-d, OOi
e moth
the sender and the recvei hcc

more a c irate hi dc nons at g I S


r it i
b. oni senders be rt a
c. only retch ers become a a .nor
d. or er mans studies none or I e hex t

ate.

TriteFalse items
Indicate whether each statement

placing f or I in the blink ne\t

i, truc ol

1 Orcexsepecwc
is impossible to see

Hise

item

it

grour c

2. Lahorators e\perinlents has e laid to


rest all crhicisins oi Ftiif
3, Sixmaonth-old infant- xvii! cr0-- a x
k.
1
diii if their mother ca

e n
4. Unlike other animals human
critical period for s isual Un xli vi
5. Immanuel Kant argued tha xpcncnt.
determined how xx e f rc en e the a orld
6. People who hi e in a carpentered xvoi id
are more likely than others to c\pcri
once the Mhlierj icr illusion.
7. Alter a period of thaw, humans ire able
a is r d nade
to adjust to hi ing

upside downhy dis ) tr g


8. &s our distaue Iron a obje ch ges
the objects size omns to chanc
9. Perception is nfhentcct hi pn noiopn
cal tactors such as set and expectation
xveh as by phi -iologrcai cx cuts

vi

hat port option

is

10. John I ocke argued

inborn.

PROGRESS TEST

nn,l
Progress Test 2 -hould he completed otu og
chapter reviest Ansi or rhe toiloviiv qoestronc $tei
let t ii
in fir
( u thoroughh understand tbt
the section rn icr s and Pie res
.

)tF

ur
to o it ii
1. [he tend r
uninterrupted patterr s is ralle
c. iu,tiiaritx.
a. clo-ure
d. pi vomits.
B. continuity.

2. Il hich of the foiloxx ing a a moi ocular di piti


a. light and shad,
B eon eree cc
c retm I pan
o
d. Ml oft c ahox t r mount w d ptl

Lit

164

Chapes b Perception

of thc 1 1 is ing

3. Wh
i&t

:t.,t

LIC

b.

()ti

men
eptcr

tOflil

th

at

gc

r.t,

d%Lor

tc
tlc ad

b.

t. C
eactdy

hum

I;i.l,dfl.

C.

di c eth
c
d

itt

COil

not

b. intt.q

.sl.ili l..iti UL!fl.ck

ti pi..alh do siot.
ada
tati.n is pcsib1e during. .rti.aI period
d. 1
. :.ltJflc% ha: riot thereafter
Ttcotcnmnrtat c I thc
a ud
uo
F Itt s 3m

rnslc
ccci i

..

a. perccptual at.
b. retwal di%paiit.

c. onvergence.
d. visual captors.

rio and

6. Ihank% to
the I retord

flRh,tsesoIsed
usod i the c r

problcr

pj

tt(Ic.

a.
b.

mdl

i object a& being it


d4taiie j. krrn n a..
Thi. F
depth 4
ut.
a. Iir.ar pcrspe.t1 e; bincrnar
b.
C ifiC F
tt mc.
lar
Li

fl

d.

9. lhej
tin. U

(fliflilellO
....

r.

(0 ..1/t CC Stcfl
bet.

tic.

..it1

cH$ l4fl

ttn

jt

17.

s.flJLitC

p.

b 1

ed

lt.%

fl.

I..
i,

1..

18.

i
Ii

mjpe%..

.a r

an. length .n mc .it d ct.


g ...i
V. P human t Mit n

for

,lS

iecloity
tiiemo
i
cn.
d. re t

C.

s.C.

it;o:i

imc

iii 1
QtX. 1

d. is ole.

urn

tie

ci

lb.

est

ft,,ClLV1ai

ides of c sisui
It hne n icid c dcns.t
ht Iflu Ii ct .itptl. p rceptioi
a. nn.%
ii. Icarnec!
jfl,%
iflflatc
al. ...
d in 1w an,.
d. nn

tic
t ot

10. W
the I
a. it

tchstabk

lb. ihe perceptual etror in is hkh tie tail to see an


object is hen our attertion F. dii cited (.flefl here is:
a. s bital apture.
math. nalbir S%.
er
it!
c

s.: bra.ntne.
hapc
S lit

iCV%

eler
a
b. sons

rcr. itt d

a.
b. sicdktaru

tS

IS.

we learn

.i

ui.

a-hti
oisccvcu car tpojectsadifferent
Ito in
I iou cy
c.zc
wt you do not
peceii
ha
his
b
a. tie ual d.
b. retinal disparit.
C. r ontanc
d cons ergtiice.

d. Gestalt p.. cnologi.ts

8. lIar tcidenc tc rereise 1

14

gst

7. \cor.1ing to the phiio;pher


top( civethei uld.
a ici
cttsc
b.
alk
d

tlmcr

13. 1% hicli or the k1los.vin statementS.. s.oncernnig


PSI n. true?
a Iost SI ieseai ezareqi ks.
b. Ihex
w F
a largc
in her f rdiable
des o atlo
F I
c Mo I
arch
holois dC skq tical of
ths. claims of deft deN ot LSP.
d. Ihere ha e been wli.tble Idboratory demon
..trations of [SI. but the results are no difter
ent tn.m those that would occur hi hancc.

n fat
psitlic
c. is hokinetciJ.

dl

11. l.s choIoz.%ts who .tud Id ,v .alied:


a. tiainovant-.
c. p..ap. thologkt,..
b. ttiepatn.
d. irs.

ircnlntr

vi%LlclI

diet

4. 1 p
dc

1% s.shei cperi

It has now do 6.mg cI

eric

ptior
I proc
,f here
C. I :.e :nnd O1tfl1/t .tfl.QtIo1l% iitti iiltJflWI.,
tu iirc t pt;n.
d. Preptkn result.. di r....Jli rrtrn t. fl%dtlL ut

1%

or iF
i/ tion

a.
1.

is,

rcept

I:

C. ,si..i1illtt.
r
1
4
,
1

d.

s.l;st

rgei.se

ga

b. ink rposit on
perceive the diagram above as
three eparate ub!ec ts due to the principle of;
c. closure
a. pro\lnnc\
ci. onnectcd ness.
b. ccc tinniti

19. 4 ou p ohahh

20.

refers to hon our know ledge

in0ce511Pi

and cxpcLtations int!uence perception.

a.
b

c tt

c Parapsi chological
ci, tin nan factors

dcix n
iv ip

PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED
\nsn er t e c q a stions ti c d v before an exam as a
tinal chc k r our nude standing if the chapters
terms an
4 c n opt.
AIultrplccCIzoicc

Qztcstwns

1. Although carpenter Smith pcrceh ed a brieth


x inn ed obiect as a screw drh er, police otficer
A esson perceived the same object a a knife. Ihis
ii!rrstrate that perceptron i guided hi;
a. lin ir perspectn e.
c retinal dispariti.
b. shape constancy.
ci perceptual set.
2. Be ause thc flow cr5 it thc toreg ound appeared
c misc and gr tim y the phc tographer decided that
the pictu c vas takcr too near the subject. Ihis
on Iusion w s based cn which depth cue?
a. r aM c size
c retinal disparits
h.

ci

H terpusition

texture gradient

3. I tic tact that a n hite object under clint illumma


tron appears lighter than a grat cibject under
bright iiluruinahcn jc called;
a. re!anxe luminance.

h. percrptuai adapratnn.
olnc intract
d. I i ifs cuntant v

C.

4.

mu ii

linac
r

he

it x oc; ton x brnc x our finger


anti! it i-n rntIa!! rouchec i

u called
cc nrc tirn,
a. reiat i disuntc

ton ard our face


flflsi, i-H o-ruusele
crr,\ cx depth inti rrna uo to
c. continutt

i-au

o-i con

8. In the tiLacI, of perceptual contt nci.


a. objects would appear it cnanae ri/c

hi- ir

distance from us hangec!.


b. depth perception ould he aa.a: cun cli
on monocular cues
c. depth perception n ou!d be a. ed e\c!c,-ix cix
on binocular cues,
iNn.
ci. depth pcrce tion would i
9. Thc .ilusior tt at th

appcars taller tha i it


c
5 are eq
height and s idt
tix ity to whic i nonocular c
C.
a. relatn c sizc
c
b. interposition
d. c

u
0l

ici ht
I dpi- ti

10. flow done perceive a po!c that

iva?
a. a farthcr awax
b. as neater
c.
a larger
ci. I here iv not eniulgc i;uhmn,
the Nc s size 01 di ta c

tox

e
ieoti r
c
rc
,it than thc ) her objcct.
b
c.
cr I in the othi r h cct.
d. sir i icr than the other ohlec t.

.n

\riki r
.
1
3C a sc
tui

7. As her en Mdc walks


ccii es his ci e s reinaimr
percen cd d
her rctinal i gc )f hr
a. incrcaccs dccreasec
b. increisc ircrcaser
c. decre is a, dcc ceases
ci. deccea,cc, increarer

11. An

sizc

-cc;sati

perception heih note thati


a. senation A horronup pricci-sr;;c.
b. perception is topdorc n proccsnu-m
c. a. and b. are both nut.
d. sensation and p-er- cptiorr o -ci at
tinuous proee.

ast

qua!

ace

6. Concluding her presentahon 0

ac t that cts the


cc cda heir;

ci

ti i-lct a

rcc orc
c rce
t

t
s

tic

Pink

rc
a. irtc o s
b. iclatisc

12. Objects h gh in our tic? o! s


due ti the pniicvt
as

a.
h.
c,
d.

c
d cat

nearer; rekrix c !acccht


nearer; lnea cccii- in,
tarther awax; relati\c heat,:
!a tner an at lear .pr- u

cc

tic-

cd

166

C haptcr 6

Perceptio

13. According to he prir ciplc o light and shadow, if


onc of two idc ntical objects rcllects mo e light to
your eves it rL bc pcrccircd as:
a. larger
c. larthcraxxax.
b smaller
d nearer.
14. Your tricr d t sses rou a f isbc c. You know that
is gcttrng closer instcad ot a ger becanse ol
a. shape c nstanc
c. size onstancx.
b. relathemi ion
d all if thc ahoxe

it

15 Which explanation of the \4uller t ter illusion is


offc red F r the text?
a. lhc corncs in cu carpcr tc ed irorld teach i
to intc rpret outix ard or inn ard pointing
arron heads at tF e cud of a line as a cuc to the
linc s distance troin us and so to its length.
b. 1W draring r iolation of inear peNpettiw.
makes one line seem longer
c. 1opdown processing of thc illusion is pre
r ented bc cause of thc stimuli s ambiguity
d. UI ot the abox e ir crc otfered as explanations

b. is u rpr dictable.
c. is influenced br cultural experiencc.
d is charrctenzed by all of the aboxe.
I ssay Question
lr inant
cx ic s Irom thc 193 s danccrs perlormed
seemingly meaningless mox cments xx hich xx hen
x icu ed tr xx i abox c xx crc transformed into intricate
patterns and dc signs. Simrlarlx the formations of
marcung ha ids t rren create pictures ano spell
words ldent t
s and describe at least four Gestalt
prmciples ci orouping I rat explain thc audience s
perception )f ti e images crcated hy these types of for
mations (Ust the space below to list the points you
want to makc and organize thc m. I hen xx rite the
essay on a sep irate piece of paper)

16. When the traffic light changed from red to green,


the drir crs on both sides ot Leon s rehicle pulled
qokklt furvr ard, g ing F eun th disork nthrg
fecling that his car n as rolling backward. Which
principle explains I con s m sperception?
a. relatir e motion
c. usual c upturt
b. continuity
d. proximity
17. Regina claims that she can bend spoons, levitate
furniture and perform many other mind or er
matter teats, Regina apparenth belier es she has
the powc r of
a. telepathy.
c. precognition
b. clairvox ance.
d. psx chokmcsis
18. 1 hc predictions of eading psy hics are:
a. ohen ambiguous prcpheci s later h terpicted
to mat F actuaicr
s
b. it r
c u t
ra p csscs rad
(thcrs
v ysn
c. icr
d. a rtc

KEY TERMS
Writing Definitions
Using r our ow n xx ords on a separate piece of paper
xx rite a brief dehnition or explanahon of each of the
folloxx ing terms
1. sc lectn c attention
2. nattcr tional blrndncss
3.

sua c ptur

4. cs ft
5 hgucgo
6. nrc

19. Stu ring thc


ad a b f re er trp. (clccn
had ni trc ubie fo ft n irg hc route of IF c hint
v ax sh planr od to tr
I C ollot ns ab I il us
trates the principle of
a closure.
c. contit uitv.
b sir ilarit
d. a oximit

10. retinal disF ant

20

11.

r
id

it

lus
ab

\n
)

aprctc

FIre

nr

7 depth p reel t

0 i

8. xnucl If
9. binocular uc

12

cr c

cc

Is

pt

167

ii

19

ti)fl

i th P olo xi.
id
ne mn ml. of
r in )rtant I th
o a tS \tteryouh xc
h inti nsotthtkev
r
t s iiptr x mshould
CO
C 10 n and pozzle
mat you an mx enso
n oy niie tin term
pro s
fmmton

I
1)5
i
c

th

msua field that


n,un
0 1
u
in In n t ) perceive tin
o off aralfol lmnns
atm p do maim in dii
C

nJ

Sm
S

tf

eCtn

that depCnd on
Ii xfnnboth acs
n that v teno to
AC

thitaneneam

on

i,uilftldtha
tf on Is
Jr

ma

ibn icr d h

at Sn irledge

on
it

I
f
etnnt

ytC

f
f

mm
o
r

of un
et

10

C
2

m-,ms ire

ndm I t
(C
C

H CflSlO ii
nat r maces

tn

tCn

CnCef inns from

that stnik h ret na

n it

nftr

the

11
12

1 n
Ct

nl

ii
ira
0

168

Ic cplioi

(h.otc

16. relath e height


17. relatix e motion (motion parallax)
18. linear perspectixe

ANSWERS
Chapter Review

19. light and shadon

1, Plato

20. x cry good; more slowh


21. mox ement; stroboscopic movement

Selectiee 3ttentioa
1, ewc U. c
2. corstii

attontton;

22. phi phenomenon

\eceo:

23. perceptual constancy

a ix ettccc
.

inattixtiOoa hnones; vuual; change hlcndness;


change deatnms; ohuico blindness

23. do not; retinal


26, Moon; Ponzo; MhlIerLver; size; distance; dimin
ished

Perceptual Illusions

A partial reason for the illusion that the Moon at the


horizon appears up to aO percent larger than the
\loon directly ox erhead is that cues to the distance of
objects at the horizon make the Moon, behind them,
seem farther away and therefore larger. When we ee
the Moon ox erhead in the sky, these misleading cues
are lacking.

1. oramzo Interoret

3. hearing
Organization

1. (lo1t whole

2. bottom up; top d wn; c xpcriences; expectations;


Iuzzx
3. ngure gtou ro
lhc ( estalt p v hol gists descri )ed some ket pnnci
p e ) per ptna crganization and in so doino,
den ors r i c d ti a prception jc far more than a sim
rocess Ihc rex.crsible tigure-ground
e sois
p c
rc a it nship. or cxamplc demc nstrates that a sinale
Pus can tnggcr nore than one perception. As
( cstalt pvcholo sts shoxxed. we continualh tilter
ensory iotormatior nd ccnst ct on perceptions in
u ax s that make ens to us
4. grouping
5. continultx; closure I rox nitv similarity con-

27. less
28. relative to
29. relative luminance
30. color constancy
Perceptual Interpretation
1. Kant
2. locke
3. cannot

4. infancy; critical period; cataract


5. will, perceptual adaptation

6. do not adapt
i.

iK ctedncss

isn.I .n;rt;

i5U,

tin a[;iitv to
iu

crc

tnt

per- en t-

--1
umt

Urwost-

nun n

10. onr
.

orooco

r.unoccnar

10. exes; mouth


11. context
12. top-down bottom-up

enOo-, hran,
rur.
r
p

14. human factors

1. expertise
16. assistix e listening

-ize

13. intnpoitiou
14. ck4r-c ci otv
-

ta. text

maw

13. stereon pe; emotiona

P i,Or nt-

12. rePro o

in

d.efh sprccut at, or

nih ar;cc hrta.

hiniva! r-

LU

9. schemas; caricatures

rmntn

tie

atteiertect

8. perceptual set

b. OttO perception; Or-Vance

2. x nuac capture

Perceptual

24. top-down angle; distance; illumination

itt a

ad tent

Is There Extrasensory Perception?


1.

extrascnsc ry perception

2 parapsnhologrsts

1)

ws

3. tclcpa
nesi
4. cha

n cxc

ii

c r nc

prc cognition, psxchoki

ter r tcd (rctrofitted) re onstruct

5. rqr dncb
6. be t

tcatith esults
1

Progress Test i.
Mult,Ie

(hou Outs iOn,

1. d s th ans icr Ccstih psvcholog3 which


dcx c pcd ir (ermany carlv in the twentieth cen
t i x was i it sted m hc xx lusters of sensations
arc rg n t F into v hc Ic perceptions. (pp.
2T2 T )
a. Paraf syci Pogx is thc stndy of ISP and other
para ormal phenomena
b & c. Beh iv mral md functional psychology
developed I iter in th L nited States
2. d. is thc answe (p 244)
a. C onnectednc ss refers to the tendency to sce
uniform and linked items as a unit.
b him larity retcrs to the tendency to group simh
far items
c. Continuity rcters to the tendency to group
stimuli into sm )oth continuous patterns.
3, c. is the ansxx e Although xx e alway s differenth
ate a stI nulus into figure and ground, those elm
ments of thc stiniulus xx e perceix e as figure and
thosc as gro nd m iv change. In this way, the
same stim mlus can tnggc r more than one percep
p, 4
a. The idea ml figu e ground relationship has no
bearing on the issue of xx hether perception is
innate
b. Pc rcei tion cannot be simply a point-fonpoint
represc ntati if of sc nsation since in figure
g our d rd tic nsl ps a single shmulus can trigger
morc thin o ic p
gti i
I
u
0
i
r
,
d
c
at c nships dernonstr ite the
d.
al
r
t r t mar indn idual prm
c stc
c e
ri en / hon Signiti antly,
f es
cn
r
e
t c
c pc
a i see diffcrcnt hgure
grc id
i r
men vic ing scene.
p
he neater thc retinal dispa ill
4. d. s thc
six c
or d tferer cc mciv cc n the images the less the dis
toncc p 4o
a. (mx c rgen c is the xtent to which the eves
move inward xvhcn looking it an object
b. line r pc ocitixe is he monocular distancc
m
e
F ci xc aapcar to converge in
P di r
i
i
r
i s
r ular distaimee cue
c

in rrhi h obects at hf
their relatn e 05 tic n
those c losc st movinu i 10

ii

r
5. a. i, the a isrrer Pcr
ist i s
hke pc icepti n c
nomenon of pcr cptua c
t i
in Refatn motion is n a c
s
which object at Ii tcrc it 1 s
more at ditlercnt iates
)
c. I men perspccn c s rr
inwhichhiesvekrov tob are
the di,tancc thus mdi i in,
d. Cont nuity is the pcrccpti Ii
items into cc ntinuou r a
6. d. is thc ansuer (p N
t r
a., b., & c. Visual cap ui i
forming impressions h neonle
us it
attend in morc than o ic n
7. d. is the ansxrer p 263)
a. Ps chokinesis iefcis to f
perform acts of mind ox e r
b. Precognition reters o t
perceix e tuture cx cnts
c. Clairvox ance refers in t i
percen e remote cx cnts

ci

lai
m

ci

cain

iiy

ity

8. b, is thc answer. (p 251)


m
a. I ocke argued that k moxvlcd e
0
comes through Iearnin
c. & d. Cibson and Walk stud cd deg t
ade o
hon using the x isual cliff they
about the source o kno x ledgc

9. c. is the answer. (p 261


10. d. is the answer. There is ot

ou
cc
dropmff Ihc tcxtnrc gradient of t
board pattern beneath thc las I blc
s
r ic
impression of depth Ihc oth
to r
would not bc icier ant tc tic s
cxrer ient (p 215 17)

11. c. tic aisixcr


3
a.&b,Tfekitt s id
r
the, had ncr i n r
r ormal scnsit it
d. BotF per tua nd t u
went resnlttd fr i xi c d p
12. b. is the ar swcr Be ansc thc F i
risual expericnccs t csc a
difficultx learning to percc P c Ije
a. Snch patients typicall cc u
ogniie object ix ft v F h t c
touch md in nc asc t n
c
c Bc iig Fl tc

I
a

I
r

(.h.

ro

b t
hip.. pat
bjet ts
their e
i t
d. Ibis t1fl.i
s
c
eiehand
coo,dination i
d requies
1
1
much ltctttict.
13. b. 1% the an%wer. jp. _L,
a. [op dos:i p,ie;ng !t.( .5 to hO%% OUI kiios 1
edge and epeaatioris I deflte ptrctptfl.
cho!og% is the kai of perteption out
c.
side n,)nnal -eItS)fl input.
d. Human factor. p, J1oigs I. concerned slUt
h&k be.t to desL,,n niati.iii c. rid n ork .eftings to
take into ac nunt human p rception
14. c. 1% the
a Retinal cii%pantv I a !bzL; iil,i
cue all the otrt tUt incflttt;iled are mano.u1ar.
jp 2-IN
is ith

Proures Tnt a
b.
a C c t c
fi
hed
c. Sirna .

cIitflCt rite -luon oppedrs larger at the


than in erhead :r the slc because ihject
at the horLcn pros ide &snzL e cue. that mak
the.. tonn seem tarthe a
nd therefore larger.
In the open sky, o oiis the c ar no such cUes.
(p. 2M)
hon,on

16. c. is the anss


I
s c i lotd as a figure

B
niird_.
againt Ih t
a.,b.,&d I
ucgrnd eatnt reters
0 the org. r 1) oftlc isis
ldt objects
fpires tia aia ou fro iei stir oi dngs
W

r.

d.isthea sver ( 2
r dwith
dyotscn o
t&b.lhc
c.
thee proces c
1 g
c. %lthough s
u 10 s a
oed ps
chologists tindet a d c d r ar wa ptual mccli
itusms, it is not the. or a , aus of the tickt S
pert eption.

18. d. is

tnt

ansss

er. (p1 34 N

19. c. :- the JPsi e:. p. 2r


a. T!i cIi%;CT tsiaki be . .rrc. t hao 1ak Janwd
tob- bk to rI--qi .q.flftSfl; c
. mind
1
b. lius aflstst
ild h,. c--rrectPaJ )ak claitnp.1
to b. ak et e.qc remote cstnt., such d% .1 tnt-cd
di.tre..
d. Ibis oncXtr .t.n;t eu .stna,1 i.ck iatrqnj
1
to h.- able t
itm. cibfrs.t .r tercl Oufl ith
ut applying ..m ph ca! rure.
-

20. d. k the mnej. .p. 2n7,

ip.

n,

3. 1 (p. 23)
4 1 i 236)

3.

S. I (p 2;fl
pp. 27 p5.
lSIj

in

t ri .er. to

the tendtnt to group item

d. lrv n:t rt.res t. the tendtncs to group itttns


that are ir une another.
2. a. is the answer. p. 2-i$J
b. & c. L. oris ergente and retinal disparits are
hoth tno War cues that depend on information
tinn beti nis.
3.

% the as er. (p. 243i


a. & b. Tee (.sstalt p.s chologists did not deal
lt
1
of peritptiin; thes s cre more
tth t
concerned ss tb its turin.
d. It, oi.t thei argued just the oppoiltr Per
ceptior i
)F than mere sensors e\pcriente.

C.

%.rigin.

4. c.
such a
dcv

Is

a d tI
c ck n

r swe Humans and certain animals


c t en ue able to adjust to upside
lis r d icr sisual distortions fisur
iii
betis een di pcrcei ad
a
Cu rcal h
iser aninals such as
it
ally unabk to adapt
d

a Hymn aid etani ras eabletoadapt


lutC vcI to dstcrtad is al ensiounents and
Lien c adajtl
s r )riet becaust. hunans are
b. I s at y
t1E1 Os
i catures.
oara
adapt at any age to d stort
d fusai rcabl
on c ts.
edusu i
5. a.isth a sw 4.257)
6 d sp iv i a binoc. u
b. Rttin
ar depth cue based
1
on the faa that e3d1 eye ret dies a hghtiv differ
sic itt.rti.)rld.
t.Cnnverc.-nce 1- nims.ular di ptl cut based on
fhe. faa that the c. ssing iiirard ti. tocu. oh
t
cii

near

bjets

vr to the tendcns ot siqon


4
Wr: re
1
d. stir ca
to doLina e the other senses.
6. b. t%4h,,.ar.,4%tr p 2i,z,
a. Pazap-s rhologi%ts tuds dain.s ifl FSP.
. P,. h. :. t;ti .ae people sthc l.irn IsP hj
the pin; e r mnd user fldttCi.
d. (test 1
t r hologists emplia.iie the organiza
tion wits tioi into ineaninglui pert eptiuns.
.fpfl,4,
7.ai I
cn
1
b
.tknutsledgt I n
% alt maxe ro clair
-i
cc
-

lrueFalse firms
1. 1 (p. 2I)

III)
he tendet cs to perceptua lv
the suc I
)puzablc obleds

that Jtt ahdt.

Par ips

13. a. is the

er

(p. 24Th
0. is iie ans
a. & b. Linear perspectix a which is a monocular
ue. rcfer to the tendency ot parallel lines to conS
erge m th wstance.
jrth requires onh one cx and is
c. Retain e
therefore n )nwular cue

9
p. 230 2 1
Hi r ao ar to be x critcal
th
r
10
dt r
e Laid scion nhinthatscrso
rest! LI
sex err cstr permanenth dis
o e 5
t
ette a hen it occur in infancy but not
a p
xx hen it xccn Liter n life (0. 2%
a. & d. S nerx restr icton does not hat e the same
etteew at all ages. and is more damaging to chd
5 a erita
5 because there i
dma than to adults. I his i
the

cr

ii period to perreptual dcx elopment whether


ft rthonai b indress nil re u t depends in part
or enat rc F ttse scrvirst ittion
0 Resear 1 str d e have not ndicated th it senso
nort d a gin to human than
suit )
C animals,

the answer. ip. P4r


a., h., & 0. These pscchas claim to exhibit the
phenomena studied Ox arapsx chologists.
12. 0. r- the answer. Hhen we move, stable objects
xc see also i apear to mox e, and the distance and
ed of
ai parent notit ix rue us to the
je ts r tue distances (p 48j
i
b, & c I sc depth rues are unrelated to
noxeInert P thus no k exen when wc are stin
tionarv.
13. c. is the an. ar p. 2tdii
IL a

is

a. \ianx Phd researcher are sincere, reputable


Insearilters.

h. & d. There hat e been no roliahie demonstrin

dons of PSP
14 e is the amsx
it
se H

m Because I emeeptual constancy,


ha e and sic as alxxaxs he
m

a
Irspont or ti tin
a tnt
reep
i r
nduota
t xc tried
b. Ltcuna dsp it mcuns tnat ur right and left
exeL card ecer xc siighdx diheren,t imap.s
0. cccx tgert is a form oi new omuscular teed
hack rn Sh th exes .xHnu in. or out. a
x ex ett:acts at rttcrrati distances,

tht ar
d xx F

15. c.

t r
esta
53

a Lorir

rgin

42)

s
tie
p .2 8
sual
stf
a.
u
t dccx hi i onto
or sense
inmate tI
ust to
1
c. iar,i pm. actepration is Fe tOt mix to ad
ox trtcd x anal
it .rrttfiaahx disptared or exert

16. b

tied

0. Dix ergerce

dix e

or

Ia nkn

it

cussed in this chapter


17. a, is the answer. \dt rhint a -ci In naxx
oxer the ciitf on x d.n coax 5 suxica t:t
55,
that much it depth orccphon
.

0mg ot
243)

with the
snne thu
18 d s Fr

lr

urn

ix

itt

we i.
19 d,rcthe
C
the ter.
a at
a. Paints ty
or era e
to one another. ilrr drag, in
distinct units exen monad itS pnu an.

s tear

spa ceO
0. Continuiix a the to C idxi 4
into nxooth, unrnter rupmei ,aatern
mx
such eontm itt in the d
c

(lemro

saps im
ed no ts

lr

tead

he p

ira hi H
p cix

It

at

20. a. is ha am sit r. (p. 2.


5
b. Bottom up pror m ssn,

at x -5 1
rhamacterisucs ot stimui mISer titan 4 sin pbr_en
tual interpretation.
C. Parapvehomogx a the suadx tit ner, pu. a ott
side normal sensorx lop
d. Ho mat tactors nsx rh logi is to e eel xx rIf
ug Ic
aod x
mow be to d sign a
it!
take irt ace urth m

efe

Psychology Applied
.XIzrltijncClzozce Questions
1. 0. is the answer. The ax o a ode ; r rctP t
brietIx pemceix ed object in terra o in n not p.
a spnstot in ms mse
5
tual sets or mental pr
t5
pemien
v
hx
their
conditioned
di
xsttm
d
Vt
a Both Sm th and
i
x
t
expc tea
of
ties t ci ci I ac
I e F
us tnxx
b. Shal
ohiects it r un a instant t P ic c (1
retinal inx.ge or th
n rlr,r,a
5
dispa:t;
- a iana ear d5pt
c. Ret,nai
!nd lOcal dtrm5-c t
xx
itO
nodxinc to d

i!

r. x
F

xi,
-

I,

ecptron.
2 0. is the am sx er. \ dt.

md
eamse 0
em than it he

ins xx
I Ic

mextuu
c tF.

dc
t
5
tic

ptstr

x,

xi

(p 24c

a.&b.le
fudge the

rpe,

last dish

ietts; because ,nlx


tirec rues art imccltx at,!

0 .5

,1

172

(hapte 6 Ptrceptior

c. Retinal dsparits refers to the ditferent images


(U cyt 5 recc is c whether the photograph s tex
ture was coarse cr fnc the rctnal drspartv
U ould be the same
sw er Xlthoug r th. ii ount of light
3. d. is the
retlcctcd from white oh ect is les in dim light
than in c igh liht a id may be less than thc
an onnt I light reflected from a brightly lit gray
object the brij tncss ot the vs bite objett is per
vs remuinnig constant
a vi ite
obje t reflet ts a higher percentage of the light
talhng on it than does a gin object and the
brightness of objects is perceh ed as constant
despite v ariations in illumination vs bite is per
ceived as brig ter than gray even nnder dim ilk
iv ination. (p 253)
a. Relativ e luminance refers to the relath e inten
sity ot light falling on surfaces that are in proxini
itv Lightness constancy is pcrceiv ed despite v an
ations in illumination
b. Perceptual adaptahon refers to the ability to
adjust to an arhficially modified perceptual envi
ronnient su h as an ins erted v isual field,
c. Color contrast is not discnssed in this text.

9.

10.

11.

4. b L the anse er The phenomenon described i,


the basis for the monocular cue of relativ e size
(p 246)
a. The object casting the larger rehnal image
vs ould be perceived as closer,
c, & d. Because of size constancy the perceh ed
size of familiar objects remains constant, despite
changes in their retinal image size.
S. d. is the answer &s an object comes closer in onr
field of v ision, the eyes svv ing inn ard (converge)
and provide muscular cues as to the objects dis
tance (p. 246
a, Retir al disparity refers to the slightly different
images of an object received b the two eves due
to their difier nt angles of viewmg.
b. lnter usi i is a niu C cui cue to dstai cc ii
hicf an oh c t that pait
i Iv fli ks nothe s
1
se vas lcsc
c hot
t
s a ( stat groupug yrr ipic
atic thin d s n c cu
6. d.i tfcai c

p 24
7 d.istheanswcr, p,25l
8, a. is t v ansv er Becruse vie perce ye the size of a
finular ebjcct as constar t even as its rehnal
mane grows sirafiei we perceive the object as
beng a tlerav y pp 2)0 251
b &
vssa yisac
it e
t

12.

13.

than sensory phenomenon. I heretore, the ab


sence of perceptual constancy vs ould not alter
sensitiv ity to monocular or binocular cues.
d. \lthough the absence of perceptual constancy
would impair depth perception based on the size
distance rd t onsi p other cues to depth such as
te xture gradient could still be used,
c. is the answer, Wt perctne objects highei in our
field of v ision as farther away Thus, the brain
perceivec a scriual line the same length a a hori
zontal Ime to be more distant and mentally ad
justs its apparent length to make it seem longei
(pp. 241, 247
a. & b. These monocular cues are irrclev ant in
this particular illusion,
d. Rehnal disparity is a biaacalar cue to depth.
b. is the answer This is an example of the princi
plc of interposihon in depth percephon. (p. 246)
a. The partially abscared object is perceived as far
then an ax.
c. The perc civ ed size of an object is not altered
when that object overlaps another,
c. is the ansvven, (pp. 248, 249)
a. Interposition is a monocular depth cue in
vs hich an object that partially coy trs another k
perceiv ed as closer.
b. flad five artist painted the trees so that the
images of some were sharp and others hazy, the
anhst vs ould have been using relath e clarity.
d. Had the artist painted the trees so that there
was a gradual change from a coarse, dishnct to a
fine, indistinct texture, texture gradient would
has e been used to cons cv depth.
c. is the ansyeen, (p. 247)
b. & d. Linear penspeeth e is the apparent eons en
gence of parallel lines as a cue to distance.
d. is the ansvs en, Nearby objects reflect more light
to the cv e Thus gn en hi o identical objects the
brighten one seems nearer, p. 248)
a. & b. &cause ui tnt prmciple it s ze constancy

an object s pe i ed size i, unaffected by its dis


tance angle f v w r
)r illu nnahor,
14. c. is the ar swer Ihis s in mllustratiot of the size
dista c
dat e sf ip in deptf pence ption y r
25j 251
a, Although t ye frisbee s shape is pereeiv ed as
constant (eyer as the shape of its retinal image
changes), this is nc t a cue to its distance,
b. Relative motion is the pence phon that when we
nvov e stationary objects at different distances
A a vgc tf e r rd itive positons n r n v sual
i ig
vtF t seccses
m ss nost In t
t

73

4.

aianplt. onh tl.c trishec lb rnoi big.


15. a. t h ansier. :p. 251)
te answer. Although I eons other .enses
t
Lb. c.
i.o I 1ia e toI tini his car is as not mn big, thc
otter carc tin n for bard
ii
cs I
c renssnd rcitedthcpcrcp
F
i.e is s o hag bickisard. o 212)
tin
a. RL Li t mohc n ic a distante cut that otcurs
iien ,tationars objects appear to me.we as is e
nc; e I; the ej.posite is happeiing to Leon
b. & d. Contriuts and promntv are Gestalt
Pr,
s of oupinv r ther thu tues o
d
as
, 6S
d
he dined ahi1it to rt d
s
a
Faths

th.

of

iflCitX.

1
COstUflie

3. Cc:t

U ut

Li

...g

Jn..

reics e

ic

.hsnictnt

srnottl.

toitinu

nCfltJQUs Oflfl,

ther
as

in a

4.

di

Li in

itrer

iser

ric .iei

ii.

,iar

a.

ca

).

iniz iii

t..e

.ie

t.a;s

..

c unplet

ti crti.e ..t

peicept..a!. ill

sic

flitI.fl

pating
1 order
n

t.. .v r

r torir

1 v are

L. cli

it.

ar

nil

it,

e. Thu.

u. tnt.

ietiseni .1a.js
he or
t peict

:i

e
4

tin

Key Terms

fl .flij%.

an n ante refers to the claimed ability to


b. t 1
rtiwist rerncte esents.
t. Precognition iefer to the claimed ahiliti to
tutur
c its.
1
taisiscrp26 26)
d
I answer She pcrccnes t c line for bc
c
road continuous, ci en though it is nterrupted
Liv lines indicating other roads. ip. 244)
a. (locare retei to the perceptual filling in of
gaps iq stimulus to treate a complete. is hole
itjec
rity i the tendency to perceive similar
b.
bdorgirgtogcther Onaroadmap,afl
o j
the
c repic sentmg roads appear similar. Thus
this te could not be the basic for Colleens abili
fl to Pace the route of a particular road.
d. Proiniitv is the tendency to group objett. near
to cue anothei as a single Unit.
20. c.ist ansiscr (p 25H
en entucly based on fr pIns
a
c pro
ar K istics of a st mulus bottom-vp
c
carpente ed ens iron
xpei itt C with
lack
n. nt t oLild not educe censiti; itv to the illusion
b. JncipIts of grouping, depth perteption. and
its to iIluson- al demonstrate that per
OVCfl i pn.dictable
.)i:%ti
.

IVritwg Defrnitwns
ti
.s. .sfl1 et tttisCiOus
1. Selectise attention
(us cut
all of
tila ,ti
n ... ps arenc
237
ire
id
ci
ncr in
i.
pt
bI
n ter
isil.
3jECt Ft i ow
I to
.
attention .iirec tiM CC% here p 23
3. Visual capture i. the ttfl.itnt. for; I-.Iufl t domi
nate the other sQfl. :. 2421
estult
lh
1
1
Uict
n
4 C estalt
Ia
nte
d
-Ft
aripful
c
a
e
ioles
2;
5. Figure-ground rete:.. ;. i tlic . .nwatio cit the
tnt. zv
1
L
4
isuai !k
p r% etc figure, which
siixnui.dii-gi.
?rd the stir
.ii
Ire
its
.tand. ut?
-

ouiing

6 (oup g
U
i,

ide.

K H

dincers or mcmberc of a marchirg


L.nd ,na epatate tlwrnsls Cs from the larger
s.roup in order to form part of a particular image.

2.

st

.i

.r
Lx

y l3eca c

s, il

per e ic similar figures a


cloco,ipt i I t

iso

er

e I-u

ndor

c
e
r
t

,u
.i

b ha

1.

ui.1. ip

r,

ul

nut

eN

iclo

1.

rnc
-

iit- Jfltibo1Pic.

d opec iic.teiitti art i.e


as
F oning tohether. Ihus, a sma 1
ich ther
it

he
I
d a

7. Depth perception
ttU

1
1st
U

ic-i

irk..

;tc

43

ii,

it

cEe .1
ug!

:.it
1

t) s
:

1fl

t -.rrilo.
0
st: .. tF.
US

,Ji
ci
s b tier eq.
1
ir,.

U,

rrtrf.

nts

an;

ilchtf.
that
IL!enct
ri. e
iti. itS

ccl \nk ioan. fr


wate. a. 24i
.leptl perc..pti.r it lt.i..t : p. t 1
9. Binocular cue .i. c.t pu u. th.it Jep nd on
I
ni U
)
ormat
Cibs.::.

In

t1

ai

attIcs

u ts

Li

Inc

ue

17-

Chapter 6

in

10. Retinal disparity refers to the differences


bettt cen the images received hr the left cx e and
the right cx e as a resuit or iew lug the world
trin sighin wirerent angles. It is a binocular
depth cue since the greater the curterence
bets ceo the too images the nearer th ohjet. (p.
246
i n ioniuscular hint cular depth
11. Convergen e
base
t c cx c it to ohicf thc cyes con
I a lien looki ig t iear or
hc n ( tfc eves convcrge, the
s nt
h
s
c rerif
2 ))

18. Extrasensory perception (ESP) refers to the con


troversial claim that perception can occur without
sensory input. Supposed ESP poix ers include
telepathy. clairvoyance, and precognition. (p. 264)

2loniarii ;nd: Extnz- moans hevond or in addi


tion to; extrasensory perception is perception

ontside or beyond the normal senses.


19. Parapsychology is the stndy of dSP, psychokine
sis and other paranormal forms ot interaction
between the mdiv idual and the enx ironment.
(p. 264)

Mrrnory aid: Para

like extra indicates beyond;


thus, paranormal is beyond the normal and para
psychology is the studi of phenomena beyond
tire realm of psvchologx arid known natural laws.

Monocular cues
depth cues that depcnd on
nformation fr r
t icr ox e alone. (p 216)
Flea; a ,nd: .1 ieee- means one; a monocle is an
ox eglass for tine ox e. \ monocular cue is one that
(s ax a (ladle to eitht r the lott or the right eve.
.

13. Ihe phi phenomenon is an illusion ot rnox ement


created when ht 0 or more adjacent lights blink
on and oft i -attesson. p. 250;
14. Perceptual constancy is the perccption that
oblects hat e m r istent lightness color shape,
id rze cv -i s rllumination and retinal images
2)0
F ngo.

In. rceptn I adaptation refers to our ability to


ust k
ar ilk all d splaced or ox en inverted
ual tic
( ci distortmg lenses we perceive
i(ngs accor ingly ut soon adjust by learning
the reitionsh p ehx ceo our distorted percep
tions and the reilito. (p. 2o
16. Perceptual set is a mental predisposrtion to perceo e one thing and not another, (p. 257
17. Human tactors psychology explores hoxv people
and macltne interact and how machines and
h rca! ent jr menents can he adapted to human
1
helravkn and run to n crease safety and produc

jjx h

Cross-Check
ACROSS
1. ground

8. linear
13. binocular

15. proxinritx
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

tignre
Locke
closure
grouping
gestalt

DOWN
2. reversible
3. depth
4. cocktail party

5. selective
6. phi phenomenon
7, Mullor-Lyer
9.
10.
11.
12.
14.

interposition
relative luminance
relative clarity
connectedness
critical period

focus on Vocabulary and Language

FOCUS (fl 1 OCABLILIRIAND Lt\GUAGF

Selective :1 tten tb
I

ii

and Perceptual Illusions

Pag 238 \ow, suddenh po i attention I -potliglit


shlt \oui I t H
u ni lOst stubbornly
t traced
azt
on t: Pact herore I oIL Selective attention
refers to our tendenci to tocus on onli a small part
of what is possible ror u> to experience. Ii x ou do
attend to more aspcc ts 01 your experience (vol/i
ittcntzo;i I j 1 it rH/is) yon will be surprised at
the amount of stImulation you process xx ithout
axx areness, such as thc feel of the shoes on your feet
(uour Put ice cm asct) and the fact that r our nose
actuallx blocks your ibm of \ sion ti/oar iiose -ttfb
lion flu nib tn/c Oh the pig ).

Ihis means
won in y drae n Honk
Ptipc 238.
thar x ou do not at hiex c th result you want, you
dont succeed. X\ hen x ou attend to onh one x oice
among mann tthe cocktazl party e1/ectl, xou may be
unable to sal what someone else, who was clearly
within your hcariug range, was saying (you drnv a
blank). Interestingly you would very likely hear
your 0 n namc if it xx crc spoken by this person.
*

a x ouug woman carrying an umbrella


Page 233:
sauntercd across the screen. tn this experiment, sub
jects had to watch a x ideo of basketball players and
signal n hen the ball xx as passed. Because of their in
tense selectix e attenhon, the generally failed to
notice a female walking sloxx lv sauntering) through

the players.
we experience pop-out. xvhen a striking
Rpe 239:
lv distinct stimulus. such as the only smiling face in
Figure b4. draws our ey e. A very unique object or
cx cut (a stnikinglti distinc t stimulus) will automatical
ly attract our attention ( t Hums our owe). this experi
ence is called the pop-out phenomenon.
Ripe 242.. tmuch as we nerceix e a x oice trom tIn
cotton na:st I!tnnu. A x entriioquist is an enter
adieu c beiiexc his xoice is
tainer rho akes dx
inr frr
t ii
y Du t)thcphc
uoiuenon of vsual capture xx c assume tf at because
the d ds mouth i rao tug and the ventriloquist s is
not, the vcIceNcomny from the dumnxx
u tow Ii niaii met Is the ski ii, A
t xerc s none to this than meets the
i cx r ss 0 x mean ng something is
rr

5 H HP H
P
noted carlic

is :je

cxt i a (0
going on hm ond the bx bus or the apparent. ln this
x araton of the e\presston. Myers is noting that
there s a hearing phtuonnenun similar to visual cap
tire xel-0cl is he rtndencx for yiston to dominate
mci t parti pants sense
the n x i xx
I I
i
tetxersenseo touh
ddt
clx ri ,

175

creating the illusion of receix iug more than a single


touch ithus, there is more to tuc: than amen the skfo),
Perceptual Organi:a tiou
I his nxeans to hare a desire or
Page 243
it
deep need ucilt to do sonxething. \h ens notes that
our brains desire ie/r) to pLit together hits and
pieces of seusory input into coherent units involves
both bottom-up and top-down processing We
actix ely impose structure and inter meaning (top
doxx n) and are not simpiy registering sensory stimu
lation (bottonx-up; in a passix e maunei. I hus, there
is no sharplx detined line ttlxe boundary xx filmy)
hetx ecu sensory and perceptual processes.
*

Page p44: Usually these grouping principles help us


construct reality. Sometimes howex er they lead us
ensatray. &lthough we put together elements of 5
3
a
tion through adix e organization (the Gestalt group
ing principlest and end up with a unitarx experi
ence, xx e sometimes make mistakes in the process
(ae are led astnap)
Page 245. Their mothers then coo red them to era ctl
out onto the glass. In the experiment xx ith the visual
cliff, b- to 14-month-old children xx crc gently en
couraged icoaxed) by their mothers to move, on their
hands and knees tcnauil onto the inxiihle glass top
on the deep side ot the apparatus. Most could not
be persuaded to do so leading to the conclusion that
depth perception may be innate (inborn). Ihe idea
for this famous experiment came to Gibson xvhen
she was at the Grand Canyon and xvondered if a
young child ttoddieri looking iptcnlngi ox en the edge
of the canyon xvould recognize the steep, unsafe,
incline (danger )us drop offi and retreat (dra r back).
Page 24u: The floahng finger sausage ttugure 69), In
the denxonstnation and xou xx ill experience the effect
ot retinal disparity and see a tubular shape (finger
saitsape made dx x our brain from the nxo different
ugers
1
images of x our
1ipr48 \s emcx c[etst aarca ualh s Ic
rxai a pc an to r )ve. If igs that are stat ouanx and
do not mox e I nic :ims Pt seen, to flu ee reiatn e to
us when xx e mox e.
igc 2 iJ A inodon picture cncates this ilusion dx
3
i
flashing 24 still pictures eac ii sc cond, When xx e x iew
a film, we do not cxpe ience a rapid senes of non
mox ing images ( tih pIt tic); rather, our brain con
structs the pert cix ed motbm, This is called stroho
scOioie mom enient,
25J fake axvay th we distaI cc toes
by ioc k
t the horizoi H c i or c x uiom ste on e id
xx diatc
1 m tub and ft )bjcct i
c
hap tf rough

Pig
in g

176

Chapter 6

Perception

hr shrmks Obsers ers has e argued for centuries


about xvhi the Moon neat the horizon seems so

much larger than the Moon overhead in the sky.


One e\planatlon ins olves the interaction of perccix ed size and perceived distance. Distance cues at
the horizon make the \loon appear farther awas

th ir ix hen it is ox erhead (xx here there are no dis


tance cues) Ihe Moon casts the saae retinal image in
both ituatons, so the image that appears to he more
distant (i.e., near the horizon) will therefore seem
larger. \\ e can eliminate the distance cues by look
inc at the Moon through a rolled-up piece of paper
mper lobe) the Moon xx ill appear much smaller (it

cli;i

s).

l ag: 25 l iTtoure J5
L arpeatered
.\ carpenter
is omeone who constructs objects. houses, furni
ture, boats, etc., out of wood. In Western cultures
many of these objects are angutar, xx ith 0 angles
and corners rather than circular or round. Our
experiences xx ith ret tangular shapes (caipeatered cvii
text) contributes to the MO 11cr-Li ci illusion.
.

Perceptual Interpretation
Page 255: Most had been horn xxith cataracts
do ided lenses that allowed thens to see onh dif
fused light, rather as you or I might see a diffuse fog
through a Ping-Pang hail sliced in half. People born
with e.ataracts cannot see clearh because the nor
maim transparent lenes in their eves are opaque. To
understand xx hat their vision is like, imagine what
von xx ould see if ou had y our eyes covered xx ith
half of a small xx hite, plastic ball that is used in table

tennis (Ping Pang). fhen cataract patients has e their

x isbn restored, after being blind since hirth. they


can sense colors and distinguish figure from ground
(innate capacities), but thex cannot x isually recog
nize thmgs that xxerc familiar bx touch.
Pa 256 C n a in a a af glasses, inc 1
mav 1 slight
r
U P oriented, ci a; Punt. \\ hen xx e start wearing

ordinars cx eglases or xx hen xve are titted xx ith a


ness p.nr. our initial reaction is a little confusion and
x rt o (1::
llowex er, xxe quickly adapt xx ith
in I v d
We can ilso ad ipt to cnse that dis
xx t
are lok spat hi 40 to me side aid
cx or P dstoit on lenses that i xx ert re ihtx (turn the
S isual image upstde don n-fla topse -turvy xx orIW.
sgs, alamanders. and x oung chickens cannot
1
F sh tr
adapt in this n ax.
a
0

oc
e.

: As ox en one knows, to see 1 to (cIa


As
o knoxx but Icss fulls appreciate to C lieu is to
e expre sion s ai is ciceaig means that

a e pat much reliance an x dual mtornxation xx hen


decidiiic We lieS ing) xx hat is true. \lver shows us
that. on the contrarx xx hat sic he(ieye mat actuallx

affect what xxe see. Our assuinpuons expectations,


and mental predisponti.ans tperceptual sets deter
mine, to a large extent. our perceptions.
in N. 2. a bnusn ness spaper pubiished
genuine. unretouched photographs ot i iai r in
Scotlands I och Ness
People xx ho had heard
about or belies ed in the In di Nc ss M in ter bc fore
seeing a x erx ambiguous putt rc of a log xx en nore
hiclined to see what thex expected to see d.c.. a
monster) because ot their perceptual set.
.

Page 58: (loarlx. much ot xvhat xx e pc rceiye conies


not just irons the xx orld out I icre but ilso tr fli
mOats behia it, cia , I lo
vie
Mx ers is
reiterating the point that our mental predispositions,
expectations, heliets, etc. ia/i: i,Jii;id ua eves i/ni
tetaeea aur can) influence much more itt what xx e
percen e than the sensor5 stimulation xx cemyed trom
the outside xx orld

lifft; toes t
a
not i i s
the
eves at their hcboldcr. I he familiar a\ ing heaatm 5 10
the eve at tat hchaidcr Inca ns tha.t xx hat is perceix ed
Page 261. Saa

as heautitul has more to do with xx hat the perceivor


suhjectiv clv belies es than xx ith the absolute qualities
of the person on object heing judged I ken ie our
steneoti pes (rigid, cons cntional ide as or beliefs)
about gender on culture can greatir influence (color)
what is perceix ed.
Is There E.vtrasensorit Perception?
Page 26a

. uncaaay
People xx ho ha o dreams
that coincide, by pure han cc
IF later ox ents often
have an eerie on strange (ai a a g) teelin; aho it the
accuracs of theh appaeit precognitions.

Page 267: ...i aitidti,acio a fcnti xx. some


alleged (ca-iaiicdl psychics, using magic tucks and
not extnasensorx ability unethica C manipulate and
deceixe (exi ii gulCh c a
in g audiences
with rmpressmx e and ynndr us dew snstratrc us
5 nani ;;n;,p , .M Msts gnints out.
(maa,1 tt,scia
after many, many s uan 0 ins csiIgatic

and thou

cxperinen xx teo is
s ,eun
cx id.ne
that extiaser
rx abi
c I (be
c s i t c
panan nma nacd or
I
xx
p s
demcnstnate
s uglc iCiOc
Ic I pher. it e
non to ralute the ]amm mat tncrc s no I H this has
not happened).
ands

of

But sonic people ida hax c as ni tdied


for xx OI dermen ia I
to
c en c the
magical. Souse COf Ic in p lsi is
I hehcxc n
lSP because If c x has
Jeep
It ic I ainat J P
ce, tor u misc .xnd axz mn
5
laa
t .m1d a trony
ambition on dcsine (an in (0 cx2!em (he mx st uon
and amP mxymi
Page 2H:

hnagi i

States of
Consciousness

bitt tta tif) tf tt iiit,,


J1t)Lt551ii trLeu to 1i

ur aS xnxe, of ourselt e and our


ri xc d n x arious states
ii
i he
b
cc
orrr xi onsuousness,
r t n1
sac
u
CI
Out also Deq and drruunicnz. n qnotn tatc, diug
altered nates, and nearuieath e\paIences.
\iost ut 0 e wnninoioqx in [Inc Jiapter i intro
Slet and )reams and on
on
s
du d i
s, \mon the issues diron
Dr
(c
and ream xx hether hr quo
r slet
cuss J a xx as
sj
uni Ut stare of conciousnesc, and possible
psvchoImb ci and cciai_LuItura1 roots of drug use.
clan

flint

/J

f/c

lni,t

mOPC 11: iulIiii;np no nit ;tatt. gOat.

Objective 1: DcPcus the hcPtorv of pn aPology


tudx of rOnSCtousfle, and contran consciou and

rirxconc ions information procesirg.


nascust aim

1. Ihestudvof
the earls x ears

ot: psx chologs and in recent

decades. hut for pulte -ome time

it was

dDoiacod

2. Ads ance in neurosciene made it prnsihle to

Ft

;x
bu
1
1

qo

[it ix

5(

ant

Ix

sD
10

radi g and boldface

bin

ad [lie ecnon, rex ion ouch


0 till-in and eav-tx pe
nn u uiro th

I at

u
in
crdutad ajc
x

li,,r
to

Co iscio

reenter psi; chologs

Define conciousnex n a

sentence,

cc it son
re
0
[tic ttoouk hr t

id nforrration Processing

es

ci

idioms that arc un


du I vu do or I knon
ipx
Id I iI
h
tIn rott \f n nhtch
r a a Pc us icr to paOe Jiri for an
can
tun ppear n the
a 0 1 no a
in
p
lpp a
it
cPu
In
P

ci

xc, pro eed cx aluate


[I ,xssesbegin
lx [I ncxt Se
no

to

\l
t
a

tcno an

ii

,,

77

1P8

haptc

States of Constiousness

rcqnirc

dirot

SLeep and Dreams pp.


i k

ar

is

liLT,

Aiaiat
5w
-

a
tord
(C

It

Iii

mot aeu rate. in contrast

it

.,

0111

No111

s the

iorn

dde adults tend to Wad

ever ir

tt

5. ike mat experience


It orn eircad tar rio thm u

H p

H :

CITI 1,1

the

at

H pest an

is
is

cdi i

it

to unit ersttx students, w ho often are at their peak

H:

H r

usal,

sing of ins of th
xpr nsions n the
ttx
He t n a cr in the text refer
;des J
Nor ,.o uxplanation: ONo( :1

T a; a t;;3s P at ta; riot oocr ,oia lii:


Ott

4. lAf en people ire at tieir dir]

colic

inc

in c rrupted by travel acre s ti so

Ii

cadian rhythm aist mat I

Irva p
P;;s neat

.11/

nterrupt

changes. rich

tti dINT

that occurs in

0111;,

rtdde it /073 tIc xt


ilii 1ol0Il\ 1
ii ii
I stIll 0

es (7
hr

10

thu one

the oring in mans area. and hs

xc ork
b. Resethng of a disrnpted b c logic i1 it k i Ii I
fated hs exposurt to

10,

which trigger proteins in

Objective 2: 0
rhs ft
a ft

;nn hiir is pes itt biological


e n
:nple I each

sfto

id

1.

the

l7
aod t no ea

01

decrease its prodnction of

k dx c an rol sex eral

of the ox ox to signal the

brains
the cluster of cells called thc

control. the Jradian lock.

rna, arc

The longer we remain awake, the more our brains

han max gh e rise to scm


vi

accninulate

lx

hich ft dx to
certai nc nr

t
I

us sleeps We can also reset our

r eoenah those n tar tort hem


n nut Ixperienee a depressed winter
1

01

nd

ir

ke

hiol gical cl cks

Ls adjusting our

iso

Objective 4 list the stage of t


xpla
tow they differ

pen nc

cc

ti

7.
f
1

hr

The sleep cx e
1 ronsnt of

d:,tinct stagec

an in:

8. 1

unte
t;ei--

5. xc

if it-c-p.

rhvtfm tsle

ics

r nsk ri toed t sat, at c

as
Ofl

adi

rcc

the night, he

a,
s

tap

inn child inns ed rapidlc This t;a 4 dr p. dii:


Oh
e
1
crrvo :
at
iv

cx Ic ti cti r rreacian
cc t Ivut t ha

ing which

9. 1 c relati
-

ar

5,10-

i-il1-,,x,,, 24 huiricn

iota ft c ilcd

I slow

am

relaxed sOrt an knt xvn

of

its

it

SlecpaidDrcams
10.

During Stage I

people often experience


%ensations similar to
.1 hese sensation, mai later

oratediio

hem
11

sleep.

I
tLSlec

I
trig

ii -.%Q

1 itbtha

changes

that

accompans

RI M

13. Duritir REM sleep. the motor cofte is


(active reiaed;. while the
(actii e,
mu%Lie.. arc
.
relax d For ths r ason, RI NI is ofte ire cITed c
,.

r odeiemo cnent ererallv isna the


P1-I scans
ieitI lieightctied attn it) ifl the
and
R \4 sleep.
wing
e hrai
lit

it
it
miii tes. stlic r tprt
tage 3-Jeep htci.rnec
bride-i and RE \l
re. rioJ- betonie
rider p o iii tels
(hr
h
1
s
r f r
NI.
,et-

lb. \ei bom spend watli


a%lcLp w iii. a ull
ic. ni. h. t lii.
ii i

17. c cep paft ms a

12. L .nge slow brain .ai e are tailed


nave.. ir,t in Stage
1 l during
and 1 icreasin
sleq which are
their
c alice.
%le(p - per.on in the latter
%tage ni .leep generaIi will be
jeas :,jjfficult) to awaken.
It isd ing thi. .tage that pcople maj et gage in
let
Dc nbc. t e bodil
sleep.

Objective 5: fplain in sitep pattern and duration


person to per%on.

ar) from

ccurd

iccalka

179

need k
as indicattd tv tile fad
that !.leep patteni. among
(identical 11 ateit.iJi in Ii are wri %unllar. Jeep
cii
s a so in.t
1 i.
t in

eo 1 sil
18. 4iovc k c Pu I ide at no
J.cep 4 hou a night ople isto sleep less than
icet br .everal nights in a ron often shins sgfls
t
(It

Objective 6: Di cus se
sleep cprha

risb associated with

19. Ia iager calls i*d


hours ot .leep but non a trage ntarl
hours less sleep than
Si)
teenagers ot years ago. To p chologist
,thasiiditatestiat
William
udetacdangeious)
thcircsiiant
p-dco cd. One idicatiom o the hazards )f
t fis state is that the l.lte of
tend to mc: ease immcdiateli- after the spnng
time change in Canada and the tilted State..
Arother is t it sleep depth atio ia.- supprc.s
tie. intounsot clx ss
orw
aic.h
ss t a da czm4
I x tioninc. a n ai s t at mnm
a..J ae. Cflt.dih..i t

Ii

of

INC

(ranter

Objectis e

States of Consdousness

idendix four theories of whx we sleep.

20. 1 r (

ible ix rson for sleep are to


is arid to help restore body
I
lb
if he
& nmais is ith high waking
produce an abundance of
j

nrc te\ir te
C

i tate-

xdcr

Sleep also

ot the das

cnt

es and stjmuiates

0 Lii
I

sic

a rc s th h ismone is released bx the


land Adults spend
1 less) time in deep
(more
chiidt cr1 and so release
more less) growth b rrmone,

problems that

(run do not

run) in families. [hece sleep episodes are most


likely

to

be experienced by

(x onng children adc lescents il

idults

is hom this stage te ids tc hc the

and
Objectix e 9: Describe the most connnon content or
d ream.
26. Dreams experienced during

sleep are s is id, emotional, and hi aue. tOuring


dreams, thi d ca ncr ma bc
sufficiently ass arc to is ondcr whethc r hc or she
is in fact dreaming.
27. For both men and

S in 10 dreams ate

is omen,

marked by

tpositive. nega
tine) emodons, such as fears of being

Obietim S: identtlv the major sleep disorders.

2. a p

t is t difticulty in tailing or staying asleep

is it of
Sleeping
al hol max make the problem wotse
stncr
tend to
(increase/
RL\i
sleep.
cd ccc.
23. 1 he leep oisordet in which a person experiences

unnintrniiahle sleep attacks is


I erg

it is

air thi disorder mar collapse directly

wIn

sleep and experience a

h
II

psi pP isith this disorder lack a


t a in die

is ni

dm

step breathing

a dc

II

drr

is

is ms,

bile

Objective 10: Compare the major perspectives on


why we dream.
29. Freud referred to the actual content of a dream a

its

content. Freud behesed


that this is a censored symbolie s ersic of the
true meaning, or
of the drean

w t lied hr extremt

oe et eoisr rcles nf

the dreams of ad al.

is (shes and rre the ken

31. 1 reuds thcnrs ha

s en xx ax

them x th

drc airs sers e a


rose
function. Support t )r thi thc ory s pr r I d b
th f set that RIM sleca faciht tcs

Lnlik

tirec ei be usually happen earls

riatit, d orlna Sta(e

or

to understandine inner

Fspeciaiix pres aicnt

pid F art e it and breathing P saIled

is sanre is ft

cultures worldis ide.

retlect
xi

this gendcr dii


(ts s not) found in

30. Aceordina to Freud mot

24 inii-,iiiserferingfron

iI

more about
fercnce

that pro

neon rtranintter

me a tb
5 d

28. Although fema its tend to dream equalls otter


about males and females, males tend to dn am

32. Other theories propose


nine

rl,t

drennrin;a crs es

tons tine,

that RP\l sitt pt*er 5


d

- the htah
anch an e 5,

S
xi

a example
th

neeIlei

natIon

is

Hypnosis

who claimed to

attributed to
hax e discovered an

suppc rted bi the fact that


dults) 5
pend the most time in REM
(intants

181

sleep.
33. Still other theories propose that dreams are elicit
actix
ed by random bursts of
its origmatmg rn loxx er regionc ot the bruin, suih
\cording to the
as the
theory,
sense
ot
to
make
brains
attempt
drcams x e the
thls actn ty. The bursts a e behexed to be gnen
their t m )tiOnal tone by the brains
svstcm PT T scans of s ceping people rex cal
increase I attivit\ in the brains
Other
si stem, espcciads the
theorists see dreams as a natural part of brain

and
dcx eiopment.
34. Resean..hers agree that xx e
(need. do riot need) REM sleep. After being
deprix ed of REM sleep. a person spends more
time iii RFM sleep; this is the
effect.
(does/does not)
35. RI M sleep
occur in other mammals, Animals snch as fish,
whose behavior is Ic ss influenced by learning,
(do, do not) dream. 1 his finding up orts the
theors oT dreaming.

Hypnosis pp. 29029n)


tf r ou do not knoxx the meaning of any ot the
foiioxx ing words, phrase.. or expressions in the
context in which thex appear in the text, refer
to pag 202 tor an explanation: a; ;;w;;icrirn as
/n /1; scram
d aas z i i/lcd sud / g
/ c zeus,
;
limJ
r d
lg

Objective IT: Dchne a:/pac z nd n tc come similari


ties helmet r the hohax ior of hvpnotiiod people and
that of moti, ated unin pnotized people.
1. FIx i1Osis is a
inn Inch a hxpnntist sug
gests that a uhied xx ill txpcdence certain tee)
ng or thauchts, ,r cxamnit. Os discox crx is

2. The weight ot research cx idence suggests that


lwpnosi
(does does not)
allow a pcrson to perform teats that are impossi
ble in the normal xx aking state. The strength. sta
mina, learning, and perceptual abilities of hs pno
(are are not) like
tized pc ople
tlmse of motix ated unhy pnotiied people.
Objective 12: Discuss the chara tcristics of people
who are snscc ptible to h pnosis and cx aluate claims
that hypnosis an influence people s memorx, ix ill,
health, and perception of pain.
(some
3. Most people are
xx hat: not at all) hypnotically suggestible.
Describe people xvho are the most susceptible to hvp
11 Osis.

4. if people are led to expect that they are hr pnotiz


able, their responsix eness under hy pnosis
(xx ill/xx ill not) increase.
5. The hr pnotic demonstration in xxhich a subject
supposedly relix es earlier experiences is referred
toas
Research studies show that the subjects in such
demonstrations hax e memories that are
(more no more) accurate
then the CnO! ies at tuih conscious persons.
6. An
hyo o med o
acts

pers in egtimate
can in i c people
ot t i pc fc rr some on kelv

7. Hr pnothc rapists nax e helped somc pe pie aHex i


ate headaches asthma, and shess related skin
disorders through the use 01
suggestions.
8. Eor
irug ae, x ubjcict

such as smoking and


hx notic respon-ivenes

182

Chapter 7 States of Consciousness

(does does not) make a diP


ft rence in the effectix eness of hypnosis.

Discuss the current view of hvpn wis

as a

hlend of the

two views.

9. One statistical digest showed that l pnosis


not) especialli helpful
tor the treatment ot obesity.
(is

10. tlxpnosis
(can cannot)
relies e pain. One theory of hypnotic pain relief
that hr liO5is separates. or

is

Drugs and Consciousness (pp duo 04)

the sensors and emotional aspects of pain.


Another is that hypnotic pain relief is dne to
seiectix e
,that is. to the per

If r on do not know the muantng or an. of the


followhrg is ords, phrases. or espressions in the
context in ss hid thes appear in the te\t, refer
to page- 2022t(3 tor an evplanaton: tipsa an
rile rai i Lec;
1 tIc !ciht. [jest rcLt,t rant
jritratts lean cvra igai rpua stiiqCrnil ,iah
lain; quit kar pick r uepc, one ;un
1 a lmte n
price
a
ntathe;
gn ran p c a
[ft o oak;
g
acid ti ip nii i it ii,i i
dl relief

sons focusing on stimuli other than pain.


11. FF1 cans shon that hypnosis reduces brain
activits in a region involved in
to painful stimuli, but not in
the
cortex that receives the
ran
input.
Objective 13: Dive arguments tor and aaainst
hvpno
0
sis as an altered state of consciousness
12. Skephcs believe that hypnosis may reflect the
vi orkings of
These findings provide sup
port for the
theory of hr pnosis.
Summarire the argument that hypnosis is not an
altered state of consciousness.

Objective 14: Dehne psgc tac a 1


ie
1. Drugs that after moods and pricepuons arc called
drugs
Objective 15: Discuss the naturc of 1 up dependence,
and identify three common misconccphons about
addiction
2. Drug users who reqoirt mcreasing doses to expe
rience a drugs effe ts has e des e(cped
for the drug. 1 he aners brain
counteracts the disruption to its nrna ( function
ing; thus, the user experlenLes
-

3.

Atter ceasing to ue a

drug,

sx mptt en-

ence

13. liilgard has ads anced the idea that during hvp
nosis there ft a
or split
hitsvaen ditterent levels of consciou-ness.
14. 1 he \1$enre ot a separate consciouness, which
n an are ot what takes place during hr pnosis, is
espressed :n the concept ot the

oped a phi sical


of a drug to relies c

stress

i-

an

who experi
has des el
Repulat nan

xanrp(e at a

dependence A p-n 5( ;n is
has a nimpuis e r15 :ng for a anbrancc despite

ads er-e conseouen


that substance
Briefli

state

addiction.

\ though this theorx has pror oked controversy,


t cr
little doubt that
influ
lo plar an important rc lc in hvpn )5i5

a person

to

three common nwk iw eptien abc ut

183

Drugs ar d (onsciousnes

Oh ctveJ6:\an
tocciags ,.ndlis
n to Pci nlth neurotr

ategor c s of ps choaw
a
r a s thc so sv bstances can
itt cbrau.
51

r ee ht oad att
4. 1 he 1
t he

fdu scscussedin

it

\r 1
fl moe

o afco ml
9. Opia n,

hich tend

body trInronN;
ht ptec hod. tenchuns: mct
h
o5
to a

8. Iranqulli crs wlich me a so known as


hat e effects -imik r to thoe
tine and heroin all
1
e\cite depress nenra

functionin I ogether. these drugs are called the

t\ iaen met are present, the

Iter perception.

bra to

ci

lng
5
entualh stops nrodu

king, sttmulartng,
5
ihee atom aLl. oUch h ntin:i
or a th:h.ttne Lee actr itt or the crams
Objective 18: td ntitv the niajor stimulants. and
eoplam hoxr thor attect neural actn ti an.d hehax br.

Psvcltobgialiv, our
also nov a nIe,

Objectire 1: no plain hon detaressants affect nervous


svston act\ hr and behavior and nmmarize the
tindinas .n alcohol use ano ahnc,
5. Dept cssaoL

nervous

ci

bolma

ft

orvho

0
th

nc

or

itt

\s

r,

iaclccnts
i

wear otf I hey do this F y blocking tIe


of tho reorotrans ntters,

alt

the I

no

12. (ocaine s px chological of fec ts depend not on

redree

ffec t cognition

r especially in
.C nt. Alec hal also
,

a.

iccne

Ones

13. The dreg

the

ira

ri 0 n

whet of

c oeh itt in coO

alcob a

nmk once

of

thc non 0,0 ran

and

atitter

or \ID\l\.

Is b
th a
0

I hi- druc trgger the rcloa-e


c, i no

and t to

7. F oresh e ate of alcohol c

Di

I ects

on dosage and fonn but also on

ot
hr

and result ir depression as th drugs

w r cn row am in the non e cells


v

tter docking rt

i toUr utransinitors

and

acing \l ohc 1 affects


hthe ri cssoftrans

I cn

ingiopet

ii. Cocainc and crack deplete the brains supply of

me

tare are not)

addictn e

Dt(flL.

r crc

and
Stimulants

and

itt

1
tue

stem

body toni tion.


I on dose, of alci ol if tel s clasihed as a
slot he actn Iv ot the

aeth

10. The most n idelv used stimulants are

at d block dte :eahsorptio


ot

Anoon. the ad me

effects of this drng. are dirupttc ii or the bodi P


clock. uppresson of the

and
impaired

and ttl or

toni hoot

184

C :ttoeet

%tate. at C ancioU9fles.

nbc tha phi %mlocical and pvcho


.i1u .k.t,Ci% .tid %unnlan,e the
)ni na

Objetn t 19 Dc
a . I

..;

ic tsc

d
onn
ire
i

yr flit tic ha
aid

heircit. 4rnilar ti a sultipc of


k..t.lrsniPeT
I W)

ti,

identift ome of the psvchologic al and social-cultuiai


roots of drug use.

the action.
fl(_

ru..ui%r.

5. il

icd

rhc

c.pnrli

Iic ::

wijuan isab,resiat d
v j an
Len;used
whc fcrt om
is ci er, ti e e medical
ted ii ma nuana toeJcjti.

:1.

1
r

tttet C

alcoholism if they had a(n)


(ati.pUvt biological) patent with hi&tors of
akohohsni. Bois isho at age 6 are
itt
c
1
Icss)txcitablearcmorel
i te 1
noke drink aiduse Liar i gs .tne. Ft
m )r common aiim ig people prc posed tc
akohoh.m inas caue deficiencit. in the brain s
s %tCfll.

20. Among teenagers. drug use


(i aries, is

the pI saaI and psychological

about the same) acro


and

groups.

clild.

21. frican- \merkan high school s n o repoit b.c


(hi,hest lois a t) ratc I
drug use A major sot al intlumcc n drug u c
the
culturc.
22. State three possible chamwls ot influence for drug
prec ention and treatment prograrn.
16.

e
1

a.

at c nfteicret. of drug use mai he

pal t t

pindplc that emotions

ft

C.

bjectt
intl
n
Jr..

h.

gical si hological
.ft onthtu bO drug use.

iuss
ura. L do

!a;

\. ti

.;,.,.

-i r

rncra, an vo,.
th
4
:;ft t3c I dccl
.,flfl

hat

I
t

L
1

r t

a...

.,

itim.c

ha t
more tess

19.

diic

Near-Death ExperIences (pp. 30

0)

It iou do not kncn the rne3ning or am of tb.


follmving n.ord.. n the oritnt .n which the
appear in the text. refer h; page 2(3 (ci an
tnptanation. t.i:, 0
.
w z.:: :1
9111
1iith
diet
I
1
1P iLl
1
c
Ii
L n41

wt
!

ncai during

ti1t c. r

it)

b.

tc sard al
iot chingec
ra ptople

tS 1 Iz.aki.fl,.
..:..zk.

..

.u

ecthk t

Objective 21: Desci


flit rear t
c
the contro4ers via sh her it proud
a mindboth dualism.

pcner

esidei

1. 11w reporl. of people ss1w has elad n


..n .leail
1
c are icrv ..imilar to H.
eporttd hi inag u.er-. Prc

185

I ogress lest 1

ex eriences i sax hr he r wuit of a deficient sup


1
or t ther ir suits to the
Ix of

7.

8.

boOs a:e one

svh\ it is nrornx t and then consult the appropriate


pages ot the text (in parentheses following the correct
ansis er).

2.

tc c br n ells that tontrol tin circadian


r
nist
amx gdaia
b suprachiasmatrc ruciens
c. adenosine.
ci pineal.
*

i disrupted, we experience jet

3. When our

lag.
age i sleep
a. t5
b. RiCh sleep

c. crcadan rhrthn
ci. Stage 4 sieep

4. Sleep sr :ndie precioniinate daring n itih stage

5.

a.

ran 2
5

b.

-race

iri.

sic ics

aeon

6. 1 hc
a.

dces the fods expt


heart rate, rapid hreathin.g, and

t.gt S lee

C.

rnage4

10, U hich

to:

is app 0 umatc x

do

ot

ti

fohoss hsg C

lassified as a depres

sant.
a.

c.

nscth nwhctans s

s hxpnosis is

hr mode
discovcrx
attributc ci U.
a I cci
b. Mcsrer.

12. Wine

marijuana

ci, alcohol

in

b.

c.

c iianos,

ci.

iiyaid

enerahs

ta ernents conccrning

the tolh x

hypnosis is true
Peoplc xi ill do anvtf it under hr pnosis.
si is the san e as sleeping.
p
t.
lfypr Oss S in part an extension of the dixi
s 01 etxsec s conscious as. areness and auto
nsatie bchaxi sr
ci. ifs puosis impros es mensors recall.
a.

b. 11

13. People one nerd uTea-un uhrasn. prior te Prep


ss e as. anened ouch time rIse hogan Itbisi sleep.

The tact that tnt. nmenshered icss rho next

marulost

theorx

ontt st

b. phx siologir al

-e--int
5
inhrmattin pro
tix
cs-sr
nth.esis
at
t
h
0
ci.

c.

minutes.

5 a, ishm,
iioti
a. a -s :sholk fririllnxent
ando:n
neu nil tO hi its in tin
S. the rt u t at r

bh

pills is

13. Arcodin,i,, to Prcud, elna

ci, Mini -leep


n le

Cue etrect ii s or wig

a.

aroaai:

a. Cage 1
S. Stage 3

norrnonal funeth in

des -up on toi tin


inoronc ur 1

c Stare 4
ci. ixtAiPeep

neo e u 1cistO

ude.

phins.

11.
isp soss
ci. all ot the abox e

d mctaoo c a d
rec
creat t
p
citheab xc.

te

i c

c t Sri inc system.

rOil
ci. stinrularhig the bra,ns prod udion of eiidon

n text consuousness mcludes

,
1
s nicls 01 the lohovsui
a t scrr-ed att n or

leeping

ti

S. depressing neural actis its in the bra in.

CirLie sour aiwx ers to the toilon ing questions and


check tlserit u ith the ansis ers beginning on page f 04,
it S our unsiver is mrorrect, read the explanation for

ci tonic -he deprii ation

c. hIockng the reuptake of Jepalnilie iii htain

vlt1lttJ?iLLlIOiCC Qtwstions
1
.

ess Os m

9. Com inc and crack produce a eupliorir ruin ha:


a. hIm king the actions or serotonin,

\s defined by

up

a. demeas Rh\i siren.


in inrreawRh\isieeo.
c. dee tease Stage 2 sleep.
ci. inn ease Stage 2 -Jeep.

beliexe thi the mind and

PROGRESS TEST

c eeC

b.
c,
ci,

brain
2. rhat the mind and both are distinct entities is the
position of the theori%ts hoc sin as
in contrast, the

usc
a

c.
d

hia s t a
ti
r

s,sm toi seiPat iriulatiou


sioi N of

I n icr t onfi

86
is.

(.hapt r

S ats of Consciow.ness

r.- .naLtnt

drugs affect behavior and percep


rhutugh:
a. the prni er of %uggestion.
t;oi

1.

te

placebo effect.

ab iatior oi neural acthitv in the brain.


d. p-n hiogkal riot ph siological influence.
t.

th t
1
l
n u I

ill ns i g are common misconteption


ttptthestatcmentthat
ze at iddctwn a persa i
m
1
a
it d professic ul therapy.
n md medidnal drugs en quick
b. s
is Ic t addiction.
c t iologi 1 f ttors place some individuak at
re ised risk for addiction.
d. rn.n-.v other repetitive. pleasure-seeking
Lehen kr fit the drug-addiction-as-dicease
s&dingtreatment model.

18. Which of the following is tiot a theory of dream


ing mentioned in the tint?
a. L)reams facilitate information proce-.sing.
b. Dreaming stimulates the des eloping brain.
c. Dreams result from random neural attn it
originating in the brainstem.
d. l)reaming is a tempt to escapc ron social
stimulatic r

ti)fl

i A- .N beginning. psvchologi tocused on the


-tuJ o-.
a. obsers able bchavioi
b. )fl%(i)U (
lix. ailci
C. abn
all
b c

19 Ih leepnakinc tick of stung oeopk


sta) upto)lIttflht. 11
e
hni.r
duration.
a.23
c.23
b.24
d.26

ith

it

appropriate definition or

ie%.t1 iv.
Oetj,z,ics,i

or Desci iptions

Terms

1. nirrace meaning of dreams


2. deepc.i meaning of dreams
3. -td).e;-.) .1 deep associated usith delta

marijuana
alcohol
Stage I sleep
night teirors
manife-t content
cocaine
narcc lepsv
sbcp apnc i
Sb s r 14 CL)
j. RI Msleep
k at nt onten

4.

4 deep associated is ith inu%cu


i n
r in u 1 h bit ithan stops
ci
c rrrgiiStagc4sltcp
C.

9.
10 ts

stage ot slap associated usith


u.r. re-d. rvbl;ng hallucination-.
-tnkr in uhich deep attack orc.ur

ri

11.

ii

20. The lou est rate-. ot drug use among high -school
seniors is reported bi:
a. white males.
b. white lemales.
c. black males.
d. I.atinos.

tchn, it

1al I e h tir

11

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
&
K
I.

Progress Test 2

PROGRESS TEST 2
Progress Test 2 should be completed during a final
chapter review. Answer the following questions after
you thoroughly understand the correct answers for
the section reviews and Progress Test t.
Multiple-Chofee Questions
1, Which of the following statements regarding
REM sleep is true?
a. Adults spend more time than infants in REM
sleep.
b. REM sleep deprivahon results in a REM
rebound,
c. People deprived of REM sleep adapt easily.
d. Sleeping medications tend to increase REM
sleep.
2. Which theorists believe that the mind and the
body are separate entihes?
a. the behaviorists
c. the duahsts
b. the monists
d. the Ereudians
3. Alcohol has the most profound effect on:
a. the transfer of experiences to long-term
memory.
b. immediate memory.
c. previously established long-term memories.
d. all of the above.
4. A person whose EEC shows a high proporhon of
alpha waves is most likely:
a. dreaming.
c. in Stage 3 or 4 sleep.
b. in Stage 2 sleep.
d. awake and relaxed.
5. Circadian rhythms are the:
a. brain waves that occur during Stage 4 sleep.
b. muscular tremors that occur during opiate
withdrawal.
c. regular body cycles that occur on a 24-hour
schedule.
d. brain waves that are indicative of Stage 2
sleep.
6. A person who requires increasing amounts of a
drug in order to feel its effect is said to have
developed:
a. tolerance.
b. physical dependency.
c. psychological dependency.
d. resistance.
7. Which of the following is not an example of a bio
logical rhythm?
a. feeling depressed during the winter months

187

b. the female menstrual cycle


c. the hve sleep stages
ci. sudden sleep attacks during the day
8. Which of the following is characteristic of REM
sleep?
a. genital arousal
b. increased muscular tension
c. night terrors
d. alpha waves
9. Which of the following is not a stimulant?
a. amphetamines
c. nicohne
b. caffeine
d. alcohol
10. Hypnotic responsiveness is:
a. the same in all people.
b. generally greater in women than men.
c. generally greater in men than women.
d. greater when people are led to expect it.
11. According to Hilgard, hypnosis is:
a. no different from a state of heightened moti
vation.
b. the same as dreaming.
c. a dissociahon between different levels of con
sciousness.
d. a type of animal magnetism.
12. Which of the following was not cited in the text as
evidence that heredity influences alcohol use?
a. Children whose parents abuse alcohol have a
lower tolerance for multiple alcoholic drinks
taken over a short period of time.
Boys
who are impulsive and fearless at age 6
b.
are more likely to drink as teenagers.
c. Laboratory mice have been selectively bred to
prefer alcohol to water.
d. Adopted children are more suscephble if one
or both of their biological parents has a histo
ry of alcoholism.
13. As a form of therapy for relieving problems such
as warts, hypnosis is:
a. ineffective.
b. no more effective than positive suggestions
given without hypnosis.
c. highly effechve.
d. more effective with adults than children.
14. Which of the following is usually the most pow
erful determinant of whether teenagers begin
using drugs?
a. family strength
c. school adjustment
b. religiosity
d. peer influence

188
15

Chapter 7 States of Consciousness

Fl is the major actix e ingredient in:


c. marijuana.
a. nicotinc,
d. cocaine.
b NIDMA

16 1 h se rho belier e that hypnosis is a social phm


no icnor argue that hxpnotized indixiduals
a to isciously taking their behax ior
b merel acting out a role.
iJ rah cx (is storing to please the hxpnm
tist

d
17

I of the abox e
u

iris is

defmed in the text as

a me ital life
b selc tix e attention to ongoing perceptions,
thoughts and feelings
c

inforruauou processmg

d our air areness of ourselx es and our environ


nic nt

thcs s theor
)
19. Aca iding D thc
dreaming rcpresei ts
i c ratc un dat d bursts
a. thc brains ctlo ts tc
ot actixitx m xisuil b i a cis v th thc emm
tional tom piox ided by r if
xstem acti itt.
b a inecha nsin or cOpi i, i ft I c str wses of
dailx life
in s n ulfilled
c. x sy mboiic def ict or )l a 0
xx ishes
c ss r e r han sm for
d. an informati ii
onr cit ng the da c c pe it icc into Ic ng
term mci or
20. 1 low a particula psi cI a t
d u itic ts a pcr
son depend on
a the dosagc and orr r irt ci tie drug i
taken.
ondity
b. the uaer expc tati ILd
c. the situation in which F d uy i takcn
ci, all of the abox e

18 I am a st nthehc stimulant and mild hallucinogen


that produces euphoria and social intimacy by
triggering the release of dopamine and serotonin
Pr hat am I?
a ND
c. Ilk
ci. cocaine
b. MDM c

Matching Items

Match each term with its appropriate definihon or


dc scriptun
Definitions or Descriptions

Ierrns

1. drug that is both a stimulant and mild


hallucinogen
2. drugs that increase energy and stimu
late neural mtir itv
3. brxi i xx ave of awake, relaxed person
4 brim ware atn itv dunng Stace 2 sleep
5 slcep stage associated roth dreaming
6. d ugs tF at reduce anxietx and depress
c itial ncr us s stem act rot
i t r
air k tIers Pr )duced by thc
brain
8 nt urotransm tter that I SI) resembles
9 mr a arc ness of ourseh es and our
cur r )nment

10. theory that dreaming reflects our crotic


drn,es
11. a split bctw een different 1cr els of ror
i usness

a. I reud s theory
b. serotonin
C. lcstasy
d. alpha
e, dissoc ation
f. ampFctimire
g.

ccrs icro

h slecF spird
i, e dcrth is
j RIM
k. barbi ix s

ss

PsyChology \pplied

Y PLED

PS

cf rC

id

r xama
If thaptCr

ic i

Vivi

ep
IC

iheated

p1 tore
win

d.

csigesedbsthc

it
a

erre

fresestier

uai

e
1
r

tern

osts of a

sCi * tC m

and pur

Ic

se
t

If

d.

IC

or ssCciatlc

I lug

XC

cd tc

05

p upubesCent hiP
mentation

as vi

snip

nbrlCd

st d

it

Aedo RIM seep indh


pc d r1
cp unie ssarr
is 5
in rCfaxed shde the
cra

b d

apcrso
r y
tth

frCmRIM

ers while the


Ii

I e details and
S nCn

5. Dan has recenth begnn using an addfCth e


enphoria produCing drug Whic i of the fol C 55 lug
is iff probab y 0CC 01 A f e repeatedly us if is
drug?
a As to c ancc t the d ug dcvc ops Par wll
expeuene in eas igly 0 eas iaf Ic f ghs
b. I hC don ge iC tdC d IC p od uci tIe d she I
effeC I n iH uwr asC,
o After Cc Ch use hC will bCcC me mc rc a id nior
Ltad.
i
d. DcperdCi CC nil beCo re e sofa p ol
are lOsC d \dC C S bra
6 klthoi gh fe ey
is
gCnerating Lurst of Clcctnal aCts ti h is likCh
that Adele is:
a, under thC influence of a depressai I
b. under the influence of an ooiate
c in R vi sleep.
d. has ing a near-death expenente.
7, Concluding his presentation on levels of informa
lion proCessi sg Miguel states that:
a. humau process both conscious a d uncon
scious information iu parallel.
b. conscious processing occurs in parallel wh Ic
unconscious processing is serial,
e Conscious processing is serial while uncor
scious I0C essing is parallel.
d. all information process ug is serial in u tuie
-

ak

189

d
C

Cr a crime

f Csis (ner the


i

shC

ufd you tcfl

eohe I.
8. Roberto is moderately intoxicated by
Which of thC fol ow ug Cha iges in hs behavior is
hkefs to occur?
a. It angered, he s i w re likely to beeor se agr s
sxethanwhenhe issober.
b. lie is ill be
ss self conscious abe ut his
behax 10
c If sexualh aroused I e ill be les ii h b ted
abe tenga,i gsse i at V
d 11 fth ab x ar kely

es

9J
b

Cs

Sr

u
I

cry

ox I

.y

rstas
ccl
isle
r Her s
a
I

next stage
s r I
d tvattenyt
tJllsdre n
a. rarfs
b. latest

Cr

v wig e

tI

dr

Ic
r

rtf
e
d

dss
s

sI s
cr1

ated

titnip

c\ I de
4
t cd k
oH

tY,

to

p.

at

feiiklu

d he

a. Br
r
1
Oc.

top stud\ to the I


akened each tirnc he
\ow that the e\penment Is
tng can he e\pected to

4l.ts. lit u

EtC.!

Sfl

once

a.

in

-a

c. dualist.

behas iorit.

I,, monisr.

Lc.

H since o deepix tot e eral flLglits


in t nhnimin,
Ii
sleep 5tape 4
ii
Rh I
tht h
i
se in l3arr

b.

die hoed has died, the


15, [es a belies es that
mind also ceases to east. Pt identh. Let aris a! 0

to sleep sO hc I eonhn

h rch

.o

c. is it RI \l sleep.
d. suttcrs trom nar olepsr

d. atheist.

lb. \\hich of the toilou op mntdments oinerniog


marta us is trod
a.

I he hr product

ra

i o na

from the body me re qn 1


pre du ts of aleot ol
b Regu at users r v re d s
drug te chic e a higi h r
nould need to get th am
Marrjuana is as add ts
c.
-

a.

in

s \th

c
tI
d s cckbroker
I

pa
e tltx o e
sin: 15

piaoer

rh

tafe

imagination

ho has troohie I Kus

in

el

100 Vies

or

005

l\ i :ci

the 1

ti

els

ina
a

c
n

\iopteci

lion ug statements conterning


trod

cis

sodrn i

dual are more susceptible to


tI
i I an adoptir e parent
r s n fh alcoholism pt
k ha leohcl prob
e

an d
a

e sts
cot nsoo

tIlled genes I sat at


pe iple predisposed to

nolisin

13

a a is have a d rat that nrefei alcohol

l-

cc Late! mae st the ufleetis enes ot hvpnoss


I 00 4 toe! i\ hate demontrated that
-o
1 elf-control, 9
a
ueh a smoking.
i c iciern
is
,mialP ehetnc n tth neop
e n ho
t
a
ri 1
s ice and tnose n hr an

(4

ut hr

oh
I

tres

it

e_

a
I

ii

c
I

rt
tilt

sO

i
,

Ii

e sitcom nersen brain avain


0
19 tIm x isnal ala aodttors
-i bk I a i :eatt that the seeper
V

cot a aie

I tin

F p )Sls
3 ctirins

I.

tI an

x soot
ffcct
as

F t

neohne

\\ hich

ot

the

fohon

log

statements

concerning

near-death experiences is trued


a. Fester than 4 percent or patients \\ ito come
close to drang report has tug them
b. I hex tx picalh consist r F mtastmc mx st!

imagers
are more co um nl expene n e
females than by male
di Ihey are more coma tnt e renerc
males than hr females

18. lhose who consider hrpno ms a oral phet erie


non ontcnd that:
a. hr pnosls is an altered state of conscioone.
b. hypnotic phenomena are nnicine to hvp.ncins.
c. hvprtotized subjects become onresponsn c
when thex are no longer motn ated to at I as
instructed.
d. all ot the abcs e ate trne

14

do

d. Pr en mail doses ot manluana hasten tin los


of brain cells.
17.

12

in

tOe ame.

Itenotln on a task
lo ha nn er heen able to reads inet

no hu
in on
, 1
t

are

t an are

,..

.trz:.cHep

19. Whit in the tollon ifl stiR wilts VtLiVc 0


root ) dr t misc is true
O!
a
a. IIear3 o cr5 of I i o
s it
c ftes real
b t a i adolescent I e ds
th tIm arslteuml t
aver
c. I enagers uho are a de
let ts seldom misc drugs
d. lt is nearls impossible in redo I hetht r
adoiesee t .s id cperna.
nor
partitular
a
u ith drugs.
-

K
20 (
)

di y

ci

a,

15

iCef

dttC

CC

CS

Cfl

C temporan

iiCCCssa

\iari nn

CIIC CiigpCntserCct.

v CS hCd bCccu,e it W
3
t
1
t dcii
dangcnis
ot mci
1

e itation

ds
c

c tic b i i inC tc hei as it


and ieoa
i t
damaged nes roes
c
orith th cugi a ion un
ate
CC
I
S igEti ,C 4
s isa
nip in dC a psi hic safCtv

Essay

I sin i

t
Root

si C

is

CCI

ii

CS

I 1W
I iii

ngC

ss gred thC ink t uniting a


t t Cd
\iCC hol and klCoholism:
md Preve it on
What mIen mation
cit

n yen

ft. I me

sfl

alm
1
l

8. det
9

10,
IL

Cc

CC
T

SICCI a

icF

12.

13 din

14.

ii

fe

15,

MC

t C i

In t

16. REM rCbound

arhCle? (U e tie paC

aoir s you nant tC makC


i

al

CriCnCCs

iC

bClou t
u e
p mpc

,.

C. sas C

and orga

n a scparate pieCe of

17. hyp

18. posthy

iot

ho

19. dissoc Cc tic n


20. p55 Clic aCm e drugs
21. tOlCranCc
22. nittid u

23. physiC I dCpe idenCe


24. psyCho gi aldCpenden
25. add tie
26. deprC sant
27. barbituratCs
28.

aws

29. stmmul ir t
30. amphet r i nes
31. inc thai
32. 1

KEY TERMS

33
Wi

)C C

1 101

34,
m

2.
3
4,

)c,

I
t

r
C

ci

h ta

asy \IDvt \

35.P(
36
3,

nas

38.

Icrrns

19

1 Ci

ICon ciousness

os (luck

ft

eim d ii f I n I uo rex iew


I atcrial ate
nerfeat
Itv a tnt to the lear ir
p a ess. \fter
: f ritten [hi clef
U ms of the
i ( t h

ten

i: this cilapti r, x c i should


eross\\ ord p zJe to ensure

kin teI
nt

ctt

Lhe

eru
IaOlt/t th term

the preee
er the detinition.

gn

AC RO,S

I, n 1.1 nt RP\t leep rei iceting that


r hem N atousd hut he muscles
1 and
It
,r, ttraum tter u hose reuptake is
7.
eka Fed dx tocaint.
5, \ ccix med sttmu tart mat is inhaled.
10. Dreaea in xvhicia the dreamer is suffi
een,x axx are to u onder if he or she is
c:Iniug.

12. [nix c [LI] halluinoge x fir t used dv


hihnit Hofmanr
13. 1 i pi of protessir g t rat dccribes
dcxx u e deal u th )r scious informm
t Ni
tim of

ma e

rat occurs

dum

P
1
H

lf:tJ

ecp

ki

a n ser aion similar to a


n

luc ra
1
a

w r a

I in,e of

at

t mquihzcrs.
shich thc thinking and memory of

old r adu t c
u N dm1,
22 Tir t ot dat a a ich the thinking and
ft lone students ft id to be best.

memory of

ANSWERS
Chapter Review
Consczonsness and Infor;na tion Processing
1, consciousness; hehax lot

DOW\

2. I,

x ha in ludes alcohoL

e,

e
1
P

Ti

i,

nt ,n,js, the supo ed reln ing

of earlier

tht ptd up eural activity.


hat Pep rcs ni urd activitt. temporariix

3. D
4. )rt

2. hrain acrh

itt : mental concepts

Consciouncss o nut awarenes of

3. before: lunited
ire nttIa that dreatns help ha dciii
If tiLes dx our memories.
6. (1, ep tat dsrupts the pftcessinp of recent cape
tx Irma term memories.
Q. F vu r-llarci s term describing a hr pnotized
3,

It, hr
;

IS. Ii
20

en arnes of unreported experiences.

,o that predominates in

Stage 4 sleep.
during hvpnosist.
h sPa hr u u a es of a relaxed, awake
:

16

a
;,,

u
0?

-ci

nsncs a

hat
e I
t

5
t

of euphoria.

rana

ureia- are

environment.

u: sue,esslvea

4. rcquire

Sleet tint? Dreams


1, biological rhr thrns: annual ci Lies:
length, and meted

appetite. leer

2. seatnai affective ds,rdur: 25; mintreal cx


24; alertness, body temperature. ,intl mon itt ha
inc no se rction; 0
3, or

ii

thm

193

Answers

4. thinking, nemorx tx cnmg morrung


5. jet lag timc; shitts
6. bright light retinas pincal metatonin; suprachiasmatic nucleus dcnosint irthibit sleep scheth
ules
7, S
8. ees drear is R[M slccl
9. alpha
10. 5
lwpua k
t
5

LiliuL

lLdLLUlfl

12. delta: 3 4 don xx ax e diffitult xx alking


During RI M slecp rain ware ba me as rapid as
those of Stage 1 sIc ep heart rate and breathing
become more rapid and irregular, and genital arousal
and rapid eve mox ements occur,
13. actix e; relaxed paradoxical
15. 90; briefer longc r 2d to 2
16. two4hirds one third

17. genes identical culturc


18. sleep deprivation
19. 8 or 9 2 Dement accidents immune; aging; obm
si; hs pertension niemory nnpairment
1 he major etfec t of sleep dcpnvation is sleepiness

Other effects include impairc d creativity, concentrm


hon, and communication, slowed performance; and
irritability.
20. protect; brain metabohsm, free radicals; neurons;
memory c eatixe
21. pituitarx less less
22. 1
nsomnia rcduce
23. narcolef s ; RIM, muscular tension; hypothala
mus by
1 ocrc tin
24. sleep apnc a c x er x eigh men
p

27. ncg x at ickc


28. n as is

m deep alking run


6
deck cst

s cd

6. authoritatn e; context
7, posthypnotic
8. addictions, docs not
9 is
10. can dissociates, attention
11. attending sensorx; enorx
12. normal consciousness; social influence
I he behax ior of hypnotized subjects is not fundamen
tally different from that of other people. I herefore,
hypnosis ma be mainh a social phenomenon, xx ith
hypnotized subjects acting out the role of a good
hypnotic subject.

14. dream visual auditors

kgb tc,ru 4
you c dr
c
26, RIM c d

3 somexi hat
[hose xx ho are niost susceptib e frcquentlv become
deepls absorbed in imaginatix e actix ities fhcv also
tend to hare rich fantas lix es
4. will
5, age itgrtssuu nu more

is tniuries

11. sleep spindles

25.

Hypnosis
1, social interaction Mesmer animal magnetism
2. does not, aie

rcjcctco

29. manifcst, latent cor tc

13. dissociation
14. hidden observer social
The social influence and dir ided consciousness views
work together to explain hypnosis as an extension
both of normal principles of social influence and of
cv cry da[ dissociations between our conscious an areness and our automatic behax iors.
Iirngs and Conscionsness
1, psvchoactn e
2. tolerance, neuroadaptation
3. withdrawal, dependencc, psy chological, addicted
I he folloxving m ths about addictior are false:
a. laking a psvchoactixc d ug automatically
Icads to addictic n
b. One ca i it ox erco r e an add cton xx ithout
profess ona elp
c. Ihe addiction as diseasc needing trc tment
model is
p1 c ibte tc a broad 5f cctrum of
plcasure seckng bcliax iors
4. depressants stimulants hallucinogcns
transmitters; expectations

30. erotic conflats


31. informat on a emory
32. pbs siological; st a ulati in nfants
33. ncural brair s em a ti ation-sfnthesis
hnbi ar 1
dal i t itio i cgnt vc

neuro

5. calm; story; depressant sympathetic


limbic

6. aggrcssixe helpful; sexually long term; RI M


sleep

34.
35. d

ml RI \

dc n

us

rc m

0
i

tic cssisg

7, sfrinki
nor icn sch av ar nes
ration futurc cm scqucm c

mmcdiatc

it

194

Chapter 7 States of Consciousness

I i I cs h ire found that if people belier e that alcohol


iffec ts social bc has ior in certain is a s, then, when
t icr drink kohol (c r er en mistakenly think that they
hr beer dr nkug alcohot), they rr behar e accordus, to the r cxpectations rrhich rart hr culture. br
cx in p k it p eoplc believe alcohol promotes sexual
H ci ng or d inking ther are likety to behar e in a sex
oa I roused is at.
8. hail iturates
ncotmc
amphetamines,
10. c afic inc
I last nic thamphetamine; are

cocaine

lopamine norepinephrine serotonin; reuptake;


sr napscs

12. expcctations personalits, situation


13 1 cstasr stiniulant rinid hallucinogen; dopanune,
,erotonin; serotomn; circadian; immune sy stem;
memory cognitir e
14. psychedehcs, MDMA; serotonin; blocking
IlK kiDS cancer, lung damage and pregnancy
complic ahons
I ike alcohol marijuana relaxes, disinhibits, and mat
pioducc a euphoric feeling. Also like alcohol, man
iuana impairs perceptual and motor skills, Marijuana
is i mild hallucinogcn, it can amplify sensith ity to
colors sounds, tastes, and smells. Marijuana also
interrupts memory formahon.
15

16. opposing emotions


17

18. has e more


19. hi ilogical, more; dopamine ress ard
S psychological factor in drug use is the feeling that
onc s lifc is mc aningless and lacks drredion. Regular
r sc r of psychoactir e drugs often bar e experienced
s r s r failure and are somers hat depressed. Drug
si
ifti r t ip ns is i temporars ra air to robes o
s r angc anxktv, or insomnia S porrcrful
lac
in dr ig use espc ciallt ar song adc les
ter r Puc r c Pc crs shapc attitudes about
pr di I ugs and cst bhsh thc so ial ontext
20.

Sc
r

21

is c dt ir I ethnic

inst pier

22 a cdocation about the long term costs of a drugs


tc mporary pleasures
b efforts to boost peoples self-esteem and pur
5

c
F

cult

ditc

uicp

uc

2 duahsts monists

PROGRESS TEST i.
s4ultipleChozu Qucstions
2I

2. b. is the answer p 23
a. The amvgdala is in nit cn ci tcr in thc un
bic sr stem
c. Xdtnosine is a brair he r cii tI t n akcs us
sleeps.
d. He pincal is a g and that p duc thc sleep
inducing hormone mclato in
3. c. is the answcr. Jet lag is cxperic d bccausc,
has ing trar eled acros ti ne )r is u c are air ake
at a time when our Hologi i I irk irs Sleep
this biological lock i the rcadian rhrthm,
(p. 273)
4. a. is the ansis er. (p 2 /
b. & c. Delta is as es predomin iti during Stages 3
and 1. Stage 3 is the transiti in beb c cn Stages 2
ittein that has
and 4 and is associated is th
elements of both stages
d. Faster nearly in aking hrai is as cs cccur dur
ing RFM slcep.
5. d. is the ansrscr. (p 8
a., b., & c. During nor RI ii C a es
c pu ar
and breatuing are sloss
tals are not aroused

icreased drug education

1, hatlucination

1, d,istbeansner p

9. dip css opiates endorphms

11

NearDeath Lrperzcnces

south agan t pecr

4 hcart rate
d H c geni

6. d.istheansrrer. p 2/)
7,
is thc ansss er. (pp 2S 8
8. a. is thi anssscr Ok I Po
the undi s rihk con eo c
ii
ri
sk ep and nar
run (p.28
b.,c. &d 51 p
dIe s
I
9.c
ttca r
serotcn n ard i c
p
a lhs irssserdcs r t ti
b. Depressants a i
C ocaine and crack ri ci is
d.\oneoltteps\ h
ti
Opiates howevc r
r
)1 endoip nr 5.

nii pPlcarra
ng RIM

I
)

Sc
ptl
c

I Si

tsr it
c asst Ti ruts
d up
a hi ttfcct
a is ircd tnin
i

nswers
r hi r Ft
s orssbdy funca
t i adp ssanLp298)
v as n
nt
Oc
c fal it nogers.

0
i

II,

ahrcfc red

Eli

sics Fr ul is bcst

Ft s c

tcraon that

193

18. d. is thc answe (pp 282 288


a., b., & c. fach cf these descricts a rahd tfec m
of drcaming that was mentk cd r the text.
19. a is tht an ncr. We can e et ur biclogka
dock Fr adjustin
6 0u set sthtdulw. hns
young adu ts hoyt somct rirg t e to 2u or
day hr stayu
iptoolrtca ;t fou s 1 sccp
276
p
20. cisthc ii mc f 0
.

tO

uav

suUai

datciung Items
d
r
12.

s
fp
) 9
o Ftcts
icr

t.

e
t

ii

ft

Fr

si

sc

h
F
r

rth

dr

a
15.

r contarninatcs

xrcrr rbcrdlecthanrf
ke cdd r R ct 3
r tagcs. (p 287)
Frud s m c reams as psy hit
Ici
t
e
a eptabic feelings
aetCt
i hes (p 287)
rscgidt
ri u of drcarning

s
a

r represent the mdi


0
shc but n disguised
r, c

r is
s

nork pr manix at

.,

e(p 286
k (p 2h7
r(p.2$)
/h)
2
)(p.

5.1
6. d tp.
7. b(p
8. a p

28t
284)
98
303

10

Of)
2E
(p.
a p 284)

PROGRESS TEST 2
Flultiple-Chozcc Questions

in

hg
c

acts

L
2.
3.
4,

u c t arc not hke thosc

cci c

ha oil

3 cs uat sleeping md
t s. r f ct, the brain

r s

d.
nc
13

si

arc

f lust ci itior

i mrsscn (p.296)
i Ftc taking

rc

a
r ther ndirid
g actuallr

f
fir

c
3

Si

i
5

ti

I
d

t dl

cpt

1. b. is the answer. Ioll awing RI M def rim ation,


people temporarily ir creasc their amount of REM
sleep, hr a phenomenon knomm n as RI RI ebound
(p 288)
a. Just the opposite is true: lIt a nount of RPM
sleep is grcatest in infancy
c. Deprir ed )t RPM sEep bf rcpe ted awaken
mngs people return nore and morc qu ckly to the
REM stages after falling back to sleet 1 hey F y no
means adapt easily to the deprr ations
d. Just the opposite occurs: tF em ttnd to supprtss
REM sle 3
p
2. C is thc an ncr. (p 311)
a. Behav )rsts focu on obserm ablc sehar io s a id
am old conccpts such is thc wi id.
b. I hc ionists helievt rat tr e a nd ar d b 503
are era.

d,Prcud rstocusonu c rsc us 1c mc iu


ase
of th stand and Ia
lttc Ii
p ca d
nythe
ml
d rca
shp
3. a. sf1
rs
PC
Os
St
5 c
p
c cc r
r
e
F
a
Ic (I t rail
us
Ished r r r s y 2CC
r
4. d, is thc irsi cr. p 2
a. (he Fran a vcs ct RIM icc
dc r srap
are m rc ke thosc of Stage f sc yers.
b. Stage 2 is .har, ctcri,cd b lccpsprde.
c. Stages 3 and 4 arc F a ictc lad hr
r riling 0 1 a
ayes.
3%

16.

1
C

17.

x
Foisr

2
r
r d r

as

cbscrraFle
iistcr of
r

Scm ft

6.a.

usrcs
oc crintle bserce
F plxs 1 depen
Fc
aI xaapt

r r 1

xi

(1
p

SLt

9latelnng Items

I rt asr nisloax
i aStagc 4
or
up
t
a
I

F
I

opr
I I

19. a is the ansxrer (p. 2$8


P. & c. lhese essentialh I cudiai cxp aratro as
it purpose of dreair n g an best d in t
C
that a drcarn is a psxc xi salt i xhc h
n
b 1 r
1
o six disefargosotfcixri c
d t
d F a cxplanation d thc in U r
I C I
s a
ssociated vith the rlorra
e
pont
20, d s the answer (pp 3t t 31

L
2
3.
4.

ant p 29

c(p 302
1 p 300)
J )
1
d(
h(p 27

)
26
5.J1p

k( 3((
6. 1
i(p 31
8. b(a 1

71
9
0
10 a( 29
1.

iii iii

es groauy

Psychology Applied
ii

drf or

)f a ,enlc

(C

r
a

Multiple-Choice Questions
1 bchtacs that hapno n

put

o asuorisness

much rcater cxtcr t.

I t
a

d a ith athor ch idron


or
alca Ihaaca 9i
9 tmc
a d n s nakrn
a ct o aumo n no alto

tIn e
catm
dIe ire tFan )ta

p r

an

ar r

js

aildrc

usc Iru ,s

3,F

1(5

Fr
r

I P. is the ansuor Nare)Iopsr is J a .c cr cd a


294
uncontrollable sioop attack
a. Sleep apnea is character cd ax th tcn or
cessation ot breathing asPi o asic p
e. \ight terrors are characto ix d r h , a a u
and terrified bohaa ic r oc nirir v d ar ag ta e
leop
icr It n a] n
t
d. Insomnia refers o chro an dif
ar star ing asleep
2 d. is the ansxt or (p. 307
5
tJa ansaar \ltuagh Ftx
3. b.
t thc a rated c
internally the ness ago
28
cortcx do not reach the muscles
a. Studros of RI M-doprn d o pi iad at
thc opposite
r
e. It is difficult to a kor a c
Iocp
d F s thooppost occ ri N I (p
sr
les a rU xed c th r
3 a
Irs
91
u
t
r e apaoi
r
n
I
d
ii
(I
fC
I
nthta a p 29
r
dnsF d
P. Ifa9nctFal
it n ore at iratc tFa o s
rs
e kthaugh hhpi cIfl(l
cdur at
t
uar intlucnco thc urn a io
al nom irs rotricaal also o curs
d Hrpnotkalh rotr oacd n r
c
a
II
(cu
t f
ru (alt
P
F
a rr
Jo
tc n
t

) aad IIl( dc
S

II

nswers

Ii sc ft u c large aid

rgcr doses. (p.

a,

& d. t

6. c.

a is icr.

no n

K K

it)

ti

a c

an est ontent c t a drean is its actual


cter

to

I,. c M ci ocind rid) cause Barn to dreani more


tf a iormat.
ci c icic e in REM slecp is necessarih accom
f ar cd i dec eases i i Stages I -4 clecp.
11. B i
answ r eoplc mm ith rich fantasy hxes
a ci
a nhty to aecome imaginatim elm absorbcd
c
s entia
the characteristics associatcd
not c i gestiti it If e fact that lam e
t s aRc si ; ct
he Pt sscses such
t

t o

at o

ak

5 1

ri a

uni

ly

sib
n,

g
d

a
t I

.A

sit

cal

i,

& d.
sc

i rc

16. a. is the ansi


ri)ua ia

ai

td
ri

cr n II ib
cac tc
u
tIes I
ed
cm
id
d

Itt

..3 i)
f thcsc is ft c

drI

lad

arc ir rc
it
I

)i5

cI
i

ic

i indicates

a cc hohs r ft at least part a)

Icmar fefcvc
thu
d ca cs to exist. (I
s

i cuarai e.

bc)

a c

dcatt expcu

it i

tor a nontI

r II IC t ie c t m e ingredient ir
d 35 by p oducts hn ;er in tne body
more (o. 3t 3)

17. b,stht arsvei

ies

ie e s n uch tcrm in am case omert


i ou d x thc
me as manifest content.
10. d. i thc ar swer. Bet ause of the phenomenon
mm i a RI M inbound Barry, h m ing been
dcp ft d of RI M sleep, ix ii now increase his
S V I eo p Mo)
a I
cased iii t ibitity is an etfect of sleep depri
i
i in ieral iot of RI M clcprir ation specifi

c
cdi

cnccs

u 3ttl)

a tip cxriate
tc 4d pcrcmt
2
people who
hays tor it clost to death rc f ort ome sort c I
nta- deatiex c -ienct
c. & d. Iherc is no gendcr diffcrcnc in the prem a
I nce of near death experiences

12

raist,

tctmmc

spIt n emels of ccn

crlcctly non ial

Bcia

c.

ocator

visual and audito

ft

cnst axo drt c c cestothenind.


beneic B at t ic L nd can exist apart
I cm I bcdx
d. tIe text dcc ii Ii cuss t e rclations up
a

iic
r

Ihe anaim si is em identlv try in to

hc it Its ii thc dreim lid undcr


drca n
idden nc ar rig or thc
t content. (f !8/)

a.
t

vt
anti
)d It

si

I c
icit

that
i

rn i

coptc c inot cs Is Ic awakc ied frt ri

U ca i

b. In tact
RIM Ice

icthity in thc

if

c ans c

or

r It r I cfngs of ngcr 01 se\uaf


) o
15 tue processin or cxpcri
crm mcnrorm
p 98 299)

c
i

9. b.

bu st

II chol educt sc t can titus


bit c t s iaki i people mor

c )5( ii

IS. b. is

i mr
s

ft rapid tic n orcments of


dc v t

t n s cc ping I

if Ri si sleep.

Ouri

tf

it)

7,
8. d

it

ft

it eased actim

ry areas of

18. c. i the answer tp. Ma


19. d.i theaisimer ( .3d7)
20 d. i tie insv er Ireud s tfecr p oposed th t
dreams wIrch otto di ri i fast -mine RI If
slcep scrmc
i f yfc
aetv maRe. (p1
282 283
I-ssau, Qutstzon
As a deprc sa it alcc ftc sit v
ieu a act xitm and
bodi funtt i i \ltf ougf 015 d ses oI aft iho iia5
pioducc Ia t i
ith lar t dc 5cs act ins slomi
t h lu-s
cd fe oma ice dete i iratcs and
he p occs
cf t t t c per tn c into I g tcr
inem ft
i5 U) ed
\Lt
Isi rt
tc s s If
1

ram
macn
t
c a) iiI ,t it
e
d do m
mc
cc
t
d td
ml
a
b c
a ac
a
ft
d
t
a
r
c
-

ar

i r

tii
1

iv

in
5
ifc
s d
d
c I t K
1r ,c
i, i
e tO
-
ingsamor ft my ncr cf c i md i ay cica e i
psicl i c ical sun rab lit tc I 1)115 n.
I
c
tt,a
I ue cc is
101
ci ,dd
st 1
Ia
,
i
c
I
c

dbIr ft

197

tr

S r

of Corscioc mess

luiot it.
g ic
or
a
ran s (II t.du
-ncr a -f alto
s(iPt t tar and p pi e
s
r-;t.- rrt peer pit
to
O

tb dm

shun and treatment prot the long-term come


c torts to boost peoples
s lfe and (3) attempts to
I it leads to experimenta

n.

nys.

KEY TERMS
ii riti.R 1)ufi;zitioizs
chotogisu-, consciousness is our
md our environment. tp

an -t

1.

u- ,u c ot ourseis es

2. Bmological rhythms are periodic fluctuations in


m,r H dmes hr siOiOCh 31 staten, including annual
Iriatmons in appetitc. 0
0-mluute sleep cycles, the
Jar menstrual cr ue, and circadian rhythms.
a.
3. \ circadian rhythm is am rcgular bodil\ rhythm,

aN hodi ter ipc ature and sleep-wakefulness,


that Ic lows a M h ur crclc. (p.
)
275
I lcra,
rd In I thu cut means about and dcs
t
I clrcadian rhythm is nun that is
means d r
or
4 nc urs in duration.
ahen i d
REM s cep i I c Ic p stage in which the brain
and
ud c
e actn e, the muscles are relaxed
it
r r ir ucurs also known as paradoxical
Leg \P
6)
1 a mc
I RFM s an acrourm for rapid eye
ci stinguishing feature of this
me emnent tf
Jr cp stage if r cc ) ts discos cry.
5 Alpha waves ie th relatively slow brain waves
ml naLttristic of an n ake relaxed state. (p. 27Th
6. Sleep h the natura p rr )dic, reversible loss ot
)sioriness, on sri i h the body and mind

m iaJ (or healths


hail u rinations

tp. 277i
talse sensnrx experiences that
senocr stimulus (p. 277
noning.
5
tuu

are

rtheut am

5. Delta waves arc the largo. low brain ware asn-

tel tO deep ieep (,a. 277


9. Insomnia is a sleep diso der in
a lads

ha

is

hich the person

in failing or tar ing

ditficuits

sleep apnea is, sI


-m
ho tI

ing REM sleep. p. 25Th


14. in Freuds theory at dreaming. tim manifest con
tent is the remembered story Ime. i p. 2Sel
15. In Freuds theorx ot dreaming. tire latent content
is the underlying hut censured meaning ct
dream. ,p. 287)
.1 lemon ,ad fec 14 and 13 I lammite-t nreans clearh
apparent. ohs ions; latent means hidden, con
cealed
A dreanis manifest content is tEst
which is ohs ions; its latent content remains I id
den until its syinholisnr is interpreted.
16. REM rebound is the tendener for RI M slec p tc
increase hollow ing REM sleep deprir ation If
288)

17. Hypnosis is a social interaction in which one pci


son (the hypnotist) suggests to anothcr (the s
ject) that certain perceptions, feelings thc ugh
or behax rers will spontaneous occur. (p 290)
a suggestion mad
durmg a hypnosis session that is to be carried c
us hen the subject is no longer hr pnotwed. p 2 1

18. A posthypnotic suggestion

is

19. Dissociation is a split between different levels of


consciousness, allowing a person to dir idc attc i
tion betw een tsr o or more thoughts. lp. 29 3)
20. Psychoactive drugs ---which include stimula r
depressants, and hallucinegens are cheuu,
substances that alter mood and peretption Fist
tyork hr affecting or mimicking tIre aeiis its
neuretransnrirter. p. 2o I
21. Tolerance is the diminishing or a cs chuaeh e
drugs ettett that eceurn is ith rep-eared: ut,
requiring prugresis eli largi r host or or di r t
produce the same efrect. (p. 29Th
22. Withdrawat refers to th.e hicomfort and dstre

iii, \arcnlepsv
a sleep ri 1order in which the i ic
to cr(cr sudden. urn ontroliable sleep attarks,
n.
hni terl7ea r cubs directlr into EL \l.

11

to gasp for air falls back asleep. nd repcat ri


cycle thr rughc ut the night. (p. 284)
I aarnplc One theorr of the sudden infant de t r
syndrome is thi it is caused by sleep apnea
12. \ person suturing (rum night terrors exptr ci
cpu-edt of high arousal is ith apparent ter r
\ight terrors usualh occur during Otage 4 sleep
(p. 284i
13. Dreams are vii id sequences cmt images. emotion
and thoughts, tire rriest \ is i d ut is hiim occur do

d
i

si

rder hr winch tire per


slit p, briellr a runes

that follow the disrontmued use ot add- i(


drugs. p 2-i7,
23. Physical dependence 6. a pin siulogcal need i-n
a druig thai is indicated hr the preent e ot ss Ph
di ass al sr mptums when tIre d rug i n P ta km a
297

Answers

24

199

x c hological need to usc a Irug is cierred


pycho1ogica1 dependcnce (p 297
i addiction is a compulsive crar ing for a drug
28
despite ds Ci c consequences and r thdraxval
n nphm. (30.(

35. The major active ingredient in mat ijuana. TEIC is


ciassitied as a mild hallucinogen. p

2b. Depressants are ns\ choacns


drr;cs such as
at 0501. opatv. and mrhituratu that reduce
neural acr\ itv and low buds functIon-. ip. 29

36. 1 he near-death experience is an altered state of


concionsness that has been reported hr oinc
people ixho have had a close brush a i th dcabm.

27. Barbiturates are depressants, sometime ued to

induce sleep or reduce anr;ets. p .30()


28, Opiates tire dept essants dern ed from the opium
poppx. snen as opiunr. morphine, and heroin;
thvx reduce neural a hi its and temporarily
icsen pain and ansien. p
29. Stimulants arc ps hoactix e drugs. uch as cat
teine nicotine amphctnntnes, and cocaine, that
e\cite neural actu its and speed up bods tunetans, (p 300;
30 Amphetamines are a t pe ot stirnul mt and as
h peed up hods functions and menral actisi
t
300)
31

Me hamphetamine is i
aerfnlh addictire
sti nian hat speeds ip body functions and is
n Jed Ph enc rgx and m md hangc
i

cesses, I SI) produces its unpredictable etfects


partialh her anse it blocks the action of the neuro
transnritter seiotonin (p. 3u2)

(p. 10H
37. Dualism is the philosophical belief that the nnnci
and hods are distinct entitiesshe mind non
phsdcal. the hods phxsicai. (p. 31W

I xnnple: Those a ho believe that neardeath expe


riences are proot of hnmortahts are expressing
the dualist position that mind and hodi are sepa
rate entities.
38. Monism is the philosophical br-hut that the mind
and body are ddftrcnt aspects o( the same thing

(p. 310)
f raniplc: The behef that death

fhial and that no

afterlife exists i5 a reflection )t the monist posi


Hon that mind and body are one

CrossClzeck

ECROSS

32. ( as died as both a svnd etic) stimulant and i


ill nallu n ogcn. Ecstasy (MDMA) prodnccs
nphoria hr increasing sc rotonin icr
c t ter
in tI c brain. Repeated use may permanentir
ripe scrotonin neurons, supprcss immnnitv
id di rupt cognition. (p. 302)

33 Hallucinogens are psvchoactn e drugs such as


l) and rnai Iluana. that distort perception and
c okc sensors imapes in the ahsene of ensorx
input. (p. 02)
34. PSI) is ser acid dicthviarrnde i a poxverfnl
bail;cinoncn rapibie of prodricing vivid taPe

pen epuons and 0 )oriranI/attn

05

thought pro

L paradoxical
7. dopamine
8. nicotine
10, lucid dreams
12. 1.50
13. serial
14. spindle
17. depressant
18. hr pnagogic
19. barbiturates
21. rnnrning

22. cx ening

DOWN

2. age regrcssic n
3
4.
5.
6.

ampheta ninc s
opiat n
intormation processing
alcohol

9. hidden ohserx er
11
15.
16.
18
20.

delta
dissociation
alpha

heroin
[HP

CL

.1

t
S

F,

C,

C
P0

IC

35
eq.

(V

.rc

C
C

itt

C,

C,

.5

1.

C.

I,

fl

fr

r;p

.4

4.

Focus on Vocabula

V
a

c
c

Pep

nj

sxhere most
rescmhfe Thi
I I I) hut there is
I irous iox and
cc air s parr lvzed

tr e t
i

d cp St ge 4 skep
d hen disnpcars As
ti
tme sut r
r jiJ rrntnaJx
n
RIPE sieo ;ets
crc iepried of
y
s oldIe frey t ecland
nstcady and dazed

xc e than cxci suffer from


i c
icir baring an energized
Ic usc c f the pressures of
3)1 F a ior s or d so on we often
s t 10 F r xc it (di iP) Os from
3 sic p ire iced I he consecit ad Id nsufficienl
si p d
in
tongs
and discomfort
1
eo i n I ci ng of sleepiness
I tF

I
1

ci [IA slep] hI usmg


c t i and after lunch
1 odav s young students
p
ep t i in they net d and e onse
3
m
p i i g the first class of the dam
c
I I and the quiet school
r
I
Ii
n ay bc occupied
)f
e fn g students (cu rnbr
it if student
3 are soil sen
hg
pdhl,
c
s
i c
d ymtixeandmteheetu
c
c
s rid
b
t
a
out e c t re

Page 284

i5 I

e
at
ti
3

r
h
F

F
s

3
i

ci
ir

\s

I
radsd ai
r PIer s
IF

ore

ii
rtt

oi

m
n

c
ie

icr

id

cthnF
dift mit or
iw
sb
psxchclogis
tcmFora y
a 3
dreams ir
n portai
Freudst cc
1 Ircam
mdt)saxs

is urru

cnsiei
sw

cx

c ksaneae
tFc
e
01
i h
p op lose ow
s IA r suits n cc re
Pt rda hlcismg the
xtra heir of sleep in
cc He Morda hI

I I n,
Page $
lIe [FreudJ mrgued a b5
I that
xi ishes a drea n pros ides a
/
I hc
disc barges othersi ise nac p ta ii I e
a dis
st n line of the dream (manifest c ntent)
c i
guised xersion of the rca Fri h d c
cci
the dream (latent content Pc
d n
x
in
vmbohealiv expressi m, mc m dc
I
t
I
erotic raisFes dreams al c
ts t
I c
cousdnsesthatmightti V e
I a I
c
ni
htuo
u
tcrtodissptc
enta exp os or

mg
P an

201

a tratf c ncni e S 0
say the Sme can Ste I) c rd rs
Ocuni
e epc al
kssouatic n and those itt nar olcp
lv at risk ( Pidrkh 989 Fah ng a I u 1 0
is bile drn ing is almost a
secic
F F cr as
drinking (boo ng and d ix in
0 POF it
hi nar
,
it
nt 31
colepsy suftei from occasional p
od
3
Iahle sleepines often assou t d s h r t ona
I ge )ns
arousal and are thu in d mac r a
xshiie diii ng

rtrre

an uagc

1 S US it 3
r
shoxxn that s1ce hel
rot to
tismc (ni n i
increases mcm rya dlearr V F
}
prote Os c m c han s i thi v a e
V
our cx c tutioc arx p t
t c
ti nkinu lb sc fi idings i e sti
ccntinuh g Pu Ic i Ic rely ire r
r
83 icoioi a d sur -,c
n e e
i
c du cRFM sleep a t
ii
ti/s. He mcst pep r as
i
t
i is for nsom
reslegiI,Fi
I
c
tortunatch they an I a
(cgmri i p by suppre sinp RE I
u
d
c
dos the peismn ix ha I
i
i
i ) IA ren
t red (next d c
discontinued the ins m n a ma, g

g
gF s

at

s mdl
It

if

acrul

IM

F
t

5
Ic

202

Chapter

Stat

of Consciousness

lix brain regions that mar as rats learn


IRs 2o
as pc oplc learn to p form a
o navig ito r ran
sisr I-disc ii inatic i task L n agat t later durn g
RI NI sleep. Studes der ions rate that skeping helps
mu in at tc r d g The areas of thc ha n that are
dn f
then Icarni g s takng plate are
als run c ice ii on ( I
during RI RI
g
5 s imp irtant tens for ship dcprised stu
slcc 1h
duts nhi tcnf to kLri aid rcntniber kss th i
airs A r t nfrri r. tr
t e i i r sot dt vtd cc
sleepin
macc up r t re P ss f
e bt
longer and
ite crcekeds t tIc in
it
t
tc
s
n. eom rstc fir hc owen lexcls
ii irru ag nd re al
Hypnosis
Pa r 91 Ihus, tajt ests a act, t rut t as it n as
then cahcd became inked nith qnc eni Hrp
nosis a social intern tron in which a hypnotist sug
gest t a subject tha certain pencepbons behas iors
arid so on will 5f or taneousht occur was first
referred to is its a s t ftc r the erghtec nth century
physic ran Mesn er wI o promoted its use. Because
the Franklin c omrussion found no scientific ci i
den e for Mesmer s c ures they concluded that
hypnos*s n as fraudulent or bogus (qaackc ii).

Pa
at it Hvpr osk s not a psvchologica
(rat t s arn and to rcgard it as such has been a
sourt c c f considerable ntis hi 1. Research shows
tI at hy pnotrsts can subtly influence is hat people
recall nd they mar ads crIer thy create false mem
ories by making suggestions and asking leading
questions Ihus h pnosis is not like a so-called t ath
e a t (a drug afieged to make people tefi the truth)
bu rat icr has caused a great deal of annos ing and
p055 bit I ar ifu effects
id. a I t isc t fj
So mrht tFe sc s e ss social influe ice
and
ci usncss b brtl d Alfhougn
rd
fbi a a c
iffc ent xpla rat is s ibc ut
n n ae
hI
5 e s s ggcst tha d niv
)
s
p
ss e
t
eo t s tfcc ic
I is y o
a
c
th
o
ml
is tc ii fu
c ndr
is i s is
cd
ft
) 5 and Cc ascii usnes
9

rtri
p srrishnr, is drinks
al h
nicht get
y on c r c an of beer but an
xp r r d drnkcr nar r I yet (ii w nfl the ci
t
t
I c ired use ifafsy hacfsedrng
r
inim,i ncinaad
c f
f t
f
sh nc
ci
I
F
i
s
c
I)
I jI
g
i

ular drn kc r then rug it be little c (fec t until six or


mon beers h n bee r consumed i a it t a a r attd s r
ad
ncr
)

let f hart
hhis neans that the
2
ptrsc n r ho has bee rsing the substanec or i regu
his I asis
hi a i in add (icc hi a a) has non
stc pped doing sc iss P ctl 1k Ft au). Mye s notes
that addccf on is n t diseasc such as drabelts and
many cc pie ohnnf try snop usir g addi t it drugs
v t ioui tncat ncnt r tfirayy.
a 2 8
)
s when ft t rcsta iran patrons
lc avc cn t a nt tips \bcoh ii c in i ic case both
barn fu arid c hpful inc Inn it ii us. I bus rt often hap
pens that restaurant clii ufele gwe a baiger gratuity
(extras agan t ups is hi n they are more intoxicated
hates en tendencies s ou have n hen sober
a itt be more otw rous is ne ry ou are drunk.
Page 2
nth larger doses, alcohol can become a
stagpcan
t F cm. My ens is usnig humor here to
make an important point I o describe a problem as
6 means that thc probhcm rs cnormous and
stayycrtn
has serious coast quences (for example a stagger ittg
dc Ft is one that is or erwhelming) One of the conse
quemes of ingc sling large amuntc of alcohol is
slowed reaction time memory toss (bitt ken(s), Ian
guagi disruptions (start d spce It), and uncoordinat
ed physical mor emeut (the person stagg. j. [bus,
drinking too mnch alcohol has serrous implications
(ml s a staggcr
p bLiP,
Pagc 300: It, as commonly belies ed liquor is the
cutcke pick a uv ret the effect lies partly in that
pots erful sex oreau the mind, Nh ohol (liquor) is
thonght by maui to speeo up thc process of meeting
members of the I posite sex and to ion c r sexual
inhibitions I ius a male may belmevi that use c f
alcc hc will frail tatc us ablnty to initiate contact
and gil n k o r a iemak a at
IC
appcr).
Mvrs fihits o t that nit cay acohol is msohr d
a
ra f Ps abc c
3 n cx
et
0
c
ii
in
tfa
n g
Botf s
inn lcisuni
i
v
r t I fit
r
nscnn hi
f r othnf
r
I is isac st a aws
for up ig drug-induced pleasc ies
i
I
rt
ad for an aodi t this ma Fe a nersisteut mum for
meat gi
t
an d an urgent, persistent desire
t y for anothi i di sm of the drug
f c.
I
fi

In cdr

C a
F
cI
nr a t
at

satin pot at sri ha


yr due
a (clay c
dyn scm

Focus on Vocabulary and I anguage

acid trip.. Taking any psychoactive


Page 302:
drug is called a trip or tripping out, When LSD (acid)
is used, it is called an acid trip; regular users are
someti rues called acid heads.
Pa,e ,303:
marijuana may spell relief. Although
there are mans reasons for not taking marijuana, it
does have some therapeutic applications, such as
alleviating the sick feelings that result from taking
the drugs used to treat cancer chernotherapv) and
the pain, nausea, and weight loss associated with
AIDS. Thus, it may provide (spell) relief for some
patients.
T\ear-Death Et;ieriences

Page 309:
And they tend to handle stress well,
often taking [lie bit!! bii [lie horns rather than becoming
traumatized (Britton & Bootzin, 2004). The expres

203

sion taking the bull by the horns means to con


front a problem without fear or trepidation. For
some people, a near-death experience mas result in
profound changes in their li\ es: thu mas become
more generous more spiritual, and more convinced
about the possibilth of life after death. In addition,
they are better able to handle stress, often tackling
problems asserti\ el and feariesslx thex tlke the Li iii!
bt, [lie horns).
Page 310: Such monicts generalls belie\ e that life is
embodied, that death is real, and that a ithout bod
. A ;ioiatit, is onwone ot no
1
ies we truly are iohodf
importance. \h ers is making a joke here: If mind
and hods are one (the monist position), then when
we are dead and gone, there is nothing left, and we
are nobodies dc, a e ha e no bodies) and so have no
afterlife existence.

Learning

CHAPTER OVERVIEW

How Do We Learn? pp 313 30)

N
ci 5&i & he hc art of psychology th m
3i
learni
relatix l crmanent change in an organ
Nm
F ax
du o e per ence Chapter 8 ox ers
th F a c pr nciplc c f three forms of learning. Jar i
cal
o xdc t
nditionin, in ii hich ix e learn
as urt or
etxx cci cx cots opcrant conditioning, in
r inch xx ft a ix to xgage in behar iors that are re
x r cci i id c a oic
1 oc liar ion, that are punished;
md b crvat 1
xal lear ring ii ix hich xx e learn bx
oh xi x r xx itating oh ers
h
F p ci al o ox ers xx x eral important issues,

Dax id Myers at times uses idrom that arc ii


familiar to some readers It r ou do not knc xx
the mean ng 01 any of the folioxx mg ix ord
phrases or expressions in tire contcxt 1 i xx lee
they appear in the text refer to page 22 ft r
explanation
hr eds hope o ugyed fit i
rancher report dly herds cattle

Objective 1 I)efine earning and identify iro to r


ot learning.

includir g the ,cneiaiits )f principles of learning, the

role Of ) ntis c r xeses in earn ng and the wa


in v ft cF Ic irnft g is ans r uned br the biological pre
disp s t irs 0 aifftxxnt specks

t A relatively permanent change N an


behrr ior due to experience is called

ii Fa six e 0
uid 1 res for all (ha
3 ter 8 questio x
be o
a 2

2. More than 200 ear ago 3 hilosophc rs u x is


John I ocke and Dax id Hume argued that r
important factor in learning is our tend enc I
cx ents that occi. r ii
sequence. I ver sir xpk n r Is ic i

cc

c
1

cad
1

i ,s

nd boldf e

)i a

isex

ii

ars c
If
u xc c
r in the Ic thor k bc ft e

4. 1 he tc r dine c F rg mnisms

iss c a c a

xisr

FE

a1

17

Er

2C

C)

--7

F-:

7
I

F:

-I

Er

F:

-J

-F
F-

7;

2171

It

F:

J5

C-

I.

F:

5:

F:

C
F

FE

7/

2/

-j

I;

:7
;:

Er

5:

SEI

El

-1/

-fl

-j

4-

I
I

Er

Er

I
I

12

:5:-Er

2)

CL7

2
77117

:1

F:

F:

I;

Er

2/

F:

1
E

)1

74;

)7

I:

I)

----a

-F

7)

aD

n
DI

1
DI

Oper
tive 6: Di
s hi las

ii

hi r an

14, lbs ,nirix hehar


sL

hehax lot in x

1u

at t under-

x d

r itu e

indh n hi is one n ax that x inn


all rgan nis Is ar i to

20. Class c I

sumitlo;: ot
0

their ent nor meet.

ss

C tOts

21

13. haL; ,nenxs hr Rtsctrta end hi agner demon0

is

tIle I S ;r
I
-

--

;,i

nndttiontil I is as
2
-nIt in 0

the

it

the

:npn:ta:ne

nt

bel

at

d
cia

disc

Objective 9: Describe some uses ot Iassisat condi


honing to mpiot hu i n health and nell being
22 I rough cia

noutd

rats

stimuli C

tI

Ii

tc

d bound

nd that

astc

drug

rning

I rx th

atersion

It

hen Fe

xx

ted a I

ass

pretioushgh
dc

es

that

st

r e

immune ststem

associate

ut nc

al co iditi

23 Research stud

d hat

.tidtrtortp

,;s,it

nu unto

ant

a
ntt s

d hat

con

ht

of

tudx

tnient for

I.

the

nnnorrant.

devehip
u

hr

ill

ix

I th x at s that hiolegi
I cc lean in hI c assicat

)bjective Dcscnhi
1 nredsiohhon c
Pt 1011

aptain

ha the failure of

dcntonstrateh

lastt;h unditu ining

in human

prt1cees

.ngnitn e

s,cX

animal

that the L5

16

tl

nL

1
stucnes

hi hex chin and, more


nrer-sses
1

Ctii

Mt

shun ed hoxi a pnices such as C lrniiin cuutd he

Ii
i,
-lfl

an as.e iaticri

p1

207

s conti lb t r

Objective 8: Summa 1 t Pa
understanding of learni x,

ant pro-

1 i

t C onditio ii t,

not)

be classi

Describe thc

ond

or

X4at

ti

t
ca

no,

d Rat

tic r experims nt,

cond i n ning
hi ttld xtontd
Is-

her thc delax

nott on

5 I S
-cn h
5 CS and th

19. 10s hi -a

thes dennnstrah that the


pCncnLan-e0tn

-t-

than

is n ore

an

nrinri

titS

red::sposithns

ot each an,i-

Operant Conditioning
hx n do
(2

iF
2

-,

4.

I-

..

x i ionnxe p

.,

ist

2.

sin

Thu
,

,1

--

St

Ciii;
hi

-i

xi-

45 hiat
ct infext ii xx hR h tin-i inns 1
ir 01
220fl
t
exniai
n.
to sa-e
hi
r
an
tab;
t 2

St:
nP,ser-,uil;utnp 5Oiiii4.\

x the no
t
kn

1ot

C.

np

Ii

u-

it ci--

--..

frC.

-a, ret:

i,-hi:

-: ii;

1--

tied

55

/;-;

C-ti

/iH;,-

,I

.h;rsta )-

rh

5;

i.

4.-

Ic

C,
;

,.,-,

C.,

Cf/

u;-

a
t

i-a

tm:

-;

-c c

208

I tarn

C iapte

Ob cdlvi 10. idcntifv h


uisF
6
t i

t sat
C)

ti ( rn jot charact

ti

istic

iton ng fn n o erai t

rcsi

3 t

r t

associa
tr

c rcspoi ss
i Psi

ttiit

Lcnd

(5

ii

sig a

nnh

tC(

that a cutan
is i

it

C I ) C p )sitn( and n(gative t(ifl


f)ccnlc it
d xc crecxan)ct)dicfapnrnary
(info cc
it isa at irnrncdiatc
dit j cd
etnorc a
3
de ycdrinlr i
Objective 13

trnuFthat

it

aic
d

tic crgarisn

cc

t ccnt

lthc

9.

C i

ci

at

sat bcnaxi

C p0

cal tc iditicning
bcf ax ic r

.Ss

is iso

10

spo taneots

5k ni c used I hc r idiicc

11

s a st irti p oint it dcx dop ing a bc has io al


tc inologs I nis prir dip to stales if at
I ci a ic is ikelv to
k one d sig a d

paratus ca

led t se
to

ix 15 it

lear

i r

hcsan vu
d g

r
I

C
tr

ts

trs

ci

e
C

at
(

cIt

i.

at

matn

gtf e is, a rcsponsc. bc pro


Ic isurab c stimulus after a

12 Rc intorcers, such as tood and shock, that are


dated to oas c nccds and therefore do not rc I)
(1) lea ning are callc d
Reinfor ers that must be
onditioned and therefore derive their pm er
through associat on ate called
13 Children ix ho arc ab c to dclax gratdicahon tend
(more less)
tc besa nc

yls,rc

nd
uninSsada
c icc
oslc
c
ct

and F igh achiex ing as they

matorc,

14. 0 m 3 a o r itJortmtnt
(is
orc f c the sin its lternative
c
cmforc at c it his
na t
dA ultv h t
i
I
t
rfab
as x I as
t
r
r tc
tc
S

Objccti14

uf apr a.td

taut stitsagthens a espouse 0


t redue
or removrn is ax ersive i up leasant) stimu

ai s co npetent

pe s

it llttjUtALt s

sts

sm ofus

nim its

Objcctive 12 Dsc th tIc hapi g urctcdure, and


icr asc
c
c
a
ur nd rstar dtg f
h
nasa
sa
3 ba i s a 3 s
1

Itit

C.)

mc

\ sti 3
iulns ti at t
i ali
sc nt i a
rcsoi c a

ing

is

Objective 11: S atc If or idike s last or cffect, and


cxpl initsconicc ontoS
in
iss archcnopcr
ant cnditioning
4 t

C.

ngrcf

d tin t s mf.oct ed y its ccnscquences


iai 0
d

it,

(5

g
as (

a. htuat

citi

3 cknass
t c toror t
dol a. )f partial ren

t
5

alrtcrrtt

cp

sc i in cs a u di t
forar a t.
13. II

us
s

ty

foor

ccd ten A

nt r

C,

mont tcic
5

Operant Conditioning

ty pe of reinforcement is discontinued, extinction


(rapid/slow).
is
16. I he procedure in which responses are reinforced
onh part of the time is called
reinforcement, Under these conditions, learning
is generally
(faster slower)
than it is with continuous reinforcement.
Behaxior reinforced in this manner is
(very not very) resistant to
extinction,
17. When behax ior is reinforced after a set number of
responses, a
schedule is in effect,
18. Three-year-old Yusef knon s that it he cries when
he wants a treat, his mother will sometimes gix e
in. When, as in this case, reinforcement occurs
after an unpredictable number of responses, a
schedule is being used,
19. Reinforcement of the first response after a set

interval of time defines the


sched
ule, An example of this schedule is
20. When the first response after varying amounts of

time is reinforced, a

schedule is in effect,
Describe the typical patterns of response under fixed
interx al, fixed-ratio, variable-interval, and variableratio schedules of reinforcement.

209

Objective 15: Discuss the ways negatix e punishment,


positive punishment, and negatn e reinforcement dif
fer, and list some drawbacks of punishment as a
behax ior-control technique.

21. An axersive consequence that decreases the likeli


hood of the behavior that preceded it is called
It an ax ersive stimulus is
If a desirable stimulus is
withdrawn it is called
22. Because punished behavior is mereix
it max reappear.
23. Punishment can also lead to
and a sense of helplessness, as xx eli as to the asso
ciation of the ax ersive cx ent with
24. Punishment also often increases
and does not guide the mdix idual toward more
desirable behax ior,
Objective 16: Explain hoxx latent learning and the
effect of external rexx ards demonstrate that cognitive
processing is an important part of learning.
25. Skinner and other behax iorists resisted the grow
ing belief that expectatlon%, perceptions, and
other

procesce have a

valid place in the ccience of psychology.


26. IA hen a well-learned route in a maze is blocked,
rats sometimes choose an alternatixe route, acting
as if they xx crc consulting a
27. nimals max ham from cxpericnce even xx hen

reinforcerni nt xx not ax

I ible IA hen learrung is

xided
is s ud to haxe occurred,
28. 1 xcesslx e mcxx amds max undermine
which is the
desire to pertonn a behax ror tor its on n sake, The
motivation to seek external mcxx ards and avoid
punishment is alled

210

Chapter 8 Learning

Objective 17: Explain how biological predispositions


place limits on what can be achieved through operant
conditioning.

29. Operant conditioning


(is is not) constrained by an animals biological
predispositions.
30. For instance, u ith animals it is difficult to use
to
food as a
behax iors that are not natu
rally associated with
31. Biological constraints predispose organisms to
learn associations that are naturally
When animals rex ert to
their biologically predisposed patterns, they are
exhibiting what is called

Objective 18: Describe the controversy over Skinners


views of human behavior,

32. Skinners x iews were controversial because he


influences,
insisted that
rather than
and
shape behavior,

abilities by
used to enhance
shaping successive approximations of nen skills,
36. In boosting productivity in the workplace, posi
hi e reintorcement is
(more/less) effective when applied to specific
behax iors than when given to reward general
merit and when the desired performance is well
defined and
For such
behax iors, immediate reinforcement is
(more no more) effectix e
than delayed reinforcement.
,

37, Many economists and psychologists beliex e that


peoples spending behavior is controlled by its
consequemes (its
and

38. In using operant conditioning to change your


own behavior, you would follow these tour steps:
a,
b.
C

d,
,

33. Skinner also advocated the use of


principles to influence peopie in ways that promote more desirable
34. Skinners critics argued that he
people by neglecting their
personal
and by seeking to
their actions,
Objectixe 19: Describe some ways to apply operant
conditioning principles at school in sports, at xx ork
and at home,
35, 1 he use of teaching machines and programmed
textbooks was an early application of the operant
onditioning procedure of
to education, On-line
sy 5tems software that is
and
-based learninci
er
examples
of
this
application of operant
are neix
principles. Reinforcement principles can also bc

Objective 20: Identify the major similarities and difi


ferences between classical and operant conditioning.

39. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning


are both forms of
40. Both types of conditioning involve similar
processes of

and
41. ( lassical and operant conditioning are both sub
ject to the influences of
processes and
tions.
42. Through classical conditioning, an organism
that it
associates different
does not
and responds
43, Ihrough operant conditioning, an organism asso
ciates its
xi ith their

Learning by Observation
chddren 1 lower or,
far tors mar also he

Lea ning by Observation (pp 341 346)


It yOU do not know the meaning of the tollon
mu phiases in the context in ix hich thex
inocat in the text, refer to page 2i ior an
explanation: [ta-c n/to d1_crxcd [lie cauc!
Ic

ihiUt

I xx th ccl

mr oived,
Objective 23: Discuss the impact of prosotial inodek

ing.

I,

115

:,nt a xtIx

bc ca/

8. Children will also model positlr e, or


behar iors.

9. \Iodels are most etfectir e when thou are pen

Ohectix e 21: 1 )era rihe the orocess of ohserr ational

ccix ed as

learnIng coo exptan the onportance ot the discox err

or
Models are also most etfectir e when their rvotds
and actions are

ot mirror nero ons


earning hr ohserving and mtating others

1.

clied

is

,or
I his form of tearnnxa

c ros ientists hare found


euro is in the brains

Objective 24: Explain ix hr coirelations cannot pror


that watching violent TV causes r ioleot heha\ br, and
cite some experimental cx thence that helps demon
strafe a causmeffect link
,

(occnrs/ does not occnr) m


pc in other than our own
Z

10, Children in des eloped conntnes spend more timc

than

CoInpared to real ix ortd crimes telex ision


depicts a mnch higher percentage of crimes a
being
ir natnre.

xp )t neuron
has not) been found n hriman hi ains.

(h
3. 1

ther spend in school

ihex

ag

12. Correlational stndies

ix

(link/do not link) xi atching telex isbn s iolen e


with violent behax ior

infants will inntate

P plax hehavors. Br age


ibes

ill mutate acts modeled on telex ision.

13. [he more hours children spend watching r iolent


programs, the niore at risk thex are (or

and

Obiective 22: Describe Fianduras find inns on what


dcennines ix hether ix e will imitate a model,

,fnt rx
a.

It (mc

1 rcrninu
chora

near tne chod


,

O\perJ

xx

inn

ies/

aggres-ixen
-

rot

wo

nan not omen ed me ado It

6. Baedurc beher e- people imitate a model because

ot

and

Ii ise ret air ed hr the model as nell s hr


7

suIts mc help c
Pr

noh lead to anoressixe


hehas or
a

ho x eu ed on ad oft

imon-

teens anu aunts,


-

14. Correlation does not prox e


\tost reearchers heliex e that watching x bolenre
idors does
on tales s:on

3, The p-ri hologist he-f knexr n for teseawh on

lobe

t at pr r dc a neural basis for


ning th se neurons hax c been observed to
r he i in inker s perform a simple task and
vh

211

V
r
I
1
t

Ixox

tfl
1
O

ic

inciudino
agression and the
sure te x iolenee o

(Os

ix

ohscn ed
tendt ncr ot prolonged c 03

Ion c

S.

-t

C.

Cr

0..

fr

(rv_

(4

C.

I,

I.

33

I,

11

Progr
I r Pa los
Pori P meat
a. (S
P. (R.
14.

cxj c i

or

itt dog

salts m

an exarag
17. X[ieh if the ix h ri g
fo cemi nt
5
is is e stinrolris aftet a ponst
1
a. presenting
b. remos tog rr unpleasant sfrmulus aff
ii sponse
c. hetng ti Id that r ou have done a good joh
d. All o the ahor e are esarrrplos

dI

rehar tors l called


rinrg I imitating o -ii
elrer best knots n for
learnmz. The re
mn tic f t\ Cu O It arnng is
a. cdnOar\ L:niter
P. r-cr :!Ha: itanduta
Par or
LL0flOufl
C
d. ohs-ar aoo-0, Xl itsrin

15. Pannirmeirt
a tontror ersial rra of controlling
in hat or area Ue
a. debar br n not forgotten and mar return.
b. raiding somuli often create fear.
pundnna -or ol ten mureae aggressir enes.
d. of a
! of the ions e reisans
1

a. classical rondifioning
b. operant cooorton tog
c. ohserr itional learning
d. all at the atnn e

19. 1-or the most rapid conditiontng. a


a.
P.
c.
d.

about I second alter the 55,


about onehalf second hemre the P S.
about JR seconds before the I S.
at the same tinse as the 55
neurons

are

found

)efinitit as or DeseriI 1

a.

frontal lobe of se r at onal lcr rmn

deserip at with thi appro


Terms

1. preseirtatir r if a disirid stimulus


2. tendency for sir a ar stun au to evoke a
CR
5, ri-c)t S of an
errr e sttrnulus
reinforcing tinulus
4 -i- l-if
S. ar nqrnrrd rnioftager
6, n-r-lnses 0
n telrrilrtt(a after an urrrt
fiSana umouni o nme
5
P tire
to toit S perform a dehar to

yi

tmnf-lona rioor and closer apnrow


as for
a
I
regptatnoco
a roakened ( P
10. fOurl afsm of an eStis
Vi.- 4tmulu
1
11 1 -ring rhaf 0
cc nle apparent oolr
S Si
S fort m
p1 or ided
12. a
rd
t
550 is telnfol ed
rat tor Cue to
13.
be ir I
I__ti I
S

the

b. frontal lobe lassreal eondihomng


e temporal lobe o ci a rnditioo ag
ft r P ix
d. temporal lobt bse

nglteir
I

rr i

and aie belrcred to he the neural fasts It

a. the ibject
h. thi strengi
f he timub
I an assoc abort
tire pred a
I
thu sir
r t r

taela deh
Ic terna

shooij he

presented:

20. Mirror

or conditioning is.

a forna of associatn e

18. II hich of fire following


lea ci in g I

16. e I
I ondtionnig ixpi rn cots dv Reseorla
and XX -gin r di morstrat that an important factor

213

a. shaping

b. ponishnaent
err
d. latent learning
C. pasSive mm roruenrent
I. negatrr c rerrforeenref
g. prmrarr Oiit- ret-i
P. geoerai:zanon
P coodittooed telnoirer
j. contineiotis reinforen1ent
k. s ariahie inferr al stnedul&
I. extrinsic rnotn ation
na. mtrio-dr na rir afioo
C.

sptinfaOeOu ret

214

Chapte8

ca

PROGRESS TEST 2
Progress lest 2 sh. Id Lx. to npletcd dunng a final
chapter res jew. Ansis cr tk e 0 lowing questions after
you thoroughis undc rstar d th c rect ansis er, tar
thi. %ection res less s and Pr s,rcs kst I.

Ir distir Fwsth , etiseen negatis iemforccrs


i d ninish r nt is e note that:
a pur sl icnt ut not negatis e reintorcement,
r so cs usc .. I an as ersis e .timulus.
b. ir
tr st to punishment negatis e reintorcc
mtnt dccrc ises the likelihood of a response In
the pitsentation

SlultipkClwice Quections
1. During c.ttnctitn. the
6 omitted; a a
setni. to disappear.
reult, the
a. U%:LR
c. Ls:CR
ci. CS;t..R
b. CS;CR
2. In l.atson and Rat ncr s espenment. the loud
noise ssas the
and the white rat it as the

a. CS:CR
b. LS-c.S

c. CS;LS
d. CS; CR

3. In sshkh of the followi F ma cla,sical condition


ing play a role?
a. emotional prcblems
b. the bodys n mime response
c. helping 4 is, i.. 1 ci
d. all of th.c abase
4. SE ping s a
a bchasicr.
a operant esta is tins
b operant, supprcss ns,
0
1
c. respondc i stablish r
d. respondet rr

ccinique for

5. In Pat los s studic Cf lassical condtioning of a


dogs sahs ary respc
S s )nta teous recos er

occuire&
a. during acquisition. s I r the Cs isas firt
patred with the I. S.
b. during etinctjcn, nhen the CS isa firct pre
.trted in It%tIl
C. nhen the CS w... reintn <laced tolloring
e\tlflct)t ut tEe C R arc a re%t period.
d. duirg dI%rmirtion raining. sshen .eveiaI
C lciMoflcd stinui isa introduced
b.

For pcrd;Lt
nditicrqng to be mo&t effectis e.
when chould th reinforers be presented in rela
tion to thr deirtd re.-pcrr-e?
4 tetnre
a. immediatel
b. imnedi.itpl alter
C. at th same sine a
fc
d. at ire4 a ial h

of

an as ersis e stimulus.

c. in .cntrat to punishment, negatis e rcinfore


ment irieases the likelihood ot a re.ponse by
the piesentatkn of an as ersis e tiinulus.
d. in cortrast to punishment. negatis e reinforce
ment :ncreases the likelihood of a respolise hi
the termination of an as ersive stimulus.
8. The piecen ork, or commicsion, method of pa
ment is an es.ample of is hich reinforcement
.chedule?
c. fisedratio
a. fiai-inter al
d. s ariable-ratio
b. s arabk-inten al
-

9. Putting on jour coat when it is cold outside


behas ior that is maintained by:
a discr it ination learning.
b. ,unishment
c. tes,atiie reinforcement.
d. class cal conditioning.

is

10. On an iten uttcnt reinforcement scicdule rein


forcemc it is gnen

a. irwn maflatrousts
b. randrnis
c. foi s cccssivc approximations of a desired
beha or
d cnlysomcofthetinie.

11. You t h your dos, to fetch the paper hs giving


him a cookic each time he does so. This is an
eamp c c t
a. optia t conditioning.
b. dassLa onJitioning.
c. conditk,ned reinforcement.
d. partia rehforemcnt.
12. In pnrnnt.ng vhsen .itional learning, the flIOt
-lie: tis e rnocteS. are thoe that ste pert cave as.
a.

stnula to oi,,r.ds es.

b. rt%pecred and admired.


C. ucA-s-ful.
d. envottheabose.

_____
_______

Progress Test 2
13. A cognitive map is a(n):
a. mental representation of ones environment.
b. sequence of thought processes leading from
one idea to another.
c. set of instructions detailing the most effective
means of teaching a particular concept.
d. biological predisposition to learn a particular
skill.
14. After exploring a complicated maze for several
days, a rat subsequently ran the maze with very
fev errors when food was placed in the goal box
for the first time. This performance illustrates:
a. classical conditioning.
b. discrimination learning.
c. observational learning.
d. latent learning.
15. Leons psychology instructor has scheduled an
exam every third week of the term, Leon will
probably study the most just before an exam and
the least just after an exam. This is because the
schedule of exams is reinforcing studying accord
ing to which schedule?
c. fixed-interval
a. fixed-ratio
d. variable-interval
b. variable-ratio
as classical con
16. Operant conditioning is to
ditioning is to
c. Pavlov; Skinner
a. Pavlov; Watson
d. Skinner; Pavlov
b. Skinner; Bandura
17. On-line testing systems and interactive software
are applications of the operant conditioning prin
ciples of:
a. shaping and immediate reinforcement,
b. immediate reinforcement and punishment.
c. shaping and primary reinforcement,
d. continuous reinforcement and punishment.
18. Which of the following is the best example of a
conditioned reinforcer?
a. putting on a coat on a cold day
b. relief from pain after the dentist stops drilling
your teeth
c. receiving a cool drink after washing your
mothers car on a hot day
d. receiving an approving nod from the boss for
a job well done

19. Experiments on taste-aversion learning demon


strate that:
a. for the conditioning of certain stimuli, the IJS
need not immediately follow the CS.
b. any perceivable stimulus can become a CS.

215

c. all animals are biologically primed to associ


ate illness with the taste of a tainted food.
d. all of the above are true.
20. Regarding the impact of watching television vio
lence on children, most researchers believe that:
a. aggressive children simply prefer violent pro
grams.
b. television simply reflects, rather than con
tributes to, violent social trends,
c. watching violence on television leads to
aggressive behavior.
d. there is only a weak correlation between expo
sure to violence and aggressive behavior.
TrueFti ise Items
Indicate whether each statement is true or false by
placing T or F in the blank next to the item.
1. Operant conditioning involves behavior

that is primarily reflexive.


2. The optimal interval between CS and
US is about 15 seconds.
3. Negative reinforcement decreases the
likelihood that a response will recur,
4. The learning of a new behavior pro
ceeds most rapidly with continuous
reinforcement.
5. As a rule, variable schedules of rein
forcement produce more consistent
rates of responding than fixed sched
ules.
6. Cognitive processes are of relatively lit
tle importance in learning.
7. Although punishment ma he effective
in suppressing behavior, it can have
several undesirable side effects.
8. All animals, including rats and birds,
are biologically predisposed to associate
taste cues with sickness.
9. Whether the CS or US is presented first
seems not to matter in terms of the ease
of classical conditioning.
10. Spontaneous recovery reters to the ten
dencv ot extinguished behaviors to
reappear suddenly.
11. Researchers have discovered brain neu
rons that fire when a person performs a
task or when another person is observed
performing the same task.

216

Chapter 8

Iearning

PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED
Answer these questions the day before an exam as a
final check on your understanding of the chapters
terms and concepts.
Multiple-Choice Questions
1. You always rattle the box of dog biscuits before

giving your dog a treat. As you do so, your dog


salivates. Rattling the box is a(n)
; your
dogs salivatIon is a(n)
a. CS; CR
c. US; CR
b. CS; UR
d. US; UR
2. You are expecting an important letter in the mail.
As the regular delivery time approaches you
glance more and more frequently out the win
dow, searching for the letter carrier. Your behav
ior in this situation typifies that associated with
which schedule of reinforcement?
a. fixed-ratio
c. fixed-interval
b. variable-ratio
d. variable-interval
3. Jack finally takes out the garbage in order to get
his father to stop pestering him. Jacks behavior is
being influenced by:
a. positive reinforcement.
b. negative reinforcement.
c. a primary reinforcer.
d. punishment.
4. Mrs. Ramirez often tells her children that it is

important to buckle their seat belts while riding


in the car, but she rarely does so herself. Her chil
dren will probably learn to:
a. use their seat belts and tell others it is impor
tant to do so.
b. use their seat belts but not tell others it is
important to do so.
c. tell others it is important to use seat belts but
rarely use them themselves.
d. neither tell others that seat belts are important
nor use them,

5. A pigeon can easily be taught to flap its wings in


order to avoid shock but not for food reinforce
ment. According to the text, this is most likely so
because:
a. pigeons are biologically predisposed to flap
their wings in order to escape aversive events
and to use their beaks to obtain food.
b. shock is a more motivating stimulus for birds
than food is.
c. hungry animals have difficulty delaying their
eating long enough to learn aini new skill.
d. of all of the above reasons.
6. From a casino owners viewpoint, which of the
following jackpot-payout schedules would be the
most desirable for reinforcing customer use of a
slot machine?
a. variable-ratio
c. variable-interval
b. fixed-ratio
d. fixed-interval
7. After discovering that her usual route home was
closed due to road repairs, Sharetta used her
knowledge of the city and sense of direction to
find an alternate route. This is an example of:
a. latent learning.
b. observational learning.
c. shaping.
d. using a cognitive map.
For questions 8il, use the following information.
As a child, you were playing in the yard one day
when a neighbors cat wandered over. Your mother
(who has a terrible fear of animals) screamed and
snatched you into her arms. Her behavior caused you
to cry. You now have a fear of cats.
8. Identify the CS.
a. your mothers behavior c. the cat
b. your crying
d. your fear today
9. Identify the US.

a. your mothers behavior c. the cat


b. your crying
d. your fear today
10. identify the CR.
a. your mothers behavior c. the cat
b. your crying
d. your fear today
11. Identify the CR.
a. your mothers behavior c. the cat
b. your crying
d. your fear today

Psychology Applicd

12.

hc
i

sn cr if i a utactnrmg tam xsishe to


nh ccmer t to imrcasc the pro
s s
i k r
i
Which o the following pro
s a
rc s ii I i babtv Bc thc x ast ehiactise
iloy c
i c gn tr
a gencral
cs
i
Ioi s t th end of cach fiscal y ear
ocic
al ft i c ens attainbfe y t
s e tirca h i ploycc
i
hIl(5ot
g s s in modiatc honuscs foi
r,
lit 00
cd to wOULLL ity
t
1
Li
fa ft mect standards of ro
ut
cc (p vcnt

13

u ca that sas i the shop m n


n c thc i hc nib not csen coi
It ) sing Inc
grcen oforcd tars Bit s
a r ioitc grc i cars i n example of.
1

di

id

i ci i i r

cieah itcn

atent k arnirig
xtncicn

ii i i

son tle
r cesti
vnn aud Susan have been stak
th a o x
snr smer games Whit h oh the tot
m
g b st a c unts ar ttscn bclsavior
di ioning
k ss cal
c latent learning
rv t u I I arr ing d shaping

14, x
a

Ta,

a ci

s at ha, cascra cot thc Ohrnp

r c ,rorips ot iats re e so ci assicaf onditioning


s i
c a tone and cietrh shock are pro
r tc I. ir ( mnp I the efcctric shock always tot
ii s tht or
H r Group 2 the tone and shock
s raud mm
WI ich )t thc tottowing is uk ty
i

7
rsit

tirc

a.

mmcc CS for Group 1 butnot

ioo 2

ftc t ic s
i
( I
I

b come

(Sto Group 2bntn t

Ic inc

(do

16

m
c
r

oth ,r ups
a bh tar citlscr

cloose rrt r
Bc
\rmcr r tat tocd rest u
ho rr
i I
ink
ft s

ii
It
r us emsiintotht salt
a
c an ger ai d trcnch tr es.
\ vI g
dc oh p an as c rs an to thc taste
use rr
1 rardt cnhtrics
i a

217

c. May hng xx i i not a sociate hcr tines s th ft


food she ate
B, May 1mg x ii associate ha sickocss x i
somc tiung she experenced nrned ft y a
toieshcte arc II
n x it I I
17. Reggie s inothei tcifs him that lit
attc r he cicans hs oc n. Es id r ti R
c
to i rc isc r
ther is attcmpting to usc
cloaniug

a
b
c.
d.

)pcrant conditioning
secondary reintorccr sent
positivc remforccincnt
all of the abose

1$. thich of the fotlowing is an c xampic ot s iapm,


a.
dog it arns to saffs ate at tI e sight if a h x of
dog biscuits.
b. \ new drn ci learns to stop it an mtt r e on
si hen the fight changes to red
c X pairot is ress arded hrst for n ak ng a
sonnd then for making a sonnd sim far
I aora and then tor speakmg it on nei
name
ps chohgv student reinfnrcc s a ihoran n
d.
rat only occasionally to make its bchas o
more resistant to extinction
19. 1 ars, a Woe salesman is paid cx cry two cc k
whereas Tom receis es a commission for c ch pa
of shoes he sells 1-s identiy, t ars is paid r
schednie of reinforcement and torn i a
,chednk of reintor cinent
a, hxed ratio; hxc d interx af
b. continnons; intermittent
c. fixed inters aI hxed ratio
d. s ariabte inters af s ariable ratio
20 Nancy decidcd o takc introduc ors p yhat
bc cause lsc ha is is s been intc st dir
r
bt has ior Jack enrolled ir t
It ausc It cngst its nd b
otiratcd by
bct a rn
a.
B.
c.
d.

t
cxtr rsi r sat an o rirsi
intrinsic n otis atior xti i sic n
drives; i iccrtivcs
ncntGe, dne
1
5

I,
C
1

6
8

1
0

21.

ERMS

KE

27

Lcs

tfl
C

3
I

33

34

Ii

cc
Yc
rs
I

3
C.

sw-s
C

64

210

check
4-.

Icvwd in the Prologue.


tv te fl ng .md en ci learning of
naeI _! are Itp3i tarn to the
it itJifl.. j.ttkt AtLcr nu hr e
n the: d
t nsothckty
i ti i
) d
OU

ou

t
C
ri

irc

ti
IL

rS

teethe

tN cki

c m
-1

Ii

-1

kCROSS

I. bvh.n nit tkt .WtUr% .is an


t..r irn 1
1
.
tL rt%p. rne to a
mmnu .1,
Lititci
rient
rd
tier
iiton.
ia ihen
,

I--

1.

-I

cit..
a re.ponst
-.trenizthen% ae Ie%pon%v.
9. T pt tt -tlrnulu% that natu
r.lh trIggers an umondi
tins ;ed repm..r.
r 1. ole irited n olunt in
r mm

r-

ung stinul

20 1 r.u dun. t! a. .nvoh es reintorung sUtCCS%i C


pn imat en-. of a hehai ior.
21 Learned ren.e to a pre moush neutral stimu
1W
22. eor&nsz h t L)LA.J% ui the 3bence at reinfCMce
net L I.t t e
betomes ap arent slwn ii ncen
-es
d
1
hid ann
rdit i
Fl
lit

DY%
fr 4 icy .tnt-n!
2.

;. t

...cnv

nith

k.

I t
i.
1

tt.

Hn-t

!%.h

ic.pt

rC%.)n..f.

flcl,az

i sun
s.nt
;
1

tm.llo ing

to

litf

flOl(

,e

C I

1.

p :dt
i. it
1

.t;V,)

lit

tuli that
l,c rciitiurttd
j.. iaa.niflq and imitating

ieaith t
It

I9

S.....

ft )ndm
13. Stimulus that autor
c ly t iggi..
boned response.
14. The prisentation ot an at CfI t ,timdhis. ii hich
decreae% the behavior it folkis
15. 1 vpe of learning also tailed Pa lot ian condition
ing.
16. Ihe proce%% of natching and then imitedng a
beha mc,r
r
t)
ViOf
18. %toth itic n U. pertor
ults
)
obtan rewamlor
10

flrigm 1 r. al +
a cond o c .epo

..C

ANSWERS
Chapter Review
How Do lSe I an,?
1. earn
2.

the orir .1 C to

C.

11

1 reLrtmnced.

01 9nic
r

t I

cduce,r r

I_..I

3.

that spo

wet F
iii I
.ing o

-.

,tKtVs

iassic

4. neranz
5. oh.in mc

H,

220

Claptcr8 learnin
6

(lassica Conditioning
fl P3 loi; John 1%atson; lx
1.
2. .ondituntd %tnnulus; uiiconditiont stimulus
3. untonaitkned recpon%e
4. cnditioned rtsptnse
5. acquisitiin: ont -halt sttond
6. does net
I earning theori%t.. wn%ider classical conaitionrng to
he aiapthe because tonditioned responses help
organ sms to prepare for good or had ci entc iUlkOfl
ditnined stimuli) th it are about to occur.
7. sun ii c; reproduce
8. tail
9. extinction
10. spontaneou. rcxovery
ieralieation
11
12 s milar dhci imination
13 su nl
14. c. gnitor
1. prJcl. t i ntie;c t
16. ..ikoh h
17 c. ons st mulus
18 s kicsiould
19 Ft lor c.al, adapt; leve I a ialvsi
20
pt
ii.
ectively
(.1 ssical conditioning led to the disc i s of general
principles of learning that are the saint fc r all spec its
tested, including humans (ia%sical t.onditioning also
proi Itled an example to the young field of psi cholo
g ol hois umpkx internal processes could be tud
lcd obiectn ely. In addition, classical conditioning ba
to h.ive mans helpful appL.innn. tc human
hekh ad e!l l ing
22 :rai:njt tUts

Operant (onditson tug


1. neutral; aut fl ie& I %t
2. respondent
3. operant
4. lais of effect; xcii arded; recur
5. Skinner box operant chamber
6. shaping: approximazion4
7. .onceph; dk.riniinating
8. discriminati e stimulu,
9. reintor%eL
10. positis e reinforcer
11. negative reinforcei
12. primary reintorccrs; conditioned reinforcers
13. more
14. is; delayed; dwc i prc tected sex
01 eme it ap& rapid
15. continuou e g
16. partial (mtcnri tcnt) slowa, iery
17. fixed ratE)
18. va table-ratio
19 fixcd-intcr a ch ck rig the mail as delhery time
apzca Ic
20. sanable in a t
FollowinF rein! r ement on a fixcd-intersal schedule
thete is a pau C 1 rcsponSng and then an increasing
rate of respc r c s time for tht next reinforcement
drass s near. Oi. wd-raCn sa wdule there also is a
post-reinforcement pause followed, hoss ever, by a
return to a consictcnt high rate of response Both
kinds of ariable schedule produce steadier rates of
response. without the pauses associated is ith fixed
schedule.. In general. chedules linked to responses
produce higher reponcc tates and s ariable schedules
produce more consi.tent responding than the related
fixed .heduie.
21. ptinishment pcsitis punishment; negatn e pun

23.

22.

ptjivn

Ii

s?f.

dt.0n and Ras ner. pt ri;ncnt. C:a)cal condi

used to ..cmdition feat of a ct in 4lbert,


a. I -nonth hi infant. 1 hen \lhs t touhed the
ietd mu c iunondi
s hitc- rat netaticil st;n,ulusi,
cr ed stimulus is n souraed. itt r
a 1 p ilings
0 ft it isith the nois Albert b a ryi g at thc
ii a
toftheraL fheraF d
t
wli
di r
st ulus, tihrgeii
s ) s )
uoniig

WJ

ih;nent
cuppie.seJ

23. fear the person

s to

adinini-teicti it

24. aggre.sn Cfless


25. co.,niti c
26. cognitise mao
27. latent letrni
28. intrinsic
29. is

1w

cx

t tiiation

Answers

scribes any hehai ior that is automatic rather than


being triggered h a specific stimulus.
b. This answer is too Lenera1, since behaviors can
change for reasons other than learning.
d. Rspondeiit1x conditioned heha\ ior also satis
fies the criteria of our definition of learning.

30. reinforcer; shape; food


31. adaptive; instinctive drift

32. external: internal thoughts; feelings

33. operant; hehax ior


34. dehumaniied; freedom; control
35. shaping; testing; interactie; Web; athletic
36. more; achievable; more
37. costs; benefits
38. a. State your goal.
b. Monitor the behavior (when and where
occurs).

it

c. Reinforce the desired behavior.


d. Reduce the incentives to perform the undesirable hehax ior.

39. associative learning


40. acquisition extinction suontaneous recovery
eneral ization discrimination
41. cognitive; biological

42. stimuli; control; automatically


43. operant behaviors; consequences
Learning by Observation
1. modeling; observational learning; occurs
2. mirror frontal observational observe other mon
keys performing the same task; has
-

3. 9 months; 14 months
4. Bandura

more

6. rewards; punishments
7, abusive; aggressive; genetic
8. rurosocial
9, similar; ,uccesful; admirable; consistent
atching telex ision

10.

is

11.

vioient

13. aggression; crime


14, causation; does

15. imitation; desensitize


I

.1u1tip1e-CJioict Questions
1.

the ansis er. ip. l )


a. 1hi answer js incorrect because it simpli de-

c. is

2. b. is the answer. (p. 327)


a. & c. Classical tonditioning is associated with
Paviox; respondent conditioning is another name
for classical conditioning
d. Ohserx ational learning is most closely associat
ed u ith Bandura.
3. c. is the ansn er. Meat automaticalh triggers the
response of salk ation and is therefore an uncon
ditioned stimulus. (p. 1i
a. A conditioned stimulus acquires its responsetriggering powers through learning. A dog does
not learn to salii ate to meat.
b. & d. Responses are behax iors triggered in the
organism, in this case the dog s sahxation. The
meat is a stimulus,
3. b. is the answer. Prior to its pairing with meat
(the U5, the tone did not trigger salivation and
was therefore a neutral stimulus. Afterward, the
tone triggered salk ation the CR) and was there
fore a conditioned stimulus (CS). (pp. 316317)
c. & d. Lnconditioned stimuli, such as meat,
innately trigger responding. Pa\ lox s dogs had to
learn to associate the tone with the food.
5. d. is the answer. In learning to distinguish hetween the conditioned stimulus and another, sim
ilar stimulus, the monkey has received training in
discrimination. ip. 320)
a. In extinction training, a stimulus and/or re
sponse is allowed to go unrenforced.
b. Generalization training in olves responding to
stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus; here
the monkey is being trained not to respond to a
similar stimulus
c This cannot he classical onditioning since the
monkes is acting in ordcr to obtain a reward.
Thus this s an exam iC of operant conditioning.
.

\ centinunu asoc1atifln will


naturall\ be eaier to learn than one that occurs
on onk some nccaons, o learning is most rapid
with continuous reinforcement, i et, once the con
tuou accociatien ic no longer there, a in cx
tinction training, extinction is ill occur more
rapidly than it is ould has e had the organism not
aiwas experienced reinforcement. (p. 331)
7. b. js the ansiser (pp. 321 34
c. & d. I he text deo nut preont cs idonce regard
ing the relatis o importancc of cognitis e processes
in classical and operant conditioning.
6. b. js the an-ni or

1. in k

Progress Test

221

222

ChapterS Learning

8. b. is the answer. (p. 332)


a. X\ith fixed-ratio schedules, there is a pause fol
lowing each reinforcement.
c. & d. Because reinforcement is not contingent
on the rate of response, interval schedules, espe
cially fixed-interval schedules, produce lower
response rates than ratio schedules.
9. b. is the answer. (p. 329)
a. Positive reinforcement involves presenting a
favorable stimulus following a response.
c. Punishment involves presenting an unpleasant
stimulus following a response.
d. In extinction, a previously reinforced response
is no longer followed by reinforcement. In this
situation, a response causes a stimulus to he ter
minated or removed.
10. c. is the answer. In this situation, the CR will
decline, a phenomenon known as extinction. (p.
319)
a. Generalization occurs when the subject makes
a CR to stimuli similar to the original Cs.
b. Discrimination is when the subject does not
make a CR to stimuli other than the original CS.
d. An aversion is a CR to a CS that has been asso
dated with an unpleasant US, such as shock or a
nausea-producing drug.
11. c. is the answer. (p. 326)
a. In operant conditioning the responses operate
on the environment.
b. In classical conditioning responses are triggered
by preceding stimuli.
d. In classical conditioning responses are reflexive.
12. c. is the answer. (pp. 321322)
a. & d. These studies also indicated that rats are
biologically predisposed to associate visual and
auditory stimuli, but not taste, with shock.
b. Rats are biologically predisposed to associate
taste with sickness.
13. d. is the answer. A dog does not have to learn to
salivate to food; therefore, this response i uncon
ditioned. (p. 317)

a. & c. Salivation is a response, not a stimulus.


14. b. is the answer. (pp. 341, 343)
a. Skinner is best known for studies of operant

learning. Moreover, there is no such thing as sec


ondary learning.
c. Pavlov is best known for classical conditioning.
d. Watson is best known as an early proponent of
behaviorism.
15. d. is the answer. (pp. 332333)
16. c. is the answer. (p. 321)
a., b., & d. Rescorla and Wagners reearch did
not address the importance of these factors in
classical conditioning.

17. d. is the answer. a. is an example of positive rein

forcement, h. is an example of negative reinforce


ment, and c. is an example of conditioned rein
forcement, (p. 329)
18. d. is the answer. (p. 314)
19. b. is the answer. (p. 318)
a. Backward conditioning, in which the US pre
cedes the CS, is ineffective.
c. This interval is longer than is optimum for the
most rapid acquisition of a CS-US association.
d. Simultaneous presentation of CS and US is.
ineffective because it does not permit the subject
to anticipate the US.
20. a, is the answer. (p. 342)
?vlatching Items
1. e (p. 329)

2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.

k (p. 332)
m (p. 335)
a (p. 328)
c (p. 319)
10. b (p. 332)

h (p. 320)
f (p. 329)
g (p. 330)
i (p. 330)

Progress Test

11. d (p. 334)


12. j (p. 330)
13. 1 (p. 335)

Multiple-Choice Questions
1. c. is the answer. (p. 319)

2. b. is the answer. The loud noise automatically


triggered Alberts fear and therefore functioned
as a US. After being associated with the US, the
white rat acquired the power to trigger fear and
thus became a CS. (p. 324)
3. d. is the answer. (p. 324)
4. a. is the answer. Shaping works on operant
behaviors by reinforcing successive approxima
tions to a desired goal. (p. 328)
5. c. is the answer. (p. 319)
a., b., & d. Spontaneous recovery occurs after a
CR has been extinguished, and in the absence of
the US. The situations described here all involve
the continued presentation of the US and, there
fore, the further strengthening of the CR.
6. b. is the answer. (p. 330)
a,, c., & d. Reinforcement that is delayed, present
ed before a response, or at the same time as a
response does not always increase the responses
frequency of occurrence.
7. d. is the answer. (pp. 329, 332)
a. Both involve an aversive stimulus.
b. All rein forcers, includ.i ng negative reinforcers,
increase the likelihood of a response.

Answers

In negatn e runtorcenren an aversh e stimulus


o11

rving a desirable response.


n nhJran r 5

S. c. s the answer. (as ment P gir en after a fised


euro her ct pthces has e bean completed. (p 33h
a. & b. inter al ohedules tejntorde according to

tune, ot t

parsage
mph rcd
It

r t ios

ix d r

on
0

1
e amoun

f work

Pa , on tommission,
crcf re prc di table.

s thc at
Br barr i a c put on your coat
I Jore nong ou(sde, r ou I us e learued to reduce
the as cult e srmulu of the cold p 32)
a. Dis. imination learning ins olves learning to
oteka a re onse in the presence of the appropri
nulus end not other timuli.
1
sr
b Puohhmer t is the suppression of an undesir
the pr nntat n of ao a crn e
rep
tr Ins
cc a s c resp nsc that operates on
B Eu tim
ens irt r r I herefc rc
is is an example of
perant. not lassical, conditi aning.

10. d. th the anus er. (p331)


a. Intermittent reinforcement refers to the ratio of
raspoilses to reinrorcers. not the overall quantits

of reinforcement delivered.
knlike n t nittent reintc cement, in which the
ci ak rcemc t is ontingcnt on re
err
ing
sac m rctnforccment is delis ered
F
en Ic t cf F sub,cct s behas ior.
ns de ws ) a techniq c of shaping not inter
c
ttent reinfo cement.
11. a. ts the aosa or P on are teaching your dog by
ren arding him n hen he produces the desired
behavior. (p. 32sf
B. I h;s is om ciassital conctitioninc because the
sOc w a nr sirs reinfor cr piesented after the

ant bc
cd
i

it

f the dc , lctching the aper


thins an
rr cmf c t

!it

start
coot
u. r
13 a. O

,,

swtr

dog
c as reio)or
0

ft.

Se lie I

he

cot

a0 a

34(

d learned the ma7e but


0
14. d. i. tO i sn ee 4 ( r.t h
isy
I not 4
this P Sm a c until rciot )rcemeot
inc i
at
a
oh
zeiscl ry opcr stl Pa ri r.
1cm i gt dis
B
n
csn In )
i P
U noah.
romp hcco
the
em atitni
0

15.

223

a is the aosv er. becansc cintorcement (earning a


good grade 00 the e.ami 15 as ahable according to
the passage ot tsme, studs log is reintorced on an
interval schedule. Bemuse the intera al between
exams is constant, this is an example of a fRed

interval sthedule. (p. 332)


16, d is thc ansrv (pp 3I r
a. Park at d XPatson art oth associated with
classical condtti ) sing
n. Skioncr s ssociatca w itl operant cor dition
log, and Bit dura is associated with observational
learning.
17. a. is the anna er. On-line testing systems apply
operant principles such as reinforcement, imme
diate teedhack, aod shapin.g to the teaching of

new skills. (p. 3371


B. & B. On-nrc testing 3tems pros ida iinmedi
ate at d continuou- rein(orcement for correct
rcponses but do not use as ersis e control proce
dures sucl as punishn ent
c. On-lint teshng s stems are based on feedback
for correct respooses; this feedback constitutes
cooditioned. rather than primary, reinforcement.
18. B. is the answer. An approving nod from

the boss

is a conditioned reinforcer in that it doesnt satis


Pa an innate need but has become linked with
desirable conscquenccs. Cessation ot cold, cessa
tion of pain, and a drmk arc all primary rein
forcers, as hid meet innate needs. (p 330)
19. a. is the ansu er. 1 aste-as ersioo experirr cuts dens
onstrate conditioning es en with CS-US intervals
as long as several hours. (pp. 32l322(

B. Despite being peiceivable, a visual or auditors


stimulus cannot become a CS for illness in some
animals, such as rats.

c. Some an naP such as birds, are biologically


pnmed s assocate thc p r inca of load with illr css.
20 c.sth

itt

ProcI a 1st Ite,is


1. Fp. up

2. F p. 315;
3. F p.
4 lIp. 130)

5,
p 301
6. I pp 2L 3i4(
7. PP 5170333
8. g (pp 2 122)

9, P p.. 3is
10. 1 (p.
11. Iis. 3-Ui

224

ChapterS I.earning

Psychology Applied
MultzpleChoice Questions
1. a. is the answer. Your dog had to learn to assocn
ate the rattling sound with the food. Rattling is
therefore a conditioned, or learned, stimulus, and
aiir ation in response to thi rattling i
5 a learned,
or onditioned, response. (p. 317)
2 c. s the ansn er. Reinforcement (the letter) comes
after a tixed interval, and as the likely end of the
intcrr al approaches, your behavior (glancing out
the window) becomes more frequent. (p. 332)
a & b. Ihece answers are incorrect because xvith
ratio Lhedules, reinforcement is contingent upon
the number of responses rather than on the pas
Sage of time.
d \ssuming that the mail is delivered at about
the same time each day, the interval is fixed
rather than r ariable. Your behax ior reflects this,
since \ on glance out the window more often as
the delivery time approaches.
3. h. is the answer. By taking out the garbage, Jack
termmates an aversive stimulus his fathers
nagging. (p. 2Q)
a. Positir e reinforcement would involve a desir
able stimulus that increases the likelihood of the
response that preceded it.
c. This answer would have been correct if jacks
father had rewarded Jack for taking out the
garbage by pror iding his favorite food.
d. Punishment suppresses behar ior; lack is
behar ing in order to obtain reinforcement.
.

c. is the answer. Studies indicate that uhen a


model says one thing but does another, subjects
do the same and learn not to practice what they
preach. (p. 344)

5, a. is the answer. \s in thi- example, conditioning


must be consistent with the particular organisms
h mc gical pci dispositions. tpp 33S 36)
b S m behaviors, but certainl not all are
aqu wd mow rapidh than others when shock is
as nega tire reinfonement
c. Piceons are able to acquire many nex\ hehar
on xr hen food ic used a reinforcement.

7. d. is the answer, Sha

is
itt,

etta

representation of the
334)

dod hr cc
nit

er Ratio schedules maintain higher


i respondinggambling in this example
U in do interi al schedules. Furthermore, variable
sch dules are not associated with the pause in
responding follon ing reinforcement that is tt pi
tived Schedules. The clot machine a nuld
ai
titiotort be used more often, and more consis
tem:r if jackpow acre scheduled according to a
i anal Ic-ratio schedule. (p 32)
ansir

a. Latent learning or learn


i the
we e
reinforcement that is de no 010.1 \ en 1010forcement becomes or ailohk ha-. no Jo. Ci rolex once to the example
b. ()hserr ational ]uadninc, lerow to hum
hon
watching others.
c hapi ig is the tee ir qu
fo
i
h
sir e approxmiati it s I ci
8 c. is the ansirer. &cOUSi th
wiatec
.t was
with i our i ther scream, a ietCC a fern
response, and is thus the CO. p
9. a. is the ansir cr Your mothet
roam and evi
dent fear which naturailt c
d on t ri, r is
the PS. (p. 317)
10. d. is the ansvr er Your te, r
i
r (R A
aquired fear is alit or s a c
toncd
mire
(p. 317)
-!

-.

11. 1,. is the answer. Your crying,

a rtomaticanr

trIg

gered by your mothers sa earn and feat a a the


PR. (p. 317)
12, C. is the answer. (p. 33l
a. Positive reinforceir or t
r
t
e r
boosting productir dv in thi i kpiac it c i spc
cific behavior, rather than ran P defined gener
al merit, 15 rewarded. \l0. initnedt ire rerntorce
merit is much more effectu than the dclar od
reinforcement described in a.
b. Positive reinforcement a mos e if fir e In
boosting produr liv i
orr
goal
r iii
t
are achievable, rather I tar
d. I he text does not s celtic
en
ire I
punishment in the nrkriacc. lion or or, i makes
the general point that .htl out UislitCflt mar
temporarily suppress runt on rod br}ai :r it does
not guide one toward more dinir,hir allOt
Therefore a orkers v ho cc
iv r
I poor
performan e
impr

the

in

ii

iv

trrvrr.
13. b. a ti
3d.
di u, a
t ad
h
learned Ovcrsio to a ma 10 0 li or a 0
car- hut also to 5
aw thai ow gr.av p
re-pond ing
a. 1\ hercar d ficrim inotio ii

6. a. ;s the

mental
I

onli to a particular stimulus bill 0 in


flier
orersi e recponc t
igr
well.
c. Latent learning s Ic nu
am
r

ent onit after reinli

anie :11 1

d. Prtin finn C the n t akcnmrr a


CS C no onri toil arib No I

a
a

N.

r ci

Inn;

his

225

nswe

su or The gills arc imitating hohas ior


C
14. b. i
oherr ed and admL od, (p. 331)
thor n
a. Because thesc hehas mrs are dearly willful
aihor man ins cluntari, clasbeal conot1onmg
oicss LC tom
c. Latent learning piar no role n this o\amplo,
d. nhapng is a procedure for teaching the acqut
non response hr reinforcing snccossno
siriOn 01
approx narions of the hohas or.
r su er. Classical e iditmoning proceeds
a ion tie CS a
t
d T S are reliably
t
d Br tnie or cci predict sbh assor mat
(
m
I
is ft s hkciy to ho true p

15. a. is ti
in st c
Sr

16. b. s h an rset, (p. 322


a, c, & d Taste-at orsior cscarrh demonstrates
that nr r ins and some orner animals, such as
rats, are hiologicalls primed to assocdato illness
Sr ith tno taste of tainted food, rather than with
other cues, such as tue tood s appearanco.
hioroor or, taste as erions can be acquired ox on
when the intors ai hotsr 0011 the CS and tile illness
is sot oral htors.

17.

d. P the nisivor, i3r mating

a more proforrod

acts i v w tohing I F) cor tmgont on a loss pro


ft
a t t (room do ning, Roggios mothor
operant e nd [mr ing tochniquo
s r ill r
or n orcib
330)
po

was ox idontly motivatod hr the ikc bhood of a


reward in mba form of a good grac
c. & d. A good grade, ueh as the one lack is
e\peetlng, is an inontco. Dris e, hots o. er. are
aroused states that resalt trnm pbs heal dopii r a
5 ex,tnnti.
tton; thor are not ins nit od. tn tin
Essay Question
The first step in shaping an operant r spouse 0c U as
e r nicer, borne
rolling ot or is to bud an offectis
sort ot bisnit or dog treat is las roe a v ml train
ernmr
ers. This primars remnfo comc it I ) Id hr
r m mm em it
nied by effusive praise (soc nd
s on
xshenex er the dog riakes a Snece5 Ii
Rolhg ox or (the goal rospo IsO shon 4 t e dix id
ed into a series of simple apprr xa anon too first ni
which is a response, such as lying dnnn on corn
irrand, that is already b tile dogs coportoire. 1 his
response should he reinforced set orai timer. The ilt-it
step is to issue a comniand, such as Roil us er, and
xx ithhold reinforcement untd the dog i risrla lh out or
h as
5
frustration) nrakes a closer approximation isu
rotating slighth in one directiuni. Polioning this
example, tire trainer should gradnabs reqrm e closer
and closer appr aximations until the ;oi rnponsc is
attained, When the ness rospomsr has 1 0O estab

lished, the trainer should switch fr an rout nnous


parhal reinforcement, n orde te strer them h e ski

329
pr

18. e, is e I 5555 or. The F arrot s reinforced for mak


ing sUCCC5 ye approxir ratio s of a goal behavior,
Tills d hue shaping. (p. 28
a. ShoT c is an operant cc nditioning procedure;
sahsation at rho sight of dog biscuits is a classical
is conditioned re-ponse.
b. Snaring ins oh Os the st-teniatic refnforcornont
of suecessiro if rrorinlattons of a more complex
hobo ion in tills example there P no indication
that the rspenso of stopning at the intersectIon
tho nrausai ; o&sihon of simpler
inveit

[oh
aiipk
d rrsr

d
c

ii

mintorror en
cn Lhc shap

its

Fbi

19.
a
is

as

lod of

or r a h sa

p ci rornfar cd)
x d I stortal)

Tom

rxcd- aho) ho makes

: p.
20. h. is B

cast or i\inttnci t dn

soinethtlig

for its

tntrin, iii,iticitiOll it anting to do


ns crd sfl tiii east, prosurnahiv,
s(OiettnSia ;
htgh r,,di is 0 cii ii k mi-ni at3 n, p. 1 151
a, I
npte s ii uc, sam n xt or motivated h
iti, 5 saNd. it heroas lack
,oFC
toe tiLt

ho

tn

Key Terms
Writing Definitions
1.

L.earning is an relatis oh permanent chan.ge in


an organism s behavior doe Ic esperienco. ip.

learn that c0iTsr 0 t ariations mit


assteiatms e learning are L iassieai mmd tinning and.
operant conditioning, ip. 3 l

2. In

associative learning. organisms

tam

yontc

occur

togothor.

x Ins 0
s
3, Also hr
po of
conditioning m
n a am es car
trai st
f
ho
am
ditmor d
rrd r dshr
withar

IL

elassiral

h
i

4. Behaviorism s t i s lost B p
ho an ohec is c - lance hint si

a no

Cli

ci

,r shoold
Ps nix nb it
1010cc C
to mental
i

hellos I0i5 withi


ira. inn)
Franc-ic: Because he a as cm earls ads orate at B
sIt ids mit nberr able habit i ir i h if atsi in is
often called tue tatlaor at lohax i,,rio.,

able

precesses.

iu t

226

Chapter 8 1 earning

classical conditioning, the unconditioned


response (UR) is the unlearned, mx oluntarv
response to the unconditioned stimulus, (p. 3] 7)
In classical conditioning, the unconditioned
stimulus (US) is the stimulus that naturally and
autom a tica liv triggers the reflexive uncund i
tioned response. (p. 317)
In classical conditioning, the conditioned re
sponse (CR) i
5 the learned response to a previ
ouslv neutral conditioned stimulus, which results
from the acquired association between the CS and
US. p. l7)
in classical conditioning, the conditioned stimu
lus (CS) Is an originally neutral ctimulus that
comes to trigger a CR after association with an
unconditioned stimulus. (p. 31 7)
In a learning experiment, acquisition refers to the
initial stage of conditioning in which the new re
sponse is established and gradually strengthened
In operant conditioning, it is the strengthening of
a reinforced response. (p. 318)
Fxtinction refers to the weakening of a CR ix hen
the CS is no longer folloix ed hi the US; in operant
conditioning extinction occurs when a response is
no longer reinforced, (p. 319)
Spontaneous recovery is the reappearance of an
extinguished CR after a rest period (p. 319)
Generalization refers to the tendency, once a
response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar
to the original CS to cx oke a CR. (p. 320)
Discrimination in classical conditioning refers to
the ability to distinguish the CS trom similar
stimuli that do not signal a US. In operant condi
tioning, it refers to responding dilterentl to stim
uli that signal a hehax mr will he reinforced or
will not he reinforced. (p. 320)
Operant conditioning is a t\pe of learning in
which behax Fir is strengthened it followed hi
a reinforcer or diminished it folloxied hi a pun
iher, ip. 32h)
Fr;:Fc: F niike clas.Uai conditioning, which
works on automatic hehai mrs. operant condi
tioning ix orks on heha\ mrs that operate on the
cm ironment.

5. In

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

1L
12.

13

14.

15. Respondent behavior


that which oc.ur a an
.iiitomatic rosponso to sonic .timulus (p- 32t)
I: nun plc: In classical conditioning, conditioned
and unconditioned responses are examples of
respondent behaior in that the. are automatic
responses triggered b specific stimuli
16 Operant behaiior i behax or that operatis on
the er x ironment, pr ducing consequemes (p

17. F. I.. lhorndike proposed the law of effect,


which states that behaviors followed by favorable

consequences are likeli to recur, and that behav


iors
followed hi unfavorable consequences
become less likely. p. 327)
IS. An operant chamber (Sknu,ucr Fir)

is an experi
mental chamber for the operant conditioning of
an animal such as a pigeon or rat. I he controlled
environment enables the investigator to present
i isual or auditory stimuli, deliver reinforcement
or punishment, and precisely measure simple
responses such as bar presses or km pecking. (p.
327)

19. Shaping is the operant conditioning procedure


for estahli.hing a new response by reinforcing
successive approximations of the desired hehax
mr. (p. 326)
-

20. In operant conditioning, a reinforcer

is an cx ent
that strengthens the behax ior it follows. (p. 329)
21. in operant conditioning, positive reinforcement
strengthens a response hi presenting a typically
pleasurable stimulus after that response. (p. 329)
22, In operant conditioning, negative reinforcement
strengthens a response by remnvzn< an aversix e
stimulus after that response. (p. 329)

23. The powers of primary reinforcers are inborn


and do not depend on learning. (p. 330)
24. Conditioned reinforcers are stimuli that acquire
their reinforcing power through their association
with primary reinforcers, (p. 330)
25. Continuous reinforcement is the operant proce
dure of reinforcing the desired response cx cry
time it occurs, In promoting the acquisition ot a
new response it is best to ue continuouc rein
forcement. (p. 330)
26. Partial (intermittent) reinforcement is the oper
ant procedure of reinforcing a response intermIttenth. A response that has been partiallx rein
forced is much more resistant to extinction than
one that has been continuoush reinforced. (ii.
35,]

27. In operant conditioning, a fixed-ratio schedule s


one in which reinforcement is presented after a
set number of responses. (p. 331)
Izrawlc: Continuous reinforcement i a pecia
kind of fixed-ratio schedule: Reintorcement is
presented after each response, so the ratio of rein
forcements to responses is one to one.
28. In operant conditioning, a variable-ratio sched
ule is one in which reinforcement is presented

after a xary ing number of responses. (p. 332)

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irniliar hut vague is to say, Ihat rings a bell.


Sciifln I amilai to iian people, who may
0 a ieh aivate that his research involved
h
on ng hell Isjcal conditioning).

the do i as thinktng and teelang


means to salivate or prm
le n
e srit, ft hen rood iLk, is placed in a dogs
montO the
wil automatically aiivate or drool
b P 4 a tme 34 o ft hounded before (or precedes)
tIn L in er a r, inn hut of trials, then the CS alone
ill he able to elicit salix ation (CR).
a. Jecided that the dou internal mental state
anJ trehnn; usts not important in reaching
drt standing of fundamental learning princi
nd that focusing attention on cognitive
se and led to tutile arguments fruitiess
p
in hat

If the notna of cake baking


flout/I ft aatn lag uhat is the US? Ihe CS?
ft brat iou hake i ike in the oven, there is

1S (n/a ft/I/ /ot,),

nell (aoiiv) shah makes von sahate or


aterznh) This is an exam
hal/i nioutl P
i s cii condit ting the taste of the cake in
the I tis antomatically produces
P ) fT no no is the CS, and, because of
a t i or atior r th the T 5, it can now, by
t aliva (thr (IT

it

\Toreos er th
nile quail developed a
for their capt s ird li(ht district. Iradi

r a red lamp hung in the window identified


use is a brothel and the area of town populat
cd hr maui brothels became knoun as the red-light
i
in Darnjans experIments with male quail a
rid l,Irt ((5j WOs used to signal the arrival of a
reneptir e t
enae quail L S, which elicited sexual
arousal h R 11 untuallu, the red light (CS) alone
eiictud 5
C\llOi arousal CR 3, and the male quail
0
a ted to Per clue a neneral liking tprefercn e) for
thu saee
ith the red halrt It/u tcd-izpiit dictrct,.
i

ft ((or ria .i;ft up with his h1e-breathin(


I troll al-n exnerienred extinction and
-o tin toe, i- ut in. He recalls that the smell of
n,.n ine
th ( Si, no lonqer paired with the kissing
5
s its ahalitr to .:i
0
t/n;Le
P
This para
rjh decurihu the end at the relationship (lreakmp
Pt hi
5 ginltr,t nil i,ntti,rba ii ho loi od to eat
annals and thus had hot, smelix breath (fire
I ft repeated smell of onions or onion
i / lJl()
fit (PiP u ithout the PS (kissing) resulted in
n of lift ondtoncd aroused state (CR),
sequentlv the (S I st ft abilitf to get hun
ci 1
:n ton! n p He later expener cc d
rerorer
(the extinguished (IT
to

-.

returned bniefix) when he smelled onion breath once


more. [1 lie idiom shiver mx timbers has no simple
explanation: it may he an old expression dating back
to the days of wooden (timbered) sailing hips that
would tremble or shiver in a storm, or alternativelx,
it may hat e been used in the game of cricket to
describe what happens when the cricket ball shakes
and scatters slzizeis) the wooden wicket and stumps
(timbers).j
Page 320: Confronted by a pit bull, aiozia heart mat,
confronted by a golden retriever, it probably
will not. Pit hulls are dogs (iiot cattle) that are gener
ally perceived as aggressive and potentially dangerotis; golden retrievers are dogs that are usually gen
tle and friendly, Thus, when you encounter a pit
bull, you mar experience physiological arousal (I/O/l?
heart aitay race) and } ou mar experience fear, hut the
sight of a golden retriex er it ill not likely cause the
same reaction, Jo be able to tell the difference (di
5
criminate) between two stimuli (in this case, tn o
types of dogs) is an adaptixe ability that has obvious
survival ralue
!ace:

Page 321:

Ihis means without an


.willw-nilly
forethought. intention, or purposeat random An
organism does not randomly (willy nilla,) form asso
.

ciations, The associations have to be meaningful the


CS needs to have informational value and he able to
reliably predict the occurrence of the US.
Page 321: So, even in classical conditioning, it is,
especially with humans, not onh the simple CSP S
association but also the thought that coiitits, The
expression its the thought that counts recognizes
that a persons intentions and moth ations (thoughts)
are just as important as the actual hehan ion, Myers is
making the point that cognitions (thoughit, pc/cap
tio;is, expectation) are now viewed as being cniticallx
important in the process of learning through ciasci
cal conditioning.
Page 32$: But it we sac in;,thl,r than Pt lot did, it as
because we stand on ij c shoulders, This phrase is not
to he taken literally; it simply mean that we non
know more than Par mv did (we e Pal ticj hecaue
we can build and expand on his great a ork ja:la
his -hioindersL
Paht 324: Former clot!: coca inc users often feel a
tug when they again entounter cues (people, places)
associated ruth prexious hiiphs, Crack cocaine users
are drug addicts nrho use a drug that is a synthetic,
hut very potent, form of cocaine (craft), lor those
who are attempting abstinence, the strong desire
(tracing) for the drug may be a classically cond
tinned responsc ((IT) to the sight or presence of pc )

Focus on \ ocabulan and Language

c ((Ssi. I rese topic or pi us t(Ss)


Ldted a ith taking the drug ibui a hich
rrnertcre inc hR euphoric feelings or ;i;nl Drug
we ad ised to at oid tstee clear of)
the
a IcEcts
eoalc rt ted
l
1. c
t
0
,akir S attn t
On
et
tc
tt

acre Cs

kfC?idit

\\arson and

fliU?iiC

oh I ABe Albert was the first ins es


r
c
parc might
B
h
cal
condition
class
r
cess
thc
m
dc
e
assed on to future genera
[bus the son\ a a
ing
tron of psi cholegists i :t became a egendt and influ
eiLccc ti,en rtseann.
ha

oik a

nms
r

0 honing

0 w rat I

Ia aOl LEtS L,t CAL no. Dat Id hirers rs


444
haoing, run Iavrng with dte English language here.
The expic ,sion Lo poll rabbits out of i haD refers to
a v to i at t extract rabbits tron
s c r
en t h Cai on sec thc yap hirers
a s mt
has twisted this exprescion? Both classical and oper
ant cond:t:onng mt oh e teaebing new habits to ar
bUs oig uusue incioding rats, Followng classical
c hi ung t
(S nggws a w, respnnso trom
nir
u, re C S ails habit cc at 0 rat ), or
t
the sight or the lever may elicit the habit ot ]ever
pressing tonerant condItionIng;.

08 Flit

am ng pigeons hne cvcn been

ai i and Stra
4 en Ba Ii
sc ir i atc bctu
ht c
t
an. 1. 0 Bach and Stras inskr acre composers
whnst tt les it nausical composition were quite dif
Dreur. Through hapir.g (ret arding bchasiors that
tnd oscr to the target or dcsrred re
cbs
a
o t nsc I pOts hat ccii able 0 train pi
I gc ins to discrirunate or chooso hchveen the two
musical sounds, For example pigeons mat be re
preying, and
it crcied Inc pccnmg a dlk a hen Bach
ngt F n S avmskv is pla
ig Fr i Pt
Fr
I
at i tu
or
a Ott as r
I
is

di c

ii

F c tu en thc u o,

mc

A tnAdcr a teacher nbc paste a


14 Pa;,
caB ten act ring hiP
nnt s
at r

procedure that ncx ands cien small inipnot ements

arid recognizes the hild ton making the effort to do


better and better,
arc Fntte i sllences the
I ige 320 Pushir g the
annoshig alan n. 0 cn xc u r,dio ilarm goes off in
the morning. you mar press the wmtch f-ren_e tnttee; uhich turns otf the rnitating tone ton a brief
perrod ot tune. I or ensuing qcmiet period a rich n-ia?)
atlo, s nu to on to. to ceo or a uhIe -nemc
ar,d thc aoscnce of hc buzzer are negatis e rein
toncers tor pushing he snoozr hutton. [hour button-

pushing hehat ior ha been strengthened because it


nemot ed an atensi o et ent, the alarm.) F ikeit ise, a

Ft si

ci

stextrr

in

to

regular smoker (n tin i I Bet) may be negatn cit


8 log on a
non fo ced for ihih ig Ic bacco smoke (drag
ciga/: tic) because coing so diminishes the pain
mpangs,m associated

ith going

ithout the drrrg.

Page 329
ce/in eft and getting a bad exam grade
Students may score p iorlv on an exam because
they were doing sc methnng unproducth e, such as
aatching II instead of stud, ing Ither- tore goebmtg
aTh. A- a consequence. thu may decide to change
their behas ion and work hard to as omd further exani
auxiets md the uupieasant possioility of getting a
low grade. The new behas or mar he strengthened
it it avoid the at ersit e ronsequences of anxiety
negatit e reinforcenienti; in addihon, getting a good
score on the exan can positmseh reinforce good I
studs habits. Remembc r, reinforcers it either kind
(posrtixe or negatn c) alit ys cticngthen behas ion.
,

flu:
the Flair that otten ontes within seconds
[after taking drugs] ...Tne ternr inch as used here
refers to a jolt of pleasurc (not is in to kick the
ball Mt cns is in king the point that bchas iors
such a smoking, dunking. and drug taking, in gen
erai, are foliuwed bs some immediate pleasurable
crinseouence, a Bach controls the oehavmor more than
does he dc tied c usc cot e g. lung c mnccr,
con a
fl
0
los co,ntt
mcnio
F
ieadachc tI e ne\t dat F h i:r A it rir i. ri' nip],

iagc

hi stir
sri i s 4 git s ckr
and t phaih cliple tnen en a cimsroon bulletin
-a a :,ll a: cf Or, sat, th ten
heard a-n-a- (I;hut spe rs n Oc r iass, b at irtun itch, it only the
cognized
to
lIt
v s r 1
of i str c its i i lost moth a t
hc
1
u
t cm Li ti,_, iynn c their sor-Jng and
Or b tcca
r hErd her till oen t get C
thu d.ont
:ork
onrnr Os a shap:ng
mto is, 51 ens
e e

229

A a ilesp nun A ie u r nrak i alc with


I to i itt sent
ncr d cs u
r
g
is
cst, lic Inc netcr ed to I crc tI salts talk itch)
that the a[vspersi n rises t promote the prod uct or
entice. I he bite the angltr r [isltrmair, clre5 OUt gut
refers to the tact that throw ing out the hue [t 1 (nip)
does rot ls ass res it ii hsh b ing the bait The
idea i that r uch F c ur behar ic A not intinuous
a reinh tnt id hrrt ersits, neyuth.eless, by hehtg
aatr h a fish
artiailt cinont ed ecr make e salt
only c nrc in i tt hilc dcspr nae rc sp scs) Thus,
Pan

3 1

230

Chapter S Iearning

termittent reu ards encourage the expectation of


lutre reinforcement (hopr sJ1ing eternal) and create
greater resjstance to extinction ot the behavior corn
eared to a continuous schedule.
ii

Pay 3 I
paid en a piecework basis
This refers to
situ iCons in n hich someone is paid for the number
of it ms produced and not by the hour or the
n eeki A ii orker gets paid only if he or she pro
Juce so the number of responses (Le.. the number
ot items produced is reinforced on a fixed-ratio
schedule. n example would he factory worker
sen mg shirts who would be paid five dollars for
finished shirt (piecework). The more shirts she
makes, the more mnone she earns, and thus the rate
of responding is usually high.

32.
thi fisiiin
This refers to a sti le of
fishing in nhich artificial insects, such as flies, are
usd as bait to catch the fish. People who fh fish are
reinforced only once in a while despite making
main responses. This variable-ratio schedule ot
reinforcement makes the target behavior very per
sistent and hard to suppress (the behavior is very
resistant to extinction) because ultimately the more
responding, the more reinforcement.
Rqi 3 2.
a hopp stop-start pattern
When rein
forcement is for the first response after a set time
period (a fixed-interval schedule), responding is
typically more frequent as the expected time for the
reinforcer gets closer (draws near) and is much less
frequent after the reward has been received. I he
pafhrn of recponding is consequentit unex en (chop
pa heca use cycles of post-reinforcement pauses
fo]ion ed hi higher levels of responding (a ctop-tart
ratter> are characteristic of the fixed-interval
schedule,
eg 33
You begot mail
h-mails can arrne
at unpredictable times, so it is best to check on-line
em em enc in while if you are expecting
e-mail
to in omcone SImm, steady responding like this,
C maci of a variable-interval schedule, may he rein
tore d m ith tie 3 on got mail announcement

a
3
the hild nho lnm. z ticat after running
into t e -tiect
Here the phrase P mm a tnat
vters to the withholding of some pleasant conse
3uenta such as a candy bar or piece of cake appeti
1 tolloxi ing some unix anted hehax ior.
tim e siimulus
Ihi s one type of punishment; it decreases the
robabilitr of the behavior being repeated. Another
esair pie H tim out, in uhich the hild is put in a sit
uch o- in the mimer) in which no reinnirce
went O\ ailatilu,
.

Page ,333:
d z La
F
m p hI n m c i
bad consequen
es. 0 m
5
mm a (a r
m LI
th
1
using punishment i
5 that the nuhm Hi mom he torn
poraril suppressed in the p estot or the rurtmsher
hut max reappear in other, semi sttnns (0 addi
tion punishme it ma ict
sSi(
f r
and apprehension ci d c a
w
in those being puni. L
As \
n
pu
m
ment teaches mm hat not to do, mm aeroas t ullttorcuivent
teaches what to no.
.

Page 333: \o nonder

nh.

Ii

[.S. parents of and 4 c r a d


bet of meanings it a tic m
someone or something P H
mean to he popuhi r ta .r a oh
callv punsh (lilt 01 nit) thema
negatim elm reinforced fur cioiu
ior is suppressed or eli nmnatr d
then that spanking i t
a s
is a Jut) n ith so r tam r arc nts.

s(

so

ur

t can

so

air per. -i
aI: etrentre
bad bubam
)I.ii

vi

pul

g
t

Page 335: Actualli promisIng 5


nici ron a ri-rim aId br
11 Hi c it clilidmen
a task they aireadi enom can a,
enjoy doing somcthin because it 15 ii ii tinti i tHe
moth ation), thet mar
in
in
are promised a ran ard fo i
ns
) ix ti
Thus, in some circum t rues f ing m
nd
(a pa/o ff3 may hove at. utter r ipmiw to the inc
expected (it can imkLo a Apoind prormrim heri em
or, rewards can moth ate iligi pcrtnronce ir\ Ci
(they fuel I/oil cftortc) n ma
eat
coil
o
enjoyment of tasks a x r mc
f
petence espcciallm it t cx no
isis
that
ti
xvas mmcli done
,

11th C a nai tOflidiflet


i i,,,O lxni
for saving monet (i1UOlt COifl ) that i Pten H he
shape of a pig. (Hi e c
rn
monet by putting it i F r
Mx ers points out, pigs ho mm cm (rome o go
xvooden coins in a large alert, P,r
their natural beham Hr at tiush1 the jTis
their snouts
tlSC
rsptu
4
e I
0
receiwd to icriard f
lli
It,
I3ie 33o:

pP of tIc )Cl(
example of i
,1mv
constraints on lea mine,
0-.
ii

to
.J U.... i...

r
illu

,t

large t elloxv and black sUning


the n asp family L p t H) I
a sheltered ho ne (m

dI them
niammer. B 1
(.stirr

tc

ca1

ongii
1
t

s I

raft

,r am

tt.

attac

Hsflfl

ant

ii

or C

to

t
(

locus on Vocabular a d I

and rlstIit\ ann \ as vehenlentn attated hr manx


ad) tor insisting that
Ilanilt
people ,L, n ,a
mental ox ents and tree rx ill indarnal events) were of

little relex ance as dcterminants of behavior corn


pared to our iron nental factors nh as rexvard and
c 11 inline ecs
r t i I nwnts
er p r

it

s ot
(n r non d the
vol. n hate a
5 I; lte\

er

nh
1 x s s a simpk guide
i e t
crcr I. 4plving the
nnd
g to ccc omas, Al
s a gene ral principle ( i
e and
re
de
s
ta\eo toOds to 0

suosidiced tends to :ncrease.

Learning lnj Obsere a lion


hleren not exposed to
Pee 144 dompaed ix ith 0
5 oF serx ed the models
tt e adult mod
lose xx h
en L i t c e niuct no e tikely to lasn out
ag
it he d ih, Band r i

ci in nts on observational

23

a c

iearnmg demonstrated that chtidren n ho san an


adult eogage in t;ucdcli x iolent heha Dr (an i
s/cc ant/ia; sf1 were more inclined to attack and heat
up /aI; eat at) a i3oho doll and anflI (e;:,Ld,, tIe
e nie node
0
words and gestures used by t

Pose 344: Does the


I radibonahv

i an a
rout n pie turcs

icc! I;
s) er

IL??

oje t

1
e
ed on the screen from a
g c
as:
era
1hu the reel ,orld reter
rorks,
lies l\
world created F mor ie eor
ahie compaoiec, etc. chic en I,a;. Mr er no-e that
ted ii
0
the actual (t ni/) xx orid is not accurateir rehe
nroxies, LV shows, video ganxes, ahie program
flung, and so on (f/ia icc! a-a; ii. A ardnng tile ebes

11e rnedte
sn e aggression and v;olence repn ted in 1
tends to be correlated isith iner wed accc a cc
nd
aggressix e attituues hidiherenec a x ion t a ts
higher lex eis ol nt social I c has m

.
Memory

CHAPTER OVERVIEW
(I

IC

it

wh
trits

flat
Ci
I

p
s

trC i

IC

IC

nors a a sx ttff that


s ep,. 1 n oding refer
ato iitothcrrcr on

it

hu

)CS

The Phenomenon of Memory

irc x pas is

Ia rta red

I Ii

C 15 CS
1

t
to

s IC

to

Ct

00

I IS

Is
ci
i
a

mit.
tiC

How

truC are

Objcctive 1.D binc iii


bulb m no ies mi c

u rh cor
cams If big
X ii alusC md othCr trau
wth fcc I of Fvf osm
st dx t m ha ter rt

no
ii tid r tip di
1100

1, Ieamnim, I
CX

tCi

Mer
thL

r I

(111

ii

)tId

st

it

re

othat Icc
m r ornel

)5F

(sCm

1
CCI

IC

hi
C

Ct

si

s
r

Ic,

no,

IC

IC

IC

hC

R REV W

1)
r 5

(xci

Obec

CHAP

cxnlai
0i

t ai

rar

w u

S ruCtior

5)

uienoodin ness
alt in

OI

IC

(A

sill

ji

rCCnted p
1 ssi

ito m ition u to f r d app opriate


ials tor 0 IC C xiptcr discus

Os

i uportant role Cf

Ui

I ig ra rCsolt froa failure

I
)

IC

sin/a

mCI r

IC

Re

iCf intor natio I is acocssed

c Ii o rCtognition.

)m i\tyCr attindbu,d i)I


ha r
niharto C HCC dC
IC idC ICtk
it fot s n v
the x I in )far

it C) tCX r i
C cXfrtSsC , r
pf
ief rto a,
thCs an ar r hC tc
forame f uton:
i tJ
11/
Hia
Hf I/H fl Iii I C

mod aiiisfli cv

n merxon

COi -1
CtCC

Cdsi

mifac
cx CI C

di

.1

rr

\ (CU IC Cd, exa iatC


Iti m hC ansv
bC 0
t mi sit Ic Cit CC
I Cl)
ed
I

CI

ks

9 Mcirory

as

nod 1 c I r iemory has been Atkinson


n
t

Give examples of material that is typically encodcd


with little or no effort.

model.
i s mo 1 4, we first record informa

Ii
fro
v hci

which it is processed

ic i formation is
through rehearsal into
memoS
I t r ctrt al
t

new )t shi it term memory has been


4 1 1 c a ncept ot
r I n f cuses more on the processing
r
I
n d iifnrm ition this form of memw
r
th
and
y

in

s h ch are cooidinated by a

proces
itf the help c f the
I us
s o process images and words

tI
fc

rnw that thc


are acm e during complex
ki i, whc cas aicas in the
are
i F n a iditors and s isual information is in
s

ii

rr

ri

Objectir e 4: C ontrast effortfnl processing ii ith auto


mahc processing, and discuss the next4n-line effect
the spacing effect, md the seriat position effect.
2. lncoding that requires attention and effort is
called
3. With nor el informahon, conscious repetition, or
, boost memory
4. A pioneering researcher in verbal memory was
In one experiment, he
found that the longer he studied a list ol non
sense syllables, the
(fewer/greater) the number of repetitions he
required to relearn it later.
5. Atter material has been learned, additional repe
, usually
tition, or
will increase retention.
6. When people go around a circle reading is ords,
their poorest memories are for the
(least/most) recent informa
hon heard. This phenomenon is called the

Encoding Getting Information In

elfect.
c )
t know the meaning of any of the
i
is rd
asc s or expressions in the
t i v i I th
appear in the text refer
)
)
i
nvplanation. bost, flflfl

i1
nichtd stugc rro
i t
i until urn are blue
I t onlec whil 1 aining
t.

7. Memory studies also rereal that distributed


rehearsal is more effecth e tor retention; this is
called the
8. the tendency to reniember the first anu last nems
in a list best is called the
follow mg a delar first items arc rc memberc d
(better less is clii than ast
items.

1 s

c
i

b
I

ic

t cs of information we

Objective 5: Comparc the benefits of visual, acoustic

t di s is rc quire conscious atten-

I rocessing rcquires
1

and
t

c uses c ffortless

and semantic encoding in remembering verbal infor


mation, and describe a memory-cnhancing strategy
related to the self-reference effect

9. Fncoding the mcaning of words

is

recrred t

encoding cncoding by

233

Storape Retaining Information

encoding;

ounu is aiied
encoding the image ot wors is
encoding.
tO

d FuR

Crat
t

Is

asF

net

rccccti

Objective 7: Piscuss the use of chunking and hierar


chies in efturtful procesing.
18. \lemurv max he aided by groupmg information

g s study c )mparing snual,

ut

idi

ig

intc meat ingt d u

xl owcd dat

r c xamg Ic o this tech


mclue ins oh Cs tornn ig

Ic.

is

ii

ords from tile first

letters of to-he-remembered words: tile resulting

11, blur ewenunt retail nt infornration that relates to


IU5el s

called

word

called the

is

called an

19. tn addition material max he proccssed into

ettect

shich are c mposed of a


w et cc din ima gc r aids
Oh cli 6 F xplc ir
cf mini F rocessing, and desuibc ome mcn )rx
enhneng wrategies that ue \ suaI eflcuung.

12. \iemors that conists of mental pictures


th

e of

c r igh

end t

based

fcw broad u cepts d x ded

Because thes

14

for e(

Mc n

ise

re

tS

to/ti cecuts /ute I/zr [nit: t;tirrav_i,tctgr ;trititp


jigsaw pow Jr Luttdrt cab/ic; Sa-critiy.

ords.
r

not

achitatcd r hen

nd

odcti ri

epts,

tf you do not know the meaning of anx of the


foltow ing is ords, phr i es, or expressions in the
context in is hich thm ippear in the text, refer
to pages 257-258 Ic r an explanation: ltyhf;zing
las/irs: S/icr/ur/c f-dimes; :aototco tucucru-r Wit!!
tanyuc on/u part/ic Ic :/icr/r; /t rouse cu? scar err-

Wetter tt.ss xx eli) than

ansteect. lots -Imagery

Lou

Storage: Retaining Information (pp. 361370)

13. Concrete, high-inxagerx woOs tend to he rentem


here d

n Ic set

categories, and tacts.

thes aid

m mu abi

Objective 8 Cc r trast tw o

types

of sensory memory.

1. Stimuli from the ens tronment arc first recorded

15. Our tci.uencs to recall the high points of pleasur


able cx cuts such as tamiix

acariun ilustrates

mernorr

in

2. George Sperling found that when people xx crc

the phc romen in c t

briefly shcm n three ro s s of icttcrs they eould


sirtual v ill about

rccall
16

ds, c

her
1w. C
31:00

halt of thcr x Whcn S )eri ng s undcd

ssn is

One wiel1 dci ice

ill

indicate which letters were ti be reea led, the

hem ecu a tarnihar scow t locations and

bc-:

;,

rnherc, wul Ow th; tecltnoue

is

titer a rc xx ot letters x a flashed to

immediatel

on cx fortr. ng associ

suhieets new nttit

ailed

imon less

mx

icc mate

abr

ms sitogr

F Ito) pu
r

Fso

gb.

s thc

to ie

oat hcgns onc

tcw tenths f

3.

ts

that pm He

or
o

hrs

ta

secord

nie-rtorx hr

mud-

i5

railed

memurt. this rnemorx tades


F t tgra F

1cm

inure, les- t rap i dh than


tine f
s Icing is

236

Chapter 9 Memory

Objective 9: Describe the duration and working

Lapacit\ ot short-term memory.


4

Peterson and Peterson found that

hen

was prevented by asking


sufjccts to Lount backward, memorr for letters
ii as gone after 1 2 seconds. Without
rrocessrn, short-term memories have a limited
ijtC.

Objective Ii: l)iscus the r imptic chncs that


accompany memory tormat ion au ci iera cc.
12. Researchers heh

c t it men
strengthening ft c t i r e
irhich oc urs a hc

hetrs een neuroin


13. Kandel and Shu art, hai e mum

learning occurs

3. Our short-term memory capacity is about

chunks ot information, This


capacity ras discovered by
6 Short-term memorr for random
(digits letters) is slightly better than for random
(digits/letters), and memory
br information we hear is somewhat
(better/worse) than that for

ifl

the sea naul in a-n. the neuro

transmitter
greater amounts naking n mug

Objective 10: Describe the capacity and duration of


Iong-ternr memory.

needs
ing to fire, and the rumhcr of
stimulates mar inctease. iThis phenomenon.
called

(do do not) pros ide reliable


idence that our stored memories are precise
and durable,
10. Pvchoiogkt
attempted to
locate memory hr cutting out pieces of rats
atter ther had learned a

tats

He tound that no matter u here he cut, the


rememhered forgot)

s pirness

is

itf

enet

Rats given a drug ft

enharnes

it

will learn

-i inc/c

ow
1
(tmter more s
15. Drugs that boost production

of

e
5
t

it 1.

roten

or the neu o r insn i tter

9, Penfields electrically stimulated patients


to.

mcI hmi for

a specific
engineering that causc s thc

to popular beliefthe capacity of permanent

maze.

he the

learning and menrc rs Blocking t

8. In contrast to short-term memorvand contrart


nemorr is essentially

mom ethcic t

14. After learning has oem ted

rum

(how many?) seconds,

u cleared

information we see.

7. Both children and adults have short-term recall


for roughly as man words as they can speak in

lien

oYit

16. fter I IP has cccurr d, n e

ntp

through the bran

nih

d
x I

not) disrupt old memories and


In

ilL xviii not Wipe

Ut remot xoern,u

Objective 12: E)i-cus- onue


can attert meniors

at

-t

17. 1 fornrones rele s ci


11 It is 1 kcly that forgetting occurs because new
experiences
n ith our retrieval of old information, and the
physical memorx trace
ith the passapt ot time.

stress often

1 learning
impair
18. Tn

c
n

emotion-proccssing
10

system im reme m tis its


forminp aea

m-tc 15,

the bra
i

the

us

bra

on

erect

Retrieval: Getting Infor ration On

19. ) u s

cir

s
S

CV

orators animals s ith a damaged e ebc llnm ar


incapable of simple

block the effcct, of stress hoimones


(Iaciltate disrupti memo

ti

o ia cxc its ft css that is prolonged


can an aria ci hi biain(thc
rat is itat for lay ing

of

3
r

that this briir regic r sin p

sting s m xi
Objcctxc 13
i U Ut tur
ex I cci it c c
turc ass c ated is th 3
ac i.

xi i

cdlii bidn strut

c nit

at ab
d tr

tai

c c ni

ircro
to] Xf

kit n pnit

lit

vs e

anrei IV dorct

explain

fin tie c

lfosc ruth

Hr

damage to the

25 lire d

has c explicit memorics of ui first t r c c

20. lb I ss f tier cr is callel


S di s rIp
c ito hixc lost if c rn emory
ngg

ccndit a

tionof

implicit and

237

creof

bccausetie

(is isnot)

ci st

brain stru tures tc maturc

s ge unifi ( s stcm of memory.


21

Retrieval: Getting Information Out

igf a r n s

iar

not I r,t their capacity for learning,


memory,
is called

If y on do not know the meanir g of a

irc are not) able to


c thc r icmory suggtstn g a deficit in their

context in xihich they appear n the text ole


to page 258 for an explanation. nocant
lnsses in ml: cleft d oil
rose colored 7
nzcod
in o angels.

ctims (pically

hx

whi
thc
dcc

r sa patier ts vpicallt
a air

II

i ive suffered damagc

o their limbic system.

o I

t actore s impo tant in the process

gi dscray cf
H

t re in ar s
a ra

memory,

or tIe

at

tructn

(recall recognize) the names of II eir

pr c xiscs

s ems o

rp

rcc gniti

but were able to


(recall recognize 90 ptrcent f ti
nctior isa acne

i i con

its f

thcir

niro

xi

3. 1 xci 1

run

i e

labI c

i t n

c
k

0 Ii

) gra r

a
c

iccs

iacs

iancs irt
pa exg

ir
1
Ie
sprtshtle

Objective 15: 1 xplai ii i t C


access stored r emc ries and des
priming.
4. lhc prccess by
retre

24

it

eltnf

LiVO

earbook pr turos

itrcuvi

or

ss r ites

S rp rr
c

nd

pie nere not able tc

itmi y
i

relearning measures of men o

2. Bahrick tound that 25 ycars af or gro (rat on

gltsideinpairsmemrl for

designs and locations, the


i

Objective 14: Contrast the ccal

ti an not
1, Ihe ability to retries c niform 1
scions an areness is called

an tf e left side ot this struc

s Dar ra

f the

22.

following xi ords, phrases, c r express ms in tf c

memory systc ms

23

IItf

o
-In

1 s Icd

ich a s (a

55

238

Chapter 9 Memory

5. 1 he best retrieval cues come from the associations


formed at the time we
a
memor
Objectixe 16: Cite sonic u avs that context can affect

retrje\ at.

People who hax e recox ered from depression tvpi


callv recall their parents about the same as do
people who
\ loods
also influence hox we

other

peoples hehax ior.


6. Studie have shown that retention is best when

learning and testing are done in


(the same; different)
contexts.
summarize the text explanation of the deja x
ence.

ii

experi

Forgetting (pp. 375381)


If you do not know the meaning of any of the
following words, phrases. or expressions in the
context in xx hich they appear in the text, refer
to pages 258 25 tor an explanation: appliiisc
tar Inemoril: maif lie pahed on the tiv at I/ic toilylIc
mental attic: heepisizi:i: TJie zord edit a bioan
out candle in the mind.

Objective 18: Fxplain xxhy we should value our abili

tv to forget, and distinguish three general ways our


memory fails us,
1. Without the ability to

we
xx ould constantly be overwhelmed bx informa
tion,

Objective 17: Describe the effects of internal states on


retrieval,
7, I he type of memory in xx hich emotions erx e as
retriex al cues is referred to as

2. Memory researcher Daniel Schaefer has identified


the sex en sins of memory, dix ided into three cate
gories that identify the ways in which our memo
rv can fail: the three sins of
the three sins of
and the
one sin of
,

memory.
8. Our tendency to recall experiences that are con
-istent with our current emotional state is called

Objective 19: Discuss the role of encoding failure in

forgetting.
3. The first t\pe of forgetting is caused hx

failure.

flwiriorv
I )ecribe the efleLb of mood on memorx.

4. This type of forgetting occurs because some of the


information that xe sense never actualli
5. One reason for age-related rnemorx dedine xx

that the brain area- responsible fur


new information are
(more less) responsix e in
older adults,
9, Pt y Ic xx ho are urrently depressed may recall
t xx pirents as

)ryos
c

Ol,c

st cc )iceotofstorac an

15. Inct)

ra

at

Memory Construction

cnat?

ti

ii

n o I c 1.44

itt

Mt plir

J titie
1 q caiauscrethc

a c. cli it
di

>s 1

10.

it

si

CF

led

tat

stvtd
attiC

Icc

Ft

t
I

tI

.1

at

cscifro

a,

sUit

dii
a

)txrC

dCi

t o

xc

at

anC
I

lite
C

n t

ski.

it

cson,

deroltrateitLi

,ex b c
4
1

hcs

C S

ess
I

12

itt

tat
islic pe tilt arch uc
10 (XiS
tIes islE I
exer Cr

ic bin o nd tat
ut,ec.ts
Fr ar
ra hirrino foa
r
c a
v

(fl

wctshs

tedsruttectfcttf
a
e or tc cc llnot al

c. xx

ous1earm .or a1

n d

r
nt

2. i%hc wHile se oat a c.i


cive li
iuoimauot oout t tic
a ax

Cit

a umptio I Cr
ui. tntctFe cec

eitoncsiealsoloslasa
,whi histsptcnllv
tiieousl earnsiiulai net
1
i

ft t

1 Rei c ha stow tta .aic i ete I


oftcs nfiue cdbi,
,tc w ic. esi d is

11

f lii

c.
a

Objective2:1co
F
miti)lcaldstc tw

OW

11

as

a iin zrcr tcr

t ss
ti

Ct

I
cn
a c
I

I e

tied
t Cl

9 Ic

tia v

F 5.

I$lc.knct

,cttir.une

a dt

do

ii

uc
c c

ad

he ur e amnesia contribution

) r

,which
an event to

11, Memories of e ents that happened before age


are unreliable, This phenom
enon is called
12. Memory construction makes it clear that
is best understood not only as a
and biological event, but also as a

1 st scmc diffirenes and similarities


r false n er ines.
r

re m

ioncs to

memory

phenomenon.

improving Memory (pp

391 392)

rotmg that peoples initial


If you do not know the meaning of the tollon
ing word in the context in n hich it appears in
the text, refer to page 29 for an explanation
Spi inkled,

of er enb influence their


r c

rsi t
es

rr

ra

memory

e) ix cal whether or not it dens es


ctr al e per encc, I/v hereas real memo

gist memo

ix i r c se confidei cc

in their memories

Objective 28: Explain hon an understanding of mem


or can contribute to etfective study techniques.
1. The SQ3R study technique identifies fis e strate
gies for boosting memor:

(is is not) related to the


r )r

)n truction explains nhy memories


are often

s 2(

,and
,

Discuss ses eral specific strategies for impros rug


memory.

x ar imcnts supporting and reject


n ha s ry y ung childrens reports

(1

di

s
t

of children s eenithess recall

sag cstibie than older chil


n hether a child

r itn ss memory

C.

PROGRESS TEST i
Multiple-Choice Questions

rrhen

it

is a first inter

person n ho asks

e 27 1) s us

rc

lix C intros ersy over reports of

c cc memories of childhood sex

mfluc r cc of h
3 pnosis or
(are are not) reliable,

Circle our answers to the follon ing questions an d


check them with the answers beginning on page 2 )
If your ansu er is incorrect, read the explanation for
why it is incorrect and then consult the appropri te
pages of the text (in parentheses follon ing the correct
answer).

1, the three steps in memory information pr xcss


ing ar:
a input, processing output
b input, storage output.
c. input storage, retnie al
ci, encoding, storage, retries al,

Progress Test 1

2. \iaiial sensors- memo

10

referred to as:

is

c. photonsenuerv.
d. scm antic x onuory.

a. canc mnenur:s
riots
b. echo e

nte

Li

(
(U

Ins

4 Li eeL or me folloe, roe

law
to4seunds

ret a measure ot reteru


c. relearning
d. retres di

n n1em

Ur,m shc

d. learned the 5\ ords and heen tested on thorn in


the same context.
11. Ihe spacino eftect ire is that:
a. dstnbuted stud
rids hr t

etent on than

rammu g

tjOfl

a. remil
b. reeognion

241

an i. a roximatelv

it us.

b. r te tot is inupr s C I when e e du g and re


tries al are 3
eparated by no mon han 1 hour.
c. learning causes a reduction in the size of the
synaptic gan hetis eon certain neurons.
d. delas hug retries a I until rnenorr has consoh
dated improves recalt.
12. Studk

dc nonstrate

nent neural chances


sear ins.

d
6. Menrors
niques auth as the method of loch
acranr rn, and thu oeg-u ord a stenu are called:

at learning causes perma


tluc
o uninuals

a. myelrn

c.

b. rcli htudrcs

d. all the ahos e

a uapsos

13. in sperlirgs memory experrnsent. research par

a. consolidation des ices.


h. :rnagers techniques.
C. encomeg strangles.
d. nrnemo tic des ices,

ticipants were shown three rows of three letters)


foiloss ed mmediateh hr a low medium, or high
tone. The participants ssere ahie to report:
a. all three rows with pertect accuracy.
b. only the top ross Li letters.

( no is

c.

c nc
hisp

iso a n o ,t o I hncr,ati in
1
r up i
te argo famul ar units
efern
s

s (
3
e

a. conso r t ng.
h. organization.

d. chunking.

8. handel and Sc hwartz has e found that when


lcarr:ing oaenr, mere of the neurotransmitter
s rulcaeo i) ssnapses.
ctop

onl the niddl re of Setter


ns onc of the three rows of letters

14. Studies of amnesia s ictims suggest that

r. encoding.

a. .\ClL

d.

seretonuu

uorad nahnc

a. memors is a single unified system.


b. there are two distinct tr pes of mernors.
c. there are three distinct types of nsemorv.
d. inemors

losses following hrain trauma are

unpredictable.
15. \tornory for skills is e ulled
a. explicit monuory.

Oc

uost uct

ii

mrs al

that

or ror

hefore is an example of:

he dicnlcaile nanterred Lon one

oga-nnr t Werner
cr 1 og ten nnms ieas si tOt about
d.

u t
lou
Aer
a.

hex
a
all, t

I
s

plc
ord
re
ci te Jr
rhc bcs r Jr ution

learnea t e nerds an L,nd that i. n. the ninw


crnte st,

rtnuiricr

b. I ,rned the
C,

hart 0
d
dfhr

ords

riO

icr. aitr that

is, U1

tire

rh and hen tested on them in.


ntehs,

.t a a

prime mcmor).

d. nnphcrt memors.

16. Iho ccruo fooling of I sing heer somorshere

as esaLt m s of e\porit c
h. renect a gersen s brau ad asurnut.ens.

a. are ste

n;ar

b. de laratus e nuom r

a. state dependency.
b. encodng tailuoo.

c. primiro.
d. cleia

17. II lien Gerden Bess er p reenrud n ris grouped


hs eatcg y or in rar d r order, ree
was:
a. tIn r
mnaH

b. bettc for thee tgo a d s

ds

d n a ords.
d. impr cd is hen p art pants or i
on n mnemonic dci ico,
C.

etter or the rut

pod thcir

Chapter 9 Memory

242

18. I he three-stage processing model of memory was

propced by:
\tkinson and Shiffrin.
1,, Herman Fbhinghaus.
Loftus and Palmer.
c.
d. George Sperling.
a.

19. 1 h pnotically refreshed memories may prove


mar curateespecial if the h pnotist asks lead
ing Juestions because of:
a. emoding failure.
h. ta te-dependent memory
c. proactix e interterence.
d. niemorv construction.

rtant in th
20. l\ hich area of the bra m i not ii
mcniurmc
processing of implicIt
c. h nctnaamus
a. hippocampus
d.
h. cerebellum
21. V\ hich of thu fcllou
ii ith the others?
a. misattributio
b. blocking

YlatHhing Items
Match each definition or description
priate teim
Dcliii itions

is

ith the appro

or Descriptions

Terms

1. sensory memory that decays more slow

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

9.
10.
11,
12.
13.

lv than visual sensory memory


the process by which information gets
into the memory system
mental pictures that aid memory
the blocking of painful memories
the phenomenon in which ones mood
can influence retries al
memory for a list of words is affected h
word order
one is a bun, two is a shoe mnemonic
dcx ice
matching each of a series of locations
with a visual representation of to-heremembered items
new learning interferes with previous
know ledge
i measure o memory
old knowledge interferes ii ith nen
learning
nxisattrihuting the origin of an ci ent
the fading of unused information ci

tmme
14. the lingering effect of misinformation

15. a memorr sin of intrusion

h.
i.

j.
k.
1.

m.
n.

o.

repression
relearning
serial position etfed
persistence
peg is ord system
method of loci
proactmi e mnterterc
transience
retroactis e interfem cncc
source amnesia
suggestibility
imagers
mood-congruent mmmorm
echoic memori
encoding

Progress Test 2

PROGRESS TEST

243

c. at the end of the list.


d. at the beginning and the end of the list.

Progress Test 2 should be completed during a final


chapter review. Answer the following questions after
you thoroughly understand the correct answers for
the section reviews and Progress Test 1.
Multiple-Choice Questions
1. Which of the following best describes the typical
torgvtnng curve:
a. a steady, slow uecbne in retention over time
b. a steady, raptd decline in retention over time
c a rapid inftial decline in retention becoming
stable thereafter
d. a slow inihal decline in retenhon becoming
rapid thereafter
2, Jenkins and Dallenhach found that memory was
better in subjects who were:
a. awake during the retention interval, presum
abty because decay was reduced.
b. asleep during the retention interval, presum
abty because decay was reduced.
c, awake during the retenhon interval, presumr
ably because interference was reduced,
d, asleep during the retention interval, presum
ably because interference was reduced,
3, Which of the following measures of retention is
Its
w s \e 1
fl t
ggc a retne u
a. recall
c. relearning
b. rec ognitton
d. They are equally sensitive.
4, Amnesia vichms typically have experienced dam
age to the
_of the brain,
a, frontal lobes
c, thalamus
b, cerebellum
d. hippocampus
5. According to the serial position effect, vrhen
rvcalling a list of words von should have the
a
a- tea. at the beginning of the list.
o
c. at tbe end and in the middle of the bst,
d, in the middle of the list,
-

6, Experimenters gave people a list of words to he


recalled. When the parhcipants were tested after
a delay, the items that were best recalled were
those:
a. at the beginning ot the list.
b. in the mind Ic of the list.

7, Craik and Tnlving had research parhcipants


process words visually, acoustically, or senranh
cally. In a subsequent recall test, which type of
processing resulted in the greatest retention?
a. visual
b. acoustic
C. semantic
d. Acoustic and semantic processing were equal
ly beneficial,
8. Lashleys studies, in which rats teamed a maze
and then had various parts of their brains surgi
cally removed, showed that the memory:
a. was lost when surgery took place within I
hour of learning.
1,. was lost when surgery took place within 24
hours of teaming.
c. was lost when any region of the brain was
removed.
d. remained no matter which area of th,e brain
was tampered with,
9. The disruphon of memory that occurs when foot
ball players have been knocked out provides evi
dence for the importance of:
a. consolidation in the formation of new memo
ries.
b. consolidahon in the retrieyal of long-term
memories.
c. nutrition in normal neural functioning.
d. all of the above.
10. Long-ferm pofentiotion refers to:
a. the disruphve influence of old memories on
the formation of new memories.
b. the disruptive influence of recent mern ones
on the retrieval of old memories.
c. our tendency to recall experience;s that are
consistent with our current mood.
d. the increased efficiency of synaptic transmt 5sion bebseen certafn neure.ns following learn
ing.
11. Repression is an example of:
a. encoding failure.
c. motivated forgetting.
b. memory deem.
d. all of the above.

244

Chapter 9 Memory

12. Studies by Loftus and Palmer, in u hich people


were quizzed about a film of an accident, indicate
that:
a. when quizzed immediately, people can recall
very little, due to the stress of witnesing an
accident
b. sshcn questioned as little as one dax later
their memory si as x cry inaccurate.
c. most people had sery aixurate memories as
much as 6 months later
d. peoples recall mas easily he atferted by mis
leading information.
13. t\ hich ot the fullon ing is as iwl recommended as

a strateg for imp roving mentors


a. achs e rehearsal
b. distributed study
c. speed reading
ci. encoding meaningful associations
14. The process of getting information out of memory
storage is called:
c. rehearsal.
a. encoding.
d. storage.
b. retrieval,
15. Amnesia patients typically experience disruption

19. It is easier to recall information that has just been


presented when the information:
a. consists of random letters rather than words.
b. is seen rather than heard.
c.

is heard rather than seen.

d. is experienced in an unusual context.

20. Ihe micintormation effect pros ides es idence that


memory
a. is constructed during encoding.
b. is unchanging once established,
c. ma he reconstructed during recall according
to how questions are framed.
d. is highly resistant to misleading information
21. According to memor researcher Daniel Schacter,
blocking occurs when:
a. our inattention to details produces encoding
failure,
b. ss e confuse the source of information.
c. our beliefs influence our rtn ollections,
d. information is on the tip of our tongue, hut is e
cant get it out.
TrueFalse Items
Indicate whether each statement is true or false by

placing T or F in the blank next to the item


a. implicit memories.
b. explicit memories.

iconic memories.
d. echoic memories,
C.

16. Information is maintained in shortterm memory


only briefly unless it is:
c. iconic or echoic,
a. encoded.
d. retries ed.
b. rehearsed.
17. iexthook chapters are often organized into
in order to facilitate information
a. mnemoni des ices
b, chunks

c. hierarchies
d. recognizable units

18. Memory researchers an suspic bus of long


repressed memories of traumatic ci ents that are
recos ered is ith the aid of drugs or hi pnous
a. such experiences usually are s is idly remenu

hered,

b. such memories arc unreliable and easily infli


enced by misinformation,
c. memories of events happening before about
age 3 ire espe ially unreliable,
d. of all of the ahos c reasons.

1. Studying that is distributed over time


produces better retention than cram
ming.
2. Generally speaking, memory for pie
tures is better than memory for words.
3. Recall of childhood abuse through hvp
nosis indicates that memory is perma
nent, due to the reliability of such
reports.

4, Most people do not have memories of


es ents that occurred before the age of,
5. Studies bs Fbbinghaus shoss that most
forgetting takes place soon after
learning.
6. The persistence of a memors i a inoJ
clue as to whether or not t deiye from
an actual experience.
7. Recall of ness lv acquired knowledge i
no better after sleeping than after being
awake for the same period of time,
8. lime spent in des eloping imagery
chunking, and associating material with
what y ou already knoss is more c ffcc
tis e than time spent repeating infors i
tion again and again.

Ps)chology Applied
lthou h repress o has no been con
nec
x x. Incnt 1k, nun ny ho
sI. e vc hoc c
verhy i n g matc al Di tO I tuing to
..stud t bes ond nasterv often di
L4t% recjll.

PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED
v tr
uest stheda It wan iniasa
SOUL
1 i.hecl
I erstan I i , ot flit. hapter
terms and tu-ttepts.

%Iultipk-Clioice Quectivuc

3. Oar en was isked 13 iunorii a 1st 01 I tF%


flat nduled
i
c .1k. tc rtaicd It
Ute sas is
niL i. cstr. I atth.t r
Ic tshadb cnencode
a. autrmaticaih.
c. -cmi iticaih.
b. i isualh.
d. aoustica1h.

4. \ftet tindirg her old combinahon lo,.L, lonite


Cc!
ienie.a
its c binaf
eta s
it
L
L.
Ct
itIL
b Lt 3
1
N.s Oti )
q. itt ng:
a. procathe iterfertnce
b. retroactn e intertereu,s.e.
C. encoding tailuic.
d. %tfliagt railure.

1 Conipctc this an lo rj. 1i11- r I c-blank let ques


ur%tnn
1
fr nullnl c. nic r

1115 C

er d
isfi torige.
b. to as s to t icodmg.
c. rnJ.gn.tu Is to retail.
d. recall is it recognition.

245

5.

16

1 1 of tic followi cuen css )Uld b It.


blow
c
I ouwaitedtc
terc crc
nduced f retting in c der tc inipros
iii
recall on the psi chologt midterm.

a. studs. eat test


b. study. deep. test
c. ,tud, listen to musk, test
d. st idy, excrise, te I

100

6. Beinpm ibadmoodafc at tidy


Susan couk tFnk ot icthng p tc in ft
This is best explained as an e\ainFle of:
a.

priming.

b. mcniorv constna lion.


c.

(
1

10

fosizo

20

filet ii ut

2. 1 he abe e figure dt pit I.. the retail of a list of


isordc unckr list) conditions. lVhti.li of the tol
lowing test distrihts the differente between the
totiditit.
candt t d
1
us
I
I
c r.cstc d
tea

b. lit 1. it isord. sen.. tud cJ a iii it newi.i in


tht ri. cOrtet. ffl
the content ISCIt dt
tt I tnt.
1 h. netn
c.
ten tVfl pre%tTttation ot the last
ws ord
xl the
I of reca is a li na for A
lIt r
I
s i stntitn ftF list
IbOt
ii flit I tot rccui wi, IC er for I
Thai ..i

mood-congruent memnv.

d.

Ii let a failure.

7. na Ct!) t rcmtr I yt IUC


It cls
nat who s tehind & in tiltl ade. ?s a na
mentai1 recied the names of oner classirate.
ho ..at near her. Martiiias effort to tetresh tier
mcnon by actis ating elated a%odatirt. i. an
-ample of:
a

nut

bds
I
,i the
i h.i.Ii
soth
attts rj.luation : om c e -nted a i .J
nt lt niemoriec. lon. e L,erls fl.L iot,ed t e

8.1

mcli

si.an.

tob- )t.

a.

itc-dcp

C.

dtntmcr

n.

tt9Lt

tt

C.
t.

iii.

-rr

r
s.

q,

r- iiwt thini Karen did when she discovered


dwt 4w had mwplaced her keys was to re-create
a ae mind the dm ci ents. fhat she had little
1 w nit i in doind o illustrates:
Y( (. 5511

eat memor

10. lc h Ia

it

the tallow in is the best example of a

uddenir emembering to buy bread while


r the her kout line at the grocery
nd
muir

,
th name of someone from high
a hile looking at his or her yearbook

rcmemberng to make an important phone


nwmb ri ig a hat you were doing on
th pte rif r 11, 2 )0l when terrorists crashed
I ir mt the \orId linde Center towers.

ii X\ hen Caries was promoted, he moved nato a


new ott ie with a new phone extension. Every
ked for his phone number, Carios
5
time he is a
irst thinks i ha- old extension, illustrating the
roar hi c r erterene,
i oactivc interference
1
nunding failure
c
d. turnie talure.
12. 1 Iderd Mr. Flananan. a retired electrician, can
iii teme 110cr how to a ire a light switch, hut
root r tither the name of the president of
ii d Ian tes. Lsmdently, Mr. Flanagans
memory.
m ror is hr tter than his
a. mialmut splint
C espiic:t: implicit
m. denCratmi e: procedural
1 nejarative
Ia. m na:
13

upl

I r c 11 the answer to a ques

onv midterm you hai e a


ige of the exthook page on which
m at i
encoding of
1
entir, r our
I d
as n

a. -conant automatic
a--ui; actumatil
b
odin]
inn r it

14. At your high school reunion you cannot remem

ber the last name of your homeroom teacher.


Your failure to remember is most likeli the result
of:
a. encoding failure.
b. storage failure
c. retries al failure,
d. state-dependent memory.
15. Brenda has trouble remembering her new fivedigit ZIP plus four-digit address code. What C
the most likely explanation for the ditticulty
Brenda is har ing?
a. Nine digits are at or abos e the upper limit of
most peoples short-term memory capacitr.
b. Nine digits are at or above the upper limit of
most peoples iconic memory capacity.
c. The extra four digits cannot he organized into
easily remembered chunks.
d. Brenda evidently has an impaired implicit
memory.
16. Lewis cannot remember the details of the torture
he experienced as a prisoner of war. According to
Freud, Lewiss failure to remember these painful
memories is an example of:
a. repression.
b. retrieval failure.
c. state-dependent memory.
d. flashbulb memor.
17. Which of the following illustrates the constructix e

nature of memory?
a. Janice keeps calling her new boyfriend by her
old boyfriends name.
h. After studying all afternoon and then getting
drunk in the cx ening, Don cant remember the
material he studied.
c. After getting some good new s, elated Kareem
has a flood ot good memoriec from his
younger I ears.
d. Although elderly Mrs. Harvex.. siho has
Alzheimers disease, has many gaps in lam
memory. she invents set sible accc unts of her
activities so that her family will not worr\
18. fo help him remember the order of ingredientc in
difficult recipes, niaster chef Giulio often as-.oci
ates them with the route he walks to work each
dal. c;iulio is rising xx hich mnemomc technique?
c. the method ot luci
a. peg-si ord system
d. chunking
b. acronyms

Key Terms

19. During basketball practice Jans head was


painfully elbowed. If the trauma to her brain dis
rupts her memory, we would expect that Jan
would be most likely to forget:
a the n irnc ot her tL nun te
b. her telephone number.
c. the name of the play during which she was
elbowed.
d. the details of events that happened shortly
after the incident,

KEY TERMS
Writing Definitions
Using your own words, on a separate piece of paper
n rite i hrRt dennition r exphn ition of L1h ot the
following terms.
1. memory
2. flashbulb memory
3. encoding

20. After sufferina damage to the hippocampus, a


person would probably:
a lose rnLmorx for skills uh s hicxcle riding
b h n iphle oi being Jissnalk onditioi Ld
c. lose the ability to store new facts.
d. experience all of the above changes.
21. hen he was 8 years old, Frank was questioned
by the police about a summer camp counselor
suspected of molesting children, Even though he
was not, in fact, molested by the counselor, today
1 9-year-old Frank remembers the counselor
touching him inappropriately. Franks false mem
ory is an example of which sin of memory?
a. blocking
b. transience
c. misattribution
d. suggestibility
Essay Question
Discuss the points of agreement among experts
regarding the validity of recovered memories of child.
abuse. (Use the space below to jot down notes for
your essay; then write the essay on a separate piece of
paper.)

247

4. storace
a
5

lctne\ 11

6 senor rnemor
7. shortterm memory
8. lonterm
memory
a
9. working memory

10

utonntic proc sm

11. effortful processing

12, rehearsal
13. spacing effect
14. serial position effect

15. visual encoding


16. acoustic encoding
17. semantic encoding
18. imagery
19. mnemonics

20. chunkmg
21. iconic memory
22, echoic memory
23. long-term potentiation (LTP)
24. amnesia
25. implicit memory
26. explicit memory

27. hippocampus
28. recall
29. recognition
30. relearning
31. priming

32. dj vu

248

Chapter Memory

36. cpa

ng tnt wine:

one:

33.

in;iif.,rtnatio,a ,ftfect
37. i1

34. tnoacti% C inteiterenc


35

i1

it

on

38

e:c

ur

in

tross-CIccle
I r1J,
ci ov rk
e 1
ttt
inatatil o e important to the learn
in4 pwce. rtcr you ha C ii ritten
nC lwnta isir
lie 11W
aek.
ye: a inul cc
his aj
the cflsss oid puzfle iLl vibWe that
you Cdfl wi enc the prvcc.
reco iItC hetcrn,gi nth Mit
5,

It.

vin

I,

-4

--

110

mc

wit )tat Itor

ig.

4. Scnsn

ACROSS
1. Euimplt or rnotivaed frget:.

fl

.timu
.
1
IL Fncnding LI information
Sift LiIe
tORu gt
7.
ti Ingas x I xi
nrdcr to retrci e a pedfa

itCfliOfl.

11. MaiL lpicturs.


he
14 3 ic4cdto

no asis
ic r irng irad i itmory

15. Vi.ual sen.on memon.


19. Organizing niateri ii ink farnilrw.at fuluuts
20. 1. iii ilk tidirenir )1r rnot mall
imprtartt moment.
21. Los. ckt men .rv
21 lot 1 it titmr 31 II rma

9. Mar

ails
ot intnn i.th a into acme: y ac trdins.
to ts ound.
enta inlesrnatio
12. Lne:ons.iou, ercoiing us 1e.i 4
tO. Encod

DOWN
-I. \mtosuie t.t rtter lion that tequires identiti irig
resic .i I ine:dniat 3t
tao
r
I
2
\n ctett in v itith ci ti.itne,e, to an etent
mzrjorc.c v%I.ad1r1 iforr ation it their

4.
.

ir
Iflit ii
at
tiat
ui
4
.1 ii ri.
that pi oteses npli.it nwmorie. Icr

jM(

p
we:

cfegrre

Brain .rea
U If

8.

ic
4$

$
1
fJ

<ii

r]

is

16. Mt rei
c

18. I ne

Lilt

}CLflk

r.t

rtn.nr

i.

g
r.

tttett

,e:

ii

it

31

A fllflt

fa%.- c.t 01 n in ajrea*

itLiat

n.

ANSWERS
11w Phenomenon of Wnnong
liii
2.

wIt

dk

ti

7.

iii
in
Pt t ieatfl.iab.

nile fnr

:itt riere

ifl

mew-

13. hpc

Qflht)

ng

i.l.!ult

t.

tjitnted

24
3. information-processing;
retriex al

encoding;

4. three stage pa a ssmg; sensory memory


term, encoded long-term

storage

7. 2
8. unlimited limtlcs

short-

9. do not
10. Karl t ashIer tortcxcs

5. working auditory, x isual-spatial central execu


tn e episodic simultaneously

11, inteiferc decaxs

6. frc ntal lobes parietal temporal lobes

12. sx napses

Encoding: Getting Information In

1. autc matic protessing; practicc, experience

Automata proccssing includes the encoding ot intor


mation about space time and frequency It also
includes the encoding of word meaning, a tx pe of
encoding that appears to be learned,
2. effurtful plot essing

13. seroton n
14. less receptor s res
enzyme, L I P; faster

c r p

15. (RI B glutamate


16. will not will
17. facilitate
18. amvgdala, limbic

3. rehearsal

19. disrupt; hippocampus sI ru

4, I bbinghaus; fewer

20. amnesia; is not

5. ox erlearning

21. hax e not implicit arc not exy c

6. most; next-in-line

22. hippocampus. explicit r erb

7, pacmg effect

9. semantic; acoustic

isual

10. semantic

24. implicit; ore blink, amx gd P


25. intantibe hippocanipus

1. recall

12. imagery, effortful processina


13. better

2. recall, recognize
3. relearn; more

14. semantically, visuallt


iS. rosx retrospcc tion
16. mnemonic, method of bc i
17. peg xord

4. priming
5. encode
6. the same
Ihe deja ru eApor1ntt
a
being in a context im
I
men in belore It uc ha e t c
situ tion though v
ni t r
crrrentsitu,t nm
c
help us tc retriexe tic ea i
-

vii

19. 1 icrar lies


Storage: Retaining Information

1.

ens

2. about halt more V ma


3. echoic, less 3 or 4 seconds
4. rehcarsal actrre
5. 7;(ecr cM ci
6. dc

ea

Retrieval: Getting Infonnation Oat

11, self reference

B nks

it.

23. temporarily; do slow ware Ii Lab

8. serial position effect, better

18,

beL

7. state-dependent
8. mood-congruent
Ihen happy, for examplc xc u
positise light and recall B ppy c
tions and memorie in I r Pr
Mo mds als nfl icr e i
behax icr

ib
ph

250

(hapter9 cur n

rd guilt-promoting
c ectirg pur itre
rc sulk rd dep ess on, interpret

9.

hart

Iorgett rig
I

orut

2.

c i

ett n d sft ric i

ti

sion

cdiig

4 c ters hr mi nory sx stcm


S ci c lug kss
6

5(

a ede

8 r
9

iemo

tw

ii

teiterene

Suggestions for improx ing memo include rehears


ing material ox c r many separate and distributed
study sessions xx ith the objc ctin e of ox ertearning
material Studs ing should also mx oh e achn e
rehc arsal rather than mindless repetition of informa
tion Organizing information, relating material to
xx hat is already knoxi n developing numerous
rctric P cues, and using mnemonic den ice, that
inc orporate x ivid imagerx are helpful too. Frequent
actination of retrienal tues such as the context and
mood in xx hich the original learning occurred, can
also help strengthen memorn, as can recalling en ents
whrlc they arc frc sh, before possible misinformation
is c ntountered. Studvmg should also be arranged to
minimize potential sources of interference, I inally
self tests in the same format (recall or recognition)
that will later bc uscd on the actual test are useful,

10. pr )actire mterferene retroactire interfercnce


11, better

Progress Test i

12. p win C transter

Multiple-Choice Questions

13 repres ion

1. d. is the answ er. Information must be encoded, or


put into appropriate form stored, or retained
ox t r tin it; and i etrie ed, or located and gotten
out when needed (p. 331)

14. Ic s
15 strc ss strengthen
Memorri C onstruchon
I construction
2. misinforn ation etfect can imagination inflation;
xix id imaginations
14 icn people new ed i film of a traffic accident and
we c uucd i weck later phrasing of qncstions
affected answers, thc word smashed, for instance,
made x iexx ers mistakenly think they had seen broken
glacs
3

5(

ice a nnesia rnisattribute

4 pcrccpti us interprctato is
S

de

icd

9, ne

lea

peg word systen.

ii,,

7. d. is the answer, (p 359)


a. Ihere is no such process of consolidating.
b. Organization d cs erthance mernorx but it does
so through hierarchies not grouping.
er o the pro essing of informa
e. I ncodmg r 1
tor ntthc xc
sn tm

rent

12

nhnti c amne

cgnfi c
i

rd crc dire strategics art im


but mnemonic
x cc is the eneral designation of techniqucs
t at facilitate memory such as acronyms and thc
ortant in ctonr g new n-en ones

ust

11

4. d. is the answ er Retries al refers to the process of


remembering. (p 370)
S. c. is the answer. (p 362)
6. d. is the answer pp 358 359)
1 as ton ,eldation teLh
a. I here is e 3
a b tern
b. & c. In- igcr

10

3. d. is the ansxx er. Fchoic memories last 3 to 4 sec


onds (p 362)

n ques

t
i

du able

2 a. is the answer. Iconic memory is our fleeting


memor of n isual stimuli, (p. 362)
b. Fchoic memory is auditory sensory memory.
c I hr re is no such thing as photomemory
d Semantic memo is memory for meaning, not
a form ot sensory memo.

ugh

r
i

ii

ultural

y
r

Rfarsc
1

ix

Answers

8. c. us the answer. Kandel and Schwartz found that


when learning occurred in the sea snail :1iluIsm.
serotomn n as released at certain synapses, which
then became more efticient at signal transmission
(p. 365)
9. b. 3. the ansu er. In essence, we construct our
memories, bringing them into line ii ith our biases
and assumptions as well as with our subsequent
experiences. (pp. 382383)
a. It this were true, it would mean that memory
ct nstruction does not occur. Through memory
construction, memories may deviate significantly

17.

from the original experiences.


c. Phere is no evidence that such chemical trans
fers occur.
d. Many long-term memories are apparently
unlimited in duration
10. d. is the answer. tn general, being in a context

18.

irnilar to that in which cou experienced some


thing will tend to help you recall the experience.
(pp. 372373)

a. & b. The learning environment per seand its


familiarity or exoticnessdid not atfect retention.
11. a. is the answer. (p. 354)
b. & d. the text does not suggest that there is an
optimal interx al between encoding and retries al.
c. Learning increases the efficiency of synaptic
transmission in certain neurons, hut not by alter
ing the size of the synapse.
12. c. is the ansu er. (p. 365)
13. d. is the answer. When asked to recall all the let
ters, participants could recall only about half;
howe. er, if immediately after the presentation
the were signaled to recall a particular row, their
recall was near perfect. This showed that they
had a briet photographic memors so brief that it
faded in less time than it would have taken to say
all nine letters. (p. 362)
14. b. is the answer. Because amnesia yictim. lose
theur fact (exphcih memories but not their skill
implicit naemnries or their capacits to learn, it
appear tbat human memori can be dir ided into
fir o dishnd hpes. (p. 36)
d. As studies of amnesia sic tims show, memors
losses follow ing damage to the hippocampus are
quite prc dictable,
15. d. is the answcr. (p. 367)
a. & b. Fxphcit mnemori (alsn called derlaratir e
memory I is memory of facts and experiences that
one ran consciousli know and declare.
c. there is no suda thing a prime memors.
16. d. is the answer up. 373

19.

20.

251

a. State-u epend.ent naenaou y is the phenonienon un


which information l best rctner ed when the per
son is i a the same e r ational o physiological
stati hi or she w s i a when thc uatehal was
lear red
b. I ncoduig faulurc c cais yhen a pcrson has not
processed intormat a a
wienth for it to enter
the men c r si stern.
c. Priming is the process hr rr hich a memorr is
actix ated through rctrier al of an associated
memoir
h. is the ansr er. When the words were organized
into cafe ,ories, rer all i as tw o to thrce times bet
ter, indicating the benetits ot hitrarchical organi
zation in nemor p 3(0)
d. this study did not examine the use of
mnemonic des ices.
a. is the answer. (p. 351
b. Hernian Fhhinghaus conducted pioneering
studies ot x erhal learning and memoir.
c. t,oitus and Painaer conducted influential
resean..h studies ot er ewitness memory.
d. George Sperhng i know ir for his research
studies of iconic memory
d. is the answer. It is in both encoding and
retries al that we construct ut riemories and as
t.oftus studies shoy cd leading questions affect
peoples memori constructon. tp. 85)
a. The memory encoding occtmrred at the time of
the cx out in question, not during c
uestionirmg bx
1
the hr pnotist.
b. State-dependent nsemor. refer. to the influ
ence of ones ow n emotional or phi siological
state on encoding and rctrier al, and would not
apply herc
c. Proactn c tntettc ren i he interh ring effect of
prior learning on thc rc a I of ne i info mation.
b. is thc answer. ip, 69
a. The tnppocampos
a innora r processing
site

for c5?i( (liii?

,,s

c. & d. These area in the brain are not directlx


in. nix ed in fbi memer
Sttfl(.
21. b. is the ins.. ci. B;o
di
example of
retries al I i ore. f c
other S i exainpic
s n
of a
f dist
c
P Si
r mories
aithougl iasc r e ue ct ci P3 p
Matching Items
(p. 3n2
2. O(}2. P31)

6.

3, 1

1.

(p S

4. a
5. m (p 3
(p.

(p. 3
kn

7. ep.
Fr
1:

9. i (p
10 hIp

P34(
i

11. a (p. P391


12. up. P541
13. Ia p.
p. PSI
14.
j
15.
p aP31

Ffultiplt

When misled he the phrasmgs cf


en ste r 5 a cets mncorrectlx reeal ed details f
cv r remembered objects that
r a
tr
382383)
cc tt er
t. c.
Speed reading, which entamis
5 re
2

F ogress Tee
eJzercn

r c

r Fe

(I

tnd Bahrick both


ttt c that is going to
arring.fp. 3M

c ens nit.

ate t c I h

.n ,enens mon attc

Horn r. pr
2. 2. 2 t
a. & to ii:, ctectt dir! not rind evidence that
n th time.
tj0e (demo 1
,n 0
P di on
an ake. there are many ncr: poten
of Vettit tt nterfctence than tt ten

3.

-\ t

t(
rt

ans. cc.

trier :1

F et of recall pren n2 the


ae and nsnalh proeiures tOe

did)

rer:et ai

H fond

4. d,istbeaimnenv3nN
3. d. P ;h. nr.c en dicerdina to the serial nontlon
it: ms at the hepnniig aard end of a list
nienh t d est (p. die)
n
P ob tm t
rt

anrn et
a.
tt r
1. 2 5 s tie
a
r
,nddl of th
t Ott
c & d tie
t m
two form
p

ai
b t m

pa
t
3
i rico c
a. & b. I ishic

n .i ante of hr
t C. lesiooing
t
9

a.

in :nn e

di

a t art

h.

ci mo,..

tIM
hem ire
p.
to :en !Hate into hiM

e.

;nf,rmatiot

(mm.

itmtnomme.

ii,,a.th ,:

ar

in

ratbe .han
cm, up: the tirmamioa, 3

dim head wipe not

F tim

tc nnr

asP I y fcund that


I
di
ts F
p least a
ore her tic. (p. 364j
nrestigate the
d r
en iearntng and
a e

ittri

.s

n mu r tacihta

hite

do
the

nt

rsotits
n ,r rdr
I rg) prodomes nruh
m risual o I oustrc

e t, the items in the


shon Fe panes! reten

ts

in

ref

ft

,in

10.
-it

mme

m
nt

l e

itt

an
m L

a.

&

aam
cc

Ic

2 a I

cc

.ming

di pr
at

ni i-rend ne reotes

roe .c.r self-concepts


i

little a
pal

ehearsal, yields poor retention. (pp

14. b. is the aower. (p. 331)


a. Fn. eadig iS the process ot getting inforntation
amma

tiieaOt\

c. RehearsaI i5 the cinscions repetItion ot infor


ruation in order to maintamn it in memory.
d. Stora e ii- the maintenance ot encoded nrateriai
c. cc t,me.
13. B. is the ansn em Amnesia patients typically hare
sO tiered dumage to tire hippocampns, a brain

Pricoe mm 01mM in processing erplicit memo


ries dir tact-. (po. 3e7, 308)
a. Amnesia pattents do retain implicit nternories
for di r to do things; these are processed itt thc
rr p trts of the brain.
in r
e & d. F t w patients generally do not experi
r c n rpairn cnt in their iconic and echoic senso
v ten rrs.
16. B. sttarwer.(p 354)
a I r or atm ar mn short-term memory has alrm di.
r
rtcdd
c. I om an I echoic are types of sensory memory
a is the process of gethng material
d. Ret
ef s o pm and into conscious, short-ternr
r
r r I h s al matermal in short term memorr
cirel I been retriex ed or is about to be
t s cit
r
Ic
r ncr Br breaking concepts doun into
11
r h
s i
n
ts di yet sma]ler divisions and show
irg t r I tionships antong these, hierarchic
ntm rination processing. Use of ntam
faeilta
heads and mhh,eads is an era ntpie ot the organt
/an.3n cesloook chapters into hierarchies, (p.

a. dine n. ncr dcx ice are the method ot loch


er mentort S Jmmqmme that tamP
t
and ot
mmate metntm.n

irnittait

the Jfeets ot %mmch mm:urmes

.r mg.

on

c ssed nienon
sts that then
th time.

tan

t, c

B. UI am to arm organirahoits of knott it dge rrtto


familiar, ii nageahit unit.
d. Recogntion is a measure of retention.
18. d. i the a' ,or np. 3SPSsS(
19. e. is toe tswer, Short-ternt recall is lighth better
bee anse
tor iniormation. cxc hear rather than see
outlasts
iotruc
inontentarile
remoir
cch i
,

rt

mnli, such as ,tords, are a


easih than meaning
I

tters.

Answers
b. lconic memory does not last as long as echoic
memory in short-term recall.
d. Although context is a powerful retrieval cue.
there is no general facilitation of memory in an
unusual context.
20. c. is the answer. Loftus and Palmer found that
e ewitness testimon could easily be altered
when questions were phrased to imph mislead
ing inFormation, (pp. 382383)
a. \ithough memories are constructed during
encoding, the misinformation effect is a retries al,
rather than an encoding phenomenon.
b. & d. ln tact, just the opposite i true.
21. d. is the answer. (p. 376)
a. This defines absentmindedness.
b. This is misattribution.
c. This is bias.
TrueFalse items
1.
2.
3.
4.
5,

1 (p. 35)
1 (p. 363)
F (p. 385)
1 (p. 388)
1 (p. 377)

6. F (p.
7. F (p.
8. 1 (p.
9. F (p.
10. F (p.

385)
380)
392)
381)
354)

Psychotogy App(ied
Multiple-Choice Questions
1. d. is the answer. (p. 370)
a. & b. In order to correctly answer either type of
question. the knowledge must ha e been encoded
and stored,
c. With fill-in-the-blank questions, the answer
must he recalled with no retrieval cues other than
the question. With ni u I tip1 c-choice questions. the
correct answer merely has to he recognized from
among several alternatives.
2. d. is the answer. (p. 336)
a. & b. A serial position effect w oud presumahl
occur sshetht.r the studs and retriexal contexts
were the same or different.
c \s researchcrs found when reca I is de aved,
onlr the tint items in a list an recalled more
accurately than the others, With immediate recall,
both the first and lact items are recalled more
accurately.
3. d. is the ansis er. Phat all foLir mistakes are hasd
on a sound confusion suggests that the letters
were encoded acousticallx. (pp. 336337)
a. Memorizing a list of letters would in oh e
efturtful, rather th in automatir, proc essing.
b. I he mistakes do not mx olsc k tt rs that are
similar in apprarance

253

c. Semantic encoding would have been suggested


errors based on similarities in meaning.
4. b. is the answer. Retroactive interference is the
disruption of something von once learned by Hen
information. p.

370)

a. Proactive interference occurs when old infor


mation makes it difficult to correcth remember
new information.
c. & d. Irterference produces torgetting even
w hen the forgotten material was errecns eiy
encoded and stored, Janice s problem is at thc
le el of retrie aL
5, B, is the answer. (pp. 379 380)
a., c., & d. Involvement in other activities, es en

just eating or listening to music, is more disrup


tive than sleeping.
6. c. is the answer. Susans memories are affected h
her had mood. (p. 374)
a. Priming refers to the conscious or unconscious
activation of particular associations in memory.
B. Memory construction refers to changes in
memory as new experiences occur.
d. Although Susans difficulty in recalling the
good could be considered retrieval failure, it is
caused by the mood-congruent effect, w hich is
therefore the best explanation.
7. a. is the answer. Priming is the conscious or un
conscious activation of particular associations in
memory. (p. 372)
B. DOji vu is the false impression of hax ing previ
ously experienced a current situation.
c. That Martina is able to retrieve her former
classmates names implies that thex alreath hax e
been encoded.
d. Relearning is a measure of retention based on
how long it takes to relearn something alruadx
mastered. \Tartina is recalling her former class
mates names, not relearning them.
8. B. is the answ er Being bark in the ontext in
which the original c xperiences occ urrcd trigger u
memories of these experiences (p 373)
a. The memories were triggered h
arty
r 1
not
mood
acc
p
c, Retroactu e interference would mx oh e ditfu Ui
ties in retriex ing old memories.
d. Lchoi memory rerers to momentarx memorx
of auditory stimuli.

9. a. is the answer, Time and space- -and therefore


sequences ot eventsare often automaticallr
processed. (p 33)
b. I hat she had /ttfle difi ii1t; indicate, that the
processing was autom itic rather than cffoitful
c. & d. State-dependent memors and p i ni c

24

I)y

iua aticrestg

Lu

bib xc nrcsarc.uiu,u
nctot If signS c i

en

CI

i0

t ff

1.

ii

Lieu ibt 3
tt.
U lx
ccl.
111
cdedand

s
3

sti

(CC.

Its ut

ht

ci

VO

ci

OfC

flc

can.

3 b

3)
c..a thc nIse md atcs
r
is
C
Id aartic.aly.
I
stheioaioncar
d
La ncracn u
vcr Lu 1)tth c.tu answer)on tectbxk
i c. s
utonaticaly
tnt (Ilk

s..15

Lswcr (J b
h a e of at iomcsoom tcacltr,
atiato ccc ado
ba
j
)i w s S KS proccssed into iremor
c)aid ii arcdtharcforson Lint

r
a

19 C S

Cc
I ct.cpe.r

tiLt

2.0.

iforta

ri t
1
ti rc

It

C
cs

silly

01
i

L. i s iuscrc

rdb

tiet

is

1 uS

hi

r tici

,ui

Oi

apr

so

Li

dcst

C
it

c. c r
ICC

icr OS TCCC
nt
1 i

a & b
cli
C

.3

rk

n.

)
C,

c.
Cfl

ss

d.c

IC
itn

it

tc

r(Iru

r
C.

c
t

14

ci

di lx
b cr

tISS

f
157

Ic

ieddci

rovais

iii
C

Ii

)3rS1

dnu
1

18.c.

,&d.

b.

ic

1 d. st c
I
i
b

prcbieir

(C

it

Ut

ft.

nkc

ercrc aid io

1 C

C.

,Cci SC
C
I.
i.e
1 at
0
d. as )L

i.

C
in

ichastiatr

IL

is

a r

itt

tic ied r

C.

ait

a b., & d Studi

sia

is
I

SI

iT

shi
last..

t
in
a i cured IrCi
I ) I,
icli K C tO
Ct
1
t i fiat i
p
cr r 11 V 0 . I heb r
)itd
It
21 d.
p. stoi
it
s
raicd i r ,ru
akcdt
i
x37)
ix tos
ti
e
U
c
cc fFk
ic
a
ci
s
t
1
c
t
r
ci
d
i

hetendcnci, o
ii it or
ibcs niesareamotkralor
, icni
sa lemned I s
s oi
ssoCatedlsih
ike
it
a
1r&estac
mi
r
cathcrsnamc.
is
Sot r nerorvcpa I
e
rcx r
cverdjits. p.36!
rC
(yr
at 7)
)tC. Ia
C.
d gir
i

rcioz

C
C

d
C

Id

dc
1

d
16

8
c

IC.

rn

X)

Cu

SCC

pCS

cci

at

)ue

5s

ii

rt

teoC

.i

IT

car
It5

at

cci

tu

5)

crc

C
i
)i

Cit

4.

ii

ca

S
ott

1.

drugs a e unreliable, as are memories of eents betore


ae 3 Finally, the\ agree that memories can be tram
math whether real or false.

15. Visual encoding is toe use


rriag
information into menu r p. 336
16. Acoustic encoding N the pro
tion into memors ace 31 din to

ri

to process

ssin t iniolnui
s mud (p

IN

17. Semantic encoding i the proc-mmg t otot


tion iflto memor accordmng to
meamunu,

Key Terms

p.

Vt ritinc Dcfinitwns
1. Memory is the persictence of learning over time
ia the sturape and retriei a) of information. (p.
2. A flashbulb memory is an unusuall vi id menu
or of an emotionally important moment in ones
life. (p. 331)
(p
3. Encoding is the first step in memori; information
s
translated into some form that enables it to
enter our memory si stem. (p. 331)

4. Storage is the process b which encoded informa


tion is maintained o er time, (p. 3l)
5. Retrieval is the process of bringing to conscious
ness information from memor storage.
351)
6. Sensory memory is the immediate, very brief
recording of sensor Information in the memor
sstem. (p 31)
7. Short-term memory is conscious memory uhich
can hold about 5cr en items for a short time. (p.
8. Long-term memory is the relativeh permanent
and unlimited capacit memory sstem into
rr hich information from short-term memory ma
pass. (p. 3311
9. Working memory is the newer was of conceptu
alizing short-term memory as a ii ork site for
the active processing of incoming auditorx and
visual-spatial information, and of information re
trieved from long-term memors. (p. 32)
10. Automatic processing refers to our unconscious
eluoding of incidental information such as space.
time, and fretiencr and of well-learned intcmrrna

tion. (p. 33)


11. Effortful processing is encoding that reatlire..
attentIon and conscinu- effort. 1
p- 54i
12. Rehearsal is the con,cious, eftnrttui repetition of
intormaton that t ou arc trying either

to maintain

or to encode for storage (p. 4;

iS. Imagery refer to mental pictures and can be


important aid to effcirttul rut e5s1i3 P
19. Mnemonics are memory aids (the methou of ioci,
acronyms, peg-word.., etc. I. o imicim itCii me i
Imagert and organIzatIonal de it-u
20. Chunking is the memox technoue

22. Echoic memory is the mome ta


ry of auditors stimul I in

onds

(p.

362)

23. Long-term potentiation (F I P) s i


crease
fol ov
synapse s firing potentia
net. rt
stimulation I IF is bdies d t)l c t i tiC Uflil has
for learning and meinor (a 36)
24. Amnesia is the loss of memor
p 3o7)
25. Implicit memories

26. Explicit memories

ing

called declaratis e

y retained th

th

in tie r

iddle

art

n1enmorie of fat-f.. mnclctd


f is
oX cuts
are

memorot-

27. 1 he hippocampus i a nets a c mts i lotthe linshc sistem tna N mpmitt fl 1m


:
..p
ing of e\pliUt memormos
28. Recall P a measure

Of tc-teta;

must remeniser,
information iearnc m

son

30. Relearning s a

norc cc i

skills prefer

mae. and

names,

14. The serial position effect

the tcndencs for

are me rorics of

ences, and dispositions Ihesc memormec .ire cvi


dentli processed, not by the hippocainpus, hut
hr a more priniitis e part of the hratn, the curehel
or :.?mir
lum. They are also called pus cia
[hi mcmnnrac. p. 3o

29. Recognition

is

organizmna

images

13. The spacing effect i the tendency for distributed


ctudy oi practice to yield better long-term reten
tion than massed study or practice. (p. 355)
tcms it the beginning a id u d )f a F t P b

1
meannoful ii1it5 p 3m
21. Iconic memory is the r uual wnom iiieflor\
consisting of a perfect photographic numorr
which lasts no more than a terv tenths of a etond, (p. 362)
or
iepesent i
Menioru aid I ci I me ins irs i
tion. iconic memory
r
ot
bidet risual
st
material into familiar

uitim

,..hc!t-

to

it-. a n easure ot

fc

t 1

t-c

in

uo
t-5is

Fir

ton Pm ,n ii

need ohs id nt f rathet than


idOl
miush learned inforn ati
ti c

tO
.c

cm

iCr,

one

the less
more tF

fr

im c I I

itt I 1101

pit

in

isar nauSlli,

S I

thdt
tIn,

256

Chapter 9 Memory

31. Priming i, the activation often unconscions ot a


web o
t associations in mtmorv in oider to
retriei c a specif memory, p. 372)

32. Dj vu is the false sense that you have aireads


experienced a current situation. p. 373
33. Mood-congruent memory is the tendenot to
recall txporiences that are consistent with our
current mood. i 374)

34. Proactix e interference m the disruptit e etfect ot


s mcthing ron airtady have learned on your
sfforts tt Icarn or recall new mformation (p. 379)
3S Retroactive interference is the disruptn e effect
of somethinp ret er t
s learned on old know ledge
1
D))
(p,
Mu or zzd Rctro means backward Ret; oactive
interference is backward-acting interference.
36. Repression is an example ot motivated forgetting
in that paintul and unacceptaBle memories are
pret ented troni entering consciousness, In p5w
Lnoanal\ tic theors it ts the basic defense nrecha
nisnr p 3S1

1 O( US ON VOGABUIARYANI) LANGUAGE
11w Phcnonzenon of Memory
343. Yr ur mensory is your minds storehoase

3
Pa

the r sri alt ot sour accumulated learning. Myers is


usmg ar analogi to help r on understand the gener
al toncept of memors. Both teeelionses and rescroezrs
are used to keep materials (water, tood. etc.) until
a e need thcm. Liken ise, your memors systeni re
tains most of the things r ott experienced (acm (inlittOt
ot imi:o;;:, and itenw tan he reca Bed or retrieved as
reqo ire)

ID
I S

mc
i
ii

Sonic tnlit s has


xplored the earls a I
r us loss th r it csc rchers has r cxar i
s ot men try s
I
s and ansrs
c notcd tt c bencfmts (ha; s) 0 not
t r
fc t m n or for s try thing that hap
3
t

information about the event into their memories.


(p. 353)
38. At the heart ot many false memories, source
amnesia reters to naisattnihutmg an event to the
is rong ource (p. 354?

Cross-Check
DOWN

ACROSS
1. repression
4. erhcio

1. recognition

2. sensory
3. misinformation effect

6. semantic
7. priming

4.
5.
8.
9.
10.
12.
13.
16.
17.
18.

11. imagery
14. LII
15.

19.
20.
21,
22.

conit

chunking
flashbulb
amnesia
rehearsal

ettortfut
hippocampus
nnpticit
mnemonics

acoustic
automatic
proactive
long term
usual
deja vu

Page 3 iv. Do h s memory feats make y our own mem


orv seem feeble? Myers is poinhng out that although
S may have demonstrated spectacular abilities in
remembering all sorts of things (memory fiats), nor
mal memor in the average person is no less
astounding in many is as s (piett;j staggrring). Despite
our occasional failures, our ordinary memory
accomplishments, it hich we tend to take for grant
ed, are quite remarkable their are Dr front being

feeb/e).
Paps PlO 52: instead we mIlle the flashlight bean; 0
oar

sPent/a;

not el or

certain

important

intoming

stimulioften

stimuli. One model of memory

suggests that s e onh fat us on (shin the flashltl,


/eaa f r I I ; a;;) and p occss one part or
aspect of t ic tt tal scnsory input, particularli new
in
cr mportant stimuli. We can also locate and
bring bark stored infoi m ation from long tcrm mem

on tLrM) into short-term memory (STM).

Id

a; dat ,ei;;a; c a a nary Olinat Irs.


ew optional tnt nrc ries art heing likened
or compared to the top athletes in the Olympic
Lames. S for example. would cleans receive the top
prize dm tct :;;a: ; m am competition in mvhith
People

37. lhe misinformation effect is the tendency of eve


a itnesses ta an et cut to httorporate nnsleading

Encoding: Getting hforina tion In

itO

rerne;nhcra g

x ast

brine t-rccl ta:aic,:a

amounts
(.51,;;/

0.

of

nfarmaton

a as

Page .354:
One ivax to improx e and
lea-f
increase the power at our meniors is to use
rehearsal. Ehus, attis dr repeating some new infor
mation (such is a strangers name or nest torrninolo
gi ) still help trengtiIen (at oor abilits to reinein
.

Focus on ocabu1ary and language

her this material. As Myers notes it is important for


effective retention to space out or distribute
rehear.als over time (tIle spaez;i effect) rather than
doinn the repetitions all at once niassed practice or
cramming).

Pacc 356. Gordon l3ower and Daniel Morrow (1990)


liken our minds to theater directors who, iiell a ran
script, imagine a tmshed stage production. This sug
pest- that what we remember is not an exact replica
of reality. We construct some mental representation
or model tinisiicd stage production) from the basic
ensori information (rare script) available to us, and
so, when we recall something, it is our own version
(mental model) that comes to mind and not the real
thing.

Page 318: Thanks to the durability of our most vix id


Images, we sometimes recall our experiences with
mental snapshots of their best or xx orst moments. The
use of imagery or mental pictures (snapshots) is one
wa to enhance recall. We hax e exceptional1 good
memorx for pictures and ideas that are encoded
using visual imagery. As Myers notes, imagery is at
the heart of many memory aids (e.g.. method of
loci, peg-word, etc.).
Pave $38 (caption;

...

(elF until iiou are blue in the

face,,. Ihis refers to the situation in xs hich some

one says the same thing (e.g., a reciuest, a plea. a


xx a ruing) over and over, but sax ing it does not
appear to hax e am effect on the listener, You can
xx am people repeatedly about the dangers (icalth
ha ; d of sum tanning and smoking (tier an t i I
m in thc fa e) with little or no change
I w i a
ix the target audiences behaxior visual images of
the consequences of tanning and smoking haxe a
greater impact.
353,

is

based on me

ix riz r

short 10-

item poem c ;gle that can he wsoLiated xx ith a new


list of I 0 item through x isual iniageri rim flexi
items are hung on. or pegged to, th familiar items.
\lctimnec a!uie rat ii m91 ;llimicr,
.;l;ec. He .c!:;ya; ca
tn
:
,ilhlc. I hfc
n;:I IH bcf an::, en hb i;iger.
,;t,,b f:i t,i n tr,a, hx chunking (orga
and ran
1 I anits) we can
nizing material into meaning
increase the an ount of inforr ian x we can iemem
her, l)onatdli x s able to r cal u o 0( numbers
read to Fun onix on e, en elicit per second, by
using chunkin; aid H mar h es c ustcrs of chunks,
Page $n; 1:

Pac $4: Hb, [Ehhinghaus] solution was to form a


list of all possible 11 nsensc suliatles created by rand
aiclu;i a i owel hetu cen tu o consonants. in order to
a oid using meaningful nords with prior associa
tions Hermann Ilhbinghaus mx ented three-letter
n ords that made no sense and had no meaning
(in. nsi nse siiUabks). lie did this bx putting a xowel
(sandG iclung it) betu een two consonants. I us non
sense (in anrngless) syllables were consonant (C),
von ci (\) consonant (C), or CACs.

Pace

nord method

257

For exiniple, the

pegncord

si stem

requires that you first memorize a iiiiclc. A inn,de is


an easili remembered succession of ivorcis that ring
or resound against each other due to alliteration or
rhyme and are often used in radio or TV commer
ciR. Pie mflemunic (mernuri aid) ca lied the pe

Donatelli then

organized from small to big 1k xx as quiet xx bile lis


tening to the list but became mcix a fix c and agif at
ed Pu cp;ang I a ) a he used his nnemonic tech
niq ue
Storage: Re to in ing Intorm at ion
Page $o2 It was harder than reading by I;gi:tni;ig
flashes. In his mx estigation of sensori storage,
George Speilrng showed hic suhiect- .an array of
nine letters for a x cry brief period lor about the
length of a hid t liglit;iing;. lie demonstrated that
this was sufficient time for then to hrietl\ mien
fli;;ps I all nine letters and that an inage remained
for less than halt a second before fading away; he
called this brief f7e t r g) memory f m icual stimuli
iconic memory
5Pm ek HolijicMx sterx writer Sir
Page P3
Ics
ular
character was a
most ros
Arthur C ona x Dox
ate
phi
detectix
e named
very intelligent and logical
as
mani
did
Holmes,
heliex
ed
Holmes
Sherlock
xx
limited,
much
others. that our memorx capacity aas a small empti room or attic can hold onix so
much furniture before it ox erflows. Contempirars
psvchologicts noi. heliex e that or ability to store
limit.
x iti: eat
1
long-terlu memories ;s haucal
xx

any

Among amn s me contender


Page lb I 1
xxould
e I itdbair
for dxamp
xu mker is
kr
the Cl k
t
x t a pH
Sr Il b n
small bird xx t
nomenal netro
1 i te a period
where it u cx i s c 3. It
mx )nths a000
e Cr t ocations of
of more than
hidden foel
Pap- PP i

,.itJi aa e, a; P 1;;

make, a -tttemcxt tint is not meant


to he taken seriuusl, a, mtc that it xx as said
H hey
mm
,,
1
bec satt xl that
fell u
reality,
than
-ixal
dual
more
a
a
i
are
of
Li
ries

X\ hen

someone

csean

258

chaptet

Niemon

tint r

wit tc

ac

\ or

sent

i;tO 0

tim

rsen s ntc the

4
e
s
or cerhan norTnones. Tnese in turn
Lc do tOt [e
cigna: rh m i: that soniethin irnpurtant [mc hap
penad nd the ox enb tim r triggered the arousal
macic
r deihl
piemi
r the b H much a

tim a.re
e

Of

LO :e o itt a nnesial can he Jas n


athniecl.. Intl ran learn to read iOtfiu
o: do
;cic.. thex can he
[as ci ettdidn red PeaLe it ho hat e io
t the
5
ihiiittx
memb r ten intc ration ii LsciD) ma
to g throF acsrcia
xc
hc
in
im i
in
i doflannftoshrc
orohlc
e.
,}lrrl s yen if thc arc not
ao
hex inn done o. \h er notes that thesr
final inm -nggest teat nxernor is not a single. unified
x stc n \nuiesles win [earn kin, to ia somethrng
implicit memo ithoot xcv knott iedge of this
harni
phcit
declarative, memory
d

(1

oIler

ci

[rri

(7(l)J

Ir
ab drivers are iften
F o work ir Lon For
oe
iebici face an enormous chal

to cne monze the complicated lanout


ntx teets: the longer thex ixork there the
a e :ear area or the hppocamnus nthich spw
niotx) F
iair/c
ptia
ne.
0

re)rirx

pr

1
t

c
rni

id 1

H x oar ,onx gdaia. ReNt ing and reliching


inerox

iCe

Paso ccssfulpc

a s
coLa
a phaizi a id Her that
ci p H fr m x ariouc cortical storage citec
Lw then with the emotional associations

vi, H

of

pact

nix alcnt
vi

no

acconxpiishznentc

in orcne
an

tzac dir
i

no-

ci

ciii,c,rax,ddh,the.wirgciaia
,

Ph.

as

um

c d (hula p H rrcsc] souic ma north). Memory of


cv m at pa ci s influanc r d by the particular

ulaicia V

x od we a

cur

ci

iwi

hrr

in

u.
N

P zge thi: An d all tire applause for nuzuen/


hare
a i x oices hr i heard ii praise of forgetting? iF e
t n
focu )t tF e unportance of remembering and
re alh ig info, nation ft zero is touch applause for mono
.

ci

ul I Ioweyc

re
to [iL I
Ni

ct
t

ieoirr in

ad

ii

let t u total

if xve could not forget, we would he

like the Russian memory expert izziezziirii told:) S


who xx as or erwhelmed hr the aniount of useless
information ira had stored thanzztcd ha his juoir heap of
mcrzoricp. Fh is many people, from William James
tear -at
1 cognih a psychologists, 0
cknoxx H
edg I c 1 npo tanc e of forgetting.
5: A tame ot p i po/sed on the f/p o the
f
t,zzc;,e. xi aihng to he retrieved. The expression
an the Li; of cci ro oh reters to the teeling r on get
rvhen n on are trying to remember something (a
name, place ett., hut cant, even though r on feel
thou
n or
0
r
say it f,fs on It to o
r
i
r7
r ai propr itc retries a
(
ue
F is tIc
ettc cf re nar
r comethin d
rhyri 5 mdi c ) ace r ften rrn emher the tcm.
flc

0 F ron

collect nnore and

moe intermation,

t,l oh it net er hilt. hot it ccrtainlr gets edit


ruod, OF e mar h,ae an onihuited amount of space in
0 r

s5)rn m

r our

Forgetting

Pa,.
P, H i no F (ickng fnlornzwztzon Ozzt

r whether it is good or had, and we

tc id to remember the excnts accordingly.


Pap: L4: Limo teenagers are dacizi, their parents
cern inhuman: a thetr mood hdghtcn. their parents
H ii Hr 7 acLa aaocl. Because our nremorie
te id to he mood-congruent. xx e are likely to explain
on n cc t c i tion ii state hr remembering cx ents
ar d
c is
ng c insistent (canyrurat) nith hon
ste ow tee
n one studs xx hen young adolescents
werc mi a had mood H a), titer x iexx ed their par
ent a true, and nncarhig (inhuman). hut later
lieu ther were in a much better (lit is/itcH mood
their parents acre descrihed in much nicer terms. It
sci id as t tough thcir parents had undergone an
mfng char pa i i cimraLcr (morphu;zg fret;, deazlc to
I zg I ) hut tF
in e x as simply in the teenagers
mood Ac \Iyc notes pasciazzs [or cmafzansl exag

(5

rod h )et
cia a i t\v ut ad nd uniarpx.

ear

i use

si stem or i

1 rtti
to

(a oom at

the top

ith a rnstant flow of ncn infor

r t in g
, ii c storage can become disorga
d (Hoff
I lie neix in tormation may get in
the xx ax of recaling old material (retroactive inter
ferencei, or old material mar block or disrupt ret all
of mar ,ntormetien (proactive interference;
r

t)

situa(ion

mon

nici

Focus on Vocabulary and Language

Page 380: We sheepi$ilii accepted responsibility tar 89


cookies. Still, we had not come close; there had been
160. 1he Myers family obviously loves chocolate
chip cookies, and the stor of how all toO were
cn, ate. c ncunzed) within
1
de\ oured uczrtcd, au/ted do
24 hours wet a creed ices 1t1t is quite funny but
makes an important point. Embarrassed, guilty, and
feelin a little foolish (sheepish). they could onh
account for and remember eating 89. This illustrates
the se1t-ser ing nature of memory and how, un
knon inglv, we change and revise our own histories.
Pepc $81: I he words re/it a b/oun-eitt candle in the
mind
Just a an extinguished dilewii out) candle
can he reignited (re/it) with a match, the presentation
of a retrieval cue ma help someone recall or
retrieve a long forgotten memory \ithough Freud
proposed that we repress memories of painful expe
riences in the unconscious mind in order to protect
our self-concepts and minimize anxiety, Myers notes
that most contemporary memory researchers beliexe
repression rarely, if ever, happens.
Memory Construction
Page 384: Because memory is reconstruction as well
as reproduction, u e cant be sure whether a memory
is real by how real it feels, It is difficult to determine
if a memory is real simply by noting how real it feels
or how confident we are about its accuracy. We not
only recall and retrie e real memories (reproduction)
but we also manufacture false memories (reconstruL

259

Page $85: Memory construction helps explain wh\


hipiiotical1u rebuIued memories of crimes so easilx
incorporate errors, some of which originate with the
hypnotists leading questions. Because of the ten
dencv to manufacture events u ithout being con
sciously aware of doing so (;nenoro colNtruction a
people are likely to be influenced by suggestions
and biased questions uhile under hxpnosis. 1her
subsequent recollections ( IluEp not kill/il rctreued
ma\ therefore he a mixture of fact and fiction,
Pae 38o: If memories can he silken, xet sO sillcerc;if
uurolig, might childrens recollections of sesual abuse
he prone to err The evidence suggests that under
appropriate conditions childrens memories can he
reliable and accurate (sincere), but that they are also
prone to the misinformation effect and can he mis
led by biased questions and suggestions; later, the
children are not able to reliably separate real from
ta I se (sincerely wrong) memories,
Improving Memory

Page 391: Sprinkled throughout this chapter and sum


mariied here for easy reference are conc reP sugges
hans for improx ing memory, This chapter on mem
ory has many good ideas for memory improx ement
scattered or interspersed (sprinkled) throughout it
and Myers has pulled them together in an easy to
understand formatthe SQ3R (Surx cx, Question,
Read, Rehearse, Rex iew) method, Ihese are real and
tangible (concrete) ways that will help you improx e
your memory. Use them!!!

fllO:

Thinking and Language

Thinking (pp 34i0

CHAPTER OVERVIEW

David Mx ers at tin4e ue icliocu- that crc on


familiar to ,ome i cadets, it ill, cm
the meaning of am of the tolion ing cc owls,
phrases, or expressions n the context in cchkm
they appear in the text, refer to pages 28u
I
for an explanation kin to birdr 1, rd, d
:icm,id
I ry
upon one that a wk
teasers, shoot tnc ba e t II wt tIm
jrtc
t
judmenh a biokui p i
,ucla f
in the ton 4g flu 11
conflict fulled a uti u
1 cm
f
on sc en

\Im.t of Chapter 1 deals with thinking, with empha


sis on how people iog1caiior at times illogically
use tools such as algorithms and heuristics when
making decisions and sod ing problems. \do dis

cussed are sei eral common obstacles to problem solv


ing, including fixations that prex cut us trom taking a
fresh perspectd e on a problem and our bias to search
for information that confirms rather than challenges
existmg hypotheses The section concludes with a dis
cussion ot the power and perils of intuition.
I he rest of the chapter is concerned with lan
guage including its structure, dcx elopment in chil
dren, relationship to thinking, and use b animals.
Iwo theories of language acquisition are evaluated:
Skinners theori that language acquisition is based
entirely on learning and (homsky s theory that
humans have a biological predisposition to acquire
language.
\OlI: \nsxver guidelines for all Chapter 10 ques
tions begin on page 4.

Objective 1: Define co
1.

ii

Cognition ci

can

defined as
2. Scientists xc ho studi thes menta: actix

itiCs arc

called

Objective 2: Deciiho the ioic f rttcw


pr a or pt a rio
h ies. definr tron and prof

CHAPTER REVIEW

Firt. skin, edch cecton, noting headings and boldface


items. \fter ou h,n e ecI the ection, rei jew each
Ohlecti\ e h anivering the fill-in and e%av-tvpc
question- that follow t. \- you proceed. evaluate
our performance h consultinu the ansu ers begin
ning on page 24. Do not continue with the next
tion until x ou understand each ansx er. If you need
to, re\ ion or reread the section in the textbook before
continuing.

tic H.

3. People tend to organ i/t c mti tc im into neIxei


groupings called
such groupinus often re forthor .ic,cn-/(J IOU

4. Concepts are tc picallx cm rmed thra c.


dec elopment or a ie-t

example. I-

262

C. apter 10 lINk g and language

Objective 3: C ompare algorithms and heuristics as


p b er -se x ing strategies, and explain how insight
d ffc rs tre m b )th . tt en.
e specially apabte of using their re i
S I to ns
on ne ye vets for c png with new sitnation
nd t ios for

6. Fi ci st a mob c n s solution by trx ing


sF It i
lcd
1

ci

h pos

Objective 5: C ontrast the representatix eness and


ax ailahihtx heuristics, aiid explain how they can
cause ns to underestimate e r ignore important infon
mation
14. People judge sow well something matches a par
ticular prototype this is the
15.

udga the like lihood of comethmg


1
oceurnng in terms of how eadilk it comes to
1% lien n

mind we aic using the


aO

e
xi

mctf )d cal step-by stcp procedure for


problerxs ire called

I xplair how these tu o heuristics max lead us to


make judgmental errors.

8. Sin pie th nking strategies that provide us with


proble m-soh in snorteuts are refeired to as
9. Vs hen ou suddenl3 realize a pioblem s solution
has occnrred. Re search stud
ie s shoiv that at such monients the brain displays
a burst of actix ity in the

Objective 4: C ontrast confirmat on bias and fixation,


and wplain h w they can interfere xx ith effective
problem soh ing.

16. (1 hir king C riticallv) Many people fear


more than
arid

10. 1 he tendency of people to look h)r information


rh xerif es their preconceptions is called the

we fear,
a.

our ideas more ea erlv than

te seek cx idenee that might


then,

13. Whe. a a rscu s onabl to ens isbn asing an


ect nan atypical xx
operating.

despite the fact that these

fears are not supported bx death and injury sta


tsties this type of faulty thinking occurs because

11. It is human nature to seek evidence that

12 N tb rga let
ke
experspcti e hen
tncrt
a e r
set e pe bl misrefermdtc a
x. I cftis
C
et
i g stletenden
te
t e us s t
we ktd prex ie usl
ene
vu as the Jevelopmer I of
F
a

more than
.

e.
d
Objective 6:1) ser b tFe ass backs xd ads antagcs
of o r rf uen e u d ci,
waking
F ter d uc

17.

if

af their kr e

F Ic U overestimate the accu


edge results in

18. Overconfidence has

xalue

beet use self-cot frdeut people tend to live


i
Sc

more lessj happilx and


1
e set harder U

dit
Is

_______
______

263
19. When research participants are given feedback on

Language pp. 4h)-4i8

the accuracy of their judements, such feedback


(does / does not)
generally

If yen do net knen ttrc meaning of am ot the


lotion ing n ords, phrase, or expresions in the
context in which they appear in the text, refer
to pages 281282 for an explanation: cutepultiny I
our species forLeard; They arc hunting dogs; corn
he a
a tInn c: Ac lit ca,1 JIm a

help them become more realistic about how much

they know.
Objective 7: Describe how others can use framing to
elicit trom us the answers they want
20, The way an issue is posed is called

This effect influences eco


decisions,
suggesting that
nomic and business
(may/may
our judgments
not) always be well reasoned,

Objective I I: Decrihe the haAc tructurai units ot a

language.
1. The basic sound units of language are its
English has approximateh
of these unib. The basic
units or -ign language are detined h

Objective 8: Explain how our preexisting beliefs can

distort our logic.


2t The tendency for our beliefs to distort logical rea
soning is called
22. 1 his phenomenon makes it

(easier/more difficult) for us


to see the illogic of conclusions that run counter
to our beliefs,
Objective 9: Describe the remedy for the belief perse
verance phenomenon.
23. Research has sh own that once we form a belief or
a concept, it may take more convincing evidence
for us to change the concept than it did to create
it; this is because of
24. A cure for this is to

2, Phonemes are grouped into units of meaning


called

3. The system of rules that enables us to use our lan


guage to speak to and understand others is called
4. The system by which meaning is derived from
morphemes, words, and sentences is the
of a language.
5. The system of rules we use to combine words
into grammatica ilv sensible sentences is called

Objective 12: Trace the course of language acquisi


tion from the babbling stage through the two-word
stage.
months of age. babies can
read lips and discriminate speech sounds. This
marks the beginning of their

6. By

Objective 10: Describe the smart thinkers reaction to


using intuition to solve problems.

and
26. intuitive reactions allow us to react
and in wIns that are
27. Smart thinkers check their intuitions against
available

their ability to comprehend


speech. This ability begins to mature before their
ability to produce words.
7. The first stage of languace development, in
whicn cniidren spontaneou sly utter d ttterent
sounds, is the
stage typically begins at about

stage. This

264

Ciaowr Ii 1 hnkig and language

scunds children make duiing


(do Ct1 noti

U ize.

1
t
.m.itt

thi. pi

lPt.ILI

ot th

ig

i ;c

that

lie

(.

bblt
4
b

natui ii

blin,.

%O

.)

iot)

re
pair.

fon.e, b
9. In b
qbe

iz4

pec
(lnt

14. Other theori%ts beliei e that humans are biologi


calli rredipoced to learn language. One such
th c t
iho believes that
a
c.bim itha
in
switches a e throw i
a chldren eperiene their language. Ihi% theo
rist contend that au human languages hai e the
.ame grammatical building blocks, which sug
get-. &at there s a

inntk I age
emit tt cusehc
tin. th abhtyto
ccs iS

tmc
e1

15. S
I
x.encs morphemcs nords andsc tc cs it urihat(homskvc.allsthc
ot lan
guagc lhe underl mg meaning of these compo
nents & a L.inguage make up its
.1 hus, using multiple le ek
oi- uii3erstanding language development
design the mechanisms and
modifies the bram

10. 1 ),t :ng :h- ecnfld tage called the

.tage.
chiM:tii. ?fl a cimocte thought lr.ing .ingle
w oids
s tage be 1 t about
) ot abe
-

Di.
tagt

ra xurpks of linguistic bchaior in cliii


icc
then thit supp )rt Ott argument that humans are bi logicallc.
disposed t ) acquire language.

sped
tcntes or
ng
un and i-ei c, Ibis t.pe of ,peei.h jc
peech.
i

niostl -1

called

12. A.tr th.s stage cnikiren quickl begin to utter


iangvr
that
(do do
nt) ft 1
the ruk
ita.
tcl.

Ob

tor

aiqi.
I

nd(lcIr
i
lehtcoic intd
t shcal
,uage
lair i
al non c are niporar LO ept.
55

hi)

tur

tu
)fl.a..

J3,

-%

U .1

ht J :1agt dci elnprnent f..:


I 1
:(
o K rnir:. n lii. 1111%
})lit I
nd
he s
1
1
Ir
,
icrii.F
entsarc
:..- ;LJrniniz ot .pn.en Ln
1
t
V.t d.
(men ,ljt;
,t.

.jj

hiir,
t

.te.;

tCl Li

16. Re;r ib Jei.n artran has denuntrated that


itn eI.re
vearis) of age,
dNcern
;i.ab .flc. able to
bi anal eing vhkh vi1able
n.togctk r
.not
1. R
ft

18.

ada A f ukrackforsoakinc, I
Hi tbabics oircwihatu t
,.
t)lea

s
i

liii. atiIit Ini

.!.

.i L

ii

I.

is not
.tit

It-pn

itt

litelong. Childhood

or masterm,. trtam a.p .t,

Animal Thinking and Language


of language. Those who learn a second language
as adults usually speak it with the
of their first language.
\loreover, the\ ts picallv show
(poorer better)
master of the
of the second
Ia nguage.
19. The ivindox\ for learning language gradualk

begins to close after age


\ hen a young brain doesnt learn any language,
its language-learning capacit
(never! may still) tullv de elops.
20. Considering the two theories together. u e can say
that although we are born with a readiness to
learn language,
is also
important, as shown in linguistically stunted chil
dren who ha e been isolated from language dur
ingthe
for its acquisition.

Thinking and Language (pp. 1/18-422)

265

vant information. This has been called the


5. One study of Canadian children found that
English-speaking children who were
in French had higher
scores and math scores than
control children,
Objective 15: Discuss the value of thinking in images.
6. It appears that thinking

(can/cannot) occur without the use of language.


Athletes often supplement physical with
practice.

7. In one study of psycholog students preparing


for a midterm exam, the greatest benefits ivere
achiex ed by those who s isualized themselves
(receis ing a high
grade/study ing etfectix ely).
Summarize the probable relationship betn een think
ing and language.

If you do not knon the meaning of the follow


ing phrase in the context in which it appears in
the text, refer to page 282 for an explanation:
chicken -and-egg t ties tions.
Objective 14: Summarize Whorfs linguistic deter
minism hypothesis, and comment on its standing in
contemporary psychology
1. According to the

hypothesis, language shapes


our thinking. The linguist who proposed this
hvpotheis is
2. Many people who are bilingual report feeling a
different sense of
depend
ing en which language thex are using. Ihere are
an estimated
languages in
the world todax

Animal Thinking and Language


(pp. 423428)
If von do not know the meaning of the follow
ing phrase in the context in which it appears in
the text, refer to page 2h2 for an explanation:
rliapcodi:ed; Spiiing the Itart stick; i crc tIie
chitnps Ian glia/e Jiamps or acre tOe recariicr
chumps

3. In se era) studies, researcherc have found that

using the pronoun he (instead ot he oi she


(does/does not) influence
peoples thoughts concerning gender.
4. Bilingual children,

lie learn to inhibit me lan


g iagc ni ile using their other language, ire better

able to inhibit their

is

to irrele

Objective 16: List hi e cognitive -kills shared


great ape and humans.

by

th

1. Animals are capable ot forming simple


IVol (gang Kdh Icr d em on
strated that chimpanzees also exhibit the Aha!
reaction that characterizes reasoning by
2. Forest-duelling chimpanzees learn to use hi and
es, stones and other objects is
I hese behas iors, along is ith behas ioms related to

26

aila

(jotcl

anige

an cotlrt%hip.
n) worn one group to another.
ii rct 4
ing tne trannus%ion Ot

(an

g.oonung

uggt.&.t

LksxptLt. .
J inn rot us.ige In thimparzee% and
4
ge%t% to suit tmeatdie th it the%e
other a;
md
%e,s
d i ntarv d
mal, a

cs mate aic c acih to casomnc


eaard.
%itnila
reia at age
t
1
t mat of thi
as

2. -\ menta ,rc;up;ng o
people k ..alkd a(n):
a. pwtoh pe.
b. coikept.
3. \ hen

ning a torn

he%t
d
b. a

:miI r thin
.
1

.ents.

01

c. .lgo :trn.

d. heunstc.
elop a

t peciph oftc
.

it&c

ci

nc

4
wndc.
et to dntrt
t
ie

on h
1 t

(untir x
a. llois

tcr

tnt

pree%ttLg

ogitii

ftr

sonit i).

Objective 17: OutLine the argtinent br and 1gdinL


the .iea triaL an:p,a a& hurnia. %harc the apacit
f aguage
Ic

n sdcmtl,
rnpk. io eybcestc

4.

cans

5. ihe (,.udner. attempted to ominunKate t ith


the chin.panzee 1\ a%hoe by teaching her

lft.,iun lart
uage ma h.n e evol cd from
6

icarions

tO

S r r ri.c one t
&
Cs
iC

rtsofske
n
espo 1St
,c,

it)
I

cs of tlic
I ties

ut

tot
he . %Cj

ttt an.wer

rre.
;nc

ki.e

ii I

ii

:.WOr;e

.1 i.

L..

Fn...li..h iangu ge ha
ptiorierne.
c. 41)
a. 2
b,iu
d.45

te%t 4W

he fotloi in, is ot true of b bbling?


6. Vshich
du reedi.
0
iatonof
a. It
ei 1 cdli.
b It
roth, c
C I tjoc 1> xt 1 C r )out ,
lsc
d. Babbi i., increasu4 I CDflRS ft esenihle a
particular language.

(21

e..d

ing.
H4

nd
ye 2T

C.

Ut. v pLrutkn for

tht.n %flt
trpropriatc
renthr.
tthot.
the mrr.t
rt
p

lair
a

tic

im)41t..:

.pt

JIC

Ii.n_

is

4. tn a

imitat

n.
4
e tra

at fldf

jr..

tm

t
nUJ

3-i.a-oId- tilt ra nider urc. s


nt.n

egnt

fl

,11tjtI1.

r14%orang

ti

-bat

C .zwater

I L

.Vi Li

sLit at h

a
d.

a
ry

ii
attr

it

,i._ r.

d.

it

II
mitt
Likiti

TM 0 tVpe4

..aiii.
1
ti

I.

C.
N. tr

j. proxiIndte

5. the

io

t.ti

ck LI

iste

7. Mental -get and functional ficdne% are


of:
c. riatioi
a. algo thtn.
insigF
b.ht
s

PROGRESS TEST i
-Cl

b. Iiriiz to ones in.tiai coneptkni after the 1;a$s


fornied
oeei: dic ted
On 11 iii. the
ted
i e solutons
t h alter
idom1
c. se r I
isic r*lem )
(ii
C)S cntis
rta
d
o ft
tint
it s.

d 4.it
11lJI.

Jflt

In
C

.fldiIt

uanc
ape- thr

,t,

Progres- Test

9. IA horfs linguistic determinism hr pothesis states


that:
a. languagc is primarib a learned abilits

b. language is partially an innate ability


c t ic size of s pci sons socabulars reflects his ( r
hcr intelligence.
d. our language shapes our thinking.
10. IAlucli of the following best decrihes Choinskr s
ieu ot language development?
a. Language i
5 an entirely lea med ability.
b. Language is an innate ability.

c. Humans have a biological predisposition to


acquire language.
d. 1 here are no cultural influences on the des cI
opment of language.
11. hailing to solve a problem that requires using an
object in an unusual ts ay illustrates the phenome
non of:

a. mental set.
b. functional fixedness.

c. framing.

d. belief perser erance.

12. Which of the following is an example of the use

of heuristics?
a. trxing every possible letter ordering when
unscrambling a word
b. considering each possible mos e sr hen playing
chess
c. using the formula area = length z width to
find the area of a rectangle
d. playing chess using a defensive strategi that
hac often been successful for you
13. Uhe chimpanzee Sultan used a short stick to pull

a longer stick that was out of reach into his cage.


lie then used the longer stick to reach a piece of
fruit. Researchers hxpothesized that Sultans dis
cox err of the solution to his problem was the
result of:
a. trial and ero
b. heuristus.

c. funk fional txednesa


d. nsirt
13. You hca that one of tf c Smith childrcn is an out
standing Fittle league plarcr and immediately
concludc it s thcir one son rather than any of their
tour d iughtt rs. ou rcachcd r our quitc possihh
erroneous concluion as the result of:

267

15. Researchers who are cont muced that anin,ai twn


think point to evidence that
a. monkeys demt nsf te the a I
cou
bx learning to touc s pict
h;cc

ascending nu s r
d
b. chimpanzees rcul r
as F
and other object as mIs in

1 fund h
fats.
c. chimps invent guom lug and oa rt- hip ns
toms and pas them tom to themr pet is
d. all of the anor t

16, Deaf children who ir not c \( d to sign fmr


guagc until they arc fcc agen:
a. arc unable tc uast r t e I i
0
i

languagc
b. learn the basic s or I hut
i to cr
thcm.
c. are unable to master c itiei the brie it ords
syntax of sign language.
d. ncr er become a fluent as those
to sign at a voungei age.

it

ho learned

17. According to the tex I niguage q fun u b st


described as
a. the result of condit on r g r d r
cit
cc
b. a biological process f nan
c. an interaction hct ceo huhm
id expc
ence.
d. a inc srerv of xi hich researchers ha. o no !eai
understand lug
18. Infants as roung a n month ocidi splau
remarkable ability to lcacn stats al acpc ts
speech Specificahl re c n.h st
e sh

that ther.
a. are qumckh ab e to r c p uz
that appear regeatc h
b. respond to chang s in the pifcr
voice.
c. par less attcnho,
d. do all of fhc abx

1(1

qu
f a peaker

cc
1
a ann.- mir

19. The linguistic deft em turin c


lenged b the findr
t:

a. ch rips m car
ncous hr us
u..
c
b. peop c n.ith
w rd for a

ccc.

t ,c

sp

ho,
still perceive tIn f c or act nra
!nun.r .1
c. the Eskimo language comtcims
r ords for nut tt lit n a- F npih ha uL
one
0 romtai
p. n
d. infa.mt.. hahhiin
th.t lo not own
tin 0 it
0 :ayt
c
that th r tlietel
mntt ha
P.
.

a.
b.
c.
d.

the confirmation bias.


the as aiiahnitx heuristic
f.he repre-.cntatis cow- heunctc
belief perset want

268

C an er 10

Ii kng add T anguage

c. tends for both children and adults to trigger


images 01 males hut not fenrales.
d. for both children and aduitN triggers images of
temales about one- tourth ot the time it is used.

20. beverai studuc bar e indicated that the generic


pronoun

..lie:

a. tends tor children and adulb alike to trigger


ii rages ot both males and females

tc ds fo idults to tfgger imagcs of both


sales and tir i n bnt I w children t) trigger
r aesotiiac

Matching Items

Match c id defint

or description ruth the appro

r i.nt a
DefInitions 01

1 ernis

Descriptions

1. the basic units of sound in a langu age


2. the war an issue or question is posed
3. rules ior combining ur ords into scsi
tenccs

4 the inics by vu hich meaning is dern ed


from sent 1
ntes

5. presuming that something is likels it it

a. syntax
b. morphemes
c. mental -ct

d.
e.
f.
g.

trial and error


as ailabihtr heuristic
phonemes
semantics

h. insight

comes readilt to mind


6. the tend encv to or crest imate tide act ura
cs ot ones judgments

7. being unable to see a problem from a


differei t angle
8. haphazard problem soft ing by trying
one solution aftcr another
9. the sudden realization of the solution to
a problem
10. tire tendency to repeat problem-solving

i.

franbng

j.

or erconfidence

In fixation

techniques that worked in the past er-en


though a fresh approach m iv be more
appropriate.

11 Usc bask uniis of icaning in a language

PROGRESS TEST

Pu s;re..s
hapte

1 d he corn pit ted dcii ing a boa i


u

tF
sc

slu

I n ing
I
orr
lb arcss st

tions
uc

Usc

c stand
ii

\InttpleChoicc

t
Icr

tentleucs to:
)tit

c
nih

cont lusi ins

that agree

I )flt

b
c

isic u it, U

a. sound
b. meaning

Questions

pt as it i al those

2 II u crc are tIc


r goage.

1. \ c ommori problem :n even day reasoninq is our

a. a

c. underestimate the aecuracs of our knon ledge.


s logical tonelusions that ins oh e
cC accept 0
untarn liar Loncep

cc

us.

th

cC

C.

granmar

cC semantics

3. Syntax refers to the:


a.

ounds in a n ord

b
c

rules for grouping


i
ru cs b v hic

os c ci

ten

si

ords into sentences.


lug is derked roir sen

s
ules of a

iguag

Progress lest 2

4, Skinner and other behaviorists have argued that


language development is the result of
c. association,
a. imitation.
b. reinforcement,
d. all of the abox e,
5. \lanv psi. chologists are skeptical of claims that
himpanzees can acquire Ia nguage because the
Lliimp hai. e not shown the ability to:
a. use s mhols meaningtully.
b. acquire speech.
c. acquire e en a limited rocabulary.
d. use s nta\ in communicating.
6. Representativeness and ax ailahilit\ are e\amples
oP

a mental sets,
in belief bias.

c algorithms.
d. heuristics

7. I he basic units of cognition are:


a. phonemes.
C. prototypes.
b. concepts.
d. morphemes.
8. Researchers who heliex e that some primates pos
sess a rudimentary theory of mind point to cx
deuce that:
a, chimpanzees hax e been obseri. ed using mm
rors to inspect themselves,
h. vervet monke, have different alarm calls for
different predators.
c. orangutans in the wild trejuentlv use stones
as tools,
d. hones bees communicate the direction and
distance of a food source by performing an
intricate dance,
9. Assume that Congress is considering revising its
approach to weltare and to this end i
5 hearing a
range of testimony, \ member of Congress who
uses the ai. ailahilitv heuristic would be most
likely to
a,
ar to oxperime nt i.e ith numerous possible
pr )aches to sec i.e hi h of these seems to
xi. ork b st.
ant to cling to approaLhes to i.e elfare that
h.
eum to have had some succss in the past.
c retuse to he budged from his or her helietc
despite persuasie e testimoni. to the ontrari
d. base his or her ideas on the most rind memo
rable testimoni. given, eren though many of
the statistics presented run counter to this tes
timony.

269

10. If non i.e ant ci be absoluteir ccrtain that ou will


find he soluti ii t a nohlcm you know is sole
able r ou or d us
a. a heurishe
e, insight.
b. an aloritlnn
d, tr.ai and eror,

11. Complete

tollon ing

the

nor hc n

a. phone

b. ri up c r

ui

-,i

c,

to

ii

as

a r mar sntax
gi I ninar

v tax

12. hieh of th foIlox.m is act ut ci hi. (homskr


as cx rhence that language a
nuiition cannot he
5
explainen in learning alone?
a. Chdren mister the coni.plhated rules of
grammar i.e ith eas
b, Children rcatc Sc itences the hax e nex er
heard
c, Children wake t i.e kinds c f mistakes that sug
gest thcv are attempting to apply rules of
grammar.
d. Children raised in IsolatIon from language
spontaneoucli. begin speaking words.
13. I ekgravhic soeu h is tu pica I of the
a. babbling
c, in o ci. on?
b. one-u ord
d. three cx ord
14. Children

first

standing of

deni ontrate a rudimentary under


stage.
during the

vuta\

a. babbling

in one-u oid

d, three

ci.

ord

15, Ihe study n Inc c pc pie uF mmip ated to


the Lnited Stat a ear ous ag u nero compared
in terms of their abi1te to underctand Lnglish
grammar tound that.
a. agu of ciii. al had a. u
tcct on wasteri of
1
gra n i m a
b, those el imin r

c I as ci d en understood

c thos

1 ir
a
d I a ders ood
gramir
u i.e 11 as at. s keu,
o lether r not rnu
-.rikun n tile
i..
n st np tanc u.ur F
terina the TUICs ot uarnnar

16, in eawhe s

the
a.
b.
c.

ught
hmu z e l\ an? w and
goril a K iki to
rrwni ate
usine
c irious s iu ins
plastic nih rls o a riou sl i c and olors,
ngn !anniago.
ii a tim al 0

21
1

iL

S
4. 4 hen asked most people underesti
mate the accuiacv of their judgments.
5. Studies hai e shown that even animals
ff1.11 sometimes have incight reactions.
6. lent.il set is the tendenc to repeat
)rohlenL-solsmg solutions that hai
scrked in tIC past.
toug the Lorphcmes diffcr trc m
aC to language thc phonemes tc r
eJtesame
hildren of all cultures babble using tht
anle phonemes.
9. 1 hinking tsithout using language is not
possible.
tO. Mot re..earcher, believe that we can
pet torm statmtical analyse, of language
roughout our lii Cs.

aaionsh_ hetss een tninking and


a. the loi.sn trig most aurate1
Lu tic o..itin tken ii the tint?
a. I ,VCL.L dete. nikte e. ervthing .heut our
3
4n
n

t !k.h

! nc

c wat isc ni*.

nt.

tetti

i.

It
II

M%P(

klt

pos

as

he

u.t

lied in a titling a
dirtith
r r.ieanilit trom is otd. .tnd .en
tents ;tti .ie,ol
t. phonemii. structure.
a. u.t.n
d. .entantics.
b. gr3fli$r
k lt...

18

fCN. t

ollois ins, uc iegardir , the ida


th ki nd lanpu t
tqui t i.e us of Lu piiage.
ii ma,,c tv thar
1 times t

19. \hatt

I CO
1.140

c. \ theusht that ann be expressed in par


tLuW i nguae annn occur to speakers of
..e
1
that irgua
d. \i iif tN ,Love ale true.
a

) it

r F nglist
aking adult nai hai e
.tnurt R si ntortistha.
nih rdRussiax
at
ci, iffy rtN in
.
1
op
s ot the tw Ianthe c

; Cd

hi
Si
1

b.

sl.X

u.%ian hint en sitni


phonemk. inventories

:v..i;n i-;g;kii an

...r mnpneme. titer


t yr flfrcitpt.

c.

jsh ad Rusian have er simi


1
l
4
4
me. their iorphemic nentori
f tent
chli s o var
n
F

.h,.J&

lit p

lit:

ii

a cell

; ..f
I,.!

, I...

it...

.r

1.

..iatt

e....

bi

ti.r.

r:..

it

3.

hi1drrti 3 quire at.


..riu m)rptTilt% 1%
rnat

,rt

lUflkU

r6e jr

true
ft.;,

; tLh:cii

1tr.t.n 4
ing
littabi a
ngt

f
4
j

is

1. rt-t t the

..i)

01

n
ir

ii i

.i..fn
i.

,ti.iit

peo

dii.

fl)iUoL

Ldiefs
m
K rc.thei tF.
LiiiIY

ol s
..a. it
r

t;i

PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED
a thc e. lue%b0i1. thc day before an exam as a
nal check on your under.tanding of the chapters
term. and cortt.ept%.
Multipk-Choice Questions
1. 11w
and

i&

b.3

predates contains
norpher t25
c.7;2
d3;2

phonemes

e following utterances u an exampit.


nile?
XVe goed to the store.
Ball 1
retti
lhec.ki is.riing.
iVe c it paghetti

2. Which of

ni erget..ralizatinn of a grammatical

a.
b.
c.
d.

t earn
0 a rccording of Japanese
rh hmc cnchildrcnbabbUn&

3 4 1 t
pa i
lOt

etoteliti tapart
a. nit
ah
tell the. apart it thei isere old
to
tc
b.
than n Ifl nth..
c. he cht. o tell diem apart it thei ii en older
tha. S 11 months.
d. be .ib to tell them apart at an age.
4 WIn
rne.
a.

Iollov i ts, llustrates belief pen-ci Ca

ret-kin iitacteveninthcfacccf
otnec r 1 13.
iou
r f i.e In listtr o argitmet t cointer to
b.
i

I.urre..t.r...

Psychology Applied

c. N 00 tend to become flustered and angered

when x our beliefs are refuted.


ci. Ntnz tend to earch tor mtormation that sup
pers your hel ets.
S Cc
as.
a.
h.
c.
ci.

r pic to hr c I cir ng analogy Rosc is to flower


concept is to prototi pe
prototype is te concept.
concept is to hierarchy.
hierarchi fi to concept.

271

10. Boris the chess master selects his next mox e hi


considering moves that would threaten his oppo

nents queen. His opponent. a chess-playing com


ptiter, .elects its next mo. e by considering Lilt

possible mum es. Boris i5 using a(n)


computer is using a(n)
a. algorithm heuristic
b. prototi pe; mental set
c. mental set; prototi pe
d. heuristic: algorithm

and the

11. During a televised political debate, the Repub

6, Your stand Ott an issue such as the use ot nuclear


po icr for electricity mx oh c s personal judgment.
casc ore memorable occurrence can
In such
weigh mote hear fly than a bookiul of data, thus
illustrating:
a. belief persex erance.
b. confirmation bias.
c. the representativeness heuristic.
ci. the availabflrtx heuristic.
7 A dessert recipe that gn es you the ingredients,
theii amounts, and the steps to fol]ow is an exam
ple ot am,:
c. heuristic.
a. prototype.
ci. mental set.
B. algorithm.
8

0,

\Iarflr n was asked to soh e a series of fire math


problems. lhc tirst four problems could only be
solx ed by a particular sequence of operations.
[he tifth problem could also he sohed following
this sequence; however, a much simpler solution
mx as posstbie. \[arilvn did not realize this simpler
olunon and -oh ed the problem in the xx ax she
had 5 )lved the first four. Her problem-solving
tratcgv was hampered by
a. fu tct onal fixedncss.
b. thc ox erconf dence phcnomenon
c. mental set,
d. her lack of a prototx pe for the %Olution.
ID:
pe
s
a.
h.
c.
ci,

1 strategic
Meadow n tufir ing the mcnta
ihleins.
ing
Dr Ylendoza
u
ip
sc xvhcr s x
a y n
) %is
eps
, it
expcnmenta psychologist
orgnizatonal P choiugi-r.
dcx elopmental psi choiogmst.

lican and Detnocrahc candidates each argued that


the results of a recent public opinion poll sup
ported their party s platform regarding sexual
harassment Because both candidates saw the
information as supporting their belief, it is clear
that both xx crc victims of:
a. tunctional fixedness. c. belief bias.
ci. contirmation bias.

b. mental set.

12. the child who says Milk gone is engaging in


I his type ot utterance demonstrates
that children are activeli experimenting xx ith the
rules of
a. babbling: syntax

B. telegraphic speech; syntax


c. babbling; semantics
ci. telegraphic speech; semanhcs
13. Experts in a field prefer heuristics to algorithms
because heuristics:
a. guarantee solutions to problems.
B. prevent mental sets.
c often save time.

ci, prex ent fixation,


14. Rudy is 6 feet 6 inches tall, weighs 210 pounds,
and is x cry muscular. If you think that Rudy is
mnore likeli to he a basketball player than a com
puter programmer, ; ou are a victim of:
.
5
a. belief bia
b. mental set.
c. tunc t onal flxedn ss
ci, the rc rcscntatrcncss heuristic.
15. Failing to sce that an articlt of clothing can he
inflated as a life preserx er is an example of:
a. belief bias.
B. the availahiliti heuristic.
c. the representativeness heuristic.
ci, 5
unctonal fixedness.

272

Chapter 10 Thinking and Ianguage

16, Airline reservations typically decline alter a highiv publicized airplane crash because people over

estimate the incidence of such disasters. In such


instances their decisions are being influenced by
a bcliet bias.
b. the ax niability heuristic.
c. the representatix eness heuristic.
d. tunctional fixedness,

wrong? (Use the space beioxx to ht the points you


want to make, and organize them. -i hen ix rite the
essay on a separate piecc ci paper.)

17, \lost people tend to:


a. acuirately estimate the accuraci of their
knoix ledge and judgments.
b. underestimate the accuracs ot their knowl

edge and judgments


ott restimate the accuracy of their knowledge
and judgments.
d. lack confidence in their decision-making
c.

strategies.

KEY TERMS

18. ln relation to ground beef, consumers respond


more positively to an ad describing it as / a percent lean than to one referring to its 25 percent
tat content. [his is an example of:
a. the framing effect.
c. mental set.
b. confirmation bias.
d. overconfidence.

19. 1 he sentence Blue jeans wear false smiles has


correct
a.

b.
c.
d.

hut incorrect
morphemes; phonemes
phonemes; inorphemes
semantics; syntax
sx ntax: semantics

flrttinDetinitious
-

Using your own words, on a piece o paper xx rite a


brief definition or explanation o each ot the tolioxx
ing terms
1. cognition
2. concept
3. prototxpe

4. algorithm
5. heuristic
6. insight

20. In preparing her class presentation, Updatincr


P nomsks s Understanding of Language Develop
ment, Britnex s outline includes all of the folloxx
ox idence rxctpt that:
a. romputers programmed to learn to form the
past tense of irregular verbs can learn to do
-

-o. ox en without inborn linguistic rule-.


b. ntants rapidly learn to detect subtle difter

enccs between -imple sequences of sx llahles,


c. inlant- can recognize color difference- ox en
hetorc thex ran name di tferent coloN.
d. child en isolated from language during the
I rs scxen years of life nevcr fulil develop
language

7. confirmation bias

8. tixation
9. mental set
10. functional fixedness
11. representatix ene-- heuristic

12. availahilitx hourntic


13. ox ercontidence
14. framir g
15, belief bias
16. belief perscx era cc

I ssay Question
lecture- of your linguistics professor, xx ho hapto he a -taunch behaviorist, clearly imply that
to hollow-s language dot elopment can he explained
-ccordng to prInciple- ot conditioning. U hat cx P
fence should x ou present to conx ince her that she is

17. language

ti

phoneme

pns

19.

morphemes

20. waninar

Key lerms

22

25. two-word stage

is r

21

26. telegraphic spean

r ax

27. linguistic determini,u

23 ba hlirtg$agc
24.

ont -ss o

273

d sta?zt

crosrclieck
A. wu eamd in the Prologue.
r iciving and n erkarning ot
naterial are ;mportant tti the
learning prxe%&.. After ou ha e
is ritteci the definition ot the ke
tenr. an thj% chapter. snu %hould
ompietc the cr
)%ssvurd puzile to
t
ensure that iou can res erw the
pre
.c..__retL1gni/e the term
1 tie definition.

p--

.4

I
I-.

4CROSS
1 St ip of peech development
+
ii
iaracw 1 ed by the %ponta
II
no u ttera cc of spact
S)t 1%
stezro uchah itles
8
mi Kate witi and
k c
tara hers.
1
11 Vethod cdp obleni-so i ig
,sa y Eat guarantees s c
ess
14. h p tat was taught sign
wI ;..ago by the (a rdners.
15 r icorict who belies ed that
lans.uage des elopmertt tould
Se explained h

nrindple itt learning.


17. Saddrn and often treath e
%clution to: probitm.
20. rhcori%t sho torniuLated the
ingwstit. determini.ni
I poJa ,a
21 inanilits to .iprr. ) h a problem in nets is as.
22. T hi arrr nnu ii -peech ot L hiidren in the two

I-H
.

4
sor.

%flj.

2. the idi a that lani.,uace determines the wa we


think
3 S mpLc thinking tratcg) for suiting pzoblcm%.
4 exarple t a particular catq, Ms
4
to dist t
tot pree\i%tin Lt I
3

t.

01

.C

t.uT

cd

L-L

L;

%fl;,
1
7. Mental actis t a%socia a! is th OW

under%tanding, and onm1n an14 information


9. Ifeuri4it batl on e.tra:ng the prohahilits of
es ent in term% (f jfl4 dJl!5 thet iOIflC to
mind.
nntinue app;s ing a partkular
10. feriden to 1
problem-%ol ing
en sshen it 1 no
longer helptul.
12. tmalle%t units of len& tao e hat cons ci nit aning.
13. Stageoflanguog de opir ntthatocurs
a
I
between I a
%ftc.te.V

ns

chapter

1 r

king and I anguage

cc i of aiomar ptcir ing the rules for cont


h nng odn into pranimatical sentences.
18. tac oF looguane des elopment that begins about
16.

1.

ii

Is

or rng of imiiar objects cx ents. or

19. does
20. framing; may not
21. belief bias
22. easier

23. belief perseverance

24. consider the opposite


25. cffective; efficient

SWERS

26. quicklx adaptix c


27. evidence
iniu
wocoss

c ital astiv ty associated smith


g remembering and ommu

mr ii i3
5 v p\ s

iii

10 IsIs

3, son epts; imarhie


T!l4 feniaies
;.

soh jug
error

g oPlen

6. tic! and

x cor tI lobe

uPon t r

f
odor

I ct

10. one-word; I

resents us t
rom process
r relc ant ;nformation; because xs e overlook
fi
nfer;uation. c make judgmental errors. Ihus,
ii the te t e\anpie. the representatis eness
heuristic
to o. criook the fact that there are mans
no e trow drs
ti an Is s I eague classics protes
s u d ; a r su
0 svroogir conclude that the
x coder
c
clx to be an I league clas

st

ng

I I intl tort tlea ailibili


nut t
Ii k that norls
n.m n th i s ords has

l.e

h.
c.
b.
1

15,

,,I

ig

s r

at cOt

sm. accidc ts
history hac prepared us to
ral
a

conic I control,
1. is mn ed;ate.
h;t is mos reid iii as ailable in memors.
e;ccntde;;c
*0

8. do; consonant-vowel bunching the tongue in


front of the mouth

9. 10lost

one tin s heuristics often

4, semnan tics
6. 4; receptive language; prod uctis e language

u hon
1 esentatix
14 rop
s heuristic
13. a o,iohdits heuristic

H
a

3. grammar

7. babbling; 4; do not

8, hen; istics
ucoght r
0

1. phonemes; 40; hand shapes; mos ements


2. morphemes

5. syntax

i:hns

ii0i

I anguage

mn,.

11. two-u ord; telegraphic


12. do
13. associ ati on;
slowly

imitation, reinforcement;

deaf more

14. Chomskv; language acquisition device; gramma i;


universal grammar

15. surtace structure; deep structure; genes; experi

enee
Ihe rate at which children acquire voahuiars and
grammar is too rapid to be explained solely by learn
ing. Children create sentences that they has e nc 5 ci
heard and therefore
uld not he imitat ig (F ild cn
learn grammatical rules in
prcdi tad
rc
(hildren s linguistic crrxrs
oft r
g al o r
tcnsio is f grammatical ru es
word breaks
16
17. grammatical rules
18. statistical anais
grammar

sis.

critical period; acen:t poorer;

19, 7; never

20. experience; ritical period

Wi

4. d, 4- the amuwer. It s a mnamoi oostacic u r obieo


soli ing. p. 3gco
a. & b. i he-u reter to heicm via and belier em
veronce, a peeni 0]
irob
5
Ii in
md
c ni

Iittiiktttc, anti angziagc

El. inguhtic deterninum; Whorl


2. eh; bdOU
do
ds

iii

it

I apt

i no

an; mental

0.

7. -wdvina eh:th eh
probabh a uc out at one: the urn
t vpothcs 5 suggests that Ian
I
i ht I at n rds com into thc
upe
t ;e
pr s
cr
dca mdi ates that thought
tic
a o slma rs angna,
he telatrnship

is

terminism

Nflc

si
h
S c
c er
mm oi
me 4t me in
6. a is tlu
,,dnlt oeeth stoce hahhliac otaot- cc edo
phooiimes tr,ra aopeagc tIn- I :at e net he. m
and could not he indtatllcr, pa,
7. c. is the ansuem. P Ut,oite ialiI t set a
0. IA
ane
spcrtv
pr )hien
mm
ir
r
a tIm
ci,
a. & b
cs
0 ho,
of a
em
rcah,,
d Insight the sot d
Solution

Anitnal El hinking

1.

cOOcCtO

tools

anti Lnngnage

1 er, (on. 4dm,. 44Th


8. d. is tin ani
9. d. is the an-nor. p.4
sihcn e uding
a I his is ,kmnc r 5

insj lit

; nIt
1
n
hid

th

ron

ru

arc

S. sgn Ia iguage
6. gestoral
Chiops hate acquired univ limited x ocahularies
and 4n cOOttd5 to cSddren have acquired these
t C cahu aries onis r th great difhsuitv. Also in conas P rhddre r, it s u rclcar that chimps can use sm
us nta ig. Pr cn simpler animals, such
to c
I
as birds, a r rapahle o learning behar moral cequences
that scene himp researchers consider langoage. The
Signing ot cnnn s ts oiten nothing more than intita
hen or the trainers actions. People tend to interpret
ueh amb moos hehat br in terms ot it hat ther want
c e. Bcl e s c itcr d that ahhough ar imals do nc I
ty I r a ,uage they hare the ahiht es
example 1% ashoe nd t o i is
t( onu ni atc. I
gn spot t neoaslt. iso pm gn r chimps UO learn t
5
o
nrprehead tik poken nuance. ot spoken Enghch

Progress Test i
V
I,

ip
C

is

c
Str(

zes

i ns

1,

hcmm is

gence.
44;
t. is thean_ner.
ion.
a. I Ins is kt nem s
s r, tI
P. \rrdtng tiC
itt t
cqoire I g agc

d
lj ti
mdc
mis
e h a s ca tic r t ith othe s
0
a
acquire Ia
rc in inporraut Wi ampe
d. C oltu rai nHoences 0

ot the intluence ct learning on Iangug de clog


ment, an httiuence CHoo,k\ hiHt cccept.
ii. P. is tnt ai sit cr I urehonal hot doess is t me term
hter
te m
i k o
m
s 001
cIt cx tC
us itnu
(I
rot
oh
stb
a Venta s
mm
that it
d ret,
h
m it, a pa cnh,r m
sS ft
sod:
4to .0
e. Eranmin: ten
tid- oiten nIhei,,ts 010 inaoroct,t
tic ri
mm t. 11cc
1 m s ants
d. Pt lie
i
i her;: tIC
esLthc rice Pt ti
1 S
em
th
d
I

9)

iv
a. I

10.

,s

042
ic answer.
a. \ put.tx pe I the hest e\arnpie ot partico mar
mr,, t concept.
c & d hlgorithns and henritics a e problem
or l
tic tegic

2. b. s

googe

Icr Aopn c
r
b Ihis s(Io sI
Ia ii
p
des eloprnc it
I he I iegostie dde minmsm lit pothess S conc.
erned uith the content oi tlienpht, net Intel Ii
5

Ii
no

,md al,

017

ithms

rohlr

t ame

ma

nrc

on

a,,b.,&c,fhese,uaito:dm
13. d. i the ansi em. SAtan sridie:d, im, 42 at a
on el so ,tame to ils pn:em, rho.
lit i
iauot
it
1
It
P
it
Ic
c
a.
t is
i tt.ot
.1 P
h me,
t: a a.
4 1 L,
It. Hemm. am
Gist

gi

ipt dimcnt to prob


Ft s Ft cd his probkm
tn sbasoion cx
a lit
rd partici vi
I
ohws,Y)u
s rh iglt hov
i r fcu darts-h

c idt icy tc t( 5k
ik

Ire judgi g the


1 o
eauii it

it
I

I 1 Lf

Flit.

tc r do i v ft hug tc
c h s hnsn that

r a

i
ii

ao I
d af hildron
r n birth thosewho
e tl c s r ic grammatical
lit trsirg to learn a

Match ng I ems
1.
2
3.
4

biolo i-ally pie


1
a id thei ca c

it

4
,

dr

ho r sky, belies es
di t of biological

.5
i s ot complet
shed xi htioot light
c Ft Ic e my story

q
r

I
u
I

so
c c
r

t I to infants abih
I x c ices c r distm
oices
t

Ps nec of a
i_i

Ft

-iii.

uge

.1
r It
I
vi i i

gI
x,ut

cud ntlu

ts orb 3
ip

6 j(p 40
7 k(
0
m
Sd

Progress Test

Vlultiple-Choze

Q test r ns

3
10

ii
c

1, a. is the insv r. Rca oni ig in I ii


distorted bx sor idiots nh I
i
example to accept con tusior I it
armed at logic dlv ( 40)
b,,c. & d lhtse arc jnst tie )-5O it
tend to do

-5

c
a

t
s f
r t cc
i

I vl

2 a is the answc Cp 410)


b. Morpheincs are tie basit nnit o n r nr
c & ci. Ihc textdocsnot rob oh si vits
grammar or semantics
b,istheansner ) 411)
a. Phonemes are the soonds ni i ord
c. Such rules are Imoxin as seman 5
d. Such rules are the languagc
ii var, xv c
would mcludc its syntax as ivol a i
m nt
pintlpll
4, ci. is the answer Ihest. rc al b c
ci
learning and according t Skin ie e plai
al 3)
guage dci elopmeot
5, d. is the a iswer. Syntax is sue ot th furidan c
aspetts of language, and chimps cc r ur abl I
example to use word order t tOs-idV doterc i es
in meaning. fp. 46)
a. & c. Chimps usc of ign Ia g arc de
stratcs both the use of svmbc 1 an h ac p 5
tion of fairly snack vocahular c
N No psychologist would rcc unc t i usc t
speech as rid n c of langu
n lie ihi
5
there arcl ad ar
o
chips r aid c
tal t Ic
icr i
r
6. d i ti a
1
I r ir
etI
I
a
I
401 4 2
a Mental s ft vi bsta
t p
S
hi Ii tnc di .55 teids n cje t
S C
i.ty
a-a c ivsrkcd
a-ft i Ft a-,
ot otl cr pc ssibk so c Co
N Belief bias is tI c tc ides
belief to 01st )rt c
al c on
rilPia
O \Ig
t
a
a
i
cc
i
I
,

I
0
I d
a

fpa u
i(p 406
i(p 411)
g(p 4 11

Answers
7, b. the arswer. (p. 396)
a & d. Phonemes and morphemes are units of
eu N x N meaning in language respectix ely.
e. (to y pes are the be st examples of specitic cat
tgO e
8 a. tie answer. (p. 424
Ma mwalling and tool use ire dc ar indh
b. &
cate s if animal communication and thinking,
i e sr e tn el I lou ox er they rex cal nothing about
oui i y iu i ncr inentai status in uneself ur
i
ar otht r
d flonexbecs are insects, not primates!
9 d. the insw er tf we use the ax ailabilitv heuris
t e v base lu Igments oi the ax ailability ot in
formation in our memories and more vivid infor
mat on is often the most readily axailable. (p. 402)
a This would exemplify use of the trial-and-error
ap oach to problem soP ing.
b. F his would exemplify a mental set.
e. I his would exemplify behet persex erance.
10. b. s the answ ci. Because the4 mx oh e the s stem
atic examination of all possible solutions to a
proble m, algorithms guarantee that a solution
will be tound (p. 397)
a., e., & d. None of these methods guarantees that
r oblem s solution will be found
it. b. is the insw ci the morpheme ed changes the
e i inig of a regular verb to toim its past tense;
ihe phoneme h is a unique son id in the English
anguage. pp. 410 411
e. & d. Syntax, which specifies rules for combin
ing x ords into grammaheal scr.tences, is one
is ect ot the grammar of a language
12 d. s the answer (homsk. beliex es that the
inborn tapacity for languagc acquisition must be
ictix ated by exposure to language And, in fact,
e iildren r, ised in isolation x ill n begin to speak
a e taneouslx (p 114)
v

14

4 3,
gu

.s
swe A tf ugh tie F Ids utteran es
a ey
)ids
ds ar placed ii
g th
s r N
clv Ii frflsl I r exair pie, adjec
5 ref
v d be re ioui I 3
a.&b S it M cfes vhs or
3 twe or
aim
r r ur its n speech.
d. Ihere s no three ord state

15 b.istheaw icr. p.416


16 e.i tI
I

nxer.lpp.425,4261
iasw

I P.2

277

18. d. is the answer. Semantic rules are directly con


corned with the derix ahon of meaning from mor
phemes, words, and sentences. (p. 411)
a. Syntax is the set of rules for a language that
permits the combination ot words into sentences.
b. Grammar is the ox erall system of rules for
using a language and, as such, includes syntax as
xx eli as semanhs.
c. Phonemic strue tnrt. concerns the basic sounds,
ar phnnemes, nf i language.

19. b. is the answer. (pp. 420 421)


a. Researe hers do not make a distinction between
real and other thinking, nor do they consider
nonhnguistic thinking less x alid than linguishe
thinking.
c. As indicated by sex oral studies cited in the text
this is not true.
20. d. is the answer Folloxving the babbling stage,
the childs abi1it to produce all phonemes be
comes in a sense shaped and limited to the ability
to produce those phonemes he or she hears (p.
412)
a. I he vocal tract ot Iforno sapiens does not dcx ci
op in specialized w ays for different languages.
b. & c. English and Russian differ siguihcantly hi
both their phonemes and their morphemes. Nor
is there anx ieason why differences in nuor
phemes would in and of themseix es cause pro
nunciation difficulties.
TrueFalse Items
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

F(p.412)
F (p. 399)
T (p. 398)
F(p.403)
1 (p.423)

6. 1 (p 400)
7. 1 (pp.410 411)
8, 1 (p. 412)
9. F (pp. 420 421)
10. F (p. 416)

Psychology Applied
Multiple-C hoice Questions
I. a. s tic answer Each sound e t the word is a
phoneme (iote tf at the sccond letter e does not
itself represent a s und), the morphemes are
and s
pro
which meaus before date
which indicates the plural. (p,
41 1)
2. a. is the answer. \dding -ed tu the irregular xorb
p results in the ungrammatical g xdan over
generalization of the rule bx which the past tense
e I regular xerbs is formed p 414)
b. I his is an exampk of telegraphic speech.

278

Chapter 10 Thinking and language

b. & c, If Bo is alv aix


s hs appcnc at
vctm cfm
queen xx hen plax ing chess F
taing
tal set, prototypes ho ax ci F
ci
xx ith chess playing

c I his is a grammatical statement.


d. paghetti is simply an immature pronuncia
tic i of spaghetti; young children often hax e
difticult n ith consonant clusters like sp.
is thc answer. (p. 412)
a is the answer, (p. 407)
b. & c, Ihese ma xery well occur hut they do
i t d Ime belief perseverance.
d this is the contirmation bias,
a.

5. b as thc answer \rose is a prototypical example


ot tha concept flower. (p. 396)
c. & d. Hierarchies are organized clusters of con
epts In this example, there is only the single
oncept fi ,wer.
6. d. is the answer, Ihe ai ailability heuristic is the
judgmental strategy that estimates the likelihood
)f cx cuts in terms of how readily they come to
mind, and the most x ix id information is often the
most readily a ailable, (p 402)
7. b, is the answer, Follow the directions precisely

and you cant miss! (p. 397)


A protot pe is the best example of a concept.
c Heuristics are simple thinking strategies that
help solve problems but, in contrast to a recipe
that is follow ed precisely, do not guarantee suc
a,

d, \ mental set is a tendency to approach a prob


1cm in a w ay that has been successful in the past.
8. c is the answer, By simply following a strateg
that has worked well in the past, Marilyn is ham
pered by the t pe of fixation called mental set,
(p 400)
a, functional fixedness is being unable to con
ceixe of an unusual function for an object.
b Overconfidence is exhibited by the person who
or crestimates the accuracy of his or her judg
m nts,
d Prototypes are best examples of categories, not
st ategies for solr ing problems.
9 a, is the ansir er, C ognitix e psr chologists study
o v e proess understand, and communicate
k w cdge Problem soh ing mi oRes processing
in amati in and is therefore a topic explored by
nitn e psy hologists. (p. 395)
b. ( ognitir e psy chologists often use experimenta
on to study phenomena but, because not all
xpenmental psychologists study cognition, a, is
the best ansu ci.
c, Organizational psychologists study behavior in
t ic workplace.
d 1)erclopmental psrcholcgists study the ways
h F beh mm mor changes or ci the life span

11, d. is thc answer. 1 c r


dency to search lo n in
one s preconccptions H i
cians preconceptions r
s
tion of the sun cx resu s
a. Functional fixedna s

mx th
\

e
-

tic a
nm
ha ic
Pr

n i

ax

a ar

an unusual usc tor i Him ii


t
0 r i 10)
b. Iental set is the ic nde r
I ci i a i her
1cm in a particular ix a
e in this example.
ccxi in
c. Belief bias is the tenden y t
mis an iva
beliefs to distort I gi ml ra s w it
incorrect because it is not I r r thi exit olc
whether either politician s rca rum i 11 g ca
12. b. is the answer, Such uttcranc
cli ra terist c a I
a t
a child of about 2 years are 1 ke te egr mx
they consist mainly H nouns ar ci rus nd sI orm
use of syntax (p 113)
a. & c. Babbling consists o ph r r c act v or I
5 meaning
a. Semantics refers to tty rucs hr r ai
t a vamp
is dciii ed from sa ratnce F ic
indicates nothing in I art ul oh ut thc child
understanding of scm mntics
is the answer (p. 398)
a., b., & d. Heuristics do not gua
or prevent mental sets
i ad o m thc
14. d. is the answer, Your conclus or
stereotxpe that m iscular Fe 11 is a more en
tHe of athletes than com a tc prog rr a ci (
401)
a. Belief bias is the tendan y F rem rc mx sti g
beliefs to distort logical ra is n
r
1
o t or s
b. Mental set is the tendency Ic epc
that have worked in th p t
i
e. lunctional fmxadnes
the
a
things ormmy in terrra r i
u
m
13.

15. d, is the an am mx p 4
16. b. is the ax vc I
P F
ters makes su h
aI
probable thor Ray aft I
a, Ihe belief bias is F tc ci
beliefs to distort logia th a
c. IhL rcprescutairurc
we judge the Iikelhoa d a I tF
well them rapresent artc
example dries not ix ol a
I unctmonal F x di a
which effcct a n
an object in r
,

a
s af
5
l

ha m
is

Ansisers

17, c. C the ansx en I his is referred to as overconfi


dence ip. lid

more efficient than algorithnxs. thur do not guar


antee success and sometimes oven inipode prob
1cm soC ing. (p. 398)

18 a is tfr

r vu. In ti s cxampie the way the


,xrs
ir I an d ras rridrnth infhr
ed
sr i rs ju r rents (p. 406
b. Con r at
bias 1 ft c cndencx to sc arch for
info, mat or rat contn if s mes precr nceptions.
c. \lenrai ar the tendencr to approach a prob
in a par tnuiar wax
d. Ox ercanf,de,ne is the tendencx to he more
runnoent than [nreLr.
i 5th

19. d. i the an icr. This sent nice, aithou$h semanti


alix m x if I ws, ncr e hek ss follow s the gramtic
1 f lnghsh ntix for combining
d i (s tcnrcsJ 111
\
a & b I he hr imines (smallest units of sound)
and mor n ues (sma
iesr nnirs ot meaning) of
1
thh sentenLe are equalh LorrecL
20. c. i dxc answer. ihO tact challenges the linguis
tic determbxistu hr pothesis; it neither supports
nor refutes Chomskvs concept of an inborn uni
reisal gran wan ip. 418)

I ssau Question
You sh mId p
rut that hr rate at which children
acqoi e ri or I a x grammar s too extraordinarx to
be explained olels aerording to principlcs of learn
ng. Children disc) utter all sorts of word forms thex
have ncr er heard and could not, theretore, he imitat
ing. Furthermore, children begin using niorphenres in
a prcciirtahie order, xx hich learning theorists would
not expect siinc each child experiences a nnique un
guis
em iror mer t. Children also make predictable
crr s that r nit trom oncruse of grammatical rules,
ratfcr h
r i rntatror h therefore seems clear
fat hildicr r bio ogitalh rc wed to acquire Ian
u ge and th tf hehax in t position is nicorrect.

Key Terms
1. Cognition refers o thc en ntai ac tix in associated
xx iii run kit
Knox ir,g emcmherina and conx
mna at r
i nxatio
p 393)
2.
2,

4.

con ept s
nts rd
proto%
ahgorr. ,

ar1ta

)u ir

of sr ni ir )b erts

30j

I
3 em .plc of
Cc 0c
90

partkular

\n algoritnm c a nxethodicaI. logical procedure


Cot. xx bile sometimes low. guarantees nwess.

279

6. Insight is scidden and o ten n w t 1 rca rho x


the solntior o a prO lcn Ins 5
hI c ntra s w
trial and error and xdccd niax ftc r C lion
unsrncessfui episode ot trial and or oi p. 39$)

7. [he confirmation bias is an obstacle to prohtein


soC ing in which people tend to -eandx tw ii aor
mation that x alidates tixeir preonception.s. up.
39Q)
8. Fixation is an i nabili tx to approach
a new way. p. 400)

problem in

9. Mental set refers tt thc tenden y to continue


appO ing a particular problem so x mg strategy
cx en when it is no longcr helpful. (p 400)
10. Functional fixedness is a type of tixahon in
which a person can think of things onix hr terms
of their usual functions. up. TOW
11. The representativeness heuristic is the tendenex
to jridge the likelihood of things in terms ot hoxx
well thef conform to ones prototypc (p. 401)

12. line availability heuristic s based on shnxahr g


the probabilttx of certain ox crxts in terr is of how
readily thex conic to mu d (p. 402
13. Another obstacle to problem soC ing overconfi
dence refers to the tendency to ox eretimate thc
accuracy of ones beliefs and iudgrnen.ts. ip. 403)
14. Framing refers to the xx ax an issue or question is
posed. It can atfect peoples perception of the
issue or answer to the question. up. TOe.
1
15. Belief bias is the tendencx for a pe son s preexist
ing beliefs to distort his or her logica ieasoning.
(p. 407)
16. Belief perseverance in the tende c Ic r poopic o
cling to a partirular bel et cx en atter ho informa
hon that led to the formation oh the nciiot is dis
credited. up 407u
17. Language robers to poison. xx ruben, or gesturcO
xvords and ixoxx no eenxbinu them rIo onxmun

up.41[

catenxea hxg

18 Phonemes are the s x I st unit


Ianguagc I at arc c s i
c fc
r
languagc. (p. 410
19.

Morphemes

an

the

sun est

tori

sa nd in
oh t
n

oirgoo

that convex meaning. fp 411u


Lxanio!c: Iho xxord dog, which rtntains four
pnonemes. conuans only txx 0 rnorphemes
\ltb,orrph mo-t txorpncnn ore
doC and
-

3. :3 heuristic
bbtn alL

-hi, r

o -hr -plc xix ekIng -tratgv that


s ho tn k rdgnonts r I solxe
t
nxtlx
oh F
ore

conxhinauons ot Lx 0w xnort phoew.cs tta plur


al -C onx ox s a di
hr r ,00ai
oh n on
than r

I u aki ig and Language


2(1

is a vstrnx
(1.

ot rules that enables

to

xx ith and understand others. (p.

1 orate

2t. Semantics the aspect Oi grammar that specities


rule asrd to drh e meaning from mor
urds, and sentences in a gixen lan
n
i. 4
i

One semantic rule of English is that


I to a xrrb gncs the xerh a past-tense

he as ict of grammar specifying the

ithi

r c

x ords into grammatically


guen language (p.411)

i c syntactic rule of English is that


re posilic n U betore nouns.
iabbling stage of speech development,
23,
nc around 4 months, is characterized
1
xx h ci heg

hx toe spontaneouc utterance of speech sormds.


tYnr!:g the babbling stage, children the world
sound alike. (p. 4i2)

26. Telegraphic speech is the economical, telegram


like speech of children in the txx oxvord stagi
Utterances consist mostly of nouns and x erbs;
how ever, words occur in the correct order. shoxx
ing that the child has learned some cit the lan
guages syntactic rules. tp. 413)
-

27. I.inguistic determinism is Benjanrin WhorLs


hypothesis that language determines the xx ax xx
think. (p 4181

Cross-Check
ACROSS
1. babbling
8. grammar
11. algorithm
14. Washoe
15. Skinner
17. insight
20. Whorf
21. fixation
22. telegraphic

24, hOn -en I and 2 years of age children speak


nw-c x nt single xx ords: they are therefore in the
nne-xxord stage of linguistic development. (p.

DOWN
2, linguistic determinsm
3, heuristic
4. protoh pe
5. belief bias
6. framing
7. cognition
9. ax ailahihtv
10. nxentat set
12. morphemes
13. one-word
16. syntax
18. twoxvord
19. concept

about agE 2 children are in the two


ag and speak mostly in two-word sen
4 1
OC4BUIARYAi\D LANGUAGE

ur species is on fo
Myers notes that
I s
Oog.cal creatures related to (kin to) other
xc ar
aomais, We lxax e exceptional abilities br
.pcws
enox hut learning. rnemorx, and rational think,

100,

at toe same time we are prone to making

nstake- iai thinking and acting irrationally.


flunking

For no U ot us th robin xx ith its smaller


n erail size at I ts easiel flight l thi
We h r I r mr ideas of hon things

p-

a t
hi

di fin lions or by rising


(ofvpi) of a bird is
a rkk
I a hcr that a penguin, a

Lb.
)rnas Ed n tried thousands of light
b fore stunt I n upon our flint icC ked.

ault

cots

famous mx enter and

he

used

trial-

:04-cr! -u atbad in dcx eloping the nxetal filament


Us the lrgbt hulb thou hrightlx. Using trial
that
nd r or hc a Or untan the solution hx chanre
40 na I d. \lvers contrasts thrc
u itb ul4r, mg an. algorithm (a sttp-bx -step
-

method that always ends with the answer and is


topical of computer programs)

Pogi 399: Trw your hand at these txvo classic (mutt


loners. Myers offers you a chanee to attempt (Ira
ronr hand at) some intriguing mental puzzles (bro:;z
tttlcirs) taken from ldninrr hornl xx eli-knowix experi
ments. If x ou encounter problenxs hi solx ing these
puzzles. it mao he due to fixation tour inability to
see things from a new or difterent perspectix eu
mental set (repeating old solutions that xx orked
before), or functional fixedness (our tendenrx to see

things as hax ing onlx one func In n r use).


F
Page 4 1 Should I I )ol the basket ia or pass
ptater whos Wf? we seldon take the tine
effort to reason systematically, (Don take this s i
tence literallx.) I or exanipte, in a game ot hasketh I
the plater holding the ball has to dicide to throxx it
through the hoop fsluc!t (lit (mask fholl) or pas it to a
plax er xx ho has scored irequentlx (ii;o hot;. U e
-

usually follow our subjeetix e teelmngs iutuiti Os


rather than taking the time to ue logic and reason
(.j,s 4(11
suff tlu-zx;,tf due isa ins Xl hen xxi
make decisions based on uhicctix e or intuitix r rca
cons, rather than using logical, refleetlx e prohlr
.

us

sate gies, we are using seat of the pants


n ones. I hits, xx hen we emplox heuristics slut
hnking strategies, xx e may make decisions that
a: ie and not x en smart (Lhimt do :-,ens)
e
xi

a] liii representativeness heuristic enabled


make a
;uciginent. \xe can make OUlt k
iewign tents using a strategy that allen s us to
deter nine the probability ot things hx nato weti
tiki apgs ar to he tx pit ai at some protots pe (api a;tt z ann h hi :stat. For example, is person X,
xx hi 1 toteliiyent, unimaginatix e eampuisix e, and
1 lx hides. more likely to oil pIn aaz for a
a o:a
hobo:
h pin jazz tur a hobby and work as an
dountant I he representatix enes heuristic leads
5
:
mast people to nsorrectIv pick (hi as the answer.
ou

to

chi)

P pa 404: The laster people can remember an


st n e ot some cx ent La to oPen pro in
) the more
o
oct it to recur, We tend to use nhatcx or
i
m is accessible in at r memores when
c
-ions ansi j udgme: ts similarly ox outs
is
t
at ikc tI at are easiest to access U e. those that
d lv c to to mind) sill most hkcly bc used.
o t
Ih
sa led he availability heuristic. So, it on cue
i

a
i

c us

e did not keep us r hcr xxard


doiu; something, no tend to
a
about
p
r t tat -x -nt and us it u predicting future
: xc times the asat ability heuristic can
r o
t judgment.
5,5 x,

f
4 3 Ow r onfidenee p
1 zgus decisions outsidc
tf 1
atars, too. \hny factors combiuc to pro
d
t e tcndencx to oxerestimate the ac uracp of
Pan, iudgments, and lsnoxx ledge overcon
c i
f deuce) In everx dat life, as xx elI a in lab experi
rr,ants our udgments are greathr afthictcd (p1ipocdt
Lx axtieonfidtnce.

a Human emotIons were txsd ta-ta 1 :n the


sf,: Pea. Durmu our cx oiutionarr past. certain
I aits is enarntel itics were scum ted tar bceause
POx 4

taco ho O one ,;aesteIs un ix e, and those that


tiC ned inecouse at thece ,mttritutes passed thent on
t their dese:dants kearool teas tiors to oakss,
/001 stdcrs, cnh:e:nent, and i,eiy)tts were
:s! P -t It duruty earlier
: a
tie tea a;
a; tat s s P,, ond are part ot human natuu
,

sta

That our iodgnxents Li:oz so dr xmatic ii


thing Press ntino tlte same ir formaton in
ieitt xx ax s

stilt cause peop e tc

a; positix eli dopendd

tx
o

3j

more

tr ho th log
ott; ntonnatiau o
framed II fr is
d d at rc or
c use alarmin
r
d
c ics dcci

guage

2Sf

example a x mx P tt 00
d t uide hx griitd
ci moio pos;tixeh it
hxg meat tpaaial 1 x
dos rihed as TS Ic an
o ased to 4S, ta
despite the taat that exaett the aIxc into omaha,: ,s
conxered in tacIt ease,

lIe box e a pnpii tat o


P
7ntake mistakes heeaua x e ci P itronnatio;t that
about
xxiii doiuirnt out iittiaitixe eIii,g h.J.;
situation,
people at future ox sort. lIe relx on
heuristics, xi e ate ox erao tfidc nt ;, our estimates,
and xxe arc undubx nriuencod or 510 0151 1; ) t
e
cilt to
5
etfists at framhxg, \ixers ate th it s dJ(i
escape bia cx cit hx use tO f:rniut logic.
Pope le:

,ai fl;t.
Pta 407: (P11; ou- axa,t. otto;: :ai stO
Our irratianaitx Olso shoxx s xx hen xx e persist ij a;
x :deoee to tite onh art
tOn) in ow x iexx s despit
m lead to ott increase nt
(belief perseverance It
strong teelings or a s r
c ttroverski issuc
tito sctie hut: I or
P
(foals -octal coal! 7
tif
the ehtecm at
those xx ho mx ish tc o tr i ( a
i
belief perse c a c arc I a
crious sOrt
t avt a x t
idera lion t )elc

tf i xv xi I
; 4u8 Ira
4
Pt
c
nIt htat 00
ide
d n
heads a
1
d s ussic
x
obtutfuri uir to Pt ni it xltt f
t
I u
i
cogi
stat that vet
axoex er, is
ci
lions that Is I I
s a
aptiinstic a id sug c ts t a x c c
c r about am
t
irrational ptc pc i i s tcnc i
oe abort to
oohish
sc t
the dangers tha i
c
c
(d:aato
p
decisions,

Pap lau: Mare hiatt x e


e II inkiz ac a, a?
,c wan, xx ith tlte results c casi ;nabx itsJlai,a
caroil, Human nroee s a
Peal at inforn totitut
ae,ass ;;f dotng so. Tltis
4
xxithout aiti conscious .,x
is similar to a eomgute
1 s tOO.cn processing, x ItltJt
is nat dipiaved tin them ito; (P
s
1
;
(tne itt a xxitiie the resuit or t tOdOittO55 Pt
cesine enter cousde: 5 ,es t ise rcxti S ,,r ;ca5iOi
all: tsp7sat a.
a :u
;,:

I an,gnaye
Ps 4!; :
ahilitx

e.

Vo P

ilnoit

to e,tw

Or

1uno

tcti has: ax oIx t;l tIn

nxeR,

aCt5

pIt: sic;Iogieai ahhitx f


cx aIx sI, tltu thihtm to c
exponentialls (a u I
I
picgellcd osat
i
acconphshmc
Oi5Oit to gc
tuFted kt

pkx x oailizatbo:,
tc ate at alIx c\pa ;tdc I
cx itguistic cap citx
is xx lens,
ninati, 0

cOt

0ts
t

eta

alt or

riO Lhink,

If a

,t

ii
Usc sestencc Ihcu
otauiraiiv turrcci, but its
seN n
is dci ned horn t ic (ontext, In
N are out
\ 0 Cc 1110 EcOH that fopk
I i05 and a anot,N it could
-a-- taO re aNd a tracker sek liai:;f) ani

.1

it

;,

55

accent, hut after that critical pci iod the language


acquisition as stain scum a ti ark less hard nI is
incline,! Ia rest en U a In ii U and mastering another
grammar her ames rno e dittieult tthe
Ia I:c a;
I.
se
leai ui;lg Iag:a;cc oaa o

Thinking and Langnagc


I: U ith erna habit tffijener ou can Nelec
tle tens ot thouantL t a onE in sour
nor
Hoi Ut sIs c ii It ho .1 0 ide fin with
a-n lit hnc i-erc a
t
t s atax, and a- -,i
-

Ot

i11mans hate an arnarino faciiitr toy Ian


l: lIttle or iii erroit, a-c can select the

ion a rd a orn the tans ot fhouands in


act hen: togethci hurrichix an;bi;c rdii
Nd \CI hai!s produce tnenc in rapid u
a
I t
cai, crc
-U
4 U a Ia 4 nonth of m aabi can ad lips
-i:,

ch coat d

aiim mat

nor

f p opie

vIa

tittt.

a heing n
IA
--

hcn people speak,


irrcspond to the

a a ax

t hinr how th hps

ii

ccix

an under

ldmcn can not only

tnen
t

sounds

that mu

Cut

spoad

r ds

A olmon

said a U z I an at ha
1 in gurge corns su
C is Imos entUelr
tan,r:t lingmc
ii isky beliese that
\ leNs 1 is
is ni ir
hr Skinner)
i,:. lie arc;ues hsat language arqui
or t hr Unph a function of experience
n>t a-i, lie contend tsar am rnhiased

hildren i
canrlt,dc that

in

it

U
a

fr

::

Ni

is

i1NiriO

ia-ti

toe

plane-t

cs c at the nesrapahic tact


a---,:0 ha la,gi:aac is ainsost totally hirn
nicr- a h
-c;;
Thr spedfk languupc
0 act H a r ens irnrn,ent a,hici
a, itt c p ih tar inguage. As

J U cc a

ci

[age -[IS: Thinking and language intrO atclv inter


twine. Asking which comes brat U cue it pss chaingUs chicbcn-iirul-cgg quections U hich anse first
the chicken or the eggh (tearh, s ou need an egg to
produce a chicken, hrit ou aio ileed a chicken to
lax the egg. So, I:ke this age old conond rum triddiei
ps\ chologists has a argueci os ar u- hit ames first,
our ideas and thoughts or the words it e use to name
iudes that language
5
and s erhalize them. \ts era coa
influences (but does n it determine) thought, and
our thhiking affects our 1 inguage, wIt Ii hi turn
aifects thought.

Animal Thinking and Langvage


Price 423: If in our use of langu rr n

as the psalmist long ago ;h U

humans ae